Religious Extremism in Pakistan. Reasons

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LAHORE 

LAHORE 

RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM –

RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM – REASONS

REASONS

AND REMEDIES

AND REMEDIES

BY

BY

LT CDR SAQIB HASAN PN

LT CDR SAQIB HASAN PN

2011-2012

2011-2012

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THESIS STATEMENT THESIS STATEMENT

(RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM-REASONS AND REMEDIES) (RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM-REASONS AND REMEDIES)

Pakistan got in!"!n!n#! on t$! na%! o& an i!o'og i! Is'a% T$! *!+ Pakistan got in!"!n!n#! on t$! na%! o& an i!o'og i! Is'a% T$! *!+ i

i!o!o'o'og g ,,as as aas!s!  oon n .T.T,,o o NaNattioion n T$T$!o!o++/ / &&0!0!'!'!    tt$! $! +!+!''igigiio0o0ss is#+i%ination1!2t+!%is% o& Hin0s to,a+s M0s'i%s o& 0ni*i! Inia in t$at is#+i%ination1!2t+!%is% o& Hin0s to,a+s M0s'i%s o& 0ni*i! Inia in t$at !+a T$!+!&o+!3 M0s'i%s o& S0 Contin!nt got 0nit! 0n!+ t$! &'ag o& Is'a% to !+a T$!+!&o+!3 M0s'i%s o& S0 Contin!nt got 0nit! 0n!+ t$! &'ag o& Is'a% to 'i!+at! a #o0nt+ ,$!+! t$! #o0' "+a#ti#! it ,it$o0t i#tation o& Hin0s At t$! 'i!+at! a #o0nt+ ,$!+! t$! #o0' "+a#ti#! it ,it$o0t i#tation o& Hin0s At t$! ti%! o& in!"!n!n#!3 t$! int!+na' i&&!+!n#!s a%ong M0s'i%s ,!+! so%!,$at ti%! o& in!"!n!n#!3 t$! int!+na' i&&!+!n#!s a%ong M0s'i%s ,!+! so%!,$at 'a

'ai i asasii! ! 00t t a&a&t!t!+,+,a+a+s s ,i,it$ t$ !*!*!+ !+ "a"assssining g !#!#aa!3 !3 !2!2t+t+!%!%isist t +!+!'i'igigio0o0ss *i!,"oints sta+t! s0+&a#ing T$! +!'igio0s !2t+!%is%3 o& ,$i#$ on#! M0s'i%s *i!,"oints sta+t! s0+&a#ing T$! +!'igio0s !2t+!%is%3 o& ,$i#$ on#! M0s'i%s ,!+! *i#ti%s t$!%s!'*!s3 sta+t! ,aging against &a#tions o& t$!i+ o,n +!'igion in ,!+! *i#ti%s t$!%s!'*!s3 sta+t! ,aging against &a#tions o& t$!i+ o,n +!'igion in Pakistan

Pakistan

Eit$!+ its o+igin ,as B+itis$ in40sti#! to Is'a%i# i!o'og1!0#ation sst!% Eit$!+ its o+igin ,as B+itis$ in40sti#! to Is'a%i# i!o'og1!0#ation sst!% a&t!+ 5678 9a+ o& In!"!n!n#! o+ its 'at!st t+a#!s !%anat! &+o% :ia +!gi%! a&t!+ 5678 9a+ o& In!"!n!n#! o+ its 'at!st t+a#!s !%anat! &+o% :ia +!gi%! &'o0+is$ing !2t+!%ist g+o0"s; t$! %!na#! $a !!n a %a4o+ $0+'! in Nationa' &'o0+is$ing !2t+!%ist g+o0"s; t$! %!na#! $a !!n a %a4o+ $0+'! in Nationa' Unit In aition3 !*!+ Go*!+n%!nt in Pakistan !2"'oit! i%"'!%!ntation o&  Unit In aition3 !*!+ Go*!+n%!nt in Pakistan !2"'oit! i%"'!%!ntation o&  Is'a% as 'a, o& 'an on' &o+ *i#to+ in !'!#tions B0t ,$!n t$! !si+! +!s0'ts Is'a% as 'a, o& 'an on' &o+ *i#to+ in !'!#tions B0t ,$!n t$! !si+! +!s0'ts ,!

