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A UK Perspective to Immigrant Lepidoptera in Europe:

A Comparison of Migratory Species on the Continental Mainland

with those of Great Britain and its County of Sussex

by

Co l in

R.

Pratt received 10.1.2001

Atalanta (June 2001) 32(1/2):3-49, Wurzburg, ISSN 0171-0079

The purpose of this paper is to put on widely accessible record the species of Lepidoptera so far suspected of exhibiting the migratory instinct in Sussex and Great Britain, together with a comparison with European experience, and supplemental information on the historical back­ ground to recording, the countries of origin, numerical cycles and trends, colonisation, and the effects of natural global warming, so that both amateur and professional students of insect migration can compare research, experiences, and opinion, in their quest for knowledge.

Introduction

The county of Sussex is extensive, covering around 4,000 square kilometres. It encompasses many different habitats, each of which provide a home for a range of native butterflies and moths—but, being a maritime district on the south coast of England, the area is also ideally sit­ uated to receive boreal-flying insects migrating from the continent. The British Isles as a whole is also well located between 40 and 160 kilometres to the north of France on the European mainland. Even so, it has been said that these islands are only "on the fringe of the reception area for a wide range of species which come to them at irregular times from several directions in greatly varying numbers" (Bretherton, 1983). But the main disadvantage of such geograph­ ical positioning is that knowledge of the phenomenon of insect migration is largely restricted to the receipt of specimens, emigration to the south being a much less obvious phenomenon apparently restricted to just a few species.

The historical background

In Great Britain the recording of rare insects stretches back more than 150 years, although early on very few lepidoptera were suspected of being continental in origin. R. Southwas the first to propose that butterflies and moths might be arriving from the continent, in 1885 (South, 1885). C. G. Barrett then made a number of incidental references to migration in his great work published during the 1890's and 1900's (Barrett, 1893-1907), and J. W. Tutt added the first relevant collation of records (Tutt, 1902). After an inspirational personal experi­ ence of a butterfly migration in South America in 1916 (Williams, 1917), and after 14 more years of gathering a large number of references concerning such events from all over the world, C. B. Williamspublished his pioneering book on the subject in 1930 (Williams, 1930). After a lifetime of interest, he followed up this research with another book dedicated to the

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same subject in 1958, reissued in 1965 (William s, 1965). The 1930 work stimu­ lated others to action in Great Britain- one year later the Insect Migration Com­ mittee of the South-Eastern Union of Sci­ entific Societies started to organise the collection of immigration records. In 1932 the first of an annual national collation appeared in "The Entomologist" maga­ zine. The list was compiled by a hitherto unsung hero of entomological history, the mariner Captain Tristram Dannreuther of Hastings in East Sussex. He continued these summaries every year in the Ento­ mologist until 80 years old in 1953. Dannreuther was succeeded by R. A. French of Rothamsted Experimental Sta­ tion, who carried the torch until 1968, then the late R. F. Bretherton—the coun­ try's foremost modern authority on such matters—M. Chalmers-Hunt, B. Skin n er, and M. S. Parsons, up until the present day. A peerless and detailed modern review of all aspects of immigration to Great Britain was made by Bretherton in

1983 (1983). Captain T. Dannreuther, in about the 1920's.

Source: Pratt (1999). Light vessels

So far as recording the migration of night-flying insects is concerned, one of the most impor­ tant practical benefits of being an island during the first half of the 20th century was that manned light vessels were situated several miles out to sea all around the coast, many being moored between mainland Europe and Britain. Vessels plying their trade off the coast of Sus­ sex had been nocturnally alerted of the danger of rocks and shallows by the use of ship-borne lights since the 18th century—the "Ower's" light vessel was first moored seven miles off Selsey Bill in the west in 1788, the Royal Sovereign" being similarly positioned off Eastbourne in the east in 1875. In about 1900 the warning lights on these boats were powered by six two-wick burning oil-lamps, these then being quickly replaced by an arrangement of eight revolving 350 watt tungsten filament electric light bulbs powered by a diesel generator producing 100 volts of direct current (Trinity House, pers. comm.). At this time a map of all of the coun­ try's light ships and lighthouses was published (Bartholom ew, 1904).

A few seafarers on light-vessels were amateur entomologists, who relieved long hours of boredom by catching and identifying insects which sheltered on board or which came to the powerful warning light. Serving officers made a number of important discoveries, provided ir­ refutable evidence that particular butterflies and moths occurred several kilometres out to sea

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The Royal Sovereign light vessel moored off Sussex, when oil-lamp-powered in about 1905. Source: Pratt (1999).

in the English Channel, and added many new and surpris­ ing species to the list of sus­ pected immigrants to the British Isles. Several different masters made entomological observations off Sussex during the 1930's and 1940's, includ­ ing S. J. Rowe, F. J. Morgan, and W. F. Wilgress, but the most enthusiastic was S. G. Sharm an who began in 1948. Their discoveries have recently been collated (Pratt, 1999), as were those mentioned earlier from ships moored off other parts of the country (Williams, Cockbill, Gibbs & Downes, 1942). A few years later the Ower's was replaced by a light buoy. Then the Royal Sover­ eign dropped out of the ento­ mological arena in 1960, and

The distribution of manned light vessels off Southern Britain, in 1927. Source: Compiled from data provided by Trinity House, London.

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it too was supplanted in 1971—after all of those years of history, the last manned floating sta­ tion off Sussex had been replaced by the more advanced technology of an automatic metal ha­ lide-sourced beacon. Since those years, powerfully-lit oil-rigs have been placed in some areas of the North Sea, but none are situated in the English Channel and maritime lepidopterists are rare.

