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-Series III, Number II.

B U L L E T I N

OF T H E

University of Notre Dame

NOTRE DAME, INDIANA

M % I %

LAW DEPARTMENT

1 9 0 7 - 1 9 0 8 P U B L IS H E D Q U A R TER LY A T N O T R E D A M E T H E UN IVERSITY PR E SS O c t o b e r , 1907 E n te r e d a t th e P o s to ffic e , N o tr e D am e, I n d ia n a , a s se c o n d c la s s m a t ­ te r , J u ly 17, 1905.

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R e v .

JO H N C A V A N A U G H , C. S. C.,

P R E S ID E N T OF T H E U N IV E R S IT Y .

W IL L IA M H O Y N E S, LL. D.,

D EAN OF DAW FACULTY.

T IM O T H Y E . H O W A R D , LL. D.,

PRO FESSO R OF LAW .

LU CIU S HUBBARD, LL. D.,

PRO FESSO R OF LAW .

A N D R E W A N D ER SO N ,

PRO FESSO R OF L A W . .

S H E R M A N S T E E L E ,

L i t t . B .,

LL.

B ., IN STR U C TO R I N LAW .

ED W A R D H . SCH W A B, LL . M.,

IN STR U C TO R IN L A W . R e v .

M A T T H E W SC H U M A C H ER , C.. S. C.,

l e c t u r e r o n e t h i c s a n d n a t u r a l l a w .

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LAW DEPARTMENT

OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME

T he University of N otre Dame has earned a prom ­

inent place among th e leading educational institutions of

th e country. I t was incorporated sixty-three years ago,

under the laws of Indiana. Its charter empowers it to

teach all preparatory, collegiate and university branches,

and confer th e degrees and honors appropriate to evidence

th eir satisfactory completion.

These degrees represent

as h ig h a standard of educational equipm ent as those of

any other American university.

T h e regular attendance of students num bers between

800 and 900. T h ey are distributed among th e several

halls of th e U niversity, as St. E dw ard's, St. Joseph's,

Carroll, Brownson, Corby, Sorin and the Sem inary. By

th is arrangem ent it has been found practicable to receive

and instruct students of ages varying from early boyhood

to thirty-five or forty years.

T h e attendance is com­

posed exclusively of males.

T ho u gh conducted under

Catholic auspices, yet there is no prohibition or restric­

tion upon th e m atriculation and attendance of non-

Catholics.

These comprise at times a fifth or more of

th e student body. B ut th e same general rules of disci­

pline regarding respectful attention and proper deport­

m ent at religious services are applicable alike to all.

THE GROUNDS

im m ediately trib u tary to th e U niversity comprise approxi­

m ately 900 acres. T hey adjoin th e corporate lim its of

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S outh Bend on th e north, and extend almost to th e

M ichigan boundary. S outh Bend is a well know n and

flourishing city.

Its population is about 50,000. I t is

th e seat of St. Joseph county, 87 miles from Chicago,

and accessible by rail from all p arts of th e U nited States.

T he city of Niles, on th e north, is only 10 miles distant,

and a trolley line from it passes th ro u g h th e U niversity

grounds.

In addition to th e extensive area of land

belonging to th e U niversity in its im m ediate vacinity, it

owns and conducts in th e neighboring tow nship to th e

east a large farm, em bracing in meadow, groves and

cultivated fields, nearly 2,000 acres. F rom it come quite

largely th e m ilk, vegetables and other food supplies

required for th e students, th u s insuring freshness and

wholesomeness in th eir m eat and drink.

T he grounds a t N otre Dame are famous for their

b eauty and attractiveness. T h e lakes, groves and river;

th e meadows and cultivated fields; the orchards and flower-

bedecked parks and gardens, combine to spread out before

th e appreciative vision a prospect singularly picturesque,

beautiful and charm ing.

THE UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS

T h e m ain and ancillary buildings of the U niversity,

including th e various halls, telephone and express offices,

a store and post-office, are about tw enty in num ber.

T h ey are generally of large size, and conform to the

most approved architectural designs and sanitary require­

m ents. D ue m easurably to this fact, as m ay be p re­

sumed, th e healthfulness of N otre Dame can ju stly be

considered exceptional.

B ut com paratively few of its

inm ates are compelled even in th e m ost try in g seasons to

suspend w ork and have th e ir names entered on th e sick

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LAW D E P A R T M E N T

5

premises, and medical services can there be secured,

together w ith the devoted care of experienced and highly

qualified sisters.

T he U niversity is situated about two miles n o rth of

the business center of South Bend, and almost a mile

from its nearest suburb. A trolley line, however, runs

directly from the h eart of the city to N otre Dame. Cars

ru n each way every 15 m inutes. T h u s th e attendance of

town students at the college is greatly facilitated. Y et

it is advisable when practicable for young men to board

lodge and live at th e University.

T hey save tim e

by doing so and escape the distractions incident to

city life. In living at th e college, too, they more readily

conform to

THE RULES OF DISCIPLINE

in force at N otre Dame — rules deemed essential to best

results in educational w ork and th e form ation of sturdy

and m anly character.

These rules contem plate not only

close attention to school duties during the year, b u t also

im m unity from th e distractions and tem ptations, am use­

m ents and social claims of city life. T h e regular period

of the school year is too valuable to be lost to any

m arked extent in such trifles.

T h e U niversity has long been noted for thoroughness

in w ork and effectiveness in discipline, as tending to the

utilization of time and the fixing of habits of diligence

and punctuality. A sense of d u ty is involved in the

m aintenance of this reputation. Students are expected

to be regular in attendance at class and diligent and

prom pt in discharging th e duties devolving upon them .

T hey are expected to take a practical view of educational

w ork and to bear in m ind th a t the'few years devoted to

it are to direct and influence all th e subsequent years of

their

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lives.-A ll students m atriculated at N otre Dame, no m atter

for w hat course, stan d prim arily on th e same footing.

T h e halls to which they are assigned indicate in a gen­

eral w ay th eir respective ages and educational standing,

alth o u g h th e records of entry in th e books of the U ni­

versity are th e source of original and controlling evidence

in the m atter. T h e y reside during the academic year in

com fortable quarters w ithin th e precincts of th e U ni­

versity; share together food of th e same kind in th e refec­

tories; have th e same service at meals and in th e use of

lig h t and heat, as well as in w ashing and mending; some

sleep in dormitories and others in private rooms, accord­

ing to th eir standing in scolarship and prelim inary arrange­

ments; study in common, each at his own desk, w hether

in th e large study halls or private rooms, and m eet for

class-work in th eir respective recitation rooms, as called

hourly by th e signal bells.

In short, they dwell together,

m eeting for recitation in class, for their meals in the

refectories, and for necessary recreation and healthful

exercise in th e great gym nasium or on th e campus.

B rought th u s daily into close companionship, th ey become

in tim e v irtually th e same as members of one great

fam ily, and a feeling of deep, unselfish and life-abiding

friendship is often awakened among kindred spirits.

E v ery th in g needed can be had at th e University, and

seldom does occasion arise to visit th e neighboring town.

V isits to it are not favored.

T h is is not alone in the

interest of economy and for th e avoidance of habits of

extravagance and improvidence, bu t also to guard against

loss of tim e and possible exposure to tem ptation.

I t is

so u g h t under th e rules of discipline at N otre Dame to

prohibit or avoid things m anifestly tending to underm ine

or m ake against th e grow th of m oral w orth and m anly

character. I t is almost superfluous to state consequently

th a t drunkenness or im m orality is considered ground for

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LAW D E P A R T M E N T

7

expulsion and th a t the use of intoxicating liquors is

strictly prohibited.

T he style of living at N otre Dame is simple and

unostentatious. I t is favorable to th e form ation of habits

of th rift and frugality. Distinctions between th e rich

and the poor are discountenanced. No line of dem arca­

tion between them is ever know ingly perm itted to be

draw n. T he highest standard of excellence is m easured

by scholarship and honorable deportm ent.