,!+! +! nonot t ++a,a,n n   GoGo**!+!+n%n%!n!ntts3 s3 t$t$! ! "0"0'i'i# # tt0+0+nn! ! tto,o,a+a+s s +!+!'i'igigio0o0ss "a+ti!s1'o#k A so&t #o+n!+ &o+ #'!+g (!it$!+ +ig$t!o0s o+ !2t+!%ist) got i%"'ant! "a+ti!s1'o#k A so&t #o+n!+ &o+ #'!+g (!it$!+ +ig$t!o0s o+ !2t+!%ist) got i%"'ant! in t$! $!a+ts an %ins o& %ass!s as t$! &o+%!+ %ig$t +!*i*! t$! i!o'og3 Is'a% in t$! $!a+ts an %ins o& %ass!s as t$! &o+%!+ %ig$t +!*i*! t$! i!o'og3 Is'a%

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THESIS STATEMENT THESIS STATEMENT

(RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM-REASONS AND REMEDIES) (RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM-REASONS AND REMEDIES)

Pakistan got in!"!n!n#! on t$! na%! o& an i!o'og i! Is'a% T$! *!+ Pakistan got in!"!n!n#! on t$! na%! o& an i!o'og i! Is'a% T$! *!+ i

i!o!o'o'og g ,,as as aas!s!  oon n .T.T,,o o NaNattioion n T$T$!o!o++/ / &&0!0!'!'!    tt$! $! +!+!''igigiio0o0ss is#+i%ination1!2t+!%is% o& Hin0s to,a+s M0s'i%s o& 0ni*i! Inia in t$at is#+i%ination1!2t+!%is% o& Hin0s to,a+s M0s'i%s o& 0ni*i! Inia in t$at !+a T$!+!&o+!3 M0s'i%s o& S0 Contin!nt got 0nit! 0n!+ t$! &'ag o& Is'a% to !+a T$!+!&o+!3 M0s'i%s o& S0 Contin!nt got 0nit! 0n!+ t$! &'ag o& Is'a% to 'i!+at! a #o0nt+ ,$!+! t$! #o0' "+a#ti#! it ,it$o0t i#tation o& Hin0s At t$! 'i!+at! a #o0nt+ ,$!+! t$! #o0' "+a#ti#! it ,it$o0t i#tation o& Hin0s At t$! ti%! o& in!"!n!n#!3 t$! int!+na' i&&!+!n#!s a%ong M0s'i%s ,!+! so%!,$at ti%! o& in!"!n!n#!3 t$! int!+na' i&&!+!n#!s a%ong M0s'i%s ,!+! so%!,$at 'a

'ai i asasii! ! 00t t a&a&t!t!+,+,a+a+s s ,i,it$ t$ !*!*!+ !+ "a"assssining g !#!#aa!3 !3 !2!2t+t+!%!%isist t +!+!'i'igigio0o0ss *i!,"oints sta+t! s0+&a#ing T$! +!'igio0s !2t+!%is%3 o& ,$i#$ on#! M0s'i%s *i!,"oints sta+t! s0+&a#ing T$! +!'igio0s !2t+!%is%3 o& ,$i#$ on#! M0s'i%s ,!+! *i#ti%s t$!%s!'*!s3 sta+t! ,aging against &a#tions o& t$!i+ o,n +!'igion in ,!+! *i#ti%s t$!%s!'*!s3 sta+t! ,aging against &a#tions o& t$!i+ o,n +!'igion in Pakistan

Pakistan

Eit$!+ its o+igin ,as B+itis$ in40sti#! to Is'a%i# i!o'og1!0#ation sst!% Eit$!+ its o+igin ,as B+itis$ in40sti#! to Is'a%i# i!o'og1!0#ation sst!% a&t!+ 5678 9a+ o& In!"!n!n#! o+ its 'at!st t+a#!s !%anat! &+o% :ia +!gi%! a&t!+ 5678 9a+ o& In!"!n!n#! o+ its 'at!st t+a#!s !%anat! &+o% :ia +!gi%! &'o0+is$ing !2t+!%ist g+o0"s; t$! %!na#! $a !!n a %a4o+ $0+'! in Nationa' &'o0+is$ing !2t+!%ist g+o0"s; t$! %!na#! $a !!n a %a4o+ $0+'! in Nationa' Unit In aition3 !*!+ Go*!+n%!nt in Pakistan !2"'oit! i%"'!%!ntation o&  Unit In aition3 !*!+ Go*!+n%!nt in Pakistan !2"'oit! i%"'!%!ntation o&  Is'a% as 'a, o& 'an on' &o+ *i#to+ in !'!#tions B0t ,$!n t$! !si+! +!s0'ts Is'a% as 'a, o& 'an on' &o+ *i#to+ in !'!#tions B0t ,$!n t$! !si+! +!s0'ts ,!

