In Quest of the Dates of the Vedas

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In Quest of the Dates of the Vedas

A comprehensive study of the Vedic and the Indo-European flora, fauna and climate over the last 10,000 years in light of the information emerging from the disciplines of archaeology, archaeo-botany, geology, genetics and linguistics

by Premendra Priyadarshi

Partridge Publishers. Published September 2, 2014

http://www.amazon.com/Quest-Dates-Vedas-Comprehensive-Indo- European/dp/1482834251/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1424606756&sr=8-1&keywords=In+quest+of+the+dates+of+the+vedas

See Preface at : http://aryaninvasionmyth.wordpress.com/2014/09/29/in-quest-of-the-dates-of-the-vedas-preface/ Word-Index Acacia arabica 276 Acacia catechu 64, 67 Acacia, pre-Harappan 92 Aegilops tauschii 56 Ahar, iron at 41 ahī (cow) 352

ahi-dviṣ (mongoose) philology 84 ahi-phena (opium) 280

aihwatundi 155fn

AIT 128-9; horse in 134

aja (goat) 350

ajagara (python) 83,323

akwa (horse), absent in Hittite 130

Allchin, on horse Harappan 136 alligator 300

Altai, past climate 25

Altyn Depe Indus seal 97; Indus inscriptions at 114

Amarakosha, willow 173 āmlā 104fn

amulet 37; amulet of zebu Ur 117

Anatolia hypothesis 129-30; Anatolian origin 196 Anatolian, farming words lost in 131

Anau horse 123; Marshall on 139 ancient DNA, goat, France 343

Ancient DNA, horse 164; in Spain 162

Ancient DNA, Indian (human) West Asia 100 Andronovo culture, date of 109, genesis of 112 Andronovo posterior to Pirak 125

Andronovo pottery 40 ant (vamra) philology 259

Anthony, David, claim by 134-5; retracted 135

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Apis 327

apple, IE cognates 282

apuṣpā, apuṣpī RV 241

Aq Kupruk, caballus horse 139; goat at 340 aquatic animals in YV 83

Arab horse origin 143, 144,147,148; ribs 149 Arabia, horse statue 166

araṇī (fire-stick) 256

araṇya, grassland in RV 153; habitat of horse 153; as forest 153. Aratta 119

aravinda, cognates 281

arid region 88

aridity, and zebu 118; in China 168; in steppe 110; NW India 169 Arkaim 110, 115, 125

Artemisia 190, 191,193; as incense 193

artemisinin for malaria 190

artisans, Indus 115, migration of 116

Arundo grass-reed 92

Aryan arrival, absence of DNA evidence 19 Aryan farmers 128

Ash-tree, see Fraxinus.

Asparagus 246

aspen 73-4, 248-; horses’ dislike for 255

aspen, cognates 253; and aśva 253; and aśvattha 254; etymology 254; aspen, habitat 254; a. in northern route 254; medicinal properties 257

ass, philology of 154 Assyria, bull cult in 118

aśvattha 70,73,74, leaves of 70 aśvattha, home of Goddess 240

aśvattha, -pen for horse-sacrifice 255; in TS 256; confusion identification in S.Br. 257; abode

of mother Goddess 257

aśvinī kumaras 76,191; and poplar 253 Aśvins RV 253

Atharva-Veda 89, date of 64,89

Australia, Indian migration to 22,96

avaka grass YV 49, 50 Avesta, date of 85

Azzaroli 121-2,124,127

babhru 31,84, 298-9

Bactria, oldest horse of 123 Badam, Inamgaon 137 Bagor, horse at 138

balano (Gk.) oak 209

balbaja grass RV, YV 60, 61, AV 64

Bali, Indian migration to 96 Baltic, absence of oak 198

Baluchistan, desertion of 90; forest 95 banyan 74

baraqat (Arabic word) 265

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bargad tree 222 barkara 348 barley cultivation 55 Baudhayana Śrautasūtra 119 bdellium 93, sea-trade of 93 beans 59, AV 64, hyacinth 59

beaver 31; cognates 299; in YV 83; 2000 BC skeleton 31,298; at Gufkral 85; at Burzahom 85; bee 326-7

beech 226; distribution 224,227; expansion 226; home of 223

beech, absent Baltic languages 198; cognates in Germanic 218; philology 210,229 beech-line 224,225

Begash 107; horse at 167 Bellwood, Peter 11;

bent 174

berry terracotta Harappa 241 betel-nut 207-8

betula philology 196 Betula, see birch.