T h o s e

crowned w ith th e brightest laurels of the U niversity are

those who w orthily attain to th a t laudable standard,

w hether they be rich or poor.

T his prelim inary sketch may be deemed pertinent, if

not indespensable, before proceeding to deal specifically

w ith the

LAW DEPARTMENT,

for its students are inm ates of the University, authorized

to attend any of th e collegiate or other classes, subject to

th e rules of discipline prescribed for collegiate students

and entitled to equal righ ts and privileges.

In 1869 the law course was established in a modest

w ay as a separate curriculum during the presidency of

th e late V ery Rev. W illiam Corby, C. S. C.

I t was

reorganized 1884 by the late Rev. Thom as K. W alsh, C.

S. C., who was then president of the University. T h e

present Dean was called from Chicago, w here he was

actively engaged in the practice of law, and placed in

charge of it.

T h e need of m aking another sta rt or

beginning the w ork anew soon became m anifest. A tte n ­

tion was first given to securing text-books and reports

sufficient to form the nucleus of a law library. In th e

following year began a gradual b u t steady increase in

the num ber of students.

Substantial improvements

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th e library, as circumstances seemed to w arrant. N ever­

theless, nothing was done in th e way of exploitation, and

for several years th e course was not even advertised, for

it was feared th a t in range of study and equipm ent it

m ight seem presum ptuous to invite comparison w ith th e

older and larger institutions.

I t is well know n th a t

these are advertised m ainly th ro u g h th e expressed good

will and personal recommendations of their students and

graduates, b u t N otre Dame lacked this advantage on

account of th e com parative paucity of such heralds and

representatives. As tim e passed, however, these w ent

fo rth in yearly increasing num ber and proved to be

zealous missionaries in their praise of th e w ork done in

th e law course. T hey found additional assurance of its

thoroughness in th e almost uniform success th a t attended

them in exam inations for admission to the bar in th e

various states in which they resided or to w hich they

w ent for the purpose of establishing new domiciles.

T hey observed w ith even greater confidence in th eir

w ork of preparation th a t graduates of some of th e most

noted law schools failed in th e same exam inations. T hey

were n o t unfrequently complimented by judges and

members of th e exam ining boards upon th e accuracy

and resourcefulness of th eir legal knowlege. T h e p u b ­

licity of such facts, though slowly spreading, has served

to attra ct here for the study of law a steadily increasing

num ber of industrious and capable young men.

U nder th e influence largely of th e American Bar

Association, the period now commonly prescribed for the

study of law is three years.

T his reform was greatly

needed, and it is gratifying th a t th e response to th e call

for it has been so prom pt and so general. I t means th e

elim ination from th e profession of persons unfitted to

follow or engage in its practice. I t means a higher stand­

ard of professional honor and efficiency. N otre Dame

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u w D E P A R T M E N T

9

has sought to keep steady pace w ith the progress made

in this direction.

I t aims to do its full share to elevate

to the highest plane practicable the study and practice of

th e law.

Considerations of public good and safety so

demand, and it endeavors not to be second to any other

institution in m eeting th e most exacting test of this salu­

tary requirem ent.

T h a t its w ork in this respect has

been followed by fruition is shown not only by th e records

of its students in exam inations, b u t also by the fact th a t

many' of them immediately afterw ard enter successfully

on th e practice of the profession, w ithout previous p ro ­

bation or experience in the offices of other lawyers.

I t

is also noticeable th a t they adhere to and follow the

practice of the profession in larger proportion th an the

graduates of other institutions.

QUALIFICATIONS FOR ADMISSION

I n some law schools the requirem ents for m atricula­

tion are of an order so h igh as to be prohibitory upon th e

g reat mass of young men.

Students are not received as

candidates for diplomas unless previously graduated by

some college of approved standing.

T hey m ust have received degrees evidencing the com­

pletion of some of th e collegiate courses.

W ere th is rule

in general effect, all b u t a favored few would be sh u t out

of the legal profession.

T he institutions in w hich it

obtains may judge for themselves as to its operation. I t

m ay be assumed, however, th a t it has proved satisfactory

to them, for otherwise it would probably have been modi­

fied or discontinued. In fact, it is hardly open to ques­

tion that, generally speaking, a student whose m ind has

been trained and disciplined by years of study in a col­

lege is better qualified to undertake th e study of law,

perceive its relations to hum an affairs, fathom its m yste­

ries and solve its problems, than one who has not h ad

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th a t advantage. A nd yet a fair education and h ard work,

together w ith a b rig h t mind, or natu ral endowments

above th e average, m ay enable the la tte r to do as well in

th e b attle of life as his more favored brother, if not actu ­

ally to outstrip him . T h e instances th a t m ight be cited

in proof are so num erous as to leave th e question no

longer debatable.

In view of this fact, not to m ention a

sense of d u ty in th e m atter, N otre Dame favors for its

own guidance a rule more liberal th an th a t w hich

excludes all bu t college graduates from th e study of law.

I t is not disposed to shut its doors in th e face of honest

w orth and prom ising manhood, even though th e general

education of th e applicant brings him only to th e th resh ­

old of th e collegiate courses. T here are m any capable

and even gifted young men whose duties have been so

onerous and means so circumscribed, on account possibly

of absorbing cares and heavy expenses in providing for

parents or brothers and sisters in periods of sickness and

distress, th a t th ey could not devote th e time nor m ake the

outlay requisite for acquiring a collegiate education.

Nevertheless, some of these are well educated along

particular lines. T h ey acquired necessarily a fair educa­

tion in th e line of th eir w ork or incidentally to it. T his

is tru e of those w orking in prin tin g offices, commercial

houses, trade establishm ents and offices of insurance,

real estate and law firms, as well as of those who burned

th e m idnight oil in study.

I t seems to be only fair and

in consonance w ith a ju st sense of d uty to allow

credit for learning th u s acquired, and especially so w hen

i t appears to be equal in accuracy and range to th a t *

acquired in th e corresponding branches of an academic

course. Such persons ought to be able to finish in a

com paratively sh o rt tim e at N otre Dame studies of the

p reparatory or high school grade in w hich they may be

deficient. T hey could th en enter upon th e study of law

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u w D E P A R T M E N T I I

w ith brigh t prospects, close attention and th e requisite

tim e being given to it.

I t becomes pertinent here to indicate more specifically

th e standard of qualifications for th e m atriculation of

law students at N otre Dame. I t is graduation from any

reputable h ig h school or completion of th e preparatory

course at this place. T his gives collegiate standing to

th e student.

H e is a freshman, so to speak, or entitled

to ra n k as a first year’s student in collegiate w ork. No

persons of lower grade can be received as regular law

students and candidates for degrees.

Students from other law schools are received at any

tim e and allowed due credit for th e w ork previously

done. T hey m ust, however, attend class for at least one

year in order to be entitled to th e privileges and honors

of graduation.

Lawyers who have been engaged in the practice of

th e profession or have only been licensed to practice, as

th e case may be, are adm itted to th e senior class and

entitled to the degrees appropriate to th eir w ork and

standing at graduation in th e following June.

Special students are those who wish to receive instruc­

tion in th e science of th e law generally or in some of its

branches w ithout becoming candidates for degrees. No

particular entry requirem ent is prescribed for them , aside

from securing th e consent of the Director of Studies and

being of sufficient age and capacity to understand and

profit by instruction in the law.

T he regular students

who enter the law course as candidates for degrees m ust

be at least 18 years of age, b u t this rule is not necessarily

applicable to those who pursue special studies. As an

education can hardly be called complete w ithout an

elem entary knowledge of th e law, th e num ber of special

students ought steadily to increase. A knowledge of th e

law is the bulw ark of liberty. All th e relations of life

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are w ithin th e sphere of its power to destroy, m odify or

protect. I t points out th e safe p a th to follow in all

hum an affairs. I t w arns men of and saves them from

possibly great losses in th e contracts incident to th e ir

business.

I t admonishes them of and guards against

possible heavy damages arising from torts or negli­

gence in th e m anagem ent of p rop erty or th e ir personal

conduct tow ard others.

