Genetic Evidence for Basic Theories of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Gradient and Traditional Chinese Medicine

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Genetic Evidence for Basic Theories of the Traditional Chinese Medicine

Gradient and Traditional Chinese Medicine

KEYWORDS: Traditional Chinese Medicine, Five Basic Elements, Energy Channels, Qi Energy, Acupuncture points, Gene, Chromosome, Embryonic Layer

1. SUMMARY

The present article aims to give some evidence supporting the general theories in TCM1 using knowledge from modern science and medicine. Organ maps on the human chromosomes were made using the data for the localization of genes responsible for genetic diseases. The analysis of the organ maps on the chromosomes gives clear evidence for the correct grouping of the human organs according to the Theory of the Five Basic Elements of TCM. The Energy Channel System is seen as a three dimensional tract of the migration of ectodermic, mesodermic, and endodermic cells in the human embryo. The material substrate of the TCM channels is the liquid-crystal structure of the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and DNA of the ectodermic, endodermic, and mesodermic cells through which electromagnetic, optical, and sound signals are transmitted in the direction of the body gradients. The acupuncture points are considered as representation of the location of the basic embryonic stem cells, which gave the rise of the different tissues and organs.

The Yin-Yang Theory which is the basis for understanding the universe and as well as the living system in TCM is identified with the fundamental nature of the Gradient2. The life system is a self-organized, self-regenerating, multi-level asymmetry with the basic functional unit- Gradient (chemical, electrical, magnetic, osmotic, etc.) The unit energy for the life matter is the energy necessary to sustain one unit of Gradient. The energy Qi in its movement flows in the direction of the gradients and is commensurable to the unit energy of the Gradient.

1 TCM-Traditional Chinese Medicine 2

Gradient Definitions:

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2. TCM- Basic concepts and theories

In this particular particle, the following three theories will not be discussed in depth. Instead, an analog will be made between the present scientific knowledge and original interpretations of these theories.

2.1. Theory of Yin-Yang

The theory of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements are two of the basic theories used as explanations of natural phenomena in ancient China, as well as the basic theories that were used for formulation and development of the theoretic concepts of the Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is believed that the Yin-Yang theory originated in the 16th-22nd B.C. during the Yin and Zhou dynasties. For a first time it was mentioned in the Book of the Changes. Yin and Yang are philosophical categories and are early concepts of materialism and dialectics. In Plain Questions, Yin and Yang were described as follows:

“Yin and yang are the laws of heaven and earth, the great framework of everything, the parents of change, the root and beginning of life and death…”[11, 14]

The basic assumptions of the Yin-Yang theory are: 1) Opposition of the yin and yang-everything in nature has two opposing aspects known as yin and yang that control each other; 2) Interdependency of yin and yang- neither concept can exist in isolation; 3) The inter-consuming-supporting relationship of yin and yang; 4) The inter-transforming relationship of yin and yang- ”inter-consuming-supporting relationship is a process of quantitative change,…the inter-transformation of yin and yang is a process of qualitative change”; 5) Infinite divisibility of yin and yang- “there are relative degrees of both yin and yang, as each can amplified into three subdivisions: Greater Yin (Taiyin), Lesser Yin (Shaoyin), Declining Yin (Jueyin), and respectively Greater Yang (Taiyang), Extreme Yang (Yangming), and Scanty Yang (Shaoyang). [11, 14]

The theory Yin-Yang is used in the TCM to explain the organic structure of the human body, the physiological processes and pathological changes in the human body, as well as in the process of diagnosis and therapy. The basic assumptions of the Yin-Yang theory have their

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tissues are yin aspects and their physiological activity is taken as the yang aspects; the zang organs are yin and the full organs are yang; supporting and coordination between yin and yang preserves the normal physiological activity and balance in the body; the loss of balance between yin and yang leads to excess or deficiency of either and is the basis for pathological processes in the human body-yin and yang diseases which hence determines the type and form of therapy, etc. etc. [11,14]

The graphic representation of Yin-Yang theory if shown in Figure 1 bellow:

Figure 1

From the perspective of present-day scientific knowledge the analog to the Yin-Yang concept can be understood as the concept of the gradient. In the macro and micro space different forms of the gradient exist- gravitational, electrical, magnetic, osmotic, hydrostatic, and others. Every single gradient includes in itself the nature of the Yin-Yang model. Each gradient contains two opposing manifestations of the same entity- positive and negative poles of a magnet, positive and negative charge, bigger and small concentrations, etc. As yin and yang cannot exist in separation, each of the aspects of a gradient cannot exist alone. Inter-consuming-supporting relationship and inter-transforming relationship of the yin-yang, which are representations of the quantitative change and qualitative change, exist in the same way in the gradient processes (for example, the direction and nature of one chemical reaction depends on the quantitative gradient of compounds involved to produce a different qualitative product). Just as yin and yang are composed of relative degrees, so does the gradient exist in interchangeable forms- a concentration gradient can lead to an electric gradient which can itself transform into a magnetic gradient and so on. For example, the Na+ and K+ gradients change results in the creation of an electrical impulse moving through the neuron membranes

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(electro-magnetic gradient), which changes the concentration of the neuromediator Acetylcholine (chemical gradient), eventually resulting in muscle contraction creating chemical-mechanical gradient. This example well shows the inter-consuming-supporting and inter-transforming nature of the gradient in several of its different levels.

Yin and yang were described in Plain Questions as the basis of life. Similarly we can say that life or the living system is self-organized, self-regenerating, multi-level asymmetry with the basic functional unit as the gradient. The asymmetry is one of the basic necessities for the existence of the gradient. The perfect symmetry is characteristic for the nonliving systems. The support of the different types of gradient in referent values is the base to sustain homeostasis in the living system. The unit of energy of a living system is the energy to sustain a unit of gradient. The cell is the basic structural element of a living system. Every form of gradient needs a different amount of energy and the sum of these energies, supporting the gradients in a cell, has to be understood as unit of energy for a living system.

