The effect of different rates and forms of potassium fertilizers on the yield and morphine content of poppy (Papaver somniferum, L.

26 

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(1)

The effect of different rates and forms of potassium fertilizers on the yield and

morphine content of poppy (Papaver somniferum, L.)

Tom

Tomášáš LoLošášák, Jaroslav k, Jaroslav HluHluššekek,, Rostislav Richter, Thomas

Rostislav Richter, Thomas PoppPopp

Mendel

Mendel University ofUniversity of AgricultureAgriculture andand ForestryForestry in Brno, Czechin Brno, Czech RepublicRepublic International

(2)

The

The

Growing

Growing

of

of

Poppy

Poppy

in

in

the

the

Czech

Czech

Republic

Republic

¾

¾

3.2 mil ha

3.2 mil ha

of

of

arable

arable

land

land

in CZ

in CZ

¾

¾

58,000 ha

58,000 ha

of

of

poppy

poppy

¾

¾

An

An

average

average

yield

yield

0.60 t/ha

0.60 t/ha

¾

¾

The

The

consumption

consumption

of

of

poppy

poppy

seed

seed

is

is

0.3

0.3

kg/

kg/

person

person

¾

¾

The

The

largest

largest

exporter

exporter

in

in

the

the

world

world

88 %

88 %

of

(3)

The

The

area

area

of

of

poppy

poppy

in

in

the

the

world

world

-

-

2005

2005

(Data

(Data sourcesource: FAOSTAT.FAO.ORG., 07.01.2007): FAOSTAT.FAO.ORG., 07.01.2007)

32,100 32,100 Asia Asia 77,064 77,064 Europe Europe 109,164 109,164 World World 1,300 1,300 Slovak

Slovak reprep..

3,095 3,095 Austria Austria 3,000 3,000 Rumania Rumania 6,326 6,326 Hungary Hungary 3,800 3,800 Germany Germany 13,000 13,000 France France 44,613 44,613 Czech

Czech RepRep..

32,000 32,000 Turkey Turkey ha ha Land Land

(4)

Use

Use

of

of

poppy

poppy

:

:

a)

a)

Seed

Seed

as

as

food

food

b)

b)

Straw

Straw

(

(

empty

empty

capsule

capsule

+ 15 cm

+ 15 cm

of

of

stem) for

stem) for

pharmaceutical

pharmaceutical

industries

industries

alkaloids

(5)

Prices

Prices

and

and

Species

Species

of

of

Poppy

Poppy

¾

¾ SeedSeed: 26: 26--30 CZK/kg (30 CZK/kg (aboutabout 0.90.9--1.1 EUR/kg)1.1 EUR/kg)

¾

¾ StrawStraw: 11: 11--15 CZK/kg (0.415 CZK/kg (0.4--0.5 EUR/kg) 0.5 EUR/kg) –– manufacturing

manufacturing industryindustry isis ZentivaZentiva ((SlovakSlovak reprep.).)

¾

¾ Species Species withwith lowlow concentrationconcentration ofof morphinemorphine (0.53 %): Op

(0.53 %): Opáál, Major, l, Major, MalsarMalsar, , MaratonMaraton

¾

¾ Species Species withwith highhigh concentrationconcentration ofof morphinemorphine (1

(6)

Pot

Pot

trial

trial

¾

¾ TheThe start start ofof experimentsexperiments on 1th on 1th AprilApril 2004 2004 andand 28th

28th MarchMarch 2006 (Species „2006 (Species „OpOpááll““))

¾

¾ PlasticPlastic potspots withwith 9.5 kg 9.5 kg ofof soilsoil

¾

¾ ApplicationApplication ofof 0.9 g N/pot in all0.9 g N/pot in all variantsvariants

¾

¾ ContentContent ofof K in K in soilsoil ((MehlichMehlich III): III):

z

z 2004: 239 2004: 239 ppmppm ((goodgood)) z

z 2006: 147 2006: 147 ppmppm ((satisfactorysatisfactory))