I t accompanies and protects

them in th eir travels on land and sea. N ig h t and day it

is over and around th eir homes and possessions, assuring

them of safety in th eir absolute rig h ts of life, liberty and

property. Mxxreover, no other branch of study compares

w ith it in disciplining th e mind, directing th e currents of

thought, intensifying th e power of analysis and discrim i­

nation, and keeping th e judgm ent in all th e affairs of

life w ithin th e boundaries of th e p ractical— or w hat m ay

be called common sense, w hich is th e foundation of th e

law.

THE COURSE OF STUDY

at N otre Dame covers a period of three academic years.

T h e academic year begins for all th e courses early in

September, and closes approxim ately about th e 20th of

lu n e . T here is no break in the regular order of w ork

thro ug h ou t the school year, except du rin g the Christm as

holidays, w hen a vacation of two weeks is allowed, in

order th a t all who wish m ay visit th eir homes.

Students are required to be regular and prom pt in

class attendance. Absence is not excused unless in case

of sickness or th e intervention of im perative and unavoid­

able duties. If continued for an unreasonable tim e it

deprives the student of credit in th e year for the tim e

lost and entails forfeiture of th e rig h t to graduation,

unless the lapse be satisfactorily repaired by subsequent

study.

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LA W D E P A R T M E N T 13

Lack of reg ularity or remissness in th e discharge of

d u ty is an intolerable evil, disturbing to earnest and

industrious classmates and undoubtedly harm ful to th e

delinquent himself, in th a t it prevents him from form ing

a clear and accurate conception in unbroken continuity

of his prescribed work.

Breaks and intervals in his

knowlege of th e law m ake as evidently against his th o r­

oughness and proficiency as broken cogs m ake against

the appearance and efficacy of wheels in m achinery.

Strictness in th e m atter rests not alone upon a conscien­

tious sense of duty to th e young men themselves, th eir

parents, the legal profession and th e public, b u t also to

the University, so th a t its reputation of affording excep­

tional opportunities and facilities to become thorough,

practical and proficient in th e law m ay not be im paired

or jeoparded.

There are three regular classes in th e law course,

which are distinguished respectively by th eir years of

study, as F irst or Elem entary, Second or Junior and T h ird

or Senior.

For example, after a year’s w ork in th e F irst

Class its members are promoted to the Second; another

year of study in this, and they are advanced to the T hird,

thus becoming Seniors.

In the following June, or at th e

end of the th ird academic year, they are graduated,

receiving the degree of EL. B.

T h is m arks th e tr i­

um phant finish of the regular course in law.

Realizing,

however, th a t it is a life study, some of th e more fo rtu­

nate of th e young m en may find it practicable to continue

th e w ork for another or fo urth year. In such case they

enter and become members of th e G raduate Class, and

receive a year later the degree of LL. M.

Y oung men find it greatly to th eir advantage, circum ­

stances perm itting, to study law for th e full four years at

a university, where they are in an atm osphere stim ulating

and favorable to work; where wholesome em ulation

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incites them to call into exercise th eir dorm ant energies

and hidden powers; w here they enter into the spirit not

only of th e law, but also of th e different academic courses,

acquiring a helpful knowledge of educational w ork in its

broadest lines.

Moreover, th e day for studying law in '

an office or in private has passed. I t seems now to be

practically out of th e question to acquire a connected or

system atic knowledge of this g reat science in th a t obso-

lescent way.

I t m ust be rem embered th a t in m any

states it is threefold more difficult to pass successfully an

exam ination for admission to th e bar now th an it was

when th e old system prevailed.

Indeed, one ough t to

acquire a m ore general, accurate and system atic knowledge

of th e law in three or four years in a properly equipped

and well conducted law school th an in twice th a t time:

under th e old methods.

Special exercises are announced from tim e to time,

as in th e actual preparation of pleadings, th e exam ina-

tion of abstracts of title, th e w ritin g of deeds and

leases, the m aking of wills and other instrum ents and

th e dispatch of such business as is custom arily transacted

ill a well regulated law office. T h is special w ork requires

from one to two hours a day th ro u g h o u t the year*.

T h e subjects of stu d y are covered by text-books,

ectures and illustrative cases, as well as by theses and

m oot-court work. T hey "are likewise searchingly review­

ed in daily quizzes.

T h e regular recitations, four daily

m num ber, cover all branches of th e law, as here indicated:

FIRST YEAR

[B ach su b je c t 5 h o u rs a w eek u n til finished.]

, Persons and Domestic Relations

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U W D E P A R T M E N T 1 5

t o one a n o th e r c o n s titu te p rim a rily th e fo u n d a tio n u p o n w hich r e s ts th e w hole s tru c tu re o f th e la w . T he b e tte r w e k n o w th e m th r o u g h s tu d y a n d o b se rv a tio n , th e m o re clearly w e perceive t h e needs in c id en t t o th e ir p ro g re ss a n d d ev elo p m en t a n d th e m o re in te llig e n tly w e prescribe th e la w s re q u isite fo r th e ir p ro te c tio n — fo r th e p ro te c tio n of life, p e rso n a l lib e rty a n d p r iv a te p ro p e rty . T h ey preceded in th e ir o rig in all p o sitiv e la w s a n d even t h e sim p le st fo rm o f g o v e rn m e n t. L a te r th e y estab lish ed so ciety a n d fo rm ed th e s ta te . T h ey en acted la w s a n s w e rin g t o th e req u irem e n ts o f c h a n g in g co n d itio n s in th e line o f th e ir a c tiv ities. T h ey devised m e th o d s o f co -o p eratio n , a n d w ith la p se o f tim e c re a te d artific ial

p erso n s o r c o rp o ra tio n s T he im pulses an d m o tiv es t h a t a c tu a te d

a n d led th e m t o p u rsu e th e course th e y follow ed a re still in u n a b a te d force a n d effect, b ein g essen tial t o p ro g re ss a n d develop­ m en t. I n v iew o f th ese facts, i t is s o u g h t a t N o tre D am e t o s tu d y th e su b ject o f n a t u r a l p erso n s a s view ed in th e ir d o m estic re la tio n s before o r a t le a s t co n te m p o ra n e o u sly w ith th e ir a c ts. T hese a c ts, w h e th e r in m a k in g a n d p rese rv in g th e la w o r in v io la tio n o f it, com e w ith in th e sphere o f th e s tu d e n ts ’ w o rk a t a s e a rly a d a te as

p ra c tic a b le W hen im p rac tic ab le t o e n te r u p o n th is su b ject a s

a n in itia l o r e a rly s tu d y , a s in th e case o f s tu d e n ts w h o becom e enrolled a fte r i t h a s been fo rm a lly tre a te d , occasio n is fo u n d fro m tim e t o tim e t o re p e a t o r ap p ly its m o s t sa lie n t principles t o k n o w n o r described s ta te s of fact. T h is fully m eets th e req u ire­ m e n ts u n til th e r e tu r n o f th e tim e fo r its m o re fo rm a l tre a tm e n t.

T ex t-b o o k s: T iffany, D w ig h t, Schouler, Reeves, R odgers.

A d d itio n a l su b jects fo r F i r s t Y ea r stu d e n ts : B ro w n e ’s K e n t’s C o m m en taries, R eed’s Rules of O rder, N a tu r a l L a w a n d L e g a l E th ic s.