Betula-Salix in steppe 243 bezoar 342

bhago-, meanings of cognates 229 bhāǵo-s 223

Bhargava, M.L. 25

Bhimbetka, camel 367; horse 145 Bhirrana 21,37,40,87

Bhoja etymology 211 bhṛgu 246-7

bhūrja etymology 212

Bhutan, pig DNA 329

birch (tree) absent Iran 201; disappears fr S.Europe 200; Early Holocene India 26; expansion 198; in Gobi 168, extinct 168; in northern route 197, 199; in NW Indus Valley 177; in steppe 168; post-glacial 25

birch (word) absent in southern languages 201; cognates 195-6; Iran and South Europe 195; loss of meaning 196; Tocharian 200

birch-pine forest 198,242 Black Sea coast 5000 BC 25 black-millet 62, 64

Blapek (linguist) 211

Blastophaga 71

blood-horse 145

Bloomfield, on Vedic climate change 23-24; 189; 249

Blyxa octandra see avaka.

BMAC 109; absence of horse 113,141; aridity 115; migration to west from 115; mirror 112; ruin of 112

BMAC settlements in Indus Valley 101 boar, Uralic word for 103

Bokonyi, S. 32,124; on extinction of Indian horse 145; on Harappa horse 138 Botai, horse 134; imported from outside 160; mare’s milk 160

bottle-gourd in AV 64; in RV 237; juice of 238 Bouckaert, linguistic study of 130

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boxwood 235,236

brahma (mulberry) 274

bramble 155fn; cognates 275

brick, burnt-, 36-37,110,112,318; absence of 21,35,36 Bronze Age Belgium, mulberry in 273, 274

Bronze Age Mesopotamia, Indian DNA in 100 Bronze Age migrations to Ukraine 99

Bronze Age trade 93

buffalo 83; in Early Holocene 32

buka Nepali oak 210 bukka (goat) 347-8

bull, Arpachiyah 117; cognates of 351-52 bull-cult Assyria 118

burgundy colour 266-7

burj (Pers.) 196

Burzahom, beaver at 31 caballus etymology of 157 caballus horse, wild 123;

cailā (wood) 232 Calamus rotang 174 Calotropis 277

camel (struz) linguistics 370

camel 86-7, 355-374; Andronovan 356; archaeology of 357-366; Bactrian 357; Bactrian, at Kausambi 364-5; bones 367; domestication 358; dromedary, domestication of 359-60; in Vedas 366; West Asia 360-61

camel, migration, India to East Africa 368 candy 288

cane, Calamus rotang 178

capra 348-9

carp fish 300-301

Caspian (Iranian) horse 123,163

castor 85,299 Castor, see beaver.

Castro, horse at 124

cat, domestic, in Harappa 137

cattle migration 114, 117; in steppe 167,168 cedar 239

Cedrus 177; arrival in India 233; absent Mehrgarh 233 Cedrus deodara 231,236; pre-Harappan 92

Cental Asia climate mid-Holocene 26 Central Asia, hunter culture 105

chaga (goat) 349-50

Chakrabarti, D.K. 136 chameleon 315

chariot, Harappa 142-3, copper- 120-21; Daimabad 121; bird- 121; Swat 127 charioteering, IA words for 121

Chinese horse DNA 162

cicer (L.) 277 cīḍā tree 231

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Clift et al 78

climate change 173; in Bronze Age 22; Bloomfield on 249; early post-glacial 23-26 climate of, 1500 BC India 25; YV 367; Bronze Age 318, 319

Coix grass 50 comb-shell 294 Commiphora wightii 93 common millet 63 conch 292-3 Conus 293 copper 40-41,95 Costantini 177,216 costum (L.) 192 Costus 189

cotton, seed 76; tree 38 cow in Germanic 353 crab 294-5

craniometry, Tarim Basin skulls 98 crime, in Late Harappa 87

crocodile 85-6,300; in YV 83; not in AV 94 Crooke 143, 144 crops in YV 53-4 crow 87 cuckoo 315-16 Cynodon dactylon 65 Cyprinus 300 Daimabad 121

Dalbergia sissoo, see sissoo. Darra-I-Kur, horse at 140 dāru philology 214

date of migration 200 date-palm 75

Datura 278

death, in Late Harappa 22

deer, sambar, Harappa 91, Mohenjo-Daro 82; spotted- 91 Deh Morasi, iron 41

Dennel, Robin 19

deodar, deodara 231,232

Deotare 33,81,95

Dereivka horse 134; date of 135 desert, flood in 34

desertification 87

deva-dāru 231; philology 232; Sushruta 233; for tuberculosis 233 deva-dāru, name’s confusion 236

