On the Edge of the Abyss

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Ella Lieberman after her release from Nazi Germany's concentration camp in Neustadt -Gleve near Hamburg on May 2, 1945.

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Ella and Emanuel Schieber -Wedding day, February 12, 1946 in 8ydgoszcz, Poland (Emanuel Schieber wearing the uniform of an officer in the Polish army).

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The publishing of this book was made

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On The Edge of the Abyss

Ella Liebermann-Shiber

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Ella and her mother Rosa Lieberman, and her Husband Emanuel Schieber With their children: Ada, Yehoshua, Shmuel-Samy, and Alexander in their courtyard, at home: 10, Louis Pasteur -Haifa, October of 1968.

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I have tried to express through my drawings all that I felt and saw in my youth, all that made my world dark, so that my work will bear witness to those terrible things. It is a meagre attempt, for I do not believe it possible to convey the horrors we suffered either through drawings, or any other form of expression.

I began to draw, to sketch whatever was released from within me, grey lines on faded paper.

I reconstructed each picture shortly after I was liberated. With trembling hands I began to reconstruct the hell from which, by a miracle, my mother and I had emerged. I felt that every drawing that disclosed the horrors I had endured in some way eased my mind. My faith in mankind and the world of today gradually returned, despite the cruelties my people and I had so recently suffered.

ELLA LlEBERMANN-SHIBER

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ON THE EDGE OF THE ABYSS

Ella Liebermann-Shiber was released form Nazi captivity in May 1945 near Hamburg, Germany. She was 17 years old, very thin, and clad only in a striped prison garment. She says of herself that she was concerned with one thing alone - the urge to draw, to bear witness.

This collection of 93 sketches bears graphic testirl]ony to the

horrors she witnessed; it is a direct representation of recent .v~ nightmarish memories.

Born in Berlin, Ella Liebermann-Shiber survived years of hell. Her ordeals began in 1938 when her family was forced to leave Berlin and reached Bendin in Poland. With the German invasion her family found themselves in the ghetto, "in a hovel where the lack of air was such that one could not even light a candle." She witnessed the humiliations, torments and destruction of life and property which no family was spared.

In August 1943 Bendin was declared "Judenrein". Ella Liebermann-Shiber was sent together with her family to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Her father and brothers were sent to their death. Her mother and she survived, thanks to her artistic talent. She painted portaits for the Germans. As the Russians advanced towards Auschwitz in 1945, Ella Liebermann-Shiber and her mother set out on the westbound "death march" to Germany. They survived the march and were released in May 1945. Ella Liebermann-Shiber immediately began to document her experiences through her sketches.

She is aware of the fact that once an event or experience is commit.ted to graphic form it takes on a universal dimension. The image is released from the trammels of time. The sketches incorporate event, time, and memory, thus creating historical

awareness; they will serve as a testimony for future generations and as a deterrent to those who attempt to deny the reality of the Holocaust.

Ella Liebermann-Shiber chooses a direct, unadorned and exact form of representation, but which conveys "whole-hearted hate". Her sketches give expression to the helplessness and terror of those subjected to the horrors. It is a voice that warns against the evil and the bestiality in man, against the hardheartedness and the cruelty which become uppermost in a society that has lost touch with its humanity, for "the imagination of the murderer far exceeds that of the victim." (Leah Goldberg).

The uninterrupted flow of drawings created by Ella Liebermann-Shiber during the years immediately following her release from the Germans was the beginning of a process of rehabilitation, a process of return to life.

Ella Liebermann-Shiber has also perpetuated the final moments of those of our people that are, in the words of Alterman, "imprinted in every fibre of our being" -a mute scream echoing from generation to generation, a scream for life on the edge of the abyss

AVI HURWITZ.

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Ella Schieber -next to four of her orginal paintings from 1945, which were in Poland and were transferred to a museum in Auschwitz, where they are preserved to this very day. They were presented to Ella - the painter - during her visit to the Auscwitz museum on May 4.1997,

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"Hear

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With this affirmation the Jews went to their deaths. It was shouted in the gas chambers, the crowded trains, the waiting graves, the death camps.

"Hear 0 Israel" was the martyrs' last prayer, as they waited helplessly at the mercy of the barbarians.

"Hear 0 Israel", that fell on deaf ears, still echoes all around us.

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Every step means suffering, tears, blood, and death. Its march through Europe brings destruction, ruin, hunger.