According to the ancient Chinese philosophical thought, the energy Qi was the fundamental substance building the universe and all phenomena were produced by the changes and the movement of Qi [11,14].The reason for the change and movement of Qi are the different types of Gradient. Considering the above, the unit of measuring Qi energy has to be the same as the unit of energy for realization of a given Gradient.

From the prospective of medicine, every form of therapy- medications, acupuncture, Qi Gong, massage, and others, recover the normal levels of the different gradients in the human body. The process of the treatment creates the healing gradients.

2.2 Theory of the Five Elements

The theory of the Five Elements was first formed in Zhou dynasties (16th c.-221 B.C.). It is one of the basic philosophic theories of ancient China, which has been used to categorize natural phenomena and explain their mutual relationship. Every element or process occurring

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in macrospace and microspace (human body) is explained with the Theory of the Five Elements. This can be well observed in Table # 1 & Figure 2 bellow:

Table # 1 Classification of the Macro- and Microcosmos According to The Theory of Five Elements [11, 14]

Nature Human body

Directions Tastes Growth and Development Environmental Factors Seasons Five Elements Zang Fu Five sense organs Five tissues Emotions Five notes

East Sour Germination Wind Spring Wood Liver Gall-bladder

Eye Tendon Anger Jiao

South Bitter Growth Heat Summer Fire Heart Small Intestine

Tongue Vessel Joy Zheng

Middle Sweet Transformati on

Dampness Later Summer

Earth Spleen Stomach Mouth Muscle Worry Gong

West Pungent Reaping Dryness Autumn Metal Lung Large Intestine Nose Skin and hair Grief and melancho ly Shang

North Salty Storing Cold Winter Water Kidney Bladder Ear Bone Fright and Fear

Yu

Figure # 2Interpromoting and Interacting Relationship of the Five Elements[11, 14]

Interpromoting

Interacting and Overacting

Counteracting Legend:

Fire

Water

Wood

Fire

Water Earth Metal

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From a medical perspective the Theory of the Five Elements explains the classification and the inter-relationship between the Zang (full) and Fu (hollow) organs in the human body, depicts the pathological relationship between the Zang and Fu organs (Figure #2), and is a guide for the process of clinical diagnosis and treatment. The shown interactions of interpromoting, interacting and overacting, and counteracting between the Five elements are driven by the same driving forces which are the gradients. The basic essence of the theory of Ying and Yang and theory of the Five Elements is the gradient.

In the light of the recent scientific achievements, the field that can verify this theory in medicine is genetics. The results of the Human Genome Project with the development of methods for isolation of the specific genes, their sequencing and location in the respective chromosomes, and the made connections to genetic diseases, provide interesting data in support of the Theory of the Five Elements. This is discussed further in Section 3 of this article.

3. Organ Maps of the human karyotype and Chromosome maps of the Five Categories

3.1 Human Genome

In the human body every cell, except the gametes, has 46 chromosomes. The arrangement of pairs of these chromosomes is known as the human karyotype. The two chromosomes in each pair have the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern and are known as homologs. Two distinct chromosomes known, as X and Y, are different from the general model homolog model in the human somatic cells. The female has a two X chromosomes, while the male has an X and a Y. Since these chromosomes determine an individual’s sex, the X and Y chromosomes are known as the sex chromosomes, while all others are known as autosomal chromosomes. In Figure 3 bellow, the human karyotype is presented:

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With the growing developments and discoveries in genetics, a question arises for the application of the gathered knowledge for verification the theories, concepts, and mechanism of the treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

3.2 Organ Maps and Chromosome Maps

On the base of the available information for the connection of specific genes to certain genetic diseases [22], organ maps of the human chromosomes were made (Fig 3). The distribution of organs is made according to their classification in the Theory of Five Elements.

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In Table # 2, a chromosome and gene selection is made and connected with each of the Five Elements and their corresponding organs.

Table 2 Chromosome and Gene selection to Five Elements

{for other Categories see Appendix A}

Category Chromosomes most frequently connected with category

Bands of the chromosomes connected with organ and tissue of same category

K, UB, brain, bone marrow, bone, ear, scalp hair

Ch1, Ch11, Ch19, X Ch1: p34-36.3 K; p34-36.1 bone; p34- brain; p31 K, brain, blood; p22 blood, K; p21-q23 brain; q21-31 blood; q21-23 K, ear; 24-31 K; q32- blood, K, brain; q30-41 brain; q42-43 K, q41-43 brain; q41-43 brain; q44 blood

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Ch2: p22-25 brain; p23.3 K; p16-21 blood; p16.3 K; p15-16 brain; p13 K, brain; q13 K, ear; q13-14 blood; q14 brain; q21-31 brain; q26.3 brain; q23-31 ear; q26.3 K, ear; q31 K; q31-32 blood; q32 bone; q33 brain, K; q33-35 bone, brain; q34 blood

Ch3: p25-26 K; p25.3 blood; p25 brain; p21-23 K; p12-13 K, brain; p13-q23 brain; q13 K; q21-23 blood; q21.3 bone; q21 K, blood; q21-24 ear; q25-27 brain; q25 blood; q27 K, blood, brain; q28-29 ear; q27-28 brain

Ch4: p13-q21 brain; q11-13 K; p12 blood; q11-21 bone; q21-25 blood; q21-23 K; q21 brain, K, blood, bone; q 28-21 blood, hair; q28 ear; q31 ear, K; q31.1-22.2 K; q35 K, blood

Ch5: p15.3-15.2 blood; p15.2-p15.3 brain; p12-13.1 brain; p13 blood; q11-13 K; q12 brain; q11.2-13.2 brain, blood; q13.2-13.3 K; q23-31 K, blood; q31.1 blood, bone; 31-33 blood, brain; q33.2-33.3 bone marrow; q25-34 brain, bone; q35 blood, bone