L aw of Contracts

T h is is a fu n d a m e n ta l a n d m o s t im p o r ta n t b ra n c h o f th e la w . I t com prises all tra n s a c tio n s in v o lv in g ag reem en t, w h e th e r express o r im plied, in th e com m ercial w o rld o r th e affairs o f d a ily life. In s h o rt, i t is th e b asis o f w ell-nigh all b ran ch es o f th e la w n o t included in th e ra n g e of t o r t s a n d crim es. F o r exam ple, all tr a n s a c tio n s in re a l e s ta te , w h e th e r b y sale, lease o r g ift, are necessarily founded u p o n c o n tra c t. A nd so in resp e ct t o n e g o tia ­ tio n s affecting p e rso n a l p ro p e rty , w h e th e r b y sale o r b ailm e n t, a n d w h e th e r co m p risin g a sh ip a t sea, th e m erchandise on b o a rd , a d ro v e of c a ttle , th e p ro d u c ts o f th e h a r v e s t o r a sp o o l o f th re a d . S o, to o , re g a rd in g bills o f exchange an d p ro m isso ry n o te s, s u r e ty ­ sh ip a n d g u a r a n ty , bo n d s a n d m o rtg a g e s, p rin cip a l a n d a g e n t, p a rtn e rs h ip a n d c o rp o ra tio n s , policies o f in su ran c e an d p o w e rs o f a tto rn e y , a r b itr a t io n a n d a w a rd , th e em p lo y m en t o f skilled w o rk ­ ers a n d co m m o n la b o re rs —indeed, every re la tio n o f life in v o lv in g ag reem en t, a s w here th e m in d s o f p erso n s u n d e r no leg al d isa b ility m eet w ith c o n tra c tu a l p u rp o se u p o n a n y la w fu l su b ject a c tu a lly o r p o te n tia lly in being, a n d o f sufficient m o m e n t n o t t o fall a s a c o n s id e ra tio n b e lo w th e d ig n ity a n d scope o f th e la w . T h is is stu d ie d w ith ex cep tio n al th o ro u g h n e s s a t N o tre D am e. A m o n g its chief su b d iv isio n s a re offer a n d acceptance, ag ree m e n t a n d o b lig a tio n , th e essen tial elem ents o f c o n tra c t, s t a t u t e o f fra u d s,

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q u a s i c o n tra c t, illeg a lity a n d public policy, m o ra l o b lig a tio n a n d r e a lity o f co n sen t, m is re p re s e n ta tio n a n d m ista k e , d ep en d en t a n d in d e p en d en t prom ises, im p o ssib ility o f perform ance, conflict o f la w s , c o n s tru c tio n a n d w aiv er, c o n d itio n s a n d w a rra n tie s , a ssig n ­ m e n t a n d discharge.

T e x t-b o o k s: C lark , H a m m o n , L a w s o n , B ishop, B each,

A nson, B enjam in.

Torts or Private Wrongs

A subject o f ex cep tio n al in te re s t a n d re la te d in fu n d a m e n ta l im p o rta n c e t o c o n tra c ts , b u t differing in being o u tsid e th e p ale o f ag ree m e n t a n d w ith in th e scope o f o b lig a tio n a ris in g fro m in ju ry o r d am ag e s cau sed t o o th e rs b y n e g lig e n t o r w ro n g fu l a c ts,

in d e p en d en t o f th e w ill. T he tr e a tm e n t o f th e su b je ct includes

a full o u tlin e o f th e s u b s ta n tiv e a n d adjective la w s g o v e rn in g it, th e line to be d r a w n in d istin g u ish in g t o r t s fro m c o n tra c ts a n d crim es, p erso n s liab le fo r to r ts , negligence a n d nuisance, libel a n d slan d er, w ro n g s afiectin g th e fam ily re la tio n s, w ro n g s affecting p o ssessio n a n d p ro p e rty , rem edies a n d d am ag es. T he la w o f t o r t s differs fro m t h a t o f c o n tra c ts in fixing its o b lig a tio n s in d ep en d en tly o f th e w ill o f th e p a rtie s concerned. In c o n tra c ts m in d m u s t m eet m in d in every e sse n tia l p a r tic u la r to u c h in g tim e, place, subject- m a tte r. c o n s id e ra tio n a n d le g a lity . W hen th e offer in v o lv in g th ese elem ents is u n eq u iv o cally a n d u nqualifiedly accepted th e c o n tr a c t is c re a te d a n d becom es a liv in g force, b in d in g u p o n b o th p a rtie s , a n d no lo n g e r ch an g eab le a t th e w ill o f eith er. T h is o b lig a tio n arises fro m th e c o n tra c t, a n d sh o u ld e ith e r fail t o p erfo rm o r fall s h o r t in p erfo rm an ce i t gives th e o th e r a r ig h t o f a c tio n fo r th e b re a c h o r deficiency. I n t o r t , on th e o th e r h a n d , th e p a rtie s m a y b e e n tire s tra n g e rs t o each o th e r a n d h a v e n o th o u g h t o f e n te rin g in to re la tio n s p ro d u c tiv e o f lia b ility . A p e rso n m a y b y a n eg lig en t a c t in c a u tio u s ly injure a n e n tire s tr a n g e r in th e s tre e t, a s by d riv in g a vehicle a g a in s t him , a n d on so d o in g a n o b lig a tio n a t once arises a n d b in d s him as firm ly a s by c o n tr a c t t o th e in ju red m a n t o m a k e am en d s in d am a g e s fo r th e w ro n g done. A gain, a p e rso n m a y b y a n eg lig en t a n d w ro n g fu l o v ersig h t, a s w here he furnishes t o a c u s to m e r a defective vehicle t h a t b rea k s d o w n a n d causes in ju ry , c re a te a n o b lig a tio n b in d in g u p o n h im t o m a k e am en d s b y th e p a y m e n t o f d am a g e s fo r th e in ju ry th u s

caused. A r a ilr o a d c o m p a n y m a y suffer its tr a c k t o becom e

defective o r i t s em ployes careless in th e p erfo rm an ce o f th e ir d u ties, a n d a t r a i n m a y th u s be derailed o r a collision ta k e place, in ju rin g m a n y p assen g ers. I n such case a like o b lig a tio n w o u ld a t once arise in la w a n d b in d i t t o m ak e p a y m e n t t o th e m fo r th e injuries th u s su sta in e d . Defective m a c h in e ry o r in s tru m e n ta litie s furnished b y a n em p lo y er fo r th e use o f h is w o rk m e n in th e in d u s tria l d o m a in w o u ld ch a rg e h im w ith lia b ility fo r injuries cau sed b y th e ir defectiveness. I n v iew o f such illu s tra tio n s , i t w ill a p p e a r cle a r t h a t , a s a rule, a to r tio u s a c t is in d e p en d en t o f th e w ill, a lth o u g h its com m ission is a tte n d e d w ith a n o b lig a tio n in la w t o m a k e am en d s b y th e p a y m e n t o f d am a g e s fo r th e w ro n g done. M o reo v er, th e p a rtie s t o a c o n tr a c t m u s t be o f le g al age

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I/A W D E P A R T M E N T 1 7

b u t as th e w ill is n o t a n elem ent o f t o r t , in fa n ts, in sa n e a n d in to x ic a te d p erso n s m a y becom e g u ilty o f a n d responsible fo r it. I n m a n y cases, indeed, th e w ill m a y be d irectly opposed t o th e com m ission o f th e to r tio u s ac t, b u t w here carelessness o r w a n t of re a so n a b le fo re sig h t nevertheless le ad s t o i t th e o b lig a tio n a t once arises a n d b in d s th e to r tf e a s o r t o m ake g o o d th e cr n se q u e n t loss. I f th e w ill w ere t o e n te r in to o r in sp ire th e w ro n g fu l a c t, i t w o u ld ch an g e its c h a ra c te r u n d e r o rd in a ry circum stances, m a k in g i t a crim e, in s te a d o f a t o r t . I n s h o rt, a d d th e w ill t o th e w ro n g fu l a c t, a n d i t becom es a c rim e ; s e p a r a te i t fro m th e crim e, a n d a

t o r t rem a in s. T h is im p o r ta n t su b je ct is developed in all its

b e a rin g s in th e la w course a t N o tre Dam e.