Its thundering sound strikes fear into the hearts of the helpless.

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The enjoyment of heavenly, wonderful nature, that was created by God for all mankind gardens, and forests, lakes and mountains was forbidden to Jews. The bright and beautiful sun no longer shone for us.

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The House of God is desecrated.

All the synagogues are burning. Torah scrolls go up in fire, and

with them the human beings who can't bear the sacrilege. At

night, as the wind blows through the ruins, people stop horrified,

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One less Jew, a loaf of bread more.

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"Jews out!" Shots are heard and the Jews flee. The queue disappears.

Here and there a body. A loaf of bread, fallen from frozen hands, lies in the gutter.

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A search in a Jewish home.

Jews found with onions, eggs or meat will be sent forthwith to

Auschwitz as black-marketeers. The Nazi Party area commander,

in person, leads the search party. He surprises my terrified aunt

as she is doing the laundry. The commander approaches the

laundry cauldron, opens his fly and urinates into it. He discovers a

bottle of ink and pours that in too, smiling broadly, Looking at the

expression on my face, he bursts into hysterical laughter. Long

after he leaves, still rejoicing, I hear his disgusting laugh.

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Jewish property is confiscated.

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that conjure up fond memories, passed on from generation to generation, must be handed over. Bounty for the Third Reich.

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Forced labour.

Young Jews are sent to work camps, where conditions are

subhuman Deaths are a daily occurrence. The weak are

dispatched to Auschwitz. The crematorium awaits them. My

brother Alex was caught in June 14, 1942. He never returned.

On September 3rd my sister Bertha was pulled out of bed in the

middle of the night.

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The 11 year old son of the area Nazi Party boss terrifies the local

Jews. He loves to shoot and stab, accompanied by his teacher

and trainer.

When they see him, the Jews run and hide. Police Sergeant

. Mitschke terrorizes the streets of Bendin, sowing death wherever

he goes.

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Make way ...

Jews must get off the side walk when a German approaches. Whole work battalions must step down when even a single German walks by.

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talking to the Judenrat. He speaks to his dog: "Tell the Jews we

want a new transport for work in the Markstadt Camp."

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Jews are thrown into the water.

Young and old -all the Jews are subject to scorn and degradation by their torturers.

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ilmJiI .'iI nNl') )/)17 "1i1') N1i1 Wlil ,))!)niI1 m111wm m\!Jun O')!)) .N')!)iI) iln')~iI 111DI'.I) 'PD)JJ '11i1'J )Jll!))

Helpless and terrified, old Jews are dragged out into the streets

and their beards cruelly plucked. I remember my brother's school

principal, Rabbi Dr. Munk, having his beard plucked on a Berlin

street in the middle of the day. He went to the synagogue with a

bandaged face, and prayed. The beard was a symbol cif a Jew's

piety. If the intention was to humiliate him and hurt him to the

(25)

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Atrocity propaganda,

Orthodox Jews are made to stand in a group. Guns,

hand grenades and knives are thrust into their hands.Thus, they

are photographed.

The photos are sent to Berlin, bearing the attached comment:

"The Jews are subversive and must be eliminated."

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(26)

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Jews are forced to pray and made fun of.

(27)

25

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Another kind of entertainment -loosing fierce dogs on people.

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(28)

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.np'1;" nn~m 'lJNJ D'iIJm;np

Even the dead may not rest in peace. Graveyards are

desecrated. The streets of Poland are paved for miles with Jewish gravestones.

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(29)

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The most horrible acts of cruelty were performed by men whose beltbuckle caption read: "God is with us",

EVE de~ gra

(30)

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8endin,1941.

They hang two of our neighbours. Their wives and small children

are forced to look on. Their elderly parents stand motionless, their

faces filled with horror, with immeasurable suffering. Our

neighbour's son, a four-year old, stares with wide, frightened eyes at his hanging father. His little face bears an indescribable

(31)

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The child in the ghetto becomes the family provider. Whenever

one saw a child in the ghetto one saw the eyes of a hunted animal, wide eyes that knew only fear, death and hunger. The

adults dared not leave the ghetto. The little ones used all kinds of

artful methods to slip out of the ghetto and beg some bread from

the Poles for their families. These expeditions frequently ended in

the child's death.

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(32)

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Bendin, 1942.

Captain Franz Polter from Breslau gathers the Jews' children

around him and shrieks; "You wanted the war!" We look at him

uncomprehendingly. Asix year old child dares to step forward.