¾

¾ ContentContent ofof K in soilK in soil in in accordanceaccordance withwith thethe decree

decree: : veryvery highhigh –– highhigh –– goodgood –– satisfactorysatisfactory - -low

(7)
(8)
(9)

Experiment

Experiment

Scheme

Scheme

1.69 1.69 KCl KCl NK NK2 2 5 5 0.845 0.845 KCl KCl NK NK1 1 4 4 1.69 1.69 K K22SOSO44 NK NK2 2 3 3 0.845 0.845 K K22SOSO44 NK NK1 1 2 2 0 0 control control NK0 NK0 1 1 K K22O doseO dose (g K (g K22O/pot)O/pot) Description Description Scheme Scheme Var. Var. No. No.

(10)

Calculation

Calculation

of

of

K

K

-

-

doses

doses

(0.845

(0.845 andand 1.69 g 1.69 g KK22O/potO/pot ))

¾

¾

270,000 poppy plants

270,000 poppy plants

/

/

ha

ha

take

take

up

up

92.7 kg K

92.7 kg K

/

/

ha

ha

(

(

Edelbauer

Edelbauer

,

,

Stangl

Stangl

, 1993)

, 1993)

¾

¾

1

1

plant

plant

takes

takes

up

up

0.34 g K

0.34 g K

¾

(11)

Content

Content

of

of

K

K

and

and

S in

S in

plants

plants

(stem

(stem

elongation

elongation

growth

growth

, 2004)

, 2004)

6.00 6.00 5.38 5.38 5.87 5.87 5.38 5.38 5.23 5.23 % K % K 0.33 0.33 KCl KCl NK NK2 2 5 5 0.34 0.34 KCl KCl NK NK1 1 4 4 0.36 0.36 K K22SOSO44 NK NK2 2 3 3 0.40 0.40 K K22SOSO44 NK NK1 1 2 2 0.43 0.43 control control NK0 NK0 1 1 % S % S Description Description Sche Sche- -me me Var. Var. No. No.

(12)

Content

Content

of

of

K

K

and

and

S in

S in

plants

plants

(stem

(stem

elongation

elongation

growth

growth

, 2006)

, 2006)

6.92 6.92 6.57 6.57 7.06 7.06 6.49 6.49 5.26 5.26 % K % K 0.31 0.31 KCl KCl NK NK2 2 5 5 0.34 0.34 KCl KCl NK NK1 1 4 4 0.39 0.39 K K22SOSO44 NK NK2 2 3 3 0.37 0.37 K K22SOSO44 NK NK1 1 2 2 0.34 0.34 control control NK0 NK0 1 1 % S % S Description Description Sche Sche- -me me Var. Var. No. No.

(13)

One

One

variant in

variant in

stage

stage

of

of

stem

stem

elongation

(14)

Average

Average

experimental

experimental

yields

yields

of

of

seed

seed

114.6 114.6 2.42 c 2.42 c 104.3 104.3 3.16 3.16 acac KCl KCl 4 4 112.8 112.8 2.38 c 2.38 c 118.0 118.0 3.58 b 3.58 b K K22SOSO44 3 3 114.5 114.5 123.7 123.7 100 100 rel rel. %. % 111.9 111.9 125.1 125.1 100 100 rel

rel. %. % g/g/plantplant g/ g/plantplant 2.41 c 2.41 c 3.40 c 3.40 c KCl KCl 5 5 2.61 b 2.61 b 3.80 b 3.80 b K K22SOSO44 2 2 2.11 a 2.11 a 3.03 a 3.03 a control control 1 1 2006 2006 2004 2004 Scheme Scheme Var. Var. No. No.