T e x t-b o o k : H ale, J a g g a r s , Cooley, H illia rd , A ddison, B ishop. Crim inal L a w or Public W rongs

T h is is u su a lly th e firs t la w t h a t m en a re com pelled fo r th e ir co m m o n p ro te c tio n t o fo rm u la te a n d execute in th e o rg a n iz a tio n o f society a n d fo rm a tio n o f th e s ta te . T he d eg e n erate o r vicious elem ent is opposed t o la w a n d p ro n e t o a t t a c k th e p e rso n a n d seize th e p ro p e rty o f h im w h o h a s been in d u s trio u s a n d p ro v id e n t. T h is c o n d itio n precedes all p o sitiv e la w a n d is su b se q u en tly m a n ifest in open o p p o sitio n o r schem es t o ev ad e its enforcem ent. I n th e sy ste m o f s tu d y a t N o tre D am e th e d istin c tio n b etw een th e co m m o n a n d th e s t a t u t o r y la w o f crim e is p o in te d o u t, as i n th e case of m a la in se a n d m a la p ro h ib ita . T he g r o w th of th e crim in al la w fo r th e p ro te c tio n o f th e in d iv id u a l a n d his p ro p e rty a n d th e se c u rity a n d p ro m o tio n o f th e co m m o n w elfare is sh o w n w ith due reference t o ex istin g co n d itio n s a n d tendencies. I n s tr u c tio n o n th is su b ject includes th e elem ents o f crim e, in te n tio n a n d w ill

m aliciously directed, m u rd e r a n d m a n s la u g h te r, a rs o n a n d

b u rg la ry , ro b b e ry a n d larcen y , tr e a s o n a n d offences a g a in s t th e g o v ern m e n t.

T e x t-b o o k s: C lark , B ishop; H e a rd , M a y , W a sh b u rn , W h a rto n , S tephen, C la rk & M a rsh a ll.

Forensic Medicine or Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology

T h is is a v ery in te re s tin g a n d in s tru c tiv e stu d y . I t deals w ith th e p h en o m e n a a n d signs o f d e a th , p o st-m o rte m e x a m in a tir n s, p e rso n a l id e n tity , causes p ro d u c in g v io le n t d e a th , e x a m in a tio n of b lo o d s ta in s , d e a th fro m a s p h y x ia , electricity, h e a t, cold, s t a r v a ­ tio n , etc., feigned diseases, infanticide, idiocy, in s a n ity , d em en tia, m a n ia , p aresis, po iso n s, m in e ra l acids, v eg e tab le a n d a n im a l ir r ita n ts , cerebral n eu ro tic s, m a lp ra c tice a n d m edical su b jects g en erally in th e ir re la tio n t o crime.

T ex t-b o o k s : Reese, D ean, Beck, T a y lo r. Crim inal Procedure

T h is is th e adjective b ra n c h o f th e crim in al la w a n d concerns its e lf w ith th e p en a lties a n d rem edies fo r its b re a c h a n d th e p r o ­ cedure fo r th e ir enforcem ent, a s co n d u c ted in c o u r t a n d c a rrie d in to effect b y th e sheriff. I t deals w ith th e a r r e s t o f accused p erso n s, p re lim in a ry e x a m in a tio n , c o m m itm e n t o r b ail, office of g r a n d ju ry ,

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th e in d ic tm e n t a n d p lead in g s, m o tio n s a n d evidence, t r i a l a n d v er­ d ict, fin al proceedings a n d h a b e a s co rp u s.

T e x t- b o o k s : C lark , B ishop, H e a rd .

Property R eal and Personal

T h is su b je ct of ex c ep tio n al in te re s t is a t th e b a sis o f o u r so c ia fa b ric a n d civ ilizatio n . I t h a s th e s a n c tio n o f e x istin g la w s , a n d u p o n i t re s ts th e s u p e rs tru c tu re o f g o v e rn m e n ts a n d n a tio n s . I n t r e a tin g o f i t th e o rig in o f p ro p e r ty is d w e lt u p o n a n d m a d e clear b y m a n y illu s tra tio n s . P e r s o n a lty is view ed w ith reference t o th e m a t t e r o f ac q u isitio n , r ig h ts o f possession, m o b ility a n d ru les o f tra n s fe r, w hile r e a lty is v iew ed in th e asp ects o f its e s ta te s a n d feu d a l te n u re s, uses a n d tr u s ts , s t a t u t e o f lim ita tio n s , em blem ents, fix tu res, p o w e rs, c o v e n a n ts, easem ents, deeds, m o rtg a g e s , releases, s t a t u t o r y ru les a n d th e r ig h ts respectively o f la n d lo rd a n d te n a n t.

T e x t- b o o k s : H o p k in s, B oone, W a sh b u rn , W illiam s, T iedem an, S chouler, S m ith , D a rlin g to n .

Sales

_ T h is im p o r ta n t su b d iv isio n o f th e la w o f c o n tra c ts is tr e a te d briefly u n d e r t h a t h ead , b u t o n a c c o u n t o f th e en o rm o u s increase of tr a d e a n d com m erce th r o u g h o u t th e w o rld d u rin g th e l a s t c e n tu ry i t h a s o u tg r o w n th e m o d e st c o m p ass o f its fo rm e r p re s e n ta tio n , a n d se v era l te x t-b o o k s a re n o w d ev o ted specially t o it. I n s tu d y ­ in g i t th e elem ents o f c o n tr a c t m u s t be con sid ered p rim a rily , a n d likew ise th e s t a t u t e o f fra u d s. T h e d is tin c tio n b e tw e e n sale a n d b a r t e r o r exchange is explained, likew ise th e need o f accep tan ce as w ell a s delivery in th e tr a n s f e r o f th in g s so ld , th e sa le o f c h a tte ls specific a n d n o t specific, th e n a tu r e o f a n d d is tin c tio n b e tw e e n con­ d itio n s a n d w a r ra n tie s , s to p p a g e in tr a n s i tu , r ig h ts o f u n p a id sellers a g a in s t g o o d s so ld a n d tra n s fe rre d , efiect o f ille g a lity , p a y ­ m e n t a n d p erfo rm an ce o f c o n tra c t, a n d th e like.

T e x t- b o o k s : T ied em an , B enjam in, T iffany, B urdick.

SECOND YEAR

[ E a c h su b je ct 5 h o u rs a w eek u n til finished.] Corporations—P rivate and Public or M unicipal

T h e line o f d istin c tio n b e tw e en th e se tw o g r e a t classes o f c o r­ p o r a tio n s is w ell m a rk e d , a n d th e y a re tr e a te d se p a ra te ly . U n d er

th e sy ste m o f s tu d y a t N o tr e D am e, h o w ev er, i t is s o u g h t t o con­

c e n tr a te th e a t te n t io n u p o n each b ra n c h o f th e la w u n til i t is n n d h a s ta k e n deep r o o t in th e m ind. I t is co n sid ered m ore fru itfu l o f s a tis f a c to ry a n d a b id in g -results t o p u rsu e th is course t h a n t o fo llo w t h a t o f so m e o th e r in s titu tio n s a n d d eal w ith i t a t w idely s e p a ra te d in te rv a ls, a llo w in g o th e r su b jects t o in terv e n e a n d le a d a t tim es t o confusion a n d lo o se h a b its o f th in k in g . F o r m uch th e sa m e re a s o n i t is s o u g h t here t o a s so c ia te o r b rin g th e m to g e th e r w h en p ra c tic a b le , so t h a t th e ir m u tu a lity o f r e la tio n m a y be m o re re a d ily u n d e rs to o d a n d a clearer k n o w led g e o f th e m acq u ired . H ence, th e se tw o g r e a t classes o f c o rp o ra tio n s a re d e a lt

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U W D E P A R T M E N T

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w ith in consecutive o rd er. As th e y a re d istin g u ish e d a s a rtific ia l p erso n s in la w , i t is deem ed ad v isab le t o d eal w ith th e m e a rly in th e second y e a r, n a t u r a l p erso n s th u s com in g in th e first. T h e su b ject o f p r iv a te c o rp o ra tio n s is m o re extensive t h a n m unicipal, a n d i t is developed a t g r e a te r le n g th . I n brief, th e su b ject of c o rp o ra tio n s includes th e ir n a tu r e a n d c re a tio n , p o w e rs a n d liabilities, a c ts o f p ro m o te rs a n d officers, c h a rte rs a n d m a n a g e m e n t, u l t r a v ires a c ts a n d d isso lu tio n , r ig h ts a n d rem edies of cre d ito rs; also, n a tu r e a n d p o w e rs o f public c o rp o ra tio n s , le g islativ e c o n tro l, m u n icip al securi­ ties, lia b ility o n c o n tra c ts a n d fo r t o r t s , c ity o rd in an ces a n d police c o u rts.