,!+! +! nonot t ++a,a,n n   GoGo**!+!+n%n%!n!ntts3 s3 t$t$! ! "0"0'i'i# # tt0+0+nn! ! tto,o,a+a+s s +!+!'i'igigio0o0ss "a+ti!s1'o#k A so&t #o+n!+ &o+ #'!+g (!it$!+ +ig$t!o0s o+ !2t+!%ist) got i%"'ant! "a+ti!s1'o#k A so&t #o+n!+ &o+ #'!+g (!it$!+ +ig$t!o0s o+ !2t+!%ist) got i%"'ant! in t$! $!a+ts an %ins o& %ass!s as t$! &o+%!+ %ig$t +!*i*! t$! i!o'og3 Is'a% in t$! $!a+ts an %ins o& %ass!s as t$! &o+%!+ %ig$t +!*i*! t$! i!o'og3 Is'a%

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T$

T$! ! $a$a'& '& #o#ookok! ! anan  0n0n!!+ + "+"+i*i*i'i'!g!g! ! #'#'!+!+g g totook ok '!'!a a anan  t$t$!i!i+ +  in#

in#o%"o%"'!t'!t! ! t!at!a#$in#$ings gs asas! ! on on $at$at+! +! stasta+t!+t!  ta+ta+g!tg!ting ing #o%#o%%on %on %an%an  T$!T$! 0'ti%

0'ti%at! "+o0#t ,as at! "+o0#t ,as into'into'!+an#!3 ,$it!+an#!3 ,$it! #o''a+ 'ooting3 !%otio! #o''a+ 'ooting3 !%otiona' 'a#k %ai'ing3na' 'a#k %ai'ing3 #on

#on&i&is#s#atatining g 'a'anns s on on t$t$! ! nana%! %! o& o& %o%os<s<0!s0!s1%1%a+a+!ss!ssa$s a$s an an so so %0%0#$ #$ so3so3 o+ganis! #+i%! 0n!+ t$! ga+ o& +!'igion Un#$!#k! a#ti*iti!s o& t$! +!'igio0s o+ganis! #+i%! 0n!+ t$! ga+ o& +!'igion Un#$!#k! a#ti*iti!s o& t$! +!'igio0s  4i$aist

 4i$aist &a#tions &a#tions a&t!+ a&t!+ A&g$an 9a+ A&g$an 9a+ 5=8=-5=6= 5=8=-5=6= an an o& o& >as$%i+ >as$%i+ *a''! *a''! a! a! %0'ti%0'ti i%!nsiona' "+o'!%s &o+ La, En&o+#!%!nt Ag!n#i!s (LEAs) &o+ #$!#ks an i%!nsiona' "+o'!%s &o+ La, En&o+#!%!nt Ag!n#i!s (LEAs) &o+ #$!#ks an a'an#!s in "ost #on&'i#t !+a3 a't$o0g$ s"onso+!  t$! !a+'i!+ go*!+n%!nts a'an#!s in "ost #on&'i#t !+a3 a't$o0g$ s"onso+!  t$! !a+'i!+ go*!+n%!nts t$!%s!'*!s

t$!%s!'*!s

T$! !"iso!s o& Mi'ita+ O"!+ation in ?ATA1So0t$ 9a@i+istan an o& .La' T$! !"iso!s o& Mi'ita+ O"!+ation in ?ATA1So0t$ 9a@i+istan an o& .La' Mas4i/ a! &0!' to &i+! an t$! s!+i!s s0i#i! atta#ks3 o% 'asts an o*!+t Mas4i/ a! &0!' to &i+! an t$! s!+i!s s0i#i! atta#ks3 o% 'asts an o*!+t as%%!t+i# atta#ks  +!'igio0s !2t+!%ists on Go*!+n%!nt an A+%! ?o+#!s as%%!t+i# atta#ks  +!'igio0s !2t+!%ists on Go*!+n%!nt an A+%! ?o+#!s ,o