Field experience in Great Britain

While field research into native species is always inspirational, the most exciting entomologi­ cal events in coastal counties often concern the arrival of rare insects from the European main­ land or unusually high levels of universal species from the same source. Varying numbers of immigrant Lepidoptera can sometimes be observed flying in across the English Channel and making landfall on the seashore, both by day and night. Unsurprisingly, warm southerly breezes are the most advantageous, especially those from the south-east. For example, after being watched flying up sea-facing chalk cliffs towards a mercury vapour light positioned at Eastbourne's Holywell for two hours on separate occasions in 1989 and 1996, hundreds of

N. comes and thousands of Autographa gamma and Noctua pronuba were counted (Pratt,

1999). Such common immigrants provide an enormous boost to the local moth populations, and there is circumstantial evidence that the proportion of melanism within our Agrotis

segetum (Pratt, 1999) and Tethea ocularis octogesimea (Chalmers-Hunt, 1960-81) are occa­

sionally significantly altered for several years.

When migrating across water, normally exclusively nocturnal moths also fly by day (Breth -erton, 1972) and even the butterflies Cynthia cardui and Vanessa atalanta are regularly caught in mercury vapour light-traps when pushing northwards by night—it was noticed many years ago that several different species regularly accompanied each other on these flights, and these were correlated, this suggesting a common origin (Williams, 1965). A. gamma sometimes swarms around coastal flowers by day and singletons of Macroglossum stella-

tarum fly at any time in any weather—day or night. Few immigrant butterflies stay longer than

24 hours on the coast, before dispersing inland in a relentless drive to the north. Moth species generally act similarly, although there are a few—such as N. noctuella (B. F. Skinner, pers. obs.) and Eurois occulta (Bretherton, 1983)—which sometimes show a disdain for further flight, and remain on the coastal strip. Examples of the most resolute species—such as Hyles

gallii, Spodoptera exigua, Macdunnoughia confusa, and Nymphalis antiopa—regularly reach

as far north as the Shetland Isles off the coast of Scotland, as in 1996 (Pennington, 1997). Most determined of all, after a flight of perhaps approaching 2,000 miles, Cynthia cardui,

Vanessa atalanta, Agrius convolvuli, and Autographa gamma, sometimes overrun Iceland

(Williams, 1930), at a latitude of 65 degrees north—and the first-mentioned butterfly occasion­ ally even penetrates the Arctic Circle, in Finland (Williams, 1955).

Many of the main routes taken by migrating Lepidoptera across the European mainland have now been determined (Bretherton, 1983; Eitschberger, Reinhardt & Steiniger, 1991). In the UK an insect's first appearance is often in south-west England, with subsequent landfalls pro­ gressing eastwards over the following few days and nights. While sightings are therefore sometimes eventually made on a broad front of more than 300 miles of coastline, it has been

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known for many years that certain cross-land routes and localities are annually inexplicably peerlessly favourable for migrating insects (Ford, 1965)—more than 60 years ago that it was convincingly proposed that butterfly migration routes in Sussex "follow much the same lines as the spring-arriving birds" and that they "use river valleys as natural roads to guide them into the country behind the coast" (MacLeod, 1939)—and it is true that some adventuring mobile natives are also thought to fly along railway-lines to colonise new sites (Pratt, 1999). Perhaps more inexplicably, throughout entomological history, Daphnis nerii has been far rarer in West Sussex when compared to the eastern vice-county. Similarly, so far as the commonplace but­ terflies are concerned, more Colias croceus are always to be seen to the east of Seaford in East Sussex than to the west.

After appearing in great waves, migrating insects are generally at their most dense along the south coast, just after arrival.

A. convolvuli - the numerical distribution of the 1991 migration in Sussex. Source: Pratt (1999).

News of the landfall of a continental rarity attracts a flock of collectors, recorders, and re­ searchers, to particular places on the south-coast's seashore. The most favoured spots known for continental moths since the advent of the combinatory use of portable petrol-powered elec­ tricity generators and ultra-violet-emitting mercury vapour bulbs are land promontories at Dungeness in Kent—where up to 40 lights an evening can sometimes be seen—Portland Bill in Dorset, and at the Lizard peninsula in Cornwall. At its closest point in Kent, England and the continent are separated by less than 30 miles of sea, yet more European moths occur 110 miles away from those shores at Walberton (Arundel) in Sussex than in almost any other place in the whole of Britain—and the site is a simple domestic garden situated seven miles in­ land. Walberton is positioned to the north-west of one of the few gaps in the western coast's suburban sodium street-lights and domestic tungsten lights, and it could be that nocturnal in­ sects are avoiding the all-night glow and funneling through the gap, but this particular phe­ nomenon remains to be definitively explained.

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The species

Supplemental continental species often show up well amongst the comparatively impover­ ished native UK fauna, as do foreign specimens if they are of a different colour form as in

Eurois occulta and Semiothisa brunneata, are of a monogoneutic race as Pieris rapae, or are

of the unusually large dark ab. cataleucaRob. of P. brassicae(Bretherton, 1983). But, so far as the continental mainland is concerned, many of the same species are permanently well es­ tablished and movements of outsiders therefore much less obvious, and so suspected immi­ grants fewer.

So far as the maritime islands of Britain are concerned, in this work immigrant species of but­ terflies and moths are identified as those which first take flight abroad and make a natural landfall here without the aid of man (whether their flight is purposeful or not, and whether al­ ready a resident or not)—so a species whose history suggests that they seem more likely to have been either accidentally or purposefully introduced have been excluded. In the following table it has been assumed that authors of the reference books quoted believe each lepidop-teron to be non-migratory unless a specific statement has been made to the contrary.