Dhavalikar 136

dhupa 230

Dikshit, K.N. 87 Dilmun, Arabia 359 disease in late Harappa 22

Divodasa 30

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dog in Harappa 137 dolphin 83

domestic horse, origin 159; US report 159 domestication of plants in YV 51

domestication of wheat 55-6 domestication, horse, multiple 164 donkey, African origin 154

drainage system YV 36 draught in Indus 111

dromas (camel) cognates 269

dromedary camel, Central Asia 367; Harappa 361 Dupree, Afghan Neolithic 140

durum 55, at Mehrgarh 56

dūrvā grass 65

Duryodhana, horn of 152 Early Harappa 21

Early Holocene, climate 68,194; ecosystem 32; P-E 175 earth-quake in Himalaya RV 34

east to west migration 163

echidna 312 echinos 313

ecology, influence on language 214 ecosystem, Early Holocene 21

hi 312

einkorn 55; in Levant 56

ekka 142

elephant 88; with horn 152

Eleusine 60-62

elite dominance 128 emmer 55

ephedra 92,185

epiphyte Ficus rel. 256

Epona 156

Equus (etymology) 156

Equus hemionus in RV, YV, AV 154

Equus namadicus 136, date of 136,140; 19th century 143

Equus sivalensis, see sivalensis.

Etruscan tombs 122; arrival 127

etymology aika 119; satta 118; panza 119

Eurocentric 40,56,104,135-6,187,268-9,340-41,343; Meadow 138; Witzel 178,182,227 European horse different 144

Event, 4.2 Kilo 82,218,367 Event, 8.2 Kilo 30,40,64,67,194 Ewart 123,144,146; on sivalensis 146 excavation report, Harappa 142

fagus from phagos 210 Fagus, see beech.

farming 21

fauna RV 45; Sama-Veda 80, YV 81-8 fern 246,261

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ferret 313

fever, willow for 174,180

Ficus, charcoal at Mehrgarh 256; in AV 64; infectoria 203; religiosa in TS 256; in Shatapatha Br. 256; not in Early Holocene 261; species 69-74; migration of word 264

figurine, Mehrgarh 110 fig-wasp 71,259

finger millet 8,60,61,62,64 Finno-Ugric 102

fire-worship 38

fir-pine forest Anatolia 243 flax 282; cognates of 268 flood from glaciers RV 34 flora RV 49 fluvial 28 fly (insect) 326 food-gathering 52 food-production, increase in 120 forager 60 forest, open- 21 fortified culture 110 foxtail millet 62-3 foxtail-millet 8; Frachetti 2012, 9,105, 108 Fraxinus 246; philology 195

frog, hibernation RV 33; cognates 297 Gagghar river basin 53,54,55

gallnut 205

Ganga Valley 310; archaeology 21; Neolithic 129

gardabha 154; philology 154 gau, cognates of 353

Gause’s Law Competitive Exclusion 160

gavīdhuka see Coix grass.

genetic diversity, horse 166 gharial, Harappa 88

ghoṅghā 293

Ghundai, iron 41 Gimbutas 159

Giosan et al 78; Sarasvati geology 35 giraffe 380

glaciers, Himalayan 21; water trapped in 28 glans as oak 208-9

glass, synthetic at Indus 116; not in RV 116; in Shatapatha Br. 117; volcanic 117

Gmelina 257

goat 339-51; archaeology 339-41; burial, Mehrgarh 339; DNA data manipulation 343-4 goat lineage C northern route 344

Goat-Cult Neolithic 140

Gobi, last willow forest 175 goddess, with horn 152, Goddess, sahuḍaśṛṅgikā 152

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Gossypium 76

grape 57-8, Harappa 57, Swat Valley 57 grape-pips 57

grape-vine 184

grassland 89; in RV 153; Early Holocene 21; Thar 81,82,95 grass-reed 178,181 Greek horses 163 grey ware 111 gṛha etymology 43-4 grinding-stone, absence of 108 gulgulu, AV 93 Gupta, S.P., horse 138 Hakra-ware 40 handmade pottery 38,39,40

Harappa horse, Upinder Singh 137;

Harappa, culture 35; end of 87; foreign settlers in 100-101 Harappa, Populus in 248

