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Mba regular,Department of management College of business and economics Wachemo university, Hossana,Ethiopia


Personality traits reflect people’s characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Personality traits imply consistency and stability—someone who scores high on a specific trait like Extraversion is expected to be sociable in different situations and over time. Thus, trait psychology rests on the idea that people differ from one another in terms of where they stand on a set of basic trait dimensions that persist over time and across situations. The most widely used system of traits is called the Five-Factor Model. This system includes five broad traits that can be remembered with the acronym OCEAN: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.Each of the major traits from the Big Five can be divided into facets to give a more fine-grained analysis of someone's personality. In addition, some trait theorists argue that there are other traits that cannot be completely captured by the Five-Factor Model. Critics of the trait concept argue that people do not act consistently from one situation to the next and that people are very influenced by situational forces. Thus, one major debate in the field concerns the relative power of people’s traits versus the situations in which they find themselves as predictors of their behavior.

Key words: personality traits, Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism


Personality is a construct often conceptualized in multiple ways, though typically referencing a pattern of collective behavioral, emotional, mental, and personal characteristics or traits .Schultz & Schultz (2005) provide greater clarity in defining personality as “the unique, relatively enduring internal and external aspects of a person’s character that influence behavior in different situations.”

When we observe people around us, one of the first things that strike us is how different people are from one another. Some people are very talkative while others are very quiet. Some are active whereas others are couch potatoes. Some worry a lot, others almost never seem anxious. Each time we use one of these words, words like “talkative,” “quiet,” “active,” or “anxious,” to describe those around us, we are talking about a person’s personalitythe characteristic ways that people differ from one another. Personality psychologists try to describe and understand these differences. Personality is made up of traits-- identifiable and relatively stable characteristics-- that set each individual person apart from others.

Although there are many ways to think about the personalities that people have, Gordon Allport and other “personologists” claimed that we can best understand the differences between individuals by understanding their personality traits. Personality traits reflect basic dimensions on which people differ (Matthews, Deary, & Whiteman, 2003). According to trait psychologists, there are a limited number of these dimensions (dimensions like Extraversion, Conscientiousness, or Agreeableness), and each individual falls somewhere on each dimension, meaning that they could be low, medium, or high on any specific trait.An important feature of personality traits is that they reflect continuous


completely and qualitatively different from one another. Instead, they are talking about people who score relatively low or relatively high along a continuous distribution. In fact, when personality psychologists measure traits like Extraversion, they typically find that most people score somewhere in the middle, with smaller numbers showing more extreme levels.

1.1 statement of the problem

Personality traits is difficult to understand .Different people live together in an organization with different Personality traits so tolerance is very important to live together with different Personality traits .people differ from one another in terms of their idea, talking and quietness.

1.2 purpose of the study

 It helps to understand behaviour of people

 Understanding Personality traits helps to live together with different Personality traits

1.3 hypotheses

This hypothesis predicted positive relationships between personality traits and including with the Big Five and the narrow traits optimism and work drive. The results revealed the expected positive association between career decidedness and all Big Five personality traits except neuroticism. Even more, four of the Big Five traits demonstrated a significant relationship with career decidedness.


Based on the study personality traits ; it need to put for the future on research perspective on the personality traits to show what the important measurement action was undertaken by the researcher that mean the way of finding on the personality traits

Personality traits was important to undertake the measurement based on personality traits expand that enable the personality traits knowledge.


 Financial and time constraints

 Lack of related literature on the topic of the study

 Lack of internet access

1.6 Definition of terms

A personality trait that reflects a person’s tendency to be compassionate, cooperative, warm, and caring to others. People low in agreeableness tend to be rude, hostile, and to pursue their own interests over those of others.


A personality trait that reflects a person’s tendency to be careful, organized, hardworking, and to follow rules.

Continuous distributions



A personality trait that reflects a person’s tendency to be sociable, outgoing, active, and assertive.


Broad personality traits can be broken down into narrower facets or aspects of the trait. For example, extraversion has several facets, such as sociability, dominance, risk-taking and so forth.

Factor analysis

A statistical technique for grouping similar things together according to how highly they are associated.

Five-Factor Model

(also called the Big Five) The Five-Factor Model is a widely accepted model of personality traits. Advocates of the model believe that much of the variability in people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors can be summarized with five broad traits. These five traits are Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.

HEXACO model

The HEXACO model is an alternative to the Five-Factor Model. The HEXACO model includes six traits, five of which are variants of the traits included in the Big Five (Emotionality [E], Extraversion [X], Agreeableness [A], Conscientiousness [C], and Openness [O]). The sixth factor, Honesty-Humility [H], is unique to this model.


Two characteristics or traits are separate from one another-- a person can be high on one and low on the other, or vice-versa. Some correlated traits are relatively independent in that although there is a tendency for a person high on one to also be high on the other, this is not always the case.