The Macro-Lepidoptera

Rhopalocera - the butterflies

Butterfly species European status A s lis te d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e in ig e r (1 9 9 1 ) British status A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Em m e t & He a t h (1 9 8 9 ) Sussex status A s lis te d in Pr a t t ( 1 9 9 9 ) Parnassius apolloLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry R a re im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Papilio machaon gorganusFr u h. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t R a re e p is o d ic im m ig ra n t

Iphiclides podaliriusLi n n. P o s sib le im m ig ra n t P o s sib le o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t V e r y r a r e s u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Leptidea sinapisLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Le m p k e, 1 9 5 0 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h ra n g e c h a n g e s a r e h is t o r ic a lly fre q u e n t] Colias hyaleLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t S c a r c e im m ig ra n t [w ith a re tu r n flig h t ( Wil­ l ia m s, 19 51 & 1 9 6 5 )] V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Colias alfacariensisBe r g. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t R g re im m ig ra n t V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Colias croceusGe o f. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t R e g u la r im m ig r a n t [w ith a re tu r n flig h t ( Gr a n t, 1 9 3 6 ; Wi l l i a m s, 1 9 5 1 & 1 9 6 5 )] R e g u la r im m ig ra n t Colias erateEs p. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d N e v e r d e te c te d Colotis evagoreKl u g O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d N e v e r d e te c te d Catopsilia florellaFa b r. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d N e v e r d e te c te d

Gonepteryx rhamniLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t M o b ile re s id e n t N o n - m ig ra to ry

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Butterfly species European status A s lis te d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e i n i g e r (1 9 9 1 ) British status A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Em m e t & He a t h ( 1 9 8 9 ) Sussex status A s lis te d in Pr a t t (1 9 9 9 ) Gonepteryx cleopatra Li n n. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry V e r y r a r e s u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Aporia crataegiLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o th ­ e r w is e ( Br e t h e r t o n, 19 5 1 ; Pr a t t, 1 9 9 9 )] S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Pieris brassicaeLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t R e g u la r im m ig ra n t [w ith a re tu r n flig h t ( Wi l l i a m s, 1 9 6 5 )] R e g u la r im m ig r a n t Pieris rapaeLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t R e g u la r im m ig r a n t [w ith a re tu r n flig h t ( Wi l l i a m s, 1 9 6 5 )] R e g u la r im m ig r a n t Pieris napiLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e d is a g re e (Fo r d, 1 9 4 5 )] E p is o d ic im m ig ra n t Pontia daplidiceLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t V e r y s c a r c e im m ig ra n t [w ith a re tu r n flig h t ( Wil l i a m s, 1 9 6 5 )] V e ry r a r e im m ig ra n t Pontia edusaFa b r. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d N e v e r d e te c te d Pontia chlorodiceHb n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d N e v e r d e te c te d Euchloe simploniaFr e y. N o n - m ig ra to ry E x tr e m e ly r a r e p o s s ib le im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Lycaena phlaeasLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry Lycaena tityrusPo d a N o n - m ig ra to ry V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t E x tr e m e ly ra r e im m ig r a n t Lampides boeticusLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t R a re im m ig r a n t [w ith a re tu r n flig h t ( Wil l i a m s, 1 9 6 5 )] V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Leptotes pirithousLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t E x tr e m e ly ra r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Everes argiadesPa l l. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t V e r y s c a r c e im m ig ra n t V e r y r a r e im m ig r a n t Lysandra coridonPo d a N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Le m p k e, 1 9 5 0 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry M o b ile n a tiv e

Cyaniris sem iargusRo t t. N o n - m ig ra to ry P ro b a b le im m ig ra n t V e ry r a r e im m ig r a n t

Plebicula amandaSc h n. N a tiv e c o lo n is e r N e v e r d e te c te d N e v e r d e te c te d

Vanessa atalantaLi n n. Im m ig ra n t, w ith a re tu rn flig h t Im m ig ra n t [w ith a re tu r n flig h t ( Gr a n t, 1 9 3 6 ; Wil l ia m s, 19 51 & 1 9 6 5 )] R e g u la r im m ig ra n t Vanessa indicaHe r b. N o n - m ig ra to ry E x tr e m e ly r a r e s u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d

Cynthia carduiLi n n. Im m ig ra n t, w ith a re tu rn flig h t Im m ig ra n t, w ith a re tu rn flig h t A n n u a l im m ig ra n t Cynthia virginiensis Dr u r y O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t S c a r c e im m ig ra n t V e ry ra r e im m ig r a n t

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Butterfly species European status As listed in Ei t s c h b e r g e r, Re i n h a r d t & St e i n i g e r (1991) British status As listed in Br e t h e r t o n (1983) and/or Em m e t & He a t h (1909) Sussex status As listed in Pr a t t (1999)

A glais urticae Li n n. Occasional immigrant Mobile resident [although some suspect otherwise ( Wi l l i a m s, 1951 &

1965))

Occasional immigrant

Libythea celtisLa i c h. Immigrant, with a return flight

Never detected Never detected

Polygonia c-albumLi n n. Native coloniser Native coloniser Native coloniser

Nymphalis polychloros

Li n n.

Suspected immigrant Suspected immigrant Suspected immigrant

Nymphalis xanthomelas

D. & S. Suspected immigrant Suspected very rare immi­grant Never detected

Nymphalis antiopaLi n n. Suspected immigrant Regular immigrant Episodic immigrant

Inachis ioLi n n. Occasional immigrant Mobile resident Suspected occasional immigrant

Araschnia levanaLi n n. Non-migratory Suspected very rare immigrant

Never detected

Argynnls lathonia Li n n. Occasional immigrant Scarce episodic immigrant [with a return flight

( Wi l l i a m s, 1965)]

Rare occasional immigrant

Argynnis pandora D & S. Non-migratory Suspected extremely rare immigrant

Never detected

Lasiommata megera

Li n n.

Non-migratory Non-migratory Non-migratory [although a single circum­ stantial record does exist]

Hipparchia sem eleLi n n. Suspected immigrant Non-migratory Non-migratory

Arethusana arethusa

D. & S.

Non-migratory Suspected extremely rare immigrant

Never detected

Maniola jurtinaLi n n. Non-migratory Non-migratory Non-migratory [although a few circumstan­

tial records do exist]

Coenonympha pamphilus

Li n n.

