PWM Based DC Motor Speed Control Using Microcontroller [NEC-022]

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PWM

PWM BASED BASED DC DC MOTOR MOTOR SPEED SPEED CONTROL CONTROL USING USING MICROCONTROLLER MICROCONTROLLER 11

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

Today’s industries are inreasin!"y de#andin! $roess auto#ation in a"" setors% Auto#ation Today’s industries are inreasin!"y de#andin! $roess auto#ation in a"" setors% Auto#ation resu"ts into

resu"ts into &etter 'ua"ity&etter 'ua"ity( inreased $rodutio( inreased $rodution n an an redueredued d osts% T)e osts% T)e *aria&*aria&"e "e s$eed dri*es(s$eed dri*es( +)i) an ontro" t)e s$eed o, A%C-D%C #otors( are indis$ensa&"e ontro""in! e"e#ents in +)i) an ontro" t)e s$eed o, A%C-D%C #otors( are indis$ensa&"e ontro""in! e"e#ents in auto#ation syste#s% De$endin! on t)e a$$"iations( so#e o, t)e# are ,i.ed s$eed and so#e auto#ation syste#s% De$endin! on t)e a$$"iations( so#e o, t)e# are ,i.ed s$eed and so#e o, t)e *aria&"e s$eed dri*es%

o, t)e *aria&"e s$eed dri*es%

T)e *aria&"e s$eed dri*es( ti"" a ou$"e o, deades &a/( )ad *arious "i#itations( su) as $oor  T)e *aria&"e s$eed dri*es( ti"" a ou$"e o, deades &a/( )ad *arious "i#itations( su) as $oor  e,,ii

e,,iienies( "ar!er s$ae( enies( "ar!er s$ae( "o+er s$eeds( et%( "o+er s$eeds( et%( 0o+e*0o+e*er( t)e er( t)e ad*enad*ent t $o+er e"etroni$o+er e"etroni  de*ide*ieses su) as $o+er #os,ets( i!&ts et%( and a"so +it) t)e introdution o, #iro ontro""ers +it) su) as $o+er #os,ets( i!&ts et%( and a"so +it) t)e introdution o, #iro ontro""ers +it) #any ,eatures on t)e sa#e si"ion +a,er( trans,or#ed t)e sene o#$"ete"y and today +e #any ,eatures on t)e sa#e si"ion +a,er( trans,or#ed t)e sene o#$"ete"y and today +e )a*e *aria&

)a*e *aria&"e s$eed dri*e syste#"e s$eed dri*e syste#s +)i) are not on"y in t)e s#a""er in s +)i) are not on"y in t)e s#a""er in si2e &ut a"so *erysi2e &ut a"so *ery e,,

e,,iieiient( nt( )i!)i!)"y )"y re"ire"ia&"a&"e e and and #ee#eetintin! ! a"" a"" t)e t)e stristrin!en!ent nt de#de#andands s o, o, *ar*ariouious s indindustustrieries s o, o,  #odern era%

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INTERFACING WITH DC MOTOR 

DC MOTOR -

 A DC #otor is any o, a "ass o, e"etria" #a)ines t)at on*erts diret urrent e"etria" $o+er into #e)ania" $o+er% T)e #ost o##on ty$es re"y on t)e ,ores  $rodued &y #a!neti ,ie"ds% DC Motors are s#a""( ine.$ensi*e and $o+er,u" #otors used +ide"y in ro&otis ,or t)eir s#a"" si2e and )i!) ener!y out% A ty$ia" DC #otor o$erates at s$eeds t)at are ,ar too )i!) s$eed to &e use,u"( and tor'ue t)at are too "o+% Gear’s redue t)e s$eed o, #otor and inreases t)e tor'ue%

INTERFACING

T)e #a.i#u# urrent t)at an &e soured or sun/ ,ro# 4561 #iroontro""er is 16 #A at 67% But a DC #otor need urrents #u) #ore t)an t)at and it need *o"ta!es 87( 137 et de$endin! u$on t)e ty$e o, #otor used% Anot)er $ro&"e# is t)at t)e &a/ e#, $rodued &y t)e #otor #ay a,,et t)e $ro$er ,untionin! o, t)e #iroontro""er% Due to t)ese reasons +e an’t onnet a DC #otor diret"y to a #iroontro""er% 0ene IC L39:D is used to inter,ae t)e DC #otor +it) #iroontro""er 4561%

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PWM BASED DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING MICROCONTROLLER :

DESCRIPTION OF DRIVER CIRCUIT

T)ere are t+o in$uts A and B% T)es t+o in$uts to!et)er ,or# ; o#&inations%

CASE 1

W)en in$ut A < 5 =)i!)> and in$ut B < 5 ="o+> t)en t)e DC #otor sto$s rotatin! or &rea/s do+n%

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CASE 2

W)en in$ut A < 5 ="o+> and in$ut B < 1 =)i!)> t)en t)e DC #otor starts rotatin! in anti"o/+ise diretion%

CASE 3

W)en in$ut A < 1 =)i!)> and in$ut B < 5 ="o+> t)en t)e DC #otor starts rotatin! in "o/+ise diretion%

CASE 4

W)en in$ut A < 1 =)i!)> and in$ut B < 1 =)i!)> t)en t)e DC #otor sto$s rotatin! or   &rea/s do+n%

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PWM BASED DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING MICROCONTROLLER 6