Ch6: p24-25 blood; p23-25 bone; p23 brain; p23 brain, blood; p21-22 K, blood; p21.3 K, bone, scalp hair; p12-21 K, bone; p12.2-21.1 brain; p11-21.1 blood; q13 blood, ear; q12-26 brain; q21-23 K; q22.3-23.1 blood; q26-27 ear

Ch7: q15 blood, ear; q11-21 brain; q11.2-21.3 K; q21-23 brain; q31 ear, brain; q31-34 blood; q33 bone; q33-34 K; q35-36 brain; q36 K, blood, brain; q34-36 ear

Ch8: p22-23.3 blood; p23 brain; p22 brain; p11.2-21.3 brain; p13 bone; p12-p21.1 blood; p21-22 brain; p11.2 blood; q11 brain, bone; q13-21 brain, ear; p22 K, bone; q21.3-22 blood; q24 brain, blood, bone; q24.11-24.13 bone, blood; q24.1 K

Ch9: p11.1-13 brain; p12-13 K; p13 blood, brain, ear, blood; q31.1 K, blood; q 32 K; q32-34 ear; q34 blood, bone, brain; q34.1- blood, bone; q34.3 ear, blood

Ch10: q21-22 K, ear, brain; q22 blood; q23.2 blood, brain; q24 blood, brain; q24.3-25 K; q24-25 brain; q26 K, brain

Ch11: p15.5 UB, brain, ovaries, adrenal glands; p15.4 brain; p15.2-15.4 bone; p15.1 ear; p13 K, brain, testis; p12-q13.3 K, brain p11-12 bone, blood; p11-q11 brain; q12-14 brain; q12-13 blood; q13 K, brain, blood; q13.4-13.5 bone; q15.4 K, brain, ear; q15.5 K, brain, ear; q22-24 ear; q21-23 K; q22.3-23.1 blood, bone; q23 K, blood; q23.3-22.3 K; q23-25 bone, blood; q25 ear, blood

Ch12: p13.3 brain, bone; p13 brain, blood, bone marrow; p12-13 brain, blood; p12 blood, adrenal glands; p11.23-q13.12 brain; p14.1 sex organizer; q13 K, brain; q12-14 bone; q11-14 blood; q13-21 K, brain; q13-15 ear, brain; q31-24 ear; q24 K, brain, blood; q21-24 K, ear

Ch13 q11-12 ear, blood; q12 brain; q13-14.3 K; q13 brain, blood; q14.1.14.2 bone, UB, brain; q33 brain, bone; q31 brain, blood

Ch14: q11-13 brain; q11.2 blood; q12-13 ear; q21-22 ear; q22.1-22.2 K; q22.23.1 blood; q23 brain

Ch15: q11-13 brain, blood; q13-15 brain; q11-13 bone;q14-21.3 brain; q15 blood, ear; q21 blood, brain; q22.2-23 K, brain; q22.2-23 blood; q23-24 ovary; q24 ear, brain, bone; q23-26 brain; q25-26 K, ear; q26.1 ear, bone

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Ch16 p13.3-13.12 K; p13.3 K, brain, blood; p21.1-13.3 brain; p12.3-13.11 ea; p13 bone; p12.3 K; p12.2 ear; p11.2-12.1 ear; p12 K; p12- q12 brain; p12-q21 blood; p11.2- q12.1 brain; p11.2 L; p12 K; q12.2-21 brain; q13 bone; q21 K, brain; q13-22.1 blood; q22.1 hair on head top, K, ovaries, brain; q24. K, blood, brain

Ch17: p13.3 blood, brain; p13 K, brain; p11.2 bone, ear, brain; p11 prostate; q11.2 brain, blood; q12-21 sex organs; q21 brain; p21-22 brain, blood, bone; q21-23 K, blood; q24.3-25.1 sex determination; q25 bone, blood, brain; q25.3 ear, bone

Ch18: p11.21-11.32 hair on head; p11.31 brain; p11.2 brain

Ch19: p13.3 blood, brain, gonadotropin; p13.2-13.3 K, blood, brain; p13.1 brain, bone, blood; p13 brain, blood;

q13 bone, ear, K, brain; q13.1 K, bone marrow; q13.1-13.2 brain, sex organs; q13.2 blood; q13.3. blood, brain; q13.21 K, brain, sex organs Ch20: p13 ear; p12.3-13 brain; q13.3 brain, blood Ch21: q22.3 brain, K, blood, ear

Ch22: q11 blood; q11.1-11.2 K; q11.2 brain; q11.21-12.1 ear; q11.21 blood; q11-12 brain; q12 blood; q13 blood, ear, brain; q13.3 K, brain q13.31 blood

ChX: p22.32 blood, brain; p22.12 brain; p22.31-21 bone; p22.3-21 brain; p21.2 ear; 112-q22 brain; p11.23 blood; p11-21 blood; p111-22 K, brain; p11-q12 K, brain; q12-13 bone; q13.3-13.4 blood; q21.2-21.3 sex organs; q21.2 blood;

q22 brain, ear, ovary; q22-23 K; q22-25 bone; q26.1-27.1 K, brain; q27-28 brain, K; q27.3-28 brain, UB, prostate

As it can be seen in Fig 3a and Table 2, the same genes and chromosome locations are responsible for the same organs and tissues from a given category. For example, the Water Element Category includes the organs kidney, ear, urinary bladder, bone marrow, bone, brain; the genes loci from p34-p36 and q21-q44 in chromosome 1 are responsible for the structure and function of kidney, bone, blood, brain, and ear. As Table 2 shows, in every single chromosome, several loci close to one another are responsible for the structure and function of organs and tissues, which belong to the same Chinese category. The groups of genes governing the structure and function of organs and tissues are found in the same loci of a chromosome, just as the organs and tissues are grouped according to the Five categories of the TCM.