,o+s+s!n!n! ! t$t$! ! sisit0t0atatioion n IsIs'a'a% % onon#! #! t$t$! ! ii!o!o'o'og g o& o& PaPakikiststan an ,a,as s %a%a!! isi''0sion!  its !n!%i!s t$+o0g$ ,aging +!'igio0s +ai#a'is% T$! sit0ation not isi''0sion!  its !n!%i!s t$+o0g$ ,aging +!'igio0s +ai#a'is% T$! sit0ation not on' $as #on&0s! t$! g!n!+a' "0'i# ao0t i%ag! o& Is'a% 0t t$is "!+i' $as a'so on' $as #on&0s! t$! g!n!+a' "0'i# ao0t i%ag! o& Is'a% 0t t$is "!+i' $as a'so !!n !sta'is$! as a s!*!+! int!+na' t$+!at to t$! #o0nt+

!!n !sta'is$! as a s!*!+! int!+na' t$+!at to t$! #o0nt+

(In

(In thithis s bacbac!"#!"#$ $ anaana%&s%&s' ' th' th' "'a"'as#ns#ns s # # "'%"'%i)ii)i#*s #*s '+t"'+t"',i',is, s, inin aistan an! $#ssib%' "','!ia% ,'as*"'s./

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RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM IN AISTAN – REASONS AND REMEDIES RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM IN AISTAN – REASONS AND REMEDIES

ATER – I ATER – I INTRODUTION INTRODUTION

Pakistan ,as t$! -"+o0#t o& +!'!nt'!ss st+0gg'! o& t$! "!o"'! o& Pakistan ,as t$! -"+o0#t o& +!'!nt'!ss st+0gg'! o& t$! "!o"'! o& S0-Con

Contintin!nt !nt i++i++!s"!!s"!#ti#ti*! *! o& o& +!'+!'igiigion3 on3 #o'#o'o0+ o0+ an an #+!!#+!!  T$! T$! +!#o+!#ognignitiotion n o& o& t$at$att st+0gg'! &o+ Pakistan ,as 0' gi*!n to #o%%0niti!s ot$!+ t$an M0s'i%s  Q0ai st+0gg'! &o+ Pakistan ,as 0' gi*!n to #o%%0niti!s ot$!+ t$an M0s'i%s  Q0ai ! A@a% T$! g+!at '!a!+ +!&0s! to !#o%! "a+t o& .>$i'a&at Mo*!%!nt/ in ! A@a% T$! g+!at '!a!+ +!&0s! to !#o%! "a+t o& .>$i'a&at Mo*!%!nt/ in 5=s3 a

5=s3 a "0+! M0s'i% %o*!%!nt"0+! M0s'i% %o*!%!nt3 3 so t$at so t$at it s$o0' not it s$o0' not #ast! a #ast! a +!'igi+!'igio0s1Mo0s1M0s'i%- 0s'i%-on' s$ao, on anti- B+itis$ %o*!%!nt In t$is #onn!#tion $! sai t$at3 it ,as a on' s$ao, on anti- B+itis$ %o*!%!nt In t$is #onn!#tion $! sai t$at3 it ,as a #+i%! to %i2 0" "o'iti#s an +!'igion t$! ,a ,! $a on!

#+i%! to %i2 0" "o'iti#s an +!'igion t$! ,a ,! $a on! 55

 At anot$!+

 At anot$!+ o##asion o##asion inna$ as inna$ as t$! !signat! Go*!+nt$! !signat! Go*!+no+-G!n!+a' stat! o+-G!n!+a' stat! inin t$! &i+st Constit0!nt Ass!%' o& Pakistan on 55 A0g0st 5=F83 o0 %a !'ong t$! &i+st Constit0!nt Ass!%' o& Pakistan on 55 A0g0st 5=F83 o0 %a !'ong to an +!'igion o+ #ast! o+ #+!!    t$at $as not$ing to o ,it$ t$! 0sin!ss o&  to an +!'igion o+ #ast! o+ #+!!    t$at $as not$ing to o ,it$ t$! 0sin!ss o&  t$! stat!    9! a+! sta+ting in t$! as ,$!n t$!+! is no is#+i%ination3 no t$! stat!    9! a+! sta+ting in t$! as ,$!n t$!+! is no is#+i%ination3 no istin#tion !t,!!n on! #o%%0nit an