T h e su b ject o f p r iv a te c o rp o ra tio n s is tr e a te d in all its m u lti­ tu d in o u s ram ific a tio n s fro m th e in itia l o rg a n iz a tio n t o d isso lu tio n . I t is a lm o s t a s b r o a d a n d needs p ra c tic a lly a s m uch tim e fo r s tu d y a n d re c ita tio n as th e g r e a t b ra n c h of c o n tra c ts o r t o r t s .

M u n ic ip al c o rp o ra tio n s com prise co u n ties, to w n s , cities, o r p u b lic g o v e rm e n ta l agencies. In a b r o a d sense, th e F e d e ra l g o v e rn ­ m en t, n o t less t h a n th e s t a t e o r city, is a c o rp o ra tio n , th e co n s ti­ tu ti o n b ein g its c h a rte r a n d th e s ta tu te s its b y -law s. B y such c o m p a riso n s i t is s o u g h t t o m ak e su b jects o f s tu d y m u tu a lly aidful.

S tu d y a n d re c ita tio n s in th e se b ran c h e s cover u s u a lly a b o u t tw o m o n th s .

T e x t-b o o k s : M a rsh a ll, C lark , E llio tt, B each, In g erso ll, Tiede- m a n , D illon, Angel, & Ames.

E x t r a re c ita tio n s fo r F i r s t Y e a r s tu d e n ts : B lickenderfer’s

B la c k s to n e ’s C o m m en taries (A bridged).

Partnership

O r th e a s s o c ia tio n o f tw o o r m o re p erso n s fo r c a rry in g on a b usiness a n d d iv id in g th e p ro fits b etw een th e m . I t is a v e ry close a n d co n fid en tial re la tio n , each m em ber becom ing th e a g e n t o f th e o th e r w ith in th e u su a l o r a p p a re n t scope o f th e business. T he s tu d y o f th e su b je ct com prises th e se v eral k in d s o f p a rtn e rs h ip , in clu d in g j o i n t s to c k com panies, artic les o f ag reem en t, essen tia l elem ents o f th e re la tio n , express a n d im plied r ig h ts a n d liab ilities, a c tio n s o r su its b etw een p a rtn e rs , as w ell a s b etw een th e m a n d th ir d p erso n s, lia b ilities a n d g ro u n d s o f d isso lu tio n .

T e x t-b o o k s: B a tes, George, S h u m ak e r, B indley, P a rs o n s , P ollock.

A gency

In th e w id en in g a re a s of com m erce a n d increase o f w e a lth th r o u g h o u t th e w o rld th e la w o f agency h a s g r o w n apace. I n a b r o a d sense th e re la tio n ex ists w h ere one p e rso n a u th o riz e s a n o th e r t o a c t for him o r in his s te a d . I t involves th e g en e ra l principle Qui fa c it p e r aliu m fa c it p e r s e —H e w h o a c ts th r o u g h a n o th e r a c ts himself. I n d ealin g w ith th e su b ject i t is n ecessary t o s tu d y th e m ean s o f c re a tin g th e r e la tio n o f p rin c ip a l a n d a g e n t, d is tin c tio n b etw e en a g e n t a n d s e rv a n t, c re a tio n o f th e agency b y a p p o in tm e n t, ra tific a tio n , esto p p el o r necessity, d e le g a tio n o f a u t h o r it y t o su b ­ a g e n ts, lia b ility o f p rin c ip a l fo r a c ts o f a g e n t, p e rso n a l lia b ility o f a g e n t fo r his a c ts, p o w e rs a n d lia b ilitie s o f p u b lic a g e n ts, m u tu a l

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d u tie s a n d lia b ilities o f p rin c ip a l a n d a g e n t t o each o th e r, a n d t e r ­ m in a tio n o f th e re la tio n .

T ex t-b o o k s: T iffany, R e in h ard , M echem , E v a n s, S to ry , W h a rto n .

Bailments and Carriers

T h is is a v e ry p ra c tic a l b ra n c h o f th e la w a n d n ecessarily in c o n s ta n t a p p lic a tio n th r o u g h o u t th e c o u n try . O ur la w o f b a il­ m e n ts com es fro m t h a t g r e a t w o rld source o f le g a l w isd o m , th e Civil o r R o m a n la w . T h e sev eral k in d s o f b ailm e n ts, ex cluding th e m u tu u m , a re as a c c u ra te ly a n d clearly classified in th e I n s titu te s of J u s tin ia n as in C oggs v. B e rn a rd , 2 E d . R ay m . 909, o r a n y o f th e rece n tly p u b lish ed te x t-b o o k s . Indeed, w e still use th e R o m a n te rm s in d e s ig n a tin g th e m , as d ep o situ m , m a n d a tu m , com m o- d a tu m , p ig n u s a n d lo c a tio . W henever a p e rso n co m m its th e c a re o f o r lo a n s a n a rtic le o f p ro p e r ty t o a n o th e r, o r in tr u s ts its use t o h im fo r hire o r w ith a v ie w t o h a v in g i t c a rrie d t o som e o th e r place, a b a ilm e n t is c rea ted , su ch p erso n becom ing a b a ilo r a n d th e recip ien t a bailee. C a rrie rs com prise all w h o m a k e a business o f c a rry in g g o o d s a n d p assen g e rs fo r hire, w h e th e r th e y be r a ilr o a d o r s te a m b o a t com panies, th e o w n ers of ships o r c ity tru c k s , d ra y m e n o r s ta g e co a ch p ro p rie to rs . T h e y a re liable a s in su rers o f th e g o o d s delivered t o th e m fo r tr a n s p o r ta tio n , a n d th e sa m e is tr u e re g a rd ­ in g th e re sp o n sib ility o f innkeepers fo r th e g o o d s a n d effects o f g u e s ts in tr u s te d t o th e ir c a re a s bailees. A few o f th e chief su b ­ divisions a re delivery a n d acceptance, d is tin c tio n b e tw e e n b a ilm e n t a n d sale, su b jects o f b ailm e n t, lia b ility o f bailee u n d e r special con­ t r a c t , degree o f ca re n ecessary, d e n ia l o f b a ilo r ’s title esto p p ed , a sale if o w n ersh ip ch an g e t o bailee, w h a t m ay be pledged, in te re s t o f pledgee a ssig n a b le a n d su b je ct t o ju d icial sale, p a y m e n t a n d rede­ livery, th e h irin g o f services o r c h a tte ls , r ig h ts a n d lia b ilitie s o f w areh o u se m en , f o rw a rd in g m e rc h a n ts, w h arfin g e rs, safe d e p o sit com panies, a g iste rs, fa c to rs, innkeepers a n d ca rrie rs.

T e x t-b o o k s : H ale, H u tc h in so n , E d w a rd s , S to ry , S chouler.