The made organ map and table are genetic evidence for the correct classification of organs and tissues according to the Theory of Five Elements from a thousand years ago, from a time when the terms genes and genetics did not even exist. Moreover, from the analysis of the

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chromosomes are connected with the category of the Water, in particular the kidney. According to the TCM, the category of the kidney is the main category that determines the proper function of all categories.

During the embryological development the ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal layers build all organs and systems of the human body. From the ectoderm cells displace the hypoblast to form the endoblast; other cells from the epiblast migrate and form the mesoderm. In this way the ectoderm gives rises to the mesodermal and endodermal layers. Hence, the skin, the largest organ, is formed from the ectoderm and has a connection to every endodermal and mesodermal structure in the human body. These genetically determined links are probably in the base for realization of the therapeutic mechanism of acupuncture. The organs from the Five categories and the embryonic layers from which they arise are presented bellow in Table 4:

Table 4 Embryonic layers, organs, and Five Elements

Category Organs Embryonic Layers K Mesoderm (intermediate)

UB Ectoderm (surface ectoderm), endoderm

Bone Ectoderm (neural crest), Mesoderm- paraxial and lateral)

Ear Ectoderm (surface ectoderm, neuroectoderm), Endoderm

Bone marrow and blood Mesoderm (lateral) K

Brain Ectoderm (surface ectoderm, neuroectoderm, neural crest)

Liv Endoderm

GB Endoderm

Connective tissue Mesoderm (lateral) Liv

Eye Ectoderm (neuroectoderm, surface ectoderm) Heart Mesoderm (lateral)

Si Endoderm

Vessels Mesoderm (lateral)

Tongue Mesoderm (Paraxial), Ecotoderm (surface ectoderm)

Ht

Blood Mesoderm (lateral) Spleen Mesoderm (lateral)

Stomach Endoderm, Mesoderm (lateral) Pancreas Endoderm

Muscles Mesoderm (paraxial, lateral) Blood Mesoderm (lateral) Sp

Mouth Endoderm Lungs Endoderm

Large Intestine Endoderm, Mesoderm (lateral), Ectoderm Lu

Skin Ectoderm (surface ectoderm), Mesoderm (paraxial)

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From Table 4, it can be seen that the Zang (full) organs are with mesodermal origin- kidney, heart, and spleen, and endodermal origin- liver and lung. Fu (hollow) organs are mainly with endodermal origin—urinary bladder, gall bladder, stomach, large intestine, small intestine; on the other hand, large intestine and stomach have a mesodermal origin, and the urinary bladder and gall bladder have an ectodermic origin. In this case, the pentagram of the five elements will look as follows (Figure 4):

Figure 4 Genetic Pentagram of the Five Elements

As the Pentagram of Figure 4 shows, in every category the endodermal layer is present. Keeping in mind that the Earth category (Spleen category) has a regulatory function, there is a periodic distribution of the endodermal and mesodermal embryological layers. Figure 4 shows that there are interpromoting, interacting and overacting, and counteracting relationships and it can be hypothesized that this pentagram is a simplified model for the different forms of interactions between the embryonic layers in the process of migration of cells, formation of the organs, and the embryo as a whole.

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4. Genetics and Organ Maps of the energy channels

The concept of the meridians and collaterals in the TCM is one of also one of the basic theories. According to classification of the TCM, there are 12 basic meridians with 15 collaterals, 8 extra meridians, 12 divergent meridians, 12 muscle regions, and 12 cutaneous regions. The system of meridians and channels construct a network of connections throughout the entire human body and allow it to function as a whole. This system allows the transportation of Qi and blood, regulation of Yin and Yang, resistance of pathogens and reflection of symptoms and signs, and transmission of needling sensation and regulation of deficiency and excess conditions [11,14].Every collaterals has a specific path and is connected with the function of specific organs and systems in the human body. Further information can be found in every TCM textbook. However, the question of the material substrate of the energy channels is still unanswered. Recently the knowledge of the human embryological development provides data which can shed light on the answer.

In analogy to the development of the organ map of chromosomes, an organ map of the 12 basic energy channels is made (Figure 5). As it can be seen bellow, every channel includes a group of acupuncture points which are not connected with the function of the organ to which they belong. For example, the Channel of the Gall Bladder has 44 main points. With the exception of points 23 and 24, all other points of this channel have influence on the Category of the Kidney. Points 1-3, 8-12, 19-22, 24, 25, 29-37, and 39-43 are acupuncture points influencing the Category of the Spleen. Points 6, 15, 16, 18, 22, 23, 25, and 27 are grouped towards the Lung Category. This can be observed in all other organ maps of the energy channels- the most of the categories are included in one energy channel.

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It is easy to see the analogy between the organ maps of the chromosomes and the organ maps of the energy channels. It is very primitive to assume that an analogy can be made between every chromosome and every energy channel; the reality is much more complex. Most probably, in one chromosome there is representation of every energy channel due to the vast genetic information included in each chromosome. The complete result can be seen after future analysis of the human chromosomes.

The situation is different with the sex chromosomes in which the information for every organ of the human organism is included. The organ map of the X chromosome and the organ map of the Du channel are almost the same. (Figure 6 Du & X). The made organ maps are evidence for the stated hypothesis of Dr. Milami L. in 1983 [13] for the unity of the somites and the UB channel.