PROGRAM TO INTERFACE DC MOTOR WITH 8051

?in"ude@re!63%) ?in"ude@stdio%) *oid de"ay=*oid> s&it #otor$in1 < P35 s&it #otor$in3 < P31 *oid #ain=>  do  #otor$in1 < 1

#otor$in3 < 5 --Rotates Motor Anti C"o/+ise

de"ay=>

#otor$in1 < 1

#otor$in3 < 1 --Sto$s Motor 

de"ay=>

#otor$in1 < 5

#otor$in3 < 1 --Rotates Motor C"o/+ise

de"ay=>

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#otor$in3 < 5 --Sto$s Motor  de"ay=> F +)i"e=1> F *oid de"ay=> 

int i( ,or=i<5i@1555iHH>

,or=<5@1555HH>

 F

F

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PWM BASED DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING MICROCONTROLLER 

PWM TECHNIQUE FOR CONTROLLING SPEED OF

DC MOTOR USING MICROCONTROLLER

PWM is a one$t +it) +)i) one an #odi,y t)e $u"se *o"ta!e *aryin! it ,ro# 5J duty y"e to 155J% Pu"se +idt) #odu"ation =PWM> is a #et)od ,or &inary si!na"s !eneration( +)i) )as 3 si!na" $eriods =)i!) and "o+>% T)e +idt) =W> o, ea) $u"se *aries &et+een 5 and t)e $eriod =T>% T)e #ain $rini$"e is ontro" o, $o+er &y *aryin! t)e duty y"e% 0ere t)e ondution ti#e to t)e "oad is ontro""ed% Let ,or a ti#e t1( t)e in$ut *o"ta!e a$$ears aross t)e "oad i%e% ON state and ,or t3 ti#e t)e *o"ta!e aross t)e "oad is 2ero%

K T)e a*era!e *o"ta!e at out$ut is !i*en &y 7a < 7#a.% 

+)ere(

TON <Ti#e $eriod ,or Pu"se ON(

TO <Ti#e $eriod ,or Pu"se O

K T)e a*era!e "oad urrent Ia< 7a-R < /*s-R +)ere( T is t)e tota" ti#e $eriod <t1Ht3( / < t1-T

is t)e duty y"e%

K T)e duty y"e an &e *aried ,ro# 5 to 1 &y *aryin! t1( T or ,% T)ere,ore( t)e out$ut *o"ta!e 75 an &e *aried ,ro# 5 to 7s &y ontro""in! /( and t)e $o+er ,"o+ an &e ontro""ed%

K As t)e ti#e t1 )an!es t)e +idt) o, $u"se is *aried and t)is ty$e o, ontro" is a""ed $u"se +idt) #odu"ation =PWM> ontro"%

or &etter understandin! o, PWM t)ese dia!ra##ati re$resentations an &e used% T)ese ,i!ures re$resent t)e +a*e,or#s o&tained as out$ut at di,,erent *o"ta!e re'uire#ents%

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Hi! S"##$ Si%&' (90)*

SIGNAL WITH HALF VOLTAGE (50)*

SIGNAL WITH LOW VOLTAGE (10)*

T)e &"a/ $art o, t)e si!na" re$resents t)e ON ti#e and t)e +)ite $art o, it re$resents ti#e +)en it is not reei*in! any *o"ta!e%

In t)is +ay t)e a*era!e *a"ue o, resu"tant *o"ta!e is *aried% W)en $+# te)ni'ue is used to ontro" t)e s$eed o, d #otor( t)e a*era!e *a"ue o, *o"ta!e !i*en to #otor is *aried in si#i"ar  #anner( )ene *aryin! t)e s$eed o, t)e #otor%

Pu"se +idt) #odu"ation is i#$"e#ented usin! a #iroontro""er( de$endent on an in$ut *a"ue ,or  !eneratin! *aria&"e $u"se +idt)s( ,or dri*in! #otor at *aria&"e s$eed% T)ere,ore( t)e in$ut *a"ue used is !i*en +it) t)e )e"$ o, $otentio#eter%

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PWM BASED DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING MICROCONTROLLER 9

T)e 3 ter#ina"s o, $otentio#eter are onneted to 7  GND( resu"tin! in *aria&"e *o"ta!e in ran!e o, 567( in t)e ter#ina" W o, $otentio#eter% T)is $in ser*es as t)e in$ut ,or  #iroontro""er%

ADVANTAGES

 T)e #otor onsu#es "ess $o+er%

 Si!ni,iant"y "ess ener!y "oss due to )eat%  A""o+s ,iner #otor ontro"%

DISADVANTAGES

 T)e ,an an /i/ due to "o+ RPM’s%

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+I+LIOGRAPH,

SITES

 )tt$--+++%en!ineers!ara!e%o#-ontri&ution-d#otors$eedontro"usin!$+# #odu"ation  )tt$--+++%e"etronistutoria"s%+s-&"o!-$u"se+idt)#odu"ation%)t#"  )tt$--+++%e$r"a&s%o#-351:-53-d#otors$eedontro"usin!4561

#iroontro""er$+#te)ni'ue-REFERENCE +OO.S

 4561 Miroontro""er An A$$"iations Based Introdution By Da*id Ca"utt( rederi/ Co+an( 0assan%

 4561 Miroontro""er Interna"s( Instrutions( Pro!ra##in!  Inter,ain! By G)os)a" Su&rata

Figure

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References

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