Lexical hypothesis

The lexical hypothesis is the idea that the most important differences between people will be encoded in the language that we use to describe people. Therefore, if we want to know which personality traits are most important, we can look to the language that people use to describe themselves and others.


A personality trait that reflects the tendency to be interpersonally sensitive and the tendency to experience negative emotions like anxiety, fear, sadness, and anger.

Openness to Experience

A personality trait that reflects a person’s tendency to seek out and to appreciate new things, including thoughts, feelings, values, and experiences.


Enduring predispositions that characterize a person, such as styles of thought, feelings and behavior.

Personality traits

Enduring dispositions in behavior that show differences across individuals, and which tend to characterize the person across varying types of situations.

Person-situation debate


7. Significance of the study

 It helps to understand behaviour of people  It helps to know concepts of Personality traits

 It helps to know know big five (OCEAN) Personality traits

2. Literature Review

Personality is a set of traits and characteristics that relate to a person's emotions, motivations, interpersonal interactions, and attitudes. Personality is different from ability. Personality is meaningful to management, because employees' personalities may dictate how well they perform their jobs. Personality may indicate how hard a person will work, how organized they are, how well they will interact with others, and how creative they are. Personality is a trait. That is, personality is enduring and unlikely to change substantially in one's adult life. Because personality is a trait, this also means that a person is likely to behave similarly in a variety of situations. This does not mean that a person cannot or will not adapt to a change in circumstances, but that, on average, a person demonstrates similar personality across all situations and may behave differently from those with dissimilar personality characteristics.In recent years, more organizations have been using self-reporting personality tests to identify personality traits as part of their hiring or management development processes. Employers recognize that experience, education, and intelligence may not be the only indicators of who the best hire might be. Additionally, understanding one's own personality characteristics may improve one's ability to develop as an employee and manager. Therefore, it is important to understand the different

facets of personality and the ways in which they can be measured.

There have been different theoretical perspectives in the field of personality psychology over the years including human motivation, the whole person, and individual differences. The Big Five Aspects of personality fall under the perspective of individual differences. They are openness to experience, conscientiousness, Agreeableness, extraversion, and emotional stability.

There are three criteria that are characterizing personality traits: (1) consistency, (2) stability, and (3) individual differences.

1. To have a personality trait, individuals must be somewhat consistent across situations in their behaviors related to the trait. For example, if they are talkative at home, they tend also to be talkative at work.

2. Individuals with a trait are also somewhat stable over time in behaviors related to the trait. If they are talkative, for example, at age 30, they will also tend to be talkative at age 40.

3. People differ from one another on behaviors related to the trait. Using speech is not a personality trait and neither is walking on two feet—virtually all individuals do these activities, and there are almost no individual differences. But people differ on how frequently they talk and how active they are, and thus personality traits such as Talkativeness and Activity Level do exist.


we want to understand the fundamental ways in which people differ from one another, we can turn to the words that people use to describe one another. So if we want to know what words people use to describe one another, where should we look?

Allport and Odbert looked in the most obvious place—the dictionary. Specifically, they took all the


3. Methodology

3.1. Data collection method .The secondary sources are used in this study

3.2The data analysis

The attain potential of is founded on the secondary data. It is important to notice that the research conducted was on respected secondary data. The secondary source of data was collected and gathered from varies source such as related literatures, electronic data-bases , books and international research journals .

4. Results and Analysis

This study is primarily designed to determine if a relationship exists between Big Five and Narrow personality traits. Before conducting analyses, data characteristics and frequencies were reviewed and evaluated. The primary variables of interest (personality) had no missing data and demonstrated characteristics that suggested each variable was normally distributed.


Personality traits have often been viewed as central to understanding of the person traits and the position of person values. Some Personality scholars have suggested inclusion of values in an integrated model of characteristics of the individual. These findings enable to understand a person and help to understand pattern of behavior, thoughts and emotions of person. Personality is concerned with a person’s specific traits and states of mind. Traits are relatively permanent and enduring qualities of behavior that a person displays in most situations. The five attributes most consistently discussed in conjunction with personality are emotional stability, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Despite the fact that trait theorists are often less concerned with environmental impact than state theorists, these five traits canal be influenced by a person’s environment. State theorists emphasize environment more prominently in their understanding of the behavioral and social learning theory.


This work contributes to state of the art by using Personality Traits to improve the recommendations in Recommender Systems and consequently for providing this recommendation as a support in a decision making process for the knowledge management community. We chose the Traits approach because it is the way that psychologists differentiate people from one another, conceptualizing and measuring their characteristics by using Personality Traits.Personalityis a set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, emotions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations. Personality is also an effective factor for decision making. People with similar personality characteristics are more likely to have similar interests and preferences.


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