Insurance— Fire, Life, Accident, Marine

_ T he o rig in o f in su ran c e is in v o lv ed in o b sc u rity , a lth o u g h th e

principle as ap p lied t o in d iv id u al o r p r iv a te risk s w a s ev id en tly k n o w n in a n c ie n t tim es. A t a n y r a t e i t existed a s a definite sy s­ te m a s ap p lied t o sh ip p in g o r m a ritim e risk s d u rin g th e M iddle Ages. E ire a n d life in su ra n c e cam e v e ry slo w ly in to use, a n d n o t e a rlie r t h a n th e l a s t c e n tu ry did i t ta k e definite sh a p e u n d e r s a n c tio n o f th e la w . Since th e n in su ra n c e co m p an ies o f m a n y k in d s h a v e been o rg an ized , a n d a p e rso n m a y n o w in su re a g a in s t lo ss o r in ju ry b y accident, d ish o n e sty o r negligence on th e p a r t o f em ployes o r o th e rs, n o n p a y m e n t o f re n ts o r d eb ts, b a n k r u p tc y o r inso lv en cy o f d e b to rs, failu re o f title in th e p u rc h a se o f la n d o r c h a tte ls , d a m ­ ag e t o o r d e a th o f live sto c k , d e s tru c tio n w r o u g h t b y th e elem ents in e x tr a o r d in a r y s to rm s , etc. I t h a s u s u a lly b een a lu c ra tiv e b u si­ ness, a n d hence th e s te a d y increase in n u m b e r o f co m p an ies a n d su b jects o f risk . T h e chief su b d iv isio n s fo r s tu d y a re re p re s e n ta ­ tio n s , w a r ra n tie s , co n cealm en t, p rem iu m , f o rm a tio n of c o n tra c t, policies o f v a rio u s k in d s, s u b je c t-m a tte r a n d in su ra b le in te re s t,

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LAW D E P A R T M E N T 21

o^S t a n ^ in s u ra n c e , agency, w a iv e r a n d esto p p el, a ssig n m e n t a n d ch an g e o f in te re s t o r title , v a c a n c y a n d re p a irs, n o tice a n d p r o o f o f loss, r ig h t t o re p a ir o r rebuild, m easu re of d am ag es, con­

d itio n s affecting m o rtg a g e s a n d s u b ro g a tio n .

T e x t- b o o k s : V ance, M a y , E llio tt, K e rr, Bliss, Joyce, W ood.

Common L aw Pleading and Practice

. T h i s su b je ct calls in to exercise th e s tu d e n t’s p o w e r o f a tte n tio n , a b ility t o co m p are a n d analyze, a ccu racy in th e re la tio n a n d sequence o f th o u g h t, resourcefulness in fin d in g a n d ta k in g th e c o r­ re c t in itia tiv e in th e th e o ry t o be a d o p te d , a n d skill in th e lo g ical dev elo p m en t a n d e s ta b lish m e n t o f th e th e o ry , p la n a n d fa c ts in th e case. I t is im possible t o find a b e tte r sy ste m o f logic a n d p ra c tic e in close re a so n in g t h a n is afforded b y th e s tu d y o f com m o n la w p lead in g s. M oreover, th ese p le ad in g s as developed th r o u g h sev eral h u n d re d y e a rs o f use a n d p ra c tic e m a y be s a id t o underlie th e code a n d o th e r form s of p lea d in g s m o re recen tly a d o p te d . H ence th e co m m o n la w sy ste m o f p le ad in g a n d p ra c tic e is ta k e n u p p rim a rily a t N o tre Dam e. T he su b d iv isio n s stu d ie d are here in d ic a te d in p a r t : C o u rts a n d ju ris d ic tio n , cap ac itie s a n d d isab ilities of p a rtie s , th reefo ld d iv isio n o f a c tio n s—real, p e rso n a l a n d m ix e d —p e rso n a l a c tio n s ex c o n tra c tu o r on c o n tra c t, a s a ssu m p sit, debt, c o v e n a n t a n d a c c o u n t; p e rso n a l a c tio n s ex delicto o r t o r t , a s case, tre s p a s s , detinue, replevin a n d t r o v e r ; th e su m m o n s o r c a p ia s t o b eg in th e a c tio n , a n d th e n th e d e c la ra tio n , plea, re p lic a tio n , rejoinder, su rre ­ jo in d e r, r e b u tte r a n d s u r r e b u t t e r ; also, th e d em u rrer, p leas in

a b a te m e n t o r in b a r a n d th e sev eral k in d s o f m o tio n s ; likew ise, q u o w a r r a n to , h a b e a s co rp u s, scire facias, g a rn ish m e n t, a t t a c h ­ m e n t a n d ejectm ent in th e real, m ixed a n d s t a t u t o r y a c tio n s a n d fo rm s o f p ro c e d u re ; a r b itr a tio n a n d a w a rd , c e rtio ra ri, p ro h ib itio n a n d m a n d a m u s, t r i a l a n d d evelopm ent o f th e fa c ts under* th e evidence, in s tru c tio n s o f th e c o u r t a n d v e rd ic t of th e ju ry , g ro u n d s o f m o tio n fo r a n ew tr ia l, e n try o f ju d g m e n t o n th e v e rd ic t if m o tio n be re tire d , a n d th e n a p p e a l on claim o f e rro r t o th e c o u r t of rev iew o r suprem e c o u rt.

C h i T - f - b o o k s : S h ip m an , Gould, S tephen, Shinn, H e a rd , P e rry ,

Interpretation and Construction of Laws.

T h is is a useful a n d p ra c tic a l b ra n c h o f th e la w . I t is a lm o s t a s aidful t o th e la w y e r in th e deeper a n d m o re a n a ly tic lines o f his w o rk a s th e la w of evidence is in ju ry tria ls . I t furnishes a key t o th e in te rp r e ta tio n o r c o rre c t u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e s ta tu te s , gives em phasized significance t o th e w o rd in g o f c o n tra c ts a n d le g a l in stru m e n ts, a n d m akes i t easier t o c o n s tru e th e re p o rte d o p in io n s of th e c o u rts, s e p a ra tin g re a d ily th e d ic ta fro m th e n ecessary su b ­ stan ce . T h e rules o f in te r p r e ta tio n cam e s u b s ta n tia lly fro m th e R o m a n la w . T h ey a n d th e m a x im s w ere tr a n s la te d in to E n g lish a n d em bodied in o u r ju risp ru d en ce. A m o n g the. su b d iv isio n s tr e a te d u n d e r th is h ea d m a y be m e n tio n e d : D efinition a n d o b ject o f in te r­ p r e ta tio n , in te n t t o be so u g h t, office o f th e ju d ic ia ry , re tro sp ec tiv e o p e ra tio n avoided, m a n d a to r y a n d d ire c to ry p ro v isio n s, p o p u la r

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a n d te ch n ic al m ean in g o f w o rd s, ca su s om issus a n d e q u ita b le co n ­ s tru c tio n , s tr ic t a n d lib e ra l c o n s tru c tio n , rejectio n o f su rp lu sa g e , p re s u m p tio n a g a in s t u n c o n s titu tio n a lity , g e n e ra l te rm s fo llo w in g special, express m e n tio n a n d im plied exclusion, red d en d o s in g u la singulis, perm issive, m a n d a to r y a n d d ire c to ry s ta tu te s , a d o p te d a n d re-en acted s ta tu te s , title , p ream b le a n d c o n te x t o f s ta tu te s , t o be c o n s tru e d a s a w hole, a d m issib ility o f ex trin sic aid s, s t a t u t e s in p a r i m a te ria , c o n te m p o ra ry c o n s tru c tio n a n d u sag e, c o n s tru c tio n w ith reference t o th e co m m o n la w , s t a t u t e s re g u la tin g pro ced u re, c o n s tru c tio n o f a m e n d m e n ts a n d d e c la ra to ry a c ts, th e n a tu r e a n d force o f precedents, c o n s tru c tio n o f s t a t u t e s o f o th e r S ta te s , F e d e ra l c o u rts fo llo w in g S ta te la w s a n d decisions in S t a t e m a tte rs , etc.

T e x t-b o o k s : B lack on I n te r p r e ta t io n of L a w s ; B ish o p , L a w ­ son, D w a rris.