Non-migratory Non-migratory [although some suspect otherwise ( Be i r n e, 1947)]

Non-migratory

Danaus plexippusLi n n. Occasional immigrant, with a return flight

Immigrant [with a return flight ( Wi l l i a m s, 1951 & 1965)]

Scarce episodic immigrant

Danaus chrysippusLi n n. Occasional immigrant Never detected Never detected ©Ges. zur Förderung d. Erforschung von Insektenwanderungen e.V. München, download unter www.zobodat.at

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Heterocera - the macro-moths M a c r o - m o t h s p e c ie s E u r o p e a n s t a t u s A s lis te d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e i n i g e r (1 9 9 1 ) B r i t i s h s t a t u s A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) S u s s e x s t a t u s A s lis te d in Pr a t t ( 1 9 9 9 ) Zeuzera pyrinaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h a fe w c ir c u m s t a n ­ tia l r e c o rd s do e xist] M alacosom a neustria Li n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra t o ry Philudoria potatoriaLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h o n e c ir c u m s t a n ­ tia l re c o rd d o e s e xist] Gastropacha quercifolia Li n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra t o ry Dendrolimus piniLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d

Saturnia pyriD . & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s s ib le v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Drepana curvatulaBo r k. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d r a r e im m ig r a n t V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Tethea ocularis octogésim aHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra t o ry Aplasta añonaríaFu e s. N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Le m p k e, 1 9 5 0 )] S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t V e r y r a r e s u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t Thalera fimbrialisSc o p. N o n - m ig ra to ry Im m ig ra n t V e ry r a r e im m ig ra n t Cyclophora puppillaria Hb n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t S c a r c e im m ig ra n t Scopula nigropunctata Hu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t R a re s u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t Scopula ornataSc o p. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Scopula rubiginataHu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t V e r y r a r e s u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Scopula imitaríaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Idaea vulpinaria atrosignariaLe m p. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Idaea emarginataLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra t o ry Idaea aversataLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Idaea degeneraríaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Rbodometra sacraria Li n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t E p is o d ic im m ig ra n t

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Macro-moth species European status A s lis te d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e in ig e r (1 9 9 1 ) British status A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Sk in n e r ( 1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) Sussex status A s lis te d in Pr a t t ( 1 9 9 9 ) Orthonama obstipata Fa b r. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t E p is o d ic im m ig ra n t Xanthorhoe biriviata Bo r k. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e (Ag a s s iz, 1 9 9 6 )] S u s p e c te d ra r e im m ig ra n t Xanthorhoe montonata montonata D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Xanthorhoe fluctuata Li n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h a s in g le c ir c u m ­ s t a n t ia l re c o rd d o e s e xist] Scotopteryx peribolata Hb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t (p e r s . o b s .) Scotopteryx luridata plumbariaFa b r. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l ra r e im m ig ra n t Camptogramma bilineata bilineataLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Lampropteryx otregiata Me t c. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry P o s sib le v e ry ra re im m ig ra n t Thera cupressataGey. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t Im m ig ra n t

Spargania luctuata D.&S. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t

Rheumaptera cervinalis Sc o p. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Euphyia biangulataHa w. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Eupithecia abietaria Go e z e N o n - m ig ra to ry S t a tu s u n c e r t a in P o s sib le im m ig ra n t Eupithecia centaureata D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Eupithecia intricata arceuthataFr e y. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry P o s sib le im m ig ra n t Eupithecia phoeniciata Ra m b. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Ag a s s iz, 1 9 9 6 )] S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Eupithecia ultimaria Bo i s d. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Eupithecia sinosariaEv e r. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Eupithecia lariciataFr e y. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e (Ba r r e t t, 1 8 9 3 - 1 9 0 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry A plocera praeformata Sc o p. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d

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Macro-moth species European status A s lis te d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e in ig e r (1 9 9 1 ) British status A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) o n d / o r Sk in n e r ( 1 9 0 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) Sussex status A s lis te d in Pr a t t (1 9 9 9 ) Abraxas grossulariata Li n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h a s in g le c ir c u m ­ s t a n t ia l re c o rd d o e s e xist] Abraxas sylvataSc o p. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Stegania trimaculata DeVi l l. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Semiothisa signaríaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S t a tu s u n k n o w n S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t Semiothisa clathrata clathrataLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t Semiothisa brunneata Th u n b. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Cepphis advenariaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t Opisthograptis luteolata Li n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra t o ry Ennomos autumnaria We r n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Annomos alniariaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Selenia dentariaFa b r. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra t o ry Selenia lunulariaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t Crocallis dardoinaria Do n z. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Ourapteryx sambucaria Lin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra t o ry Lycia hirtariaCl. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra t o ry Períbatodes secundario Es p. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d r a r e im m ig r a n t Perobatodes ilicariaGe y. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Cabera exanthemata Sc o p. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h a s in g le c ir c u m ­ s t a n t ia l re c o rd d o e s e xist] Lomographa temerata D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t

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Macro-moth species European status A s lis te d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e i n i g e r (1 9 9 1 ) British status A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) Sussex status A s lis te d in Pr a t t ( 1 9 9 9 )

Hylaea fasciahaLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t P o s sib le o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t

Siona lineataSc o p. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d ra r e im m ig ra n t

Aspitates gilvaria gilvaria

D . & S.

N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t

Agrius convolvuliLi n n. Im m ig ra n t, w ith a re tu rn flig h t

Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t

Acherontla atroposLin n. Im m ig ra n t, w ith a re tu rn flig h t

Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t

Sphinx llgustriLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry O c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t P o s sib le o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Sphinx drupiferarum Sm it h N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Hyloicus pinastriLin n. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry E p is o d ic im m ig ra n t M im as tiliaeLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Smerinthus ocellataLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h a s in g le c ir c u m ­ s t a n t ia l re c o rd d o e s e xist] Proserpinus proserpina Pa l l. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Macroglossum stellatarumLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t [w ith a re tu r n flig h t ( Wi l l i a m s, 1 9 6 5 )] Im m ig ra n t Daphnis neriiLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t R a re im m ig ra n t Hyles euphorbiaeLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t V e r y r a r e im m ig r a n t R a re im m ig ra n t Hyles galliiR o n . O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t E p is o d ic im m ig ra n t Hyles nicaead e Pr u n. N o n - m ig ra to ry U n c e r t a in [n o t lis te d in Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) b u t p ro b a b le im m i­ g r a n t in Br e t h e r t o n (1 9 8 3 ) ] N e v e r d e te c te d

Hyles lineata livornica Es p. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t E p is o d ic im m ig ra n t

Hippotion celerioLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t R a re im m ig ra n t

Notodonta torvaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry V e r y r a r e im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t (p e r s . o b s .)