"No uncle S.S. man. We don't want the war. We want some

bread."

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)JOJ

Bendin, 1942, in the Gestapo cellar.

My three uncles receive terrible blows. The Gestapo officer

stands, watch in hand: "Another 15 minutesl " More blows. Mutilated beyond recognition, two of my uncles were freed after signing a statement that they had been drunk and had a fight. My

third uncle never returned. He succumbed to the beating.

0: no Ben Cap arOL uncI "No brei

(34)

.1942 \:>OUlN:112 ,1'1l:l

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Bendin, Aug. 12, 1942.

All the Jews are forced onto the sports field. Mass deportation to

Auschwitz. Commissar Dreier, Dr. Messner and Kutschinsky

oversee the "selection". 16,000 from Bendin, Sosnowitz, and

Dombrowa are despatched to Auschwitz. The elderly and the

babies go to a horrible death. Dreier eats his sandwich and

shouts: "Which mother is hiding her baby?"

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The elderly, children and cripples are driven cruelly on.

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Shooting in the back of the neck was popular with the Nazis.

(37)

35

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A cold winter's day.

Jewish women are compelled to march through the streets naked and with their arms held up. Snow and ice underfoot. They will be

shot in the forest.

Sho Hun

(38)

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The "tree of life" in the hands of the Nazis became the "tree of death",

(39)

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Sosnowitz,1942. A Jewish hospital.

The hospitals are evacuated. The sick are torn from their beds, loaded into vans, and transported to Auschwitz, to the

(40)

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Sosnowitz, 1942. The maternity ward.

The infants are wrapped in pillow cases and thrown out of the

window. Their mothers are led downstairs to a black death-car. The doctors and nurses wash the blood off the tables and floors.

(41)

39

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Jewish women who are pregnant are taken into the forest and shot. The embryos in their stomachs kick for a few minutes, then are still forever.

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(42)

1942,1'1)::1 1)1 0'1;)) ~ 'l!1£l'n::1 n?J ?0 .??J lJ? ~n!lil 1'::1 )'l!D NDN Nazis, thole Itainer lIy, he nts to 3nough

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A birthday present for the camp commander's 10 year old son, Jewish babies are thrown into the air, and he shoots them,

(43)

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Bendin, 1942.

Children under the age of 12 are to be handed over to the Nazis.

Many mothers frantically search for a hiding place. My little

cousin, aged 2 years 8 months, was greatly loved by the whole

family. Much to his displeasure, he is hidden in a metal container among the coals. Knowing that it is forbidden to speak loudly, he

whispers: "Yechezkel doesn't want to lie in the coal. He wants to

sleep in daddy's bed". But one look at his mother's face is enough to persuade him that she must be obeyed.

At

(44)

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. )1?) ?'() 01il 1m . )1) ?Y'() 01il llN ~mN N? O?W? -il?)?il ?J ilr.J~Y?

This woman is from Bialystok. We met in Birkenau. We slept in the

same bunk, and she kept on whispering all night "I'll never wash

(45)

With coarse brutality children are torn out of their mothers' arms.

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(46)

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Bendin, 1942.

During the daily deportations the Nazis resort to various tactics.

The infant Yossele cries in his crib -a shot silences him forever.

His mother picks him up and runs through the street shouting:

"Look at my Yossele".

No one pays any attention. Death and madness are daily

(47)

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Bendin. Aug 1, 1943.

The city is "Judenrein", free of Jews I

All the Jews have been dragged out of beds, shelters, cellars,

attics and shipped off to Auschwitz. The laggards are shot. The bodies pile up on the streets, later loaded on to trucks, head to the right -feet to the left, then feet to the right and head to the

left. The shooting goes on for 1 0 days, leaving in its wake ruin

and destruction. Bene Durir The i His r "Loof No 0 com~

(48)

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Double walls, double floors, underground tunnels -everything is

discovered. They clutch at a straw - to no avail. The clock of life comes to a standstill.

(49)

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Babies were a danger to every hideout. Their crying could give away all the others. There was no choice. The mothers had to smother them with a pillow. This tragedy happened in many hideouts.