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The genetic data for building of organs and systems in the embryo will give understanding for the material substrate and the method of distribution of energy channels and collaterals. The attempts to identify energy channels with the nervous system, cardiovascular systems, connective tissue are not complete. The energy channel tract cannot be identified with the anatomic distribution of the above motioned systems. Many authors connect the channel network with the nervous system in the human body and postulate that the acupuncture effect mechanism is taken as evidence for their identification with one another; however, every practicing acupuncturist knows that not only the channels do not correspond to the localization of the nerve fibers but also that acupuncture is effective in paralysis where there is interruption of the reflex arc. Moreover, there is phito-puncture (acupuncture in plants) where there is no neurons exists. Also, only the embryologic development of the nerve system cannot be used to explain the formation of energy channels in the human body. Recent experiments show that speed of the response of the visual cortex in the brain due to acupuncture of UB 67 in the five toes is much faster than the conduction of the nervous impulse through the nerve system. [1]

During 1986-1987, my laboratory constructed a highly sensitive apparatus for verification of localization of acupuncture points in the energy channels [20]. In result of these experiments it was shown that distance from one acupuncture point to another there is a range of 3- 10 mm. Hence, it was concluded that the information transmitted along the energy channels is EHF (Extremely high frequency). Using the information of which structures can transmit these frequencies with the least energy loss, it was concluded that the material substrate of the energy channels is the liquid-crystal structure of the human organism. In his research, M. B. Goland points out that coherent electro-magnetic emission in EHF is transmitted a distance of 1cm without energy loss in the living organism; in one 1 cm there are thousands of cells [6, 7]. Liquid-crystals structures in the cell are the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and DNA. Liquid-crystals structures in the cell and in the organism as whole are dependent on the intensity of the metabolic processes and can transmit optical, aquatic, and others electromagnetic information with minimal energy loss in the direction of the body gradients.

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Therefore the Chinese channel system can be seen as a 3-dimensional tract of the migration of ectodermic, mesodermic, and endodermic cells in the human embryo development with a common basic structure the liquid-crystal structures. Every one energy channel is build from migrated cells with ecto-, endo-, and mesodermic origin together. The material substance of the Chinese channels cannot be identified with a nervous, cardiovascular, or connective tissue system-it is a conglomeration of all of them connected by the liquid-crystal structures. The location of the acupuncture points corresponds to the location of basic stem cells which have given rise to particular organs and tissues.

The acupuncture point is a complex of stem cells with ecto-, endo-, and mesodermal origin, which not only have preserved their connection with the structures arisen locally from them but also with the stem cells which continued further embryonic development and migration along the same specific migratory tract. This explains why one acupuncture point changes the functional activity and/or structure of different ecto-, endo-, and mesodermal tissues locally and in the same time, despite its distal localization (foot, hand, etc), exerts influence over the structure or function of specific internal organs or systems.

With the development of genetics, the development of more specific migratory patterns of the ecto-, endo-, and mesodermal cells, and the increase in the knowledge of organogenesis, more concrete information will be provided for the mechanism of the building of the Chinese energy channels and acupuncture points, as well as more information for the transmission of information along this system.

In recent decades new studies have been published in support that the effect of acupuncture is realized in genetic level:[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21]. The mechanism of acupuncture effect will be looked in the future; definitely, it does not confine simply to the pain relieving effect of produced endorphins nor can it be simplified only with the neuroendocrine reflex mechanism of action.

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5. Conclusion

The current paper once again shows that the top scientific discoveries in the so-called conventional medicine repeat, explain, and support the ancient philosophic and medical thought in the so-called alternative medicine—Yin and Yang and the understanding of the living system with the understanding of the Gradient; the distribution of the genes in the chromosomes with the distribution of the organs, tissues, and their functions in the Traditional Chinese Medicine categories; the embryological development, migration, and interaction between the embryonic layers with the network of energy channels and collaterals. Of course, there is a very serious experimental work to be completed before the full understanding of energy channels and mechanisms of acupuncture effect in the next decades.

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Appendix A

Table 2 Chromosome and Gene selection to Five Elements

Category Chromosomes most frequently connected with category

Bands of the chromosomes connected with organ and tissue of same category

Ch1: p36.2 Ht, blood; p21-31 Ht, p31 blood; p22 blood; q21 Ht, blood; p21-23 blood, vessels; p21.2 Ht; q32 Ht, blood

Ch2: q21-25 Ht; q22-24 vessels

Ch4: p16.1,16.3 Ht; p15.2-16- Si; q12 Si; p12-q13 vessels Ch5:q13-14 Ht; q13-21 vessels

Ch6: p21.3 Ht, blood; p24 Ht, blood

Ch7: q21.3 vessels; q21.3-22 blood; q36 Ht, blood Ch9: q13 ht; q12-13 blood; q34.1 blood, vessels

Ch10: p12-14 Ht, p12.1 blood; q21-23 Ht; q22 blood; q22.2 Si; q24 Ht, blood; q24- 26 Ht; q25-26 blood Ch11: p15.5 Ht, blood; q23 Ht, blood, vessels, q23.3-24 Ht; q23.3 blood

Ch12: p13 Ht; p12-13 blood Ch13: q34 Ht, blood

Ch14: q23-24 Ht; q12-22 Ht; q22-23.1 blood

Ch15: q11-13 blood, vessels; q14 Ht; q14-15 blood; q24 Si; q23-25 blood

Ch16: p12 Ht; p12-q21 blood; Ch17: q23-24.1 Ht; q23.1 blood

Ch19: q13.3 blood; p13.3-13.2 blood, vessels; q13 Ht, blood; q13.2 Ht, blood; q13.4 Ht, blood

Ch20: q13.3 Ht, vessels, blood Ch22 q13 Ht, blood; q13.1 Si Ht (Si, vessels) Ch10, Ch3, Ch14

ChX q28 Ht, intestines, blood

Ch1: p34.3-35 blood; p35-36 muscles; p31 Pancreas, blood; q32.1 Sp, blood; q44 Sp, blood

Ch2: p23 Sp; p21-22 gums; p13 mouth, muscles; q31 pancreas; q31-32 blood; q24-32 muscles; q33 pancreas; q33-34 muscles; qq33-34 Pancreas, blood