Tritophia tritophusD . & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry V e r y r a r e im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d

Harpyia milhauseriFa b r. N o n - m ig ra to ry V e r y r a r e im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t Ptilodon capucinaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Gluphisia crenataEs p. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s s ib le v e r y r a r e im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Clostera anachoreta D . & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t (p e r s . o b s .)

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Macro-moth species European status A s lis te d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e in ig e r (1 9 9 1 ) British status A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) Sussex status A s lis te d in Pr a t t(1 9 9 9 ) Thaumetopoea processionedLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Euproctis chrysorrhoea Li n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e (Ba r r e t t, 1 8 9 6 - 1 9 0 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h a s in g le c ir c u m ­ s t a n t ia l re c o rd d o e s e xist] Euproctis similisFu e s. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Leucoma so lid sLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry Im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Ad k i n, 1 9 3 0 )] Arctornis l-nigrum Mü l l. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t Lymantria disparLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry P ro b a b le im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d r a r e im m ig r a n t Setina irrorellaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t Atolmis rubricollisLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t

Pelosia m uscerdaHu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s s ib le im m ig r a n t P o s sib le im m ig r a n t

E. griseolaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e d is a g re e ( Br o w n, 1 9 9 6 a )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Eilema caniolaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s s ib le im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t Eilema pygmaeola pygmaeolaDo u b. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t P o s sib le im m ig r a n t Eilema deplanaEs p. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e d is a g re e ( Br o w n, 1 9 9 6 a )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Lithosia quadraLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Le m p k e, 1 9 5 0 )] Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Coscinia cribraria arenariaLe m p. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o th ­ e r w is e ( Br e t h e r t o n, 1 9 8 3 )] N e v e r d e te c te d Utethesa pulchellaLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Utetheisa bellaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Arctia cajaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t

Arctia purpureaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o t liste d P o s s ib le v e r y ra r e im m ig ra n t Spilosom a lubricipeda Li n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Spilosoma luteumHu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra t o ry

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Macro-moth species European status A s liste d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e in ig e r (1 9 9 1 ) British status A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) Sussex status A s lis te d in Pr a t t (1 9 9 9 ) Euplagia quadripunctaria Po d a Im m ig ra n t, w ith a re tu rn flig h t O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Callimorpha dominula Li n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Tyria ja co b a e a eLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h a s in g le c ir c u m ­ s t a n t ia l re c o rd d o e s e xist] Syntomis phegeaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry U n c e r t a in [n o t lis te d in Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) b u t p ro b a b le im m i­ g r a n t in Br e t h e r t o n (1 9 8 3 ) ] N e v e r d e te c te d

M eganola albulo D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o th ­ e r w is e ( Br e t h e r t o n, 1 9 8 3 )] P o s sib le o c c a s io n a l im m i­ g ra n t Nota aerugulaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Euxoa triticiLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry

Euxoa cursoriaHu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m i­ g r a n t

N e v e r d e te c te d

Agrotis segetum D. & S. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t

Agrotis exclamationis Lin n. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry

Agrotis trux lanígera

St e p h.

N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s s ib le im m ig ra n t

Agrotis ÍpsilonHu f n. Im m ig ra n t, w ith a re tu rn flig h t Im m ig r a n t [w ith a re tu r n flig h t ( Wi l l i a m s, 1 9 6 5 )] Im m ig ra n t Agrotis crassaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry U n c e r t a in [lis te d a s n o n - m ig ra t o ry in Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) a n d s c a r c e im m ig r a n t in Br e t h e r t o n (1 9 8 3 ) ] N e v e r d e te c te d Scotia spiniferaHb n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d N e v e r d e te c te d Actinotia polyodonCl. Im m ig ra n t S c a r c e im m ig ra n t R a re im m ig ra n t Chloantba hyperici D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Ochropleura praecox Lin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o th ­ e r w is e (Tu n m o r e, 1 9 9 8 b )] S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Ochropleura fennica Ta u s c h. N o n - m ig ra to ry R a re im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Ochropleura flammatra D . & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d

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Macro-moth species European status A s lis te d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e in ig e r (1 9 9 1 ) British status A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Sk in n e r (1 9 0 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) Sussex status A s lis te d in Pr a t t ( 1 9 9 9 ) Ochropleura plectaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Co o p e r, 1 9 3 6 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Ochropleura leucogaster Fr e y. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t (p e r s . o b s .)

Rhyacia simulonsHu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry

Rhyacia lucipeta D. & S. P o s sib le im m ig ra n t P ro b a b le e x tr e m e ly ra re im m ig r a n t

S u s p e c te d e x tr e m e ly ra r e im m ig ra n t

Noctua prónubaLi n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t

Noctua orbonaHu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le im m ig ra n t

Noctua com esH u b n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry E p is o d ic im m ig ra n t

Noctua fimbriataSc h r. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry

Spaelotis ravida D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Le m p k e, 1 9 5 0 )] P o s s ib le im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Perídromo souciaHb n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig r a n t Im m ig ra n t Diarsia rubiVie w. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Xestia c-nigrumLi n n. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t P ro b a b le im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d e p is o d ic im m ig ra n t Xestia xanthographa D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e S u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be ir n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry

Xestia agathina agathina

Du p. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Eurois occultaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t M esogona acetosellae D. &S. N o n - m ig ra to ry V e r y r a r e im m ig r a n t E x tr e m e ly ra r e im m ig ra n t Discestra trifoliiHu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry Polio bombycinaHu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t M am estra brassicae Li n n. P o s sib le im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra t o ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t

Laconobia contigua D. & S.