Harappan animals 318 hedgehog 312; and pig 331 Hellenthal, G. 19 hemionus, Turkmenistan 123; Hemphill 98 Herodotus 299 Himalayan horses 154 hiraṇa, cognates 354 hiraṇyamaya vetasa 176 honey 326-7

horn, ornamental 151; of horse 150

horse (ekwa), philology 155-6; loss of cognates in Hittite 156; loss from Slavic 156-7 horse bad omen in Harappa 11,154; as food in RV 152; taboo in Indus-Valley 11 horse bone, Malvan 136; Harappa 159; 1500 BC 149; rare in Kurgans 168

horse breeds: Etruscan 122,124,126; Oriental 122, 124; Kazakh 122; daft 122; draught 122; Przewalskii 122; Mongolian 122; steppe 122; Vyatka 122; Akhal Teke 122; European 123;

sivalensis, 10,11, 123, 124; BMAC 123; Oldest of Bactria 123; Marwari 123,127; Anau 123;

Bhutia 124; Spiti 124; Kathiawari 127; of Thar 127; Dereivka 134

horse, domestication in Europe 165; Afghanistan 139; horse, Dereivka 10; draught type 148 horse habitat 152-3,169; in Harappa and early India 137-8; hunting of 105; Indian country-bred 139; Javanese 144, 145; Sulu 144,145

horse, glacial period extinction 136

horse, lumbar vertebrae 136; -jaw, Marshall 139 Hulas 72

human migration, DNA study 19-22

humped bull, in West Asia 117, Susa 118, Tell Agrab 118 hunter society of steppe 105

hunter-gatherers 95

hydra 298

hyena YV 83; as food Greece 331 Iberian ancient horse 162

ichneumon YV 83

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Inamgaon, sivalensis horse 137 incense 230; plant 192; -wood 237 incised coarse ware 112

Indian migration Central Asia 98, Syria 100

Indo-Aryan, enclaves of 99,104; language in steppe 102,104; loan words 115; Margiana 118; migration to West Asia 100; Mittani 118; vocabulary dispersal 99; West Asia 102

Indo-Iranian in Siberia 97-98

Indra 28

Indus trade with steppe 108

Indus Valley Civilization, abandoning of 22 Indus Valley, BMAC settlers in 101

invasion vs. language-conversion 11, 13

iron 40, 41; AV 94; YV 95; in Bronze Age India 41 iron, Chanhu Daro 41

Iron-Age 42 iron-ore 42 J2b migration 20 jackal 323

jackal, Russian word for 103

jahaka 313, 314 jāmbūla 281-2

Jammu-horse, private allele 164

jamun 281 jartila 50 Jeitun, einkorn at 56 Joglekar 136 Joshi, Manjunath 341 jowar 64-5 jujube 76,77

juniper 241; medicinal role 234; modern distribution 230; smoke of the God 235; trade at Meluhha 235

juniper, Akkadian name of 240

Juniperus macropodis, Harappa 234 Juniperus, see juniper.

kaddu (gourd) 237 kadru 237-8 kakar-singhi 205 kākṛāsingi 205 Kala river 41 kamala, cognates 281 kamaṭha 296 kañcana 294 kāṇḍa 287 Kanewal, camel at 363 kaṅgha 293 kaṅkata 293

Kantanen on cow DNA 107

kapila (horse) 157 karāṛ 206

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karkandhu 76 karkaṭa tree 204-5 karkaṭa, cognates 295 karpāsa 284-5 kaṣāya 320 kaśikā 313 kastor 299 kasturi, kastūrī 85,299

Katelai, horse burial at 121-2,125 Kathiawar horse 144

Kayatha horse 139 Kazakh horse 148

Kazanas, on horse in Indian archaeology 11; KD phase, camel at 363

k dāra 236; IE philology of 237

Kennedy on Harappan horse 140 Kenoyer, on skeletons 100-101

k śarī, philology of 320,321 khadira, see Acacia catechu. Khair-Sissoo Forest 67 khāṇḍa 287 khara, philology of 154-5, kharjūra 75 khas (perfume) 193 kīkaṭa RV 276

kikkar, kikkir (Acacia arabica) 276; cognates 277

Kikkuli 121

konj (horse, Slavic) 157

Kot Diji, decline in pottery 30; iron at 117

kṛdara YV 236,238

Kuntasi horse-bone 136

Kurgan, graves 114; hypothesis 159

kuṣṭha 189,192-4; for fever 190; in China 190; trading in AV 190 kutsa 191,194 kuutth 191 kuyava 30 Kyzyl Khak 105 Labeo 308 Lachs Theory 12,301-8 Lagenaria siceraria 237 lākṣā, lakṣā 307,302 lakṣaṇa 307 lakṣmaṇa TS 307-8 lakṣmī (etymology) 307 lakso- 301 lāñchana 307 language change 24,41,128 language of Vedas 41