Ch4: q28-31 pancreas; q28-31 blood; 36 muscles, blood Ch5: q 21.3 Sp, blood; q 32 Pancreas; q31.1-22.1 pancreas

Ch6: p 21.3 Sp, pancreas; p12- pancreas, blood; p11 Sp; p11-21.1 blood; q23- 25 Sp; q24 Pancreas; q25-27 Pancreas

Ch7: p12-22 Sp; p14-15 Pancreas; p12.3-13 muscles; p12-13 blood; p 11.2-21.3 mouth; p11.3 blood; q31-34 blood; p21 muscles; q 31.3 St; q35 pancreas, muscles; q32.3 Sp

Ch8: q24 Sp, muscles, blood; q24.11 lymph; q11.23-21.11 Pancreas; q21 blood; p11.2-12 Pancreas; p11.2 blood

Ch9: p13-21 Sp (normal position of extremities); p12-13 Sp; p13 blood; p12-13.3 muscles

Sp (P, St, blood, muscles) & mouth

Ch6, Ch7, Ch8, Ch10

Ch10: p11-q11 pancreas; q23.3 pancreas; q25-16 blood; q26.1- pancreas; q23.2-25.2 blood; q22-26.3 blood

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Ch11: p15.2 pancreas, blood; p15.4 Sp; p11-12 blood; p11.2-12 pancreas; q13 Sp, Pancreas, muscles, blood; q 23 Sp; q22.3-23.1 blood, muscles

Ch12: q13 pancreas, muscles, q11-14 Sp; q 13.1 St;

q24.1-24.21 muscles, q24.2 pancreas

Ch13: q12 muscles, blood; p12.1 pancreas; q14 St, blood, Sp; q34 pancreas, blood

Ch15: q lympha; q15.1-21.1 muscles; q21 blood

Ch16: p12-q21 blood; p12 muscles; q12-13 muscles; q24.3-24.2 muscles; q24.3 blood, lympha

Ch17: q11-12 lympha, tumus, blood; q11.2-12 blood, Sp; q12 muscles, blood; q12-21.3 muscles; q23-25.3 muscles; q25 pancreas, blood; q23 pancreas

Ch18: q21 pancreas, lympha; q21.3 Sp, lympha

Ch19: p13.3 blood, mucles; p13.2-13.3 blood, Sp; p13.2 Sp (normal state of organ), blood; q13.2 Sp, blood; q13.2-13.3 muscles; q13.4 muscles, blood

Ch20: q11.2 blood, Sp 13.1 Pancreas; q13.11 Sp; q12-13.2 Sp; q13.1-q12-13.2 Pancreas

Ch21: q22.3 muscles, Sp

Ch22: q11.21 blood, Sp; q11.2 muscles

ChX q13.1-13.3 blood; q13.1 muscles; q13 muscles; q12-21 mouth; q28 blood, muscles

Ch1: p36 Li; p36.1 Skin; p34.3-35 Li; p35.1 Skin; p32-Lu, skin

Ch2: p11.2-12 Lu; q11-13 skin; q14 Li; q33 Lu, skin

Ch3: p21.3-22 Lu, Li

Ch4: q skin; p12-q13 Lu; q28-31 hair; q31-24 skin; q24-27 Lu; q25 skin

Ch5: q31-34 Lu; q31 Li; q31-33 skin Ch6: p21.3Lu, Li, skin, hair

Ch7: q11.2-21.3 skin; p11.23 Li; p22-31.1 Li; p31.2-31.3 Lu; p31.1-31.3 skin; p31-32 skin; q34 Li, skin

Ch8: p21 Lu; p21-22 skin; q21.2 skin; q21.3-22 Li

Ch11: q12-13 skin; q13 Lu; q14-21 skin; q22 Li; q22-24 Lu; q23-24 skin; q23 Lu

Ch12: p13.2-q24.1 Li; p12.3-13.3 Lu; q11-13 skin; q14 skin; q22, q24.1-25.2 skin

Ch14: q11-12 Li; q11.2 skin; q13 skin; q32.1 Lu, skin Ch17: p13.1-13.2, p13.1 Li

Ch19: p13 Li, skin; q13.2-13.4 Lu, Li; q13.3-13.4 Li Ch22: q12.2-13.1 Lu; q12.3-13.1 skin;

Lu, Li, Skin, hair Ch2, Ch3, Ch4, Ch12

ChX q28 skin, intestines

Ch1: p34-36.3 K; p34-36.1 bone; p34- brain;

p31 K, brain, blood; p22 blood, K; p21-q23 brain; q21-31 blood; q21-23 K, ear; 24-31 K; q32- blood, K, brain; q30-41 brain; q42-43 K, q41-43 brain; q41-43 brain; q44 blood

Ch2: p22-25 brain; p23.3 K; p16-21 blood; p16.3 K; p15-16 brain; p13 K, brain; q13 K, ear; q13-14 blood; q14 brain; q21-31 brain; q26.3 brain; q23-31 ear; q26.3 K, ear; q31 K; q31-32 blood; q32 bone; q33 brain, K; q33-35 bone, brain; q34 blood

K, UB, brain, bone marrow, bone, ear, scalp hair

Ch1, Ch11, Ch19, X

Ch3: p25-26 K; p25.3 blood; p25 brain; p21-23 K; p12-13 K, brain; p13-q23 brain; q13 K; q21-23 blood; q21.3 bone;

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Ch4: p13-q21 brain; q11-13 K; p12 blood; q11-21 bone; q21-25 blood; q21-23 K; q21 brain, K, blood, bone; q 28-21 blood, hair; q28 ear; q31 ear, K; q31.1-22.2 K; q35 K, blood