istin#tion !t,!!n on! #o%%0nit an anot$!+ anot$!+ 

Cont+a+ to t$! #'!a+ *ision o& ?o0n!+ o& Nation3 a&t!+ $is !%is!3 it $as Cont+a+ to t$! #'!a+ *ision o& ?o0n!+ o& Nation3 a&t!+ $is !%is!3 it $as a',as !!n !n!a*o0+!  t$! M0s'i% #'!+g to i%"'!%!nt Is'a% as La, o& a',as !!n !n!a*o0+!  t$! M0s'i% #'!+g to i%"'!%!nt Is'a% as La, o& Lan On t$! sa%! not! t$! $a*! &ai'! !it$!+ in "+o*iing an ,+itt!n Is'a%i# Lan On t$! sa%! not! t$! $a*! &ai'! !it$!+ in "+o*iing an ,+itt!n Is'a%i# &+a%!,o+k !*!+ &o+ i%"'!%!ntation Po'iti#a' '!a!+s$i" a'so 0s! Is'a% to &+a%!,o+k !*!+ &o+ i%"'!%!ntation Po'iti#a' '!a!+s$i" a'so 0s! Is'a% to !'ongat! t$!i+ +0'! on' an got t$! +!'igio0s #'!+i#s ass!%'! &o+ t$! "0+"os! !'ongat! t$!i+ +0'! on' an got t$! +!'igio0s #'!+i#s ass!%'! &o+ t$! "0+"os!

1

1 $tt"11 $tt"11 $tt"11,,,$tt"11,,,a%a@on#o%1ia%a@on#o%1inna$-Inia-Pa+titinna$-Inia-Pa+tition-In!"!n!n#!-as,ant1on-In!"!n!n#!-as,ant1"165=55"165=558686

2

2T$! Constit0!nt Ass!%' o& Pakistan D!at!s3 >a+a#$i3 *o'0%! 5T$! Constit0!nt Ass!%' o& Pakistan D!at!s3 >a+a#$i3 *o'0%! 5 3 n0%!+ 3 3 n0%!+ 3 55 A55 A0g0st 5=F80g0st 5=F8 " 5 <0ot! in ,,,,iki"!ia#o%

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Un!+ G!n!+a' :ia/s Is'a%isation (5=88-5=66) a s!a #$ang! ,as os!+*! an Is'a% ,as o"!n' 0s! as a too' to &0+t$!+ t$! +0'! o& t$! G!n!+a' Sunni 

-Shia #on&'i#t "+os"!+! %0#$ 0+ing t$! G!n!+a'/s +!gi%! in 6s an +!a#$! its "!ak in =s R!'igio0s %i'itan#3 t!++o+ atta#ks3 %a+!ssa$ #0't0+! an +0gs

"+o'i&!+ation a'so oo%! 0+ing t$! "!+io

Si%i'a+' A&g$an ,a+3 >as$%i+ &+!!o% st+0gg'! an t$! $ost o& si%i'a+  M0s'i% s0&&!+ings a#+oss t$! g'o! a&&o+! ,i!+ s0""o+t an a##!"tai'it to %i'itant +!'igio0s %o*!%!nts in t$! na%! o& i$a T$is !2t+!%is% &o0n !2"+!ssion in t$! =155 !*!nts an is toa *i!,! as a t$+!at to t$! g'oa' "!a#!F Cons!<0!nt'3 t$! Unit! Stat! '! ,a+ in A&g$anistan an in*asion o& 

I+a< a! n!, i%!nsion to t$! +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% an +!in&o+#! M0s'i%s/

$at+! against t$! US an t$! 9!st 7

T$is "a"!+ is ai%! at is#0ssing t$! +oots o& +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% an s0gg!sts t$! +!%!i!s a&t!+ is#0ssing t$! !&&!#ts o& t$is %!na#! on Pakistani so#i!t T$! "a"!+ $as !!n !*!'o"! in t$! &o''o,ing s!<0!n#!