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Last Glacial Maximum 19; oak refugia 219; goat in 341; population growth after 20; sea-level rise after 178

Lawler on Begash 107 lead 41 leech 84 lentil 7,52,59-60 leprosy, treatment 190 Lethyrus bean 52 Levant, camel in 360 Levine 9; on horse 134

LGM, see Last Glacial Maximum lily 281

Linearbandkeramik 329

linguistic study, biased 130; manipulation of 130-1,131fn;

linum 282

lion 79,317-322; at Kish 87; archaeology 88; AV 89-90; YV 91; cognates of 322 lion-seal 319 lizard 315 lobster 296 lopasha, cognates 324 Lothal, iron 41 lotus 281; in RV 68 Lydekkar 143,147

Mackay on Harappan chariot 121

madar 277 madder 278-9 madhu 326 madhura-vṛkṣa 274 Mahagara, horse at 138 makara, IE cognates 300 malaria, treatment of 174,189 mandāra 277 mandible of horse, 139 Mani (author) 87 manipulation by Naderi 343-4 manjari 291

mare’s milk, Botai 160

Margaret, cognates 291

Margiana, Indus objects at 114 Marshall, J. on horse 139,143,234

martya 103

Maruta 385

Marwari horse 141

maśaka 326

mat of reed 93, Shatapatha Brahmana 93 Meadow, Eurocentricity of 138-9

meat-import, camel’s 366

Mehrgarh 21; camel at 363; Populus at 248 Mehrgarh II 21; burnt bricks in 37

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Meluhha, son of 97; juniper cultivation at 235

mēṣa, cognates 338

Mesopotamia, juniper trade 235 metals in YV 41

Middle-Asia 97

Mid-Holocene, climate 8,10,26; cotton use in 38; Ficus in 75; Optimum 75; and RV 30,33; sesame in 50

migration of, J2b 212; R1a1a 199

migration to Central Asia 98; to SEA 207

migration, Bronze-Age 22,96-101; dating of 220; J2b 228; south to north 108, 114, 115 millets 60-63

mīna (fish) 301

miners 115 minnow 301

mistletoe, Russian word for 103 Mittani 102,118; names 119

mohana (opium) 279

Mohenjo-Daro, climate 90; horse 193,137; horse jaw 139; Prosopis 91; sambur deer 82; seal 239-240; tiger 87

Moisture, Effective 175 mollusc 292-4

mongoose 84

monsoon change 21,27, 28; southwest as Varuna 44

Morus, see mulberry.

mosquito 326 Mother Deity 246 mouse 309-311

mtDNA M Central Asia 98

mulberry 273-6; spread of 273; philology 274 Mundigak, iron at 41 musk 85, -deer 85,299 nabha 131fn naḍa (reed) 92,176 nadītamā 78 nakula 84 nalada 191-3 nalina 281

namadicus, see Equus namadicus.

nard 192

Nardostachys 191

Neneveh, bull at 117

Neolithic, Central European 107 Newstead pony/horse 144, 147

nīla, flax 283

nipple, IE cognates 259

nīvara 52,53

nomad 120; in Thar 82

nomadism as niche 168; steppe, date of 168 noria 30,110

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Nostratic, oak 211

nyagrodha 69

oak (philology), Dardic kaṛék 204; Hindi karhār 204; Pashto kharawa’h 204

oak 177; absence from Italy 228; arrival in N. Europe 198; distribution in past 215; Early Holocene 212; expansion in Europe 219; habitat 220

oak savannah Iran 216; Indus Valley 216; Jammu 216; Nepal 217; Iran 217 oak, names in European 202-3; no common name 202

olive (philology) 285 opium 279-280

Oriental horse, origin of 122

orja (Arya) 103 oṣadhi 70 Osborn 123; on sivalensis 146 ostrich 375, linguistics of 376-7; RV 379 otter 297-8 Outram 160 oyster 291-2