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(50)

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(51)

Evry day your'e hunted, every day your hiding

place, Death is always imminent. On the night of July 31, 1943, we awoke to the sounds of shooting, crying, shouting: "Jews out", We ran bowed across the yard to our hiding place, It was like a tomb under a garbage bin, My mother and father, my little brother and I, and myoid aunt. We sat pressed together, knees bended, so there would be room for all of us, We heard them herding the Jews together and sending them off, We heard shots, and child~en's wailing, We heard our neighbor, Dr, Rechtschaft shout: "My children, my children", then a shot, and silence, I hear little Luscha crying, the 5 year old daughter of my teacher, Mrs. Inwald. For ten days, shooting and shouting. Bodies are thrown

on the garbage bins. Their blood drios down on us, Later the bodies are removed and lime spread around. We almost choked. The thirst was unbearable, Suddenly we heard steps

approaching, the slat over our heads moved, and a loaf of bread and bottle of water were thrown down to us in our grave. The Polish caretaker risked his life to save ours Six weeks he fed us while we lay cramped in our harrow grave with the body of our dead aunt. On Sep. 10, 1943 we heard a voice: "I'm a German, There are Jews hiding out around here. Come with me, and I'll show you the Pole who gave them food". The police pass our hiding place and approach our house. Several Jews are dragged out and beaten, Then the Pole was brought out and beaten half to death. He was taken away and never seen again,

We went out and surrendered, We were led to the ghetto, where we were put to work creating order out of chaos,

The terrible fear, the crack through which we saw the blue sky, were things of the past. My little brother Leon no longer had to

scavenge for food at night. One night we heard shots. A hiding place had been discovered. We thought Leon WOUldn't return, but he did. He had hidden under a mattress. The Germans walked over the mattress but didn't feel him. He was 14.

He brought food and the jacket, little Yechezkel got for his secound birthday.

,.'"".

Yechezkel used to stand before the mirror, smooth the jacket with his little hand and say: "Yechezkel is pretty, Yechezkel is new". Yechezkel is gone, and his little jacket, dirty and tom, lines our hideout. Now we march, guarded by police with bayoneted rifles, to an unknown fate,

49

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1')tJl) ')N ,O'11i1' O'lnnOtJ 1NJ l'tJlUtJil" :)))!tJIU 1943 i::ltJD!)OJ 10 01'::1

lnN) nlp O'1)!~ ."1HtJ O'1)il') P!)'OI!! ')))!)il nN OJ) ilNiN l'n'N )Nn

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O'1)il') 0)) ))) )!"Ol!! I')))!)il i~n) l1))lN .01!!tJ omN ))'J)il mJY.lJ ')))!)il "?O'1)il'il O'innotJil P'il" :))))) 1ni~) n~l mJtJ )::I'P N)il .0'inN ."01)J »1)' '))'N li::l1 »1)' '))'N" :::1::1"

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(52)

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140 Jews, the last in Upper Silesia, were taken for clean up work. We found terrible destruction, blood, and filth. In almost every

home, we found bodies of dead infants, covered with flies. The

mothers did not want to take them to Auschwitz, and they hoped

someone would find the abandoned babies, hidden in chimneys,

ovens, bathtubs, wherever. When we were hiding under the

garbage, how we had envied the flies, who could come and go,

Ily freely in the Iresh air and sunlight. The bodies of the infants

were burned in the yard. Whatever objects

01

value that were

(53)

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When faced with death, the will to live wells up all the stronger.

W

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(54)

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)N~ 0)}l11') O)I!)).'I:) 0)1);1'il 1 }l11) N) O)I:)Nil .}l11) N) )iU )N O)'lI,UD .011)il)il ),U )}I ))))il nN mno iJ) )'lI))'lIill"iil )\)))'lI .0mN O)))Jm

Deported to an unknown fate. Unknown? No. The Jews sense

(55)

53

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One of the most "popular" methods for executing Jews throughout Europe was by having them dig a mass grave and then shooting them as they walked across a plank laid over the grave. Many were only wounded, and there was movement in the grave for many hours.

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(56)

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Cattle cars packed with people. Jews from allover Europe are on

(57)

55

lJ ,pmr.n mNl'il l1n? mm11 ilDl\!!lil .il))ll ilYll ,Ol:S1n?l Ol!)!)m:SD ."l111!!1N? l'1ill1 .,llN ,on

Crowded, sweating, wailing. Heavy breathing. No air. The way to

(58)
(59)

57

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The gateway to mass murder.

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(60)

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.1)\)N) nnl1n JNJ mp»l,O)))1N mp»~ .1W ilNlm N) O)W)

Auschwitz, Jan. 15, 1944.