(15)

Average

Average

experimental

experimental

yields

yields

of

of

morphine

morphine

in

in

straw

straw

86.5 86.5 0.64 b 0.64 b 97.5 97.5 0.80 0.80 acac KCl KCl 4 4 91.9 91.9 0.68 b 0.68 b 110.9 110.9 0.91b 0.91b K K22SOSO44 3 3 95.9 95.9 97.3 97.3 100 100 rel rel. %. % 90.2 90.2 102.4 102.4 100 100 rel rel. %. % %% % % 0.71 a 0.71 a 0.74 c 0.74 c KCl KCl 5 5 0.72 a 0.72 a 0.84 a 0.84 a K K22SOSO44 2 2 0.74 a 0.74 a 0.82 a 0.82 a control control 1 1 2006 2006 2004 2004 Scheme Scheme Var. Var. No. No.

(16)

Conclusions

Conclusions

-

-

Yield

Yield

:

:

¾

¾

K as K

K as K

22

SO

SO

44

increased

increased

the

the

yield

yield

of

of

seeds

seeds

from

from

1

1

8

8

25.1 %

25.1 %

(2004)

(2004)

and

and

from

from

12.8

12.8

23.7 % (2006)

23.7 % (2006)

compared to the control

compared to the control

¾

¾

Lower

Lower

dose

dose

of

of

K as K

K as K

22

SO

SO

44

had a more

had a more

positive

positive

effect

effect

on

on

the

the

seed

seed

yield

yield

¾

¾

K as

K as

KCl

KCl

increased

increased

the

the

yield

yield

of

of

seeds

seeds

from

from

4.3

4.3

11.9

11.9

%

%

(2004)

(2004)

and

and

from

from

14.5

14.5

14.6

14.6

% (2006)

(17)

Conclusions

Conclusions

Morphine

Morphine

:

:

¾

¾

The concentration of morphine in poppy

The concentration of morphine in poppy

straw

straw

was

was

increased

increased

statistically

statistically

significantly

significantly

by

by

10.9%

10.9%

only

only

in

in

interaction

interaction

with a higher level of K in K

with a higher level of K in K

22

SO

SO

44

,

,

compared to the

compared to the

all

all

variants

variants

in

in

year

year

2004

2004

¾

¾

The effect o

The effect o

f

f

KCl

KCl

in

in

both

both

years

years

and

and

K

K

22

SO

SO

44

in

in

year

year

2006

2006

on the content of morphine in

on the content of morphine in

poppy straw was negative

(18)

General

General

Conclusions

Conclusions

¾

¾

Potassium

Potassium

sulphate

sulphate

and

and

potassium

potassium

chloride

chloride

are

are

suitable

suitable

fertilizers

fertilizers

for

for

poppy

poppy

¾

¾

The

The

positive

positive

effect

effect

is

is

above

above

all

all

the

the

increase

increase

of

of

seed

seed

yield

yield

¾

¾

Potassium

Potassium

chloride

chloride

is

is

for

for

Czech

Czech

farmers

farmers

financially

financially

more

more

acceptable

acceptable

¾

¾

In

In

The

The

Czech

Czech

r.

r.

was

was

applied

applied

(2006)

(2006)

only

only

9.4

9.4

kg K

(19)

Thank

Thank

you

you

for

for

your

your

attention

attention

(20)

Mendel University of Agriculture and

Forestry in Brno, Czech Republic

¾ The cooperation of the Department of

Agrochemistry, Soil Science, Mikrobiology and

Plant Nutrition of Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno with International Potash

Institute has been active for many years.

¾ The previous leader of our Department Prof. Richter has started this cooperation with Dr. Uebel as former IPI – Coordinator.