Padova, horse burial at 127 pain, willow for 174

palāla (millet) 64

Pamir 106,107,108,164

Panicum, dactylon 65; frumentaceum 62, 64; italicum 62; miliaceum 63; miliare 64; sumatrens 64

panther 323

Panthera leo, see lion. Paraechinus 312 Parjanya RV 266

parkaṭī 203; abundance 265; Austronesian cognates 206; European meanings 264; philology

of 206,263; thunder-God 264-5 parṇa 246,261 parnā-mṛga RV 378 parrot in Harappa 137 pastoral 66; economy 113 pastoralism 21 patella 292 patolaka 291 pearl 292

perkwu-s (PIE) 203, chimera word 203

Petrovka 114

phagos applied to beech 215; philology 210

Philippines Agricultural Review 149 Philippines, sivalensis horse in 147

Phoenix species 75

Phragmites 181; P. karaka 92

pig 328-31; Europe 329; absent from Balto-Slavic 331 Pindos horse 163

pine 239; -forest Early Holocene 186; in Iran 244; philology 186

Pinus in India 242 pinus-steppe 243-243 pipal, Goddess in 240

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Piper longum 77

pipīlikā, ant AV, 259; absent in RV 260 pippakā 315

pippala (trembling) cognates of 258; IE philology of 250 pippala (tree) 69,70,72; leaves 72; transfer of name 260 pippali, pippalī 77,257

Pirak, horse 113; horse figurines 140; camel figurine 365 Pistachio 205

Pistacia 205

pit-dwelling 43-4

plāk- cognates meaning garment 270; meaning shape of pipal leaf 269-270 plākṣa 74

plākṣa and parkati 267; and plexus 267; and wood 269; cognates meaning flickering 270;

fluttering 271 playa 33; Thar 81

pl k - cognates meaning weaving 271

plough, philology of 131-3; polecat 313

Pontic-Caspian steppe, hunter culture 105; absence of cattle from 105; poplar 70,71,72, agro-forestry 73, cultivation 73

poplar, no common name in Europe 250; habitat 252; and horse 252; philology of 250; salicylic acid in 252; and Sarasvati river 252

poplar-cultivation 251; in YV 251; end of 260

population growth, after LGM 20, 21; and migration 119-20 Populonia burial 124; Populus 71,177,248-262 porcupine 296,314 Port, Derawar 40 Post-glacial Asia 199 potter’s wheel 38-9

pottery, handmade 38,39,40,111, in RV 4; Grey-ware 111; Quetta Ware 97; red 39; Sintashta 112

pṛdaku 322

premolar, large 149

pre-orbital, pit 144, depression 149

prishniparni 77

private allele, Yunnan 164; Jammu 164

priyaṅgu 8,62-3

production, of food 22; industrial 22 proso millet 63 Prosopis 74,91,256 Proto-Indo-European 15 pṛṣadaśva 384 pṛṣatī 384 Pṛsnigu 77 pṛthu-dāru 239; cognates of 239

Przewalskii (horse) 9,148; different species 160; non-domesticable 160; never domesticated 165; not ancestral 158,159; Ridgeway on 159; dissimilar to Swat h. 124; in AIT 134

pūga betel-nut 211 puṇḍarīka 323

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Pupulus tremula, see aspen. pura, meaning of, 34 Purandara 29,34 Purukutsa 77 puṣkara, RV 68 pūtudrū 239

python 83-4

quercus altered meaning N. Europe 199; IA cognates of 204-5; meanings of cognates in Europe 204; Valpi on 203

Quercus, see oak.

Quetta, BMAC person in 101 quinine 174

qust (Arabic) 192

R1a1a migration 20; Y DNA ancient 97 racehorse 148

ragi millet 60, 64

rain in desert RV 33; YV 82 rainy beginning of year 33-4 Rakhigarhi, Early Harappa, 21 rattan palm 178

Rau Wilhelm on Vedic pottery 39 Ray Lankester on horse 147 reduplication 299

reed, AV 176-7; grass- 92,

refugia, 19-20, 21; in India 197; beech 226; Populus in 249 resveratrol 185

rhinoceros 82,85-6; in Harappa 88; not in AV 94 ribs, seventeen pairs of 146,148,149

rice 52-55,64

Ridgeway, on Indian horse 144

riding, date of 141; riding, onset of 120; in Ur 123

Rig-Veda, absence of rice 7; climate change in, 23; date-palm in 7; millets in 7; wheat in 7 Rig-Veda-10.97 in Harappan seal 239-240

Rissman, on domestication 144; on horse 139

rohiṇī 307-8

Rohira 92

Ṛṣya-śṛñga ṛṣi 152

Rule, Allen’s 123; Bergmann’s 123; Russian lang., IA words in 103 Saami (Uralic), IA loanwords in 103 Sahoo, Sanghamitra 19,20,104 Said Kala Tepe, iron at 41 Saka, see Shaka.

sāl tree 69 śāla, see Shorea.

salicin 174, in Populus 174

salicylic acid 71,174,180,188,252,258

Salix alba 174,180

Salix babylonica 178, in Jammu 179; Salix tetraspermia, Amarakosha 173

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salix (philology) 182

Salix, see willow.