Ch5: p15.3-15.2 blood; p15.2-p15.3 brain; p12-13.1 brain; p13 blood; q11-13 K; q12 brain; q11.2-13.2 brain, blood; q13.2-13.3 K; q23-31 K, blood; q31.1 blood, bone; 31-33 blood, brain; q33.2-33.3 bone marrow; q25-34 brain, bone; q35 blood, bone

Ch6: p24-25 blood; p23-25 bone; p23 brain; p23 brain, blood; p21-22 K, blood; p21.3 K, bone, scalp hair; p12-21 K, bone; p12.2-21.1 brain; p11-21.1 blood; q13 blood, ear; q12-26 brain; q21-23 K; q22.3-23.1 blood; q26-27 ear

Ch7: q15 blood, ear; q11-21 brain; q11.2-21.3 K; q21-23 brain; q31 ear, brain; q31-34 blood; q33 bone; q33-34 K; q35-36 brain; q36 K, blood, brain; q34-36 ear

Ch8: p22-23.3 blood; p23 brain; p22 brain; p11.2-21.3 brain; p13 bone; p12-p21.1 blood; p21-22 brain; p11.2 blood; q11 brain, bone; q13-21 brain, ear; p22 K, bone; q21.3-22 blood; q24 brain, blood, bone; q24.11-24.13 bone, blood; q24.1 K

Ch9: p11.1-13 brain; p12-13 K; p13 blood, brain, ear, blood; q31.1 K, blood; q 32 K; q32-34 ear; q34 blood, bone, brain; q34.1- blood, bone; q34.3 ear, blood

Ch10: q21-22 K, ear, brain; q22 blood; q23.2 blood, brain; q24 blood, brain; q24.3-25 K; q24-25 brain; q26 K, brain

Ch11: p15.5 UB, brain, ovaries, adrenal glands; p15.4 brain; p15.2-15.4 bone; p15.1 ear; p13 K, brain, testis; p12-q13.3 K, brain p11-12 bone, blood; p11-q11 brain; q12-14 brain; q12-13 blood; q13 K, brain, blood; q13.4-13.5 bone; q15.4 K, brain, ear; q15.5 K, brain, ear; q22-24 ear; q21-23 K; q22.3-23.1 blood, bone; q23 K, blood; q23.3-22.3 K; q23-25 bone, blood; q25 ear, blood

Ch12: p13.3 brain, bone; p13 brain, blood, bone marrow; p12-13 brain, blood; p12 blood, adrenal glands; p11.23-q13.12 brain; p14.1 sex organizer; q13 K, brain; q12-14 bone; q11-14 blood; q13-21 K, brain; q13-15 ear, brain; q31-24 ear; q24 K, brain, blood; q21-24 K, ear

Ch13 q11-12 ear, blood; q12 brain; q13-14.3 K; q13 brain, blood; q14.1.14.2 bone, UB, brain; q33 brain, bone; q31 brain, blood

Ch14: q11-13 brain; q11.2 blood; q12-13 ear; q21-22 ear; q22.1-22.2 K; q22.23.1 blood; q23 brain

Ch15: q11-13 brain, blood; q13-15 brain; q11-13 bone;q14-21.3 brain; q15 blood, ear; q21 blood, brain; q22.2-23 K, brain; q22.2-23 blood; q23-24 ovary; q24 ear, brain, bone; q23-26 brain; q25-26 K, ear; q26.1 ear, bone

Ch16 p13.3-13.12 K; p13.3 K, brain, blood; p21.1-13.3 brain; p12.3-13.11 ea; p13 bone; p12.3 K; p12.2 ear; p11.2-12.1 ear; p12 K; p12- q12 brain; p12-q21 blood; p11.2- q12.1 brain; p11.2 L; p12 K; q12.2-21 brain; q13 bone; q21 K, brain; q13-22.1 blood; q22.1 hair on head top, K, ovaries, brain; q24. K, blood, brain

Ch17: p13.3 blood, brain; p13 K, brain; p11.2 bone, ear, brain; p11 prostate; q11.2 brain, blood; q12-21 sex organs; q21 brain; p21-22 brain, blood, bone; q21-23 K, blood; q24.3-25.1 sex determination; q25 bone, blood, brain; q25.3

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Ch18: p11.21-11.32 hair on head; p11.31 brain; p11.2 brain

Ch19: p13.3 blood, brain, gonadotropin; p13.2-13.3 K, blood, brain; p13.1 brain, bone, blood; p13 brain, blood;

q13 bone, ear, K, brain; q13.1 K, bone marrow; q13.1-13.2 brain, sex organs; q13.2 blood; q13.3. blood, brain; q13.21 K, brain, sex organs Ch20: p13 ear; p12.3-13 brain; q13.3 brain, blood Ch21: q22.3 brain, K, blood, ear

Ch22: q11 blood; q11.1-11.2 K; q11.2 brain; q11.21-12.1 ear; q11.21 blood; q11-12 brain; q12 blood; q13 blood, ear, brain; q13.3 K, brain q13.31 blood

ChX: p22.32 blood, brain; p22.12 brain; p22.31-21 bone; p22.3-21 brain; p21.2 ear; 112-q22 brain; p11.23 blood; p11-21 blood; p111-22 K, brain; p11-q12 K, brain; q12-13 bone; q13.3-13.4 blood; q21.2-21.3 sex organs; q21.2 blood;

q22 brain, ear, ovary; q22-23 K; q22-25 bone; q26.1-27.1 K, brain; q27-28 brain, K; q27.3-28 brain, UB, prostate

Ch1: p36.1 eye; p35-36 Liv; p46.2 blood, eye p32-34 Liv, connective tissue, eye; p34-36.1 Liv, blood; p32 eye; p31 Liv, connective tissue, blood; p21 Liv, connective tissue; p21-22 eye; p22 blood; p21-13 Liv; p20 eye; q12-24 eye; p21 blood, Liv; q25-31 eye; q31 Liv, blood; q31-32.1 eye; q24.1 Liv eye