The crematorium chimneys at Birkenau reach up to the sky. The sky is lit up by the reddish light cast by the huge flames which leap from the mouth of the chimney. The smoke, the unmistakeable stench of burnt human flesh, bears down upon the whole of Birkenau Concentration Camp. Frozen faces greet us, blows from rubber stancheons fallon our heads and back. The "selekzia" -to life or to death.

My father and little brother are torn away from us. We shall never see each again. I hear horrifying shouts, shouts of fear.

(61)

59

mY.JlllY mlY.l1Y l)nJN ,lltJY.l) 'ljl llY-'~!:ln ,1)l!:lU )YY.J OlYllp l)llD nN ,))1)

l"JJ

,"illlNtJ"il .7)1)il lPY.Jil o"pnY.J 1J'lj D1j1Y.Jil ,"illlNtJ"il llnJ D1'ljll.il ll1N O)'lj il)l) ,1)l)N ll1n ))'ljil ,ilnm) O'mn!:l mn)11 n1l1)n

,m))jll n1:JY.l il)1)Y.l ill\JljllllJil J)l

Our clothes are torn off us, Valuables must be handed over, We

stand naked in the "sauna" room, the place where the great

selection takes place, The doors and windows of the sauna, a

large building, are wide open, The snow penetrates to where we

are standing, The registration takes an entire night, and the

bureaucratic process is carried out to the accompaniment of

blows and curses,

0; Au: ThE sky fror stel Birf rub life My

seE

(62)

3S is

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,O)'~OIJ?

Blond hair, dark hair, smooth hair, curls and braids -a full sack of

women's hair, They're depriving us of our natural femininity, Women and girls become inmates, numbers,

(63)

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61

llN lll!)Yil) 11J )illil l)ll!) llN OlliJW ,1!llI!)11 Ol\J) ,n11mil 111l!l 1mD .11!)1)l!)il l11li1

Gold teeth are extracted. Gold from the mouths of the corpses is

collected before burning, to enrich The Third Reich.

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(64)

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I feel my arm ripped aside. The number 74349 is forever

embedded in my blood. This blue ink, which has seeped into my

blood, accelerates its flow, pressing me to do whatever is in my

(65)

63

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We are deloused. We are pushed, terrified, into the shower. A few drops, now hot now cold, and then we receive striped clothes, the dress of a concentration camp prisoner.

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j,.:

' . I feel m' embedd blood, a power

te

(66)

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.~'11'01N

"Here's where you live, eat, and sleep. Here you will die". With

these words we are shown to our bunk. There's a dirty blanket for

six of us sharing a space. The block is engulfed in near-darkness.

Narrow aisles separate the bunks. We are in the women's camp at Birkenau, near Auschwitz.

(67)

65

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.1p:)1Y.J -nnyn 011JlJJ)

We all stand to attention, The inmates of the entire camp stand

according to camp blocks, We wait for the black-cloaked German

commandant to complete her frozen-eyed counting of the prisoners, Thousands stand for hours in the frightful cold, with

chattering teeth and trembling knees. Roll call.

nm

m:

"Her the" six ( Nan at B

(68)

mil)]) n1):1'l i1 .1J:I from en ith lapse \ '4,1

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Singing, and to the accompaniment of an orchestra, we march off

to work. Sad faced and heavy hearted.

Jewish musicians from allover Europe play happy tunes. We march to the munitions factory "Union" in Auschwitz. "Left, left" shouts the kapo. Whoever misses a step is rewarded with blows.

The snow sticks to the wooden shoes, making it hard to keep pace. They count us as we pass the gate, again as we enter the plant, and after a 12-hour work day we are relieved by the night shift, counted again as we re-enter the camp.

(69)

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For no reason or useful purpose, women carry heavy stones from one pile to another through the mud and pit-holes. The wooden shoes are either too big or too small. Our feet are covered with

wounds and blisters.

The Kapos and dogs surround us. Many of the prisoners collapse and rise no more.

o

n1Y.l' Sin~ to ltv Jew man shot The pac! plan shift

(70)

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Hard labor, malnutrition, fear of death, work in the harsh weather, freezing cold and pouring rain, and merciless sun on the open road.

(71)

69

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The men work in the stone quarry. Many fall exhausted. New

replacements every day. The men look like monsters, their

emaciated bodies clothed in oversized striped garments, their

eyes imploring with hunger.