Salmanasar II 360 salmon 301-2 śalyaka, cognates 311-12,314 Sama-Veda 8, climate of 78-80 sāmī, śamī,74,256; AV 91 śaṅka, śaṅkha 293 saṅkaṭa 293 sanobar (juniper) 231 śaphara (fish) 300 sapta-mātrikā 240; Harappa 234

Sarasvati, disconnect from glaciers 34; dried 27; Goddess in AV 27,79,94; river in Vedas 27; drying of 78-9

Sarazm 106,108; contact with Indus 108; domestic sheep 108 Sargat culture 97

sarpa 315; philology 84

satellite data 78

Saussurea 191,192

Scythian era horse DNA 161 SEA horse in Spain 162 sea voyage in YV 44

seal no. DK 6847, 239; M-478A, 245 Senuwar 59

sepia 292

sesame 285; in YV 50; cultivation of 51-2; Indus Valley 51; Mesopotamia 51

Sesamum, see sesame. kas 313

Setaria italicum 62

Seven Mothers 234-5,240; RV 235 sewer workers YV 37

Shah Tepe, camel at 365

Shahr-i-sokhta, camel at 362,365

Shaka migration 98

shaman 240; in RV 257 Shamash, hymn to 235

Sharma, G.R. 136; on Bolan horse 138; on goat 341 Sharma, R.S. on Indian horse 138

Shatapatha Brahmana, glass in 116, date of 117

sheep 106,331-39; archaeology 335-7; Central Asia, from India 333; domestic at Sarazm 108; in steppe, only recent 333-4; wild, NW India 331-2

sheep philology 338-9

sheep, wild, absent Europe 334 Shell, Turbinella 101

Shetland poly, domestication 165 Shikarpur horse 139; -bone 136 Shinde, V. (2008) 7,43,52-5

Shiva in Syrian inscription 235 Shorea 69

(17)

shrew 311-12

shuka 316

Siberia, Indo-Iranian migration to 97; western 97

siṃha 321

śimśapā, see sissoo. Sind Ibex 342 Singh, Bhagwan 29 singhos 321 Sintashta 104,114 sippikā 291,292 sīrā Goddess 73 sīsam 41

sissoo 67, in RV 67; absent from AV 91; leaves of gold 68; Mehrgarh 67, Mesopotamia 68; pollen, pre-Harappan 92

sivalensis (horse) 123,126,144; extinction of 136,140; habitat 169; migration 127; in Southeast Asia 137

sivalensis ancestor of, native Indian horse 143; Arab horse 143

skin-burn, treatment of 49 skull-pit (in horse) 143, 145 snake 84,315; in YV 83-4 snake-eater 312

soma 184; -drink RV 92; God AV 92; grape 58; lord of plants 240; philology 185; tuberculosis

treatment by, 58-9 Son Valley horse 138

Sorex 311

sorghum 64-5

Southeast Asia, Bronze Age migration to 22

southern route, oak in 217,228; pine in 244; poplar in 250 Spanish horse, local domestication 162,165, 166

spider 295

spoked-wheel 121

śṛgāla, cognates 323 śṛñgāra 152

steppe-hypothesis rejected 99

steppe, absence of- beech in 223,224,225,227,228; domestic sheep in 167; pig in 329-30 steppe, climate of, at 4200 BC 135; Early Holocene 242; farming in 135; forest before 3000 BC 168; nomadism in 135; oak in 221; pastoralism in 135; turned forest 199

steppe, southern influence on 112

steppe-horse domestication 159; no local domestication 162; origin of 165 steppe-nomadic complex 108

sthan, meaning in Russian 103 sthava 372; cognates of 373-4

Stockwell horse 143 store-room YV 236,238

suber (L.) 208

sugar 287

Sultana, on goat DNA 342 Sulu horse 148

Sumer, lion in 88; traveller’s account 235

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Suncus 311 supari 208 suparṇā 378 suparna oak 208-9,238 suparṇī (philology) 209 suparṇikā 209 supippala 72-3,251; flowers of 258 Surkotada horse 137, 154,159 Sushruta-Samhita 234; tuberculosis 241 śuṣṇa 3,194 Sutlej River 78 swastika 114