Ch2: p14 Liv; p23-24 Liv, eye; p11-15 eye; p12-13 Liv; p12 blood; p16 connective tissue; p12-14 joints; q12 blood; q13 eye; q13-14 blood; q14-21 Liv; q14.1 eye; q33-34

connective tissue; q33- Liv; q33-35 eye; q34-35 Liv; q35-36 GB; q35 eye; q36-37 Liv, collagen

Ch3: p21-22 Liv, connective tissue; p21.1-21.3 eye; p21.3-22 Liv; p21 Liv, blood; p12 Liv; p12-13 eye; q23-24 blood, Liv; q27 Liv; q27-28 GB; q28-29 eye

Ch4: p16.3 collagen, eye, Liv; p21 blood, eye; q11-13 Liv; q12-16 eye; q21-25 blood; q21 connective tissue; q22.2 Liv; q29 connective tissue, blood; q31-34 Liv; q31 eye; q35 eye, blood

Ch5: q11-13 Liv; q11-12 uterus; q11.2-13.2 blood; q13-14 eye; q31 joints, blood, eye; q31.2-34 eye; q33.1-31.3 Liv; q31-33 blood, Liv; q35 joints, blood

Ch6: p24-25 blood; p25 eye; p21-23 eye; p22 Liv; p21.3 Liv, connective tissue, eye, blood, joints; p21 connective tissue; p21-12 Liv, p12 blood, Liv, eye; p13-15 eye; q13 connective tissue, blood; q14-21 eye; q21-22.3 connective tissue, joints; p22-23 Liv, connective tissue, joints; q23 Liv; q22.2-23.1 blood; q22.1-24.1 cartilage, q25.3-26 Liv, eye; q26 Liv, blood.

Ch7: p15-21 eye; p15 Liv; p14-15 blood; p14.2 eye; p14-15 blood; q11.2 Liv, blood; q31-35 eye; q31.3 Liv; q31-32 Liv; q31.3-32 eye; q32 Liv; q35 Liv; q33 blood; q36 connective tissue, blood, eye

Ch8: p21.3-22 Liv; p22 blood; q21.3 Liv; q21.3 Liv; q21.3-22 blood; q23 Liv, eye; q24 eye, blood

Liv, GB, Connective Tissue, Joints, Eye

Ch9

Ch9: p12-21.1 connective tissue, blood; p12-13 eye; p13 Liv, blood; q13-22 eye; q21.11 blood; q21.3-22 blood; q22 connective tissue; q22-21 Liv; q22.3 Liv, blood; q31 blood; q34 Liv, blood; q34 Liv, blood; q34.1 Liv, blood; q34.2-34.3 connective tissue; qq34.2-34.3 Liv, blood

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Ch10 p14-15 eye; p13-14 Liv; q23 eye; q23-24 UB; q23.3 blood; q23.21 prostate; q24 eye, Liv; q24-25 Liv; q24.3 connective tissue; q24.3 eye; q25-26 blood; q26 eye, uterus; q25.2-26.3 blood; q26.1 eye

Ch11 p15.5 Liv, joints, blood; p15 eye, blood; p12-13.3 eye; q13 Liv, blood; q13-14 connective tissue; q22.3 Liv, blood, eye; q23.3 Liv, blood; q23.25 eye,; q25 blood

Ch12 p11.2-13.3 connective tissue; p12-13 blood; p12 Liv, connective tissue; q13 Liv, eye; q11-14 blood; q13.11-13.2 Liv, joints, eye, collage, q21.23 eye; q22 Liv; testes Ch13: q14.11-14.2 UB, eye; q14.3021.1 Liv

Ch14: p11.1-q11.2 eye; q11.2 blood; q21-22 Liv; q22-23.1 blood; q23 eye

Ch15: q11-15 eye; q11-13 blood; q21-23 Liv; q21.1 connective tissue;q22 blood; q22.2-23 blood; q22.2-23 eye; q23-24 Liv, ovary; q24-25 joints; q23-25 blood

Ch16: p13.3 Liv, eye, blood; p12-q21, p11.2-12 Liv; q13 eye; q13-22 blood; q21 Liv, eye; q22 Liv, blood, eye; q22.1 eye, blood; q22-24 Liv; q23-24 blood; q24.1 blood, Liv Ch17: p13.3 blood, eye; p12-13 Liv, eye; q11.1-12 eye, blood; q12-21 blood; q12 eye, blood; q21 Liv; q21.3 Liv, blood; q21-22 connective tissue; q22 blood, eye; q23 Liv; q23-24 eye; q25 blood, Liv, eye; q24.3-25.1 sex

determination; q25.3-25.2 Liv

Ch18: q21 Liv; q21.1-21.3 eye; q21.3 blood; q23 blood, eye Ch19: p13.2-13.3 blood; q13.3-13.2 Liv; q13.1-13.2 Liv, blood; q14.1 connective tissue, blood; p13 Liv, blood; q13.2 Liv, blood; q13.3 eye, blood; q13.3-13.2 eye, blood Ch20: p11.2-q11.2 eye; q11.2 blood q13.3 blood, connective tissue

Ch21: q22.3 blood, eye

Ch22: q11 eye, blood; q11.2 Liv; q11.21 blood; q11.2-12.1 eye; q13 blood, eye

ChX: p22.2-22.3 eye; p22.32 blood; p22.3 connective tissue, eye; p22.22 eye, blood; q21.2-22.11 Liv; p22.1 eye; p11.23 blood, eye; p11.22-11.23 connective tissue, blood; q22 Liv; q21.3-22 ee; q24 Liv, eye; q27-28 eye; q27.1-27.3 blood; q28 Liv, eye, blood

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References

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