Hard

freezi road

(72)

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Many prisoners run to the electrified fence, In death they are

free. I had a 16 year old friend, full of life, always ready to laugh, Hanka Kaminer, pretty, vibrant, broke out of line and ran to the

(73)

71

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A cry of fear issues from the bed bunks. "Dr. Mengele is herel "

That means a "selection". Everyone to the sauna. Naked, tongue

out, hands up. Dr. Mengele's finger points left, right. Left means death.

Mercilessly, more and more are sent to the left.

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free.

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(74)

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There's no escape. Their numbers have been listed. They are surrounded and led away.

(75)

73

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The last stage follows. Under supervision of the Nazi

commanders: Hauber, Hesse and Dreksler, the victims are driven into the crematorium.

n

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(76)

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Day and night the crematorium devours countless human bodies.

In their thousands they await their turn. Jews from allover

Europe patiently await their death. The Hungarian Jews believed

what they were told -that they were going to a work camp. A period of more than 6 weeks in packed cattle carriages, without

food or air, taught them differently. Many died before reaching

Auschwitz. The train, with all its passengers, drives straight to the crematorium area. Through the fence I can see a mother buttoning her child's coat. Is she afraid he will be cold in the crematorium?

Jews from Holland and Germany stand there like children.

Incredulous. It cannont be. Is it possible that they burn people?

It must be a bakery. Bread is being baked for them. In the gas

chamber waiting rooms there are clothes' hooks. The victims

undress and carefully hang their clothes on the numbered hooks.

They are told on no account to forget the hook number.

They receive a towel and a piece of soap. The soap is made of

stone, but most of them do not notice.They are taken to the

shower, the doors close. Instead of water cyclon gas filters down.

Shrieks pierce the walls, inhuman shrieks, growing weaker and

weaker until they finally cease. The doors are opened exposing a

confusion of limbs. The gas chamber is cleaned in preparation for

(77)

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.ilDn)Oil

Everything is used for the benefit of the Reich. The bones are

crushed to powder and used as chemical fertilizer. Human skin becomes lamp shades. Hair fills mattresses. All for the war effort.

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(78)

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To save gas the villains invented new ways to commit mass

(79)

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The crematorium doesn't work fast enough, according to

authorities in Berlin. They demand that the rate of disposal be increased. So bodies are burnt in open pits in Birkenau. The

bodies are laid out carefully, alternating with layers of logs. The whole forest is afire. Children, their heads smashed, are thrown

into pits and covered with lime.

Everywhere there is killing and burning. To drown out the fearful

cries loud music is played: "How beautiful it is in the month of

May".

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(80)

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Prayer books, a briefcase, dolls, balls, shoes, passports, pictures.

The path is strewn with objects that once brought happiness to

human beings. Which child hugged this doll to its small bosom? No more. She lies in a lime-covered pit.

(81)

79

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4 a.m. A shout "Bring the coffee", rings through the barracks. We

go to bring coffee. The pot is heavy, the handles thin, our wooden

clogs get stuck in the mud. Covered wth sweat, we return and distribute the coffee. Each prisoner thirstily pours the obnoxious

black water down her throat.

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Soup distribution, The Jews receive last. The dog will taste it

before them, But he doesn't like the taste, We do, because we're

so hungry,

(83)

81

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A dirty, rusty bowl of indefinable watery liquid, called "soup", must

suffice for 4 prisoners. Whoever swallows quickly will get more

than her companions. The tin pot and the wooden ladles rattle and pound, the precious liquid spills in the pandemonium. Later, in

the Ravensbruck Concentration Camp, we got soup at 3 a.m.

They put a keg of soup in the middle of the room, everybody

pounced on it at once, the keg often overturned and the soup spilled. Everyone started lapping it up off the floor. The guard stood aside laughing heartily.

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We attack the garbage bins. Maybe someone will get lucky and

find a potato skin or piece of rotten beet to pacify his aching

(86)

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.mNl~lJ) m,,1il ")Nl D1N) 01N" i1'lD1lJil ,Ol:iNlil Ol)!'I)1"il )))) Man becomes beast. Hunger drives you mad. Best friends become arch enemies. Not everyone finds the strength to control

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Bread is often stolen at night. A piece of bread and some soup

have to last us for 24 hours. A bite every few hours has to carry

us over to morning. But sometimes thieves in the night try to steal

the hidden bread, even though they know that if they're caught they'll pay with their lives.

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Figure

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References

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