Swat horse 121-2,127; figurine 125; grape 57; human DNA 19; swine, cognates 330

śyāmā 62, śyāma 94 śyāmaka 62 śyāmam 41

Syria, Indian DNA in ancient 100 taboo against horse-seals 150 Tajikistan, sivalensis 136

takmāna 189

tar from pine 214 Tarakai Qila 59-60 Tardiglacial 20-21 Tarim Basin skull 98 Tarpan horse 148 tear-gland, horse 144

Tentek-sor, absence of cattle from 105; Asian Wild Ass at 105; horse bones at 167 terpene 231

Terqa, Indian DNA in 100 tetraploid 61; wheat 55

textile from Ficus fibres 267-8

Thar grassland 90; hunter-gatherers in 95; lakes in 95; playa 33 Thar, afforestation of 81

Thieme 301-2

Thompson, J.A. 10; on sivalensis horse 148 thorn-apple 277

Thoroughbred, ancestry of 143,147

tiger 79; absence from Rig-Veda 14; t. in Harappa 91; in YV 83

tikṣṇa 350-51 tila, cognates 286 tittira 316 toad, cognates 296 Tokwa 59 tonga (chariot) 142 tortoise 86,88,295; in YV 83 Tosi on camel 361

trade, pre-historic Afro-Arabian 93 Trautmann, Eurocentric 136

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traveller to Sumer 235 treatise, Hittite 121 tree with fruit RV 240

tree without flower RV 240,245 tree-line 219

tri-kadruka RV 237 trikakuta 151

true horse 160

tuberculosis 234,241; and Vitis (soma) 58-9; treatment 185 Tulasidas 41

Turkmenistan, Indus seal in 97; wheat Neolithic 56 turtle 88,295

Tus’ratta 119

Udmurt 102

udumbara 74

Ukraine, Eastern human invasion into 99 Ukrainian cow, DNA study of 107 Underhill, Peter 20,97

unicorn, seals 150; Harappan 151 Uralic languages 102

Uraria 77

US Bureau report on sivalensis 147; on horse origin 159;

uṣṭra cognates 369-70,371-2 vaca, Calamus rotang 178 vājinī-vatī 252

Varaha 151

Varuna, ends drought 27; the Rain-God 44 vata tree 74

Vats, M.S. 120; on unicorn 150 Vedic pottery 39

vetasa 173; vetasa AV 93; for fever MaxMuller 180; for pain TS 179; habitat in river 181

vetche 52 Vetiveria 193 vetra 178, Vindhyan Neolithic 129 violence at Harappa 87 Vitastā river 176

Vitis 59,177; V. vinifera pre-Harappan 92; v. philology of 183 vrīhi 52 Vrtra 28,29 Vṛtrasura 83 war-chariot 142 wasp 326fn 30 water-logging YV 52 water-wheel 110; in RV 30 wax, bees’ 327 weaving, oldest 268

wheat 52,54; absent from RV 57; import in Begash 107-8; in Bronze Age Ukraine 56; wild 55 wild camel RV 366

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wild horse, Indus 125; death of 125; in RV wild mares from many regions 165

wild rice 52,53

willow 93; as common tree 186; golden- 93; habitat of 175,176; Early Holocene, Central Asia 175; Early Holocene steppe 185-6; in homeland 176; in northern route 185; soil-type for 176; species in India 179

willow pollen at Mehrgarh 174,177; at Jammu 177; absence from steppe 175 willow, in Indo-Aryan lang. 187; philology 182-3

willow-forest, Mongolia 168, Gobi 168

Witzel demolished 261; on beaver 298; on beech 213,216,218,223; on oak 221; on beech in Greece 227; on birch 196-7; on camel 371; on mouse 309; on willow 178-9

wolf 79,90,324-5

wool 38; RV 32; of camel 361 writing 38

Yajur Veda climate 367; use of bricks in, 36, 37 yakṣma RV 241; treatment of 190

Yamuna River 78 Zagros, goat 340

zebu 352; DNA in Ukraine 107; migration to west Asia 117, to Oman 118 Zeder, Melinda 338, 340

Zeravshan valley 113

Figure

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