N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t

Laconobia blenna D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le r a r e im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d v e r y ra r e im m ig r a n t

H ecatera dysodea D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t

Hadena rivularisFa.b r. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be ir n e, 1 9 4 7 )]

N o n - m ig ra to ry

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M a c r o - m o t h s p e c ie s E u r o p e a n s t a t u s A s lis te d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e in ig e r (1 9 9 1 ) B r it is h s t a t u s A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) S u s s e x s t a t u s A s liste d in Pr a t t ( 1 9 9 9 ) Hadena bicrurisHu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry

Brithys crini pancratii

Cy r.

N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d

Egira conspicillarisLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le im m ig ra n t U n c e r t a in

Orthosia miniosa D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e (Tu n m o r e, 1 9 9 9 )] P o s sib le im m ig ra n t Mythimna albipuncta D.&S. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Mythimna vitellinaHb n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Im m ig r a n t Mythimna pollensLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h a s in g le c ir c u m ­ s t a n t ia l re c o rd d o e s e xist]

Mythimna favicolorBa r r. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le im m ig ra n t

Mythimna litoralisCu r t. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry Mythimna l-albumLin n. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Mythimna unipuncta Ha w. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Mythimna loreyiDu p. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Im m ig r a n t Senta flammeaCu r t. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t

Cucullia absinthiiLi n n. P o s sib le im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t

Cucullia artemisiae

Hu f n.

N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d

Cucullia asteris D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t Cucullia gnaphalii occidentalisBo u r. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le v e r y ra r e im m ig r a n t Cucullia scrophulariae D.&S. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Calophasia lunulaHu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Calophasia platyptera Es p. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d e x tr e m e ly ra re im m ig ra n t Aporophyla australis pascueaH . & W . N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Lithomoia solidaqinis Hb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry Im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d v e r y ra r e im m ig r a n t Lithophane furcifera furciferaHu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d v e r y ra r e im m ig r a n t

Lithophane lam daFa b r. N o n -m ig ra to ry ' P o s sib le im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t

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Macro-moth species European status A s lis te d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e in ig e r (1 9 9 1 ) British status A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) Sussex status A s lis te d in Pr a t t ( 1 9 9 9 ) Lithophane leautieri hespéricaBo u r. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t O c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t Xylena vetustaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry Im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d e p is o d ic im m ig ra n t Xylena exsoletaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Le m p k e, 1 9 5 0 )] S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Dichonia aprilinaLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c t e d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t N o n - m ig ra to ry Blepharita solieriBo i s d. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Trigonophora flammea Es p. N o n - m ig ra to ry Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Polymixis gem m eaTr e it. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Antitype chiLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u sp e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Conistra erythrocephala D.&S. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Agrochola haematidea Du p. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry P o s sib le o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Om phaloscelis tunosa Ha w. N a t iv e c o lo n is e r N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h a s in g le c ir c u m ­ s t a n t ia l re c o rd d o e s e xist]

Xanthia gilvago D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )]

N o n - m ig ra to ry

Acronicta strigosa D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Acronicta auricoma D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c t e d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Simyra albovenosaGo e z e N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t Cryphia algaeFa b r. N o n - m ig ra to ry Im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d r a r e im m ig ra n t

Cryphia raptricula D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c t e d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Amphipyra pyramidea Li n n. P o s s ib le im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra t o ry N o n - m ig ra to ry Amphipyra berbera svenssoniFl e t. P o s s ib le im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry Amphipyra tragopoginis Cl. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e r w is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h a s in g le c ir c u m ­ s t a n t ia l re c o rd d o e s e xist] Phlogophora meticulosa Li n n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig r a n t Im m ig ra n t

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M a c r o - m o t h s p e c ie s E u r o p e a n s t a t u s A s lis te d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e in ig e r (1 9 9 1 ) B r i t i s h s t a t u s A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Sk in n e r ( 1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) S u s s e x s t a t u s A s liste d in Pr a t t ( 1 9 9 9 ) Pseudenargia ulicis St a u d. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Callopistria juventina St o l l N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Enargia paleaceaEs p. N o n - m ig ra to ry Im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Cosmia trapezinaLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Apam ea monoglypha Hu f n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d e p is o d ic im m ig ra n t Apam ea lateritiaHu f n. N o n -m ig ro to ry S u s p e c te d r a r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Oligias p p . N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry M esapam ea secalisLin n. a n d M. didymaEs p. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry

Photedes extremaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t

Photedes fluxaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t P o s s ib le o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Photedes pygminaHa w. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry

Luperína testaceaD . & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Luperina dumerilliDu p. N o n - m ig ra to ry Im m ig ra n t V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Luperína zollikoferíFr e y. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Celaena leucostigma leucostigmaHb n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t P o s s ib le o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t Archanara dissoluta Tr e it. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra t o ry Rhizedra lutosaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Wil l i a m s e t a), 1 9 4 2 ; Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra t o ry Sedlna buettneriHe r. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra r e im m ig r a n t Arenostola phragmitidis Hb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra to ry Oría musculosaHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry , S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t P o s s ib le o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t

Hoplodrína blanda D. & S. P o s sib le im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry

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M a c r o - m o t h s p e c ie s E u r o p e a n s t a t u s A s lis te d in Ei t s c h b e r g e r, Re i n h a r d t & St e i n i g e r(1 9 9 1 ) B r i t i s h s t a t u s A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n (1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Sk i n n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) S u s s e x s t a t u s A s lis te d in Pr a t t (1 9 9 9 ) Hoplodrina superstes Oc h s. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m i­ g ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Hoplodrina ambigua D . & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t Spodoptera exiguaHb n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t Spodoptera cilium Gu e n. N o n - m ig ra to ry V e r y ra r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Spodoptera littoralis Bo i s d. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry [s u s p e c te d r a r e im p o rt] Caradrina flavirena Gu e n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Earias insulanaBo i s d. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Nycteola asiatica Kr u l. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d N e v e r d e te c te d Charadra deridens Gu e n. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s s ib le v e r y ra re im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Raphia fraterGr o t e N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s s ib le v e r y ra re im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Chrysodeixis chalates Es p. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t R a re im m ig ra n t V e r y ra r e im m ig r a n t Chrysodeixis acutaWa l k. N o n - m ig ra to ry R a re im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Ctenoplusia limbirena Gu e n. N o n - m ig ra to ry R a re im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Ctenoplusia accentifera Le f. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Trichoplusia niHb n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t E p is o d ic im m ig ra n t S c a r c e im m ig r a n t Diachrysia orich'alcea Fa b r. N o n - m ig ra to ry R a re im m ig r a n t V e r y r a r e im m ig r a n t

Diachrysia chryson Es p. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry P o s sib le v e r y r a r e im m ig r a n t M acdunnoughia confusa St e p. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t R a re im m ig r a n t V e r y ra r e im m ig ra n t Polychrysia monetaFa b r. N o n - m ig ra to ry U n c e r t a in [lis te d a s n o n - m ig ra to ry in Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) a n d a s a p ro b a b le im m ig r a n t in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d Ag a s s iz (1 9 9 6 ) ] S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t Autographa gamma Li n n. Im m ig ra n t, w ith a re tu rn flig h t Im m ig ra n t [w ith a re tu r n flig h t (Fis h e r, 1 9 3 8 )] Im m ig ra n t

Autographa bracteaD . & S.

N a t iv e c o lo n is e r S u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d

Autographa bilobaSt e p h. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m i­ g ra n t

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M a c r o - m o t h s p e c ie s E u r o p e a n s t a t u s A s lis te d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e in ig e r (1 9 9 1 ) B r i t i s h s t a t u s A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) S u s s e x s t a t u s A s lis te d in Pr a t t ( 1 9 9 9 ) Syngrapha interrogationisLi n n. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t Im m ig ra n t V e ry r a r e s u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t (p e r s . o b s.) Syngrapha circumflexa Li n n. N o n -m ig ro to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d

Catocala fraxiniLi n n. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t G e n e r a lly o s c a r c e im m ig ra n t R a re im m ig ra n t Catocala nuptaLin n. N o n -m ig ro to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d e p is o d ic im m ig ra n t Catocala electaVie w. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d r a r e im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d v e r y ra r e im m ig ra n t

Catocala prom issa D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Catocala sponsaLi n n. S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Catocala nymphagoga Es p. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d

Minucla lunaris D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry S c a r c e im m ig ra n t R a re im m ig ra n t

Clytie illunarisHb n. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t P o s sib le v e r y ra r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Dysgonla algiraLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Ophiusa tirhacaCr a m. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d N e v e r d e te c te d Grammodes blfasciata Pe t. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d N e v e r d e te c te d Grammodes stolidaFa b r. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Catephia alchymista D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Le m p k e, 1 9 5 0 )] S c a rc e im m ig ra n t V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t

Tyta luctuosa D. & S. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t U n c e r t a in [lis te d a s n o n - m ig ra to ry in Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) a n d a s a s c a r c e im m ig r a n t in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) ] P o s s ib le o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Tathorhynchus exsiccata Le d. N o n - m ig ra to ry V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t V e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Scoliopteryx libatrixLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 4 7 )] N o n - m ig ra t o ry

Anom is sabuliferaGu e n. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Colobochyla salicalis D. & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le r a r e im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra t o ry Rivula sericealisSc o p. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d e p is o d ic im m ig ra n t

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M a c r o - m o t h s p e c ie s E u r o p e a n s t a t u s A s liste d in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e in ig e r (1 9 9 1 ) B r i t i s h s t a t u s A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d / o r Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) S u s s e x s t a t u s A s lis te d in Pr a t t (1 9 9 9 ) Parascotia fuliginoria Li n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d s c a r c e im m ig r a n t

Hypena crassaHsFa b r. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Hypena obsitalisHb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d r a r e im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig ra n t Hypena obesalisTr e it. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Herminia lunalisSc o p. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y ra re im m ig r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Herminia tarsicrinalis Kn o c h N o n - m ig ra to ry U n c e r t a in [lis te d a s n o n - m ig ra to ry in Sk in n e r (1 9 8 4 & 1 9 9 8 ) a n d a s a p ro b a b le im m ig r a n t in Br e t h e r t o n (1 9 8 3 ) ] N e v e r d e te c te d Herminia zelleralis W o C K E N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m i­ g r a n t N e v e r d e te c te d Pechipogo plumigeralis Hb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d v e r y r a r e im m ig r a n t (p e r s . o b s .) Irísateles emortualis D . & S . N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d s c a r c e im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t Micro-moths

Pyralidae - the pyralid moths

Micro-moth species European status As listed in Bu r m a n n (1973) and/or Ei t s c h b e r g e r, Re i n h a r d t & St e i n i g e r (1991) British status As listed in Br e t h e r t o n (1983), and/or Go a t e r (1986) Sussex status As listed in Pr a t t (1999)

Euchromius ocelleaHa w. Uncertain [listed as an immigrant in

Bu r m a n n (1973), and as non-migratory in Ei t s c h b e r g e r, Re i n h a r d t &

St e i n i g e r (1991)]

Occasional immigrant Rare immigrant

Acigona cicatricellaHb n. Non-migratory Rare immigrant Never detected

Chrysoteuchia culmella

Li n n.

Non-migratory Episodic immigrant Non-migratory

Crambus leucoscbalis

Ha m p.