T h e State and Federal Courts and their Respective Functions

A s tu d y o f c o u rts , b o th o f la w a n d e q u ity , is aid fu l t o t h e a c q u isitio n o f a p r a c tic a l k n o w le d g e o f th e m o re difficult s u b je c t of p lead in g s. P lac es la w fu lly e s ta b lish e d fo r th e a d m in is tra tio n of ju stic e , th e y a re th e te m p les o f th e la w , a n d th o s e licensed t o serve in th e m s h o u ld do so w ith due reverence a n d a so lem n sense o f

resp o n sib ility . W hile th o r o u g h in s tru c tio n is g iv en in re sp e c t t o

th e c o u rts a n d m e th o d s o f t r i a l in G re a t B r ita in a n d o h th e c o n ti­ n e n t o f E u ro p e , y e t o u r o w n ju d ic ia l sy ste m , b o th S ta te a n d F e d e ra l, is even m o re specifically described a n d explained, a n d n o d o u b t o r o b sc u rity re g a rd in g i t is p e rm itte d t o lin g e r in th e m in d ' I t is sh o w n h o w th e c o u rts a re divided in to m a n y b ran ch e s, w ith d istin c tiv e n am es, w h e n th e v o lu m e o f le g al b u sin ess is g r e a t a n d so d em an d s, a s in th e la rg e r cities, w hile a single c o u r t u n d e r one n a m e m a y d is p a tc h a s m a n y k in d s o f b u sin ess w h ere th e v o lu m e is sm a lle r a n d th e ju ris d ic tio n a l a r e a less p o p u lo u s. T h e S ta te t r i a l c o u rts a n d th e c o u rts o f rev ie w o r su p rem e c o u rts a n d th e ir fu n c­ tio n s a re fully described, w h ile th e F e d e ra l S u p rem e C o u r t a n d s u b ­ o r d in a te trib u n a ls , a s c irc u it c o u rts o f a p p e al, c irc u it c o u rts , d is tric t c o u r ts a n d even c o m m issio n ers’ c o u rts , receive becom ing a tte n t io n a n d e x p la n a tio n . T h e p ro ce d u re o n a p p e a l o r w r i t o f e r r o r t o th e S uprem e C o u rt, S t a t e a n d F e d e ra l, is likew ise fully elu cid a ted .

T e x t- b o o k s : H u g h es, D esty, E w b a n k , S hinn, S h ip m an , P le a d ­ in g s F o rm s , B rie f M a k in g .

THIRD YEAR

[ E a c h su b je ct five h o u rs a w eek u n til finished.]

Equity Pleading and Practice.

P le a d in g in c o u rts o f e q u ity o r c h a n ce ry is less te ch n ic al a n d co m p lic a te d t h a n a t co m m o n la w . I t is m a rk e d b y g r e a te r fulness a n d clearness o f s ta te m e n t. We m a y divide e q u ity p le ad in g s in to th e bill, d isclaim er,p lea, a n s w e r a n d re p lic a tio n ; also, th e dem u rrer. T h e bill, a n s w e r a n d re p lic a tio n co m m o n ly s e t f o rth a n d jo in issue o n th e d isp u te d facts, a n d le a d in im p o rta n c e . T h e bills a re c la ssi­ fied a s o rig in a l a n d n o t o rig in al. A gain, th e y p r a y relief o r do n o t p r a y relief. T h e o rig in a l bills p r a y in g relief a re th o s e claim in g

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U W D E P A R T M E N T

23

r ig h ts o f c o m p la in a n t in o p p o sitio n t o d efen d an t, o r th e class o f hills c u s to m a rily in l i t i g a t i o n ; also, bills o f in te rp le a d e r a n d bills

o f c e rtio ra ri. T h e o rig in a l bills n o t p ra y in g relief a re th o s e t o p e r p e tu a te te stim o n y , de bene esse a n d fo r discovery. T h e bills n o t o rg in a l com prise as a c o n tin u a tio n o f th o s e ju s t n am e d th e su p p le­ m e n ta l bill, th e bill o f re v iv o r a n d th e bill o f re v iv o r a n d su p p le­ m e n t. T he bills n o t o rig in a l a re re g u la rly in te n d e d fo r p u rp o se s o f cro ss litig a tio n , o r t o c o n tro v e rt, suspend, rev erse o r c a rr y in to ex ecu tio n a decree o f c o u rt. T h ey a re th e cross-bill, th e bill o f review , bill t o im peach a decree fo r fra u d , bill t o su sp en d o r av o id ex e c u tio n of a decree, bill t o c a rry a decree in to execution, bill in n a tu r e o f bill o f review , bill in n a tu r e o f bill o f rev iv o r, b ill in n a tu r e o f su p p le m e n ta l bill, a n d su p p le m en tal bill in n a tu r e o f bill o f review . T he bill is s a id t o c o n ta in nine p a r ts , a lth o u g h seldom h a v in g m o re t h a n five o r six. T h ey a re th e ad d ress, in tro d u c tio n , prem ises o r s ta tin g p a r t, co n fed e ratin g p a r t, c h a rg in g p a r t , a v e r­

m e n t o f ju risd ic tio n , in te rro g a tin g p a r t, p ra y e r fo r relief a n d p r a y e r fo r process. I t is sh o w n in th e course o f in s tru c tio n t h a t n o com ­ p la in a n t c a n sue in e q u ity unless th e co m m o n la w fails t o afford

a d e q u a te relief. If he seek d a m a g es he m u s t sue in a com m o n la w c o u rt. N o r h a s e q u ity a n y th in g t o do w ith crim in al m a tte rs . I t h a s no ju r y tria ls . T he chief subjects o f litig a tio n in e q u ity a re co m p rised u n d er th e g en e ra l h ea d s accident, fra u d , m ista k e , specific perform ance, tr u s ts , in ju n ctio n s, th e refo rm in g of in s tru m e n ts a n d in frin g em e n t o f p a te n ts a n d c o p y rig h t.

T e x t-b o o k s : S h ip m an , Shinn, F letch er, B a rb o u r, D aniel.

Special class fo r F i r s t Y ear s tu d e n ts: R o b in so n ’s E lem en ts o f A m erican Ju risp ru d en ce.

Code Pleading

T h is sy ste m is follow ed, w ith s t a t u t o r y m o d ificatio n s, in th ree- fifths o f th e s ta te s . A nd in G re a t B r ita in i t w a s a d o p te d in th e m a in u n d e r th e J u d ic a tu re A cts o f 1 8 7 3 a n d 187 5 . I t h a d its o rig in in N ew Y ork, o u s tin g a n d ta k in g th e place o f e q u ity a n d co m m o n la w plead in g s. T he com m ission t o a c t in th e m a t t e r b e g a n th e w o rk o f co d ificatio n u n d e r th e C o n s titu tio n o f 181 6 . B u t i t req u ired sev eral y e a rs t o com plete th e codes o f civil a n d c rim in a l procedure. I t w a s p ro v id ed t h a t th e re sh o u ld a f te rw a r d be no d istin c tio n b etw een le g al a n d eq u itab le rem edies a n d t h a t th e com m o n la w form s of a c tio n sh o u ld be abolished. T he n ew m e th o d w a s sh a p e d chiefly in acco rd an ce w ith e q u ity procedure, fo r w h ich i t w a s s u b s titu te d . One fo rm o f a c tio n w a s p rescrib ed fo r all classes o f cases, w h e th e r o f a leg al o r e q u itab le n a tu re . T he p le a d ­ in g s w ere g re a tly reduced in n u m b er a n d d esig n a te d th e c o m p la in t o r p e titio n , a n s w e r a n d re p ly ; also, th e d em u rrer. A ru le w a s a d o p te d re q u irin g th e m t o be concise a n d fra m ed in la n g u a g e clear, in tellig ib le a n d easily u n d e rsto o d . T he n ew m e th o d w a s re g a rd e d a s a necessary refo rm in th e in te re s t o f ju stice , a n d w idely a d o p te d , especially in th e n ew s ta te s . Since th e n , h o w ev er, so m a n y s t a t u ­ t o r y rev isio n s h a v e been m ad e, a n d so m a n y ru lin g s of th e c o u rts le a d in g t o divergences h a v e en tered in to it, t h a t i t is n o w h a rd ly less free fro m d o u b t, u n c e rta in ty a n d te ch n ic alities t h a n th e old

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References

Related subjects :
Outline : GRADUATE YEAR