(21)

A)

A) ActivitiesActivities ofof MendelMendel University University ofof AgricultureAgriculture and

and ForestryForestry Brno Brno supportedsupported by IPI in by IPI in lastlast yearsyears:: 1)

1) My My colleaguescolleagues havehave preparedprepared specialspecial brochuresbrochures in in Czech

Czech languagelanguage for for farmersfarmers aboutabout potassiumpotassium fertilisationfertilisation of

of somesome plantsplants:: z

z PotassiumPotassium as as anan importantimportant element for element for yieldyield

and

and qualityquality ofof vegetablesvegetables..

z

z PotassiumPotassium as as anan importantimportant element for element for yieldyield

and

and qualityquality ofof vine.vine.

z

z PotassiumPotassium as as anan importantimportant element for element for yieldyield

and

and qualityquality ofof fruitsfruits..

Author

Author: Prof. : Prof. HluHluššekek

z

z PotassiumPotassium in in thethe systemsystem ofof optimum optimum fertilisationfertilisation

of

of winterwinter rape.rape.

Authors

(22)

A)

A) ActivitiesActivities ofof MendelMendel University University ofof AgricultureAgriculture and

and ForestryForestry Brno Brno supportedsupported by IPI in by IPI in lastlast yearsyears::

2)

2) WeWe havehave carriedcarried outout atat ourour university university twotwo pot pot trialstrials with

with poppypoppy –– 2004 2004 andand 2006 (I 2006 (I spokespoke aboutabout itit yesterday

yesterday). ). The

The resultsresults ofof thethe poppypoppy experiment 2004 experiment 2004 waswas presented

presented atat thethe internationalinternational conferenceconference in in Warsaw

Warsaw in in yearyear 2005. A 2005. A paperpaper withwith thethe titletitle „

„PotassiumPotassium andand itsits formsforms in in thethe nutritionnutrition ofof poppypoppy (

(PapaverPapaver somniferumsomniferum, L.), L.)““ has has beenbeen publishedpublished in in the

(23)

B)

B) ActivitiesActivities ofof MendelMendel University University ofof AgricultureAgriculture and

and ForestryForestry Brno Brno supportedsupported by IPI by IPI thisthis yearyear::

¾

¾ TheThe replicationreplication ofof thethe pot experiment pot experiment withwith poppy

poppy ((thethe thirdthird year). year).

¾

¾ ItIt willwill bebe preparedprepared a a brochurebrochure in in CzechCzech language

language for for farmersfarmers aboutabout potassiumpotassium fertilisation

fertilisation ofof maizemaize. .

(prof. J.

(24)

B)

B) ActivitiesActivities ofof MendelMendel University University ofof AgricultureAgriculture and

and ForestryForestry Brno Brno supportedsupported by IPI by IPI thisthis yearyear::

¾

¾ TheThe establishmentestablishment ofof pot pot trialtrial ((MitscherlichsMitscherlichs pots

pots) ) withwith oneone sort sort ofof vegetablesvegetables andand 5 5 treatments

treatments: : controlcontrol andand twotwo dosesdoses ofof KK22SOSO44 andand KCl

KCl.. It

It willwill bebe assessedassessed::

-- thethe concentconcent ofof N, P, K, Ca, Mg, SN, P, K, Ca, Mg, S in in plantsplants

-- thethe yieldyield

-- thethe contentcontent ofof nitratesnitrates

(25)

B)

B) ActivitiesActivities ofof MendelMendel University University ofof AgricultureAgriculture and

and ForestryForestry Brno Brno supportedsupported by IPI by IPI thisthis yearyear::

¾

¾ TheThe financialfinancial support support ofof ourour internationalinternational conference

conference ““PlantPlant NutritionNutrition andand itsits ProspectsProspects““.. This

This conferenceconference isis heldheld on 5th on 5th –– 6th 6th SeptemberSeptember 2007

2007 atat thethe MendelMendel University University ofof AgricultureAgriculture andand Forestry

Forestry Brno, Brno, CzechCzech RepublicRepublic. . Having

Having anyany questionsquestions I I cancan provideprovide youyou withwith more more information

information myselfmyself oror ee--mail: mail: losaklosak@@mendelumendelu..czcz The

The deadlinedeadline for for applicationsapplications has has beenbeen postponedpostponed till

(26)

Thank

Figure

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