Non-migratory Possible very rare immi­ grant

Never detected

Crambus perlellaSc o p. Non-migratory Non-migratory [although some suspect otherwise ( Be i r n e, 1954)]

Suspected episodic immigrant

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Micro-moth species European status As listed in Bu r m a n n(1973) and/or Ei t s c h b e r g e r, Re i n h a r d t & St e i n i g e r(1991) British status As listed in Br e t h e r t o n (1983), and/or Go a t e r (1986) Sussex status As listed in Pr a t t (1999)

Agriphila tristellaSc o p. Non-migratory Immigrant Non-migratory

Agriphila latistriaHa w. Non-migratory Non-migratory Suspected immigrant

Catoptric/ osthelderi

d e La t.

Non-migratory Very rare immigrant Never detected

Catoptria verellusZi n c k. Non-migratory Possible immigrant Very rare suspected immigrant

Chrysocrambus

craterello Sc o p. Non-migratory

Probable rare immigrant Very rare suspected immigrant

Thisanotia chrysonuchellaSc o p.

Non-migratory Non-migratory Very rare suspected immigrant

Platytes alpinellaHb n. Non-migratory Non-migratory Very rare suspected immigrant

Ancylolomia tentaculella

Hb n.

Non-migratory Suspected immigrant Never detected

Eudonia angustea Cu r t. Non-migratory Non-migratory Non-migratory [although a single circum­ stantial record does exist]

Evergestis limbataLi n n. Non-migratory Not listed Very rare suspected immigrant

Evergestis forficalisLi n n. Non-migratory Immigrant Non-migratory

Evergestis extimalisSc o p. Non-migratory Irregular immigrant Suspected episodic immigrant

Hellula undalis Fa b. Uncertain [listed as an immigrant in

Bu r m a n n (1973), and as non-migratory in Ei t s c h b e r g e r, Re i n h a r d t s.

St e i n i g e r(1991)]

Suspected immigrant Suspected very rare immigrant

M argaritia sticticalis

Li n n.

Occasional immigrant Scarce immigrant Suspected scarce immigrant

Actenia brunnealisTr e i t. Occasional immigrant Not listed Never detected

Uresiphita limbalis (polygonalis) D. & S.

Occasional immigrant Very scarce immigrant Suspected very rare immigrant

Sitocbroa palealis D. & S. Non-migratory Immigrant Suspected episodic immigrant

Sitochroa verticalisLi n n. Non-migratory Immigrant Suspected episodic immigrant

Paracorsia repandalis

D. a s.

Non-migratory Very rare immigrant Never detected

Ostrinia nubilalisHb n. Occasional immigrant Immigrant Episodic immigrant

Eurrhypara hortulata

Li n n.

Non-migratory Non-migratory [although some suspect oth­

erwise ( Be i r n e, 1954)]

Non-migratory ©Ges. zur Förderung d. Erforschung von Insektenwanderungen e.V. München, download unter www.zobodat.at

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M ic r o - m o th s p e c ie s E u r o p e a n s t a t u s A s lis te d in Bu r m a n n (1 9 7 3 ) a n d / o r Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e i n i g e r (1 9 9 1 ) B r i t i s h s t a t u s A s lis te d in Br e t h e r t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ), a n d / o r Go a t e r ( 1 9 8 6 ) S u s s e x s t a t u s A s lis te d in Pr a t t ( 1 9 9 9 ) Phlyctaenia perlucidalis Hb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry U n c e r t a in [lis te d a s n o n - m ig ra to ry in Go a t e r (1 9 8 6 ) a n d a s a p ro b a b le im m ig r a n t in Br e t h e r t o n (1 9 8 3 ) a n d Ag a s s iz ( 1 9 9 6 ) ] S u s p e c te d r a r e im m ig ra n t Psammotis pulveralis Hb n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S c a r c e im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d r a r e im m ig r a n t Udea fulvalis Hbn. N o n - m ig ra to ry O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d

Udea ferrugalisHb n. Im m ig ra n t, w ith a re tu rn flig h t

Im m ig ra n t C o m m o n im m ig r a n t

M ecyna flavalisD . & S. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry S u s p e c te d o c c a s io n a l im m ig r a n t Nomophila noctuella D . & S. Im m ig ra n t, w ith a re tu rn flig h t O ft e n a b u n d a n t a n n u a l im m ig ra n t C o m m o n im m ig r a n t Nomophila neartica Mu n. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s s ib le v e r y ra re im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d Dolicharthrio punctolis D. & S. O c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra t o ry Antigastra catalaunalis Du p. N o n - m ig ra to ry R a re im m ig ra n t V e r y ra r e s u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t Diasemia reticularisLi n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry S c a r c e im m ig r a n t V e r y ra r e s u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t Diasemiopsis ramburialis Du p. U n c e rt a in [lis te d a s a n im m ig r a n t in Bu r m a n n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , a n d a s n o n - m ig ra to ry in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e i n i g e r (1 9 9 1 )] S c a r c e im m ig ra n t V e r y ra r e s u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t Hymenia recurvalis Fa b. U n c e r t a in [lis te d a s a n im m ig ra n t in Bu r m a n n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , a n d a s n o n - m ig ra to ry in Eit s c h b e r g e r, Re in h a r d t & St e i n i g e r (1 9 9 1 )] S c a r c e im m ig ra n t V e r y ra r e s u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t

Palpita unionalisHb n. Im m ig ra n t, w ith a re tu rn flig h t

U n c o m m o n im m ig ra n t E p is o d ic im m ig r a n t

Sceliodes laisalis Wa l k. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le im m ig ra n t N e v e r d e te c te d

Orthopygia glaucinalis Li n n. N o n - m ig ra to ry P o s sib le o c c a s io n a l im m ig ra n t S u s p e c te d e p is o d ic im m ig r a n t Pyralis farinalisLin n. N o n - m ig ra to ry N o n - m ig ra to ry [a lth o u g h s o m e s u s p e c t o t h e rw is e ( Be i r n e, 1 9 5 4 )] V e r y r a r e s u s p e c te d im m ig r a n t

Figure

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References

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