a C$a"t!+ IInt+o0#tion

 C$a"t!+ II Roots o& +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% in S0-Contin!nt an

t$!n in Pakistan

# C$a"t!+ III E&&!#ts o& +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% on Pakistan

 C$a"t!+ IJ 9a ?o+,a+ an R!#o%%!nations

3Hasan Aas 3 Pakistan/s D+i&t into E2t+!%is% (N!, o+k An East Gat! Book3 7) " 5

4ona$ A'!2an!+3 Co%ating T!++o+is%3 St+at!gi!s o& T!n Co0nt+i!s3 Ann A+o+ Uni*!+sit o& Mi#$igan P+!ss3 USA3 Manas P0'i#ations3 N!, D!$'i3 3 " 8

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(8)

ATER-II

ROOTS O3 RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM IN SUB-ONTINENT AND TEN IN AISTAN

T$! +oots o& +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% #an ! t+a#! a#k &+o%  0n! 5676 ,$!n B+itis$ East Inia Co%"an !sta'is$! t$!i+ #o'onia' +0'! a&t!+ !&!ating

M0g$a' nast in t$! S0-Contin!ntK M0s'i%s 'a0n#$! an a+%! +!sistan#! a

!a+ !&o+! &o+ t$!i+ in!"!n!n#! ,$i#$ &ai'! %is!+a' T$! B+itis$ ao"t! &a%o0s "o'i# o& .i*i! an +0'!/ to s0""+!ss t$!%

T$! $a a nat0+a' a''ian#! ,it$ Hin0s against M0s'i%s !#a0s! o& %an +!asons P+i%a+ ,as t$! o' ag! Hin0 #on#!"t o& M0s'i% +0'!+s as 0s0+"!+s t$!+!&o+! an "o,!+ ass0+ing t$! .0s0+"!+s/ not +!gaining t$! +0'! ,as t$!i+ ,!''

,is$!+ S!#on'3 t$! #o%%on B+itis$ %!%o+ $a not &o+gott!n t$! #+0sa!s83

+!%!%!+ing M0s'i%s as !n!%i!s T$is !#a%! on! o& t$! +!asons o& $at+! a%ong M0s'i%s an B+itis$

T$! !%!+g!n#! o& M0s'i% #'!+g (%0''a$) ,as t$! !"iso! o& t$is *!+ !+a ,$!n 40st to o""os! t$! B+itis$3 t$! 'at!+ 'o#k! !*!+ o""o+t0nit o& "+os"!+it an #ont!%"o+a+ !0#ation ?i2at! "oint o& *i!, to,a+s +!'igion3 !%!+ging %o!+n ,o+'3 s#i!nti&i# in*!ntions +at$!+ !*!+ o""o+t0nit o& k!!"ing "a#! ,it$ +a"i "a#! ,o+' ,as ann!  t$! #'!+g E2a%"'!s ,!+! &o+iing Eng'is$ 'ang0ag!3 s#i!nti&i# !0#ation3 "$otog+a"$3 !nt!+tain%!nt3 'o0 s"!ak!+s3 ,!a+ing o& t+o0s!+s an s$i+ts to #o%%on M0s'i%s

T$! sa%! ,as against t$! t!a#$ings o& Is'a% sin#!3 T$! P+o"$!t

6 http://www.radianceweekly.com/48/165/muslims-and-1857-war-o-independence/2!!6-12-31/co"er-story/story-detail/muslims-and-1857-war-o-independence.html

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M0$a%%a ("!a#! ! 0"on $i%) sai: "The seeking of knowledge is obligatory  for every Muslim." 6

To #o0nt!+ t$! !0#ationa' 'a"s!s a%ong M0s'i%s3 a M0s'i% s#$o'a+ Si+  S! &o0n! t$! Maa+sat0' U'oo% in A'iga+$ In 5687 His o4!#ti*! ,as to 0i' a #o''!g! in t0n! ,it$ t$! B+itis$ !0#ation sst!% 0t ,it$o0t #o%"+o%ising its Is'a%i# *a'0!s= B0t again t$! .M0''a$/ ,as t$! igg!st $0+'!

T$! t$+as$! t$! #on#!"t o& Eng'is$ !0#ation ,it$ Is'a%i# on! an !#'a+! Si+ S! as .ka&i+/(in&i!')

So%! o& t$! $isto+i# &a#to+s #ont+i0ting to t$is %!na#! in Pakistan a+! o&  0ni*i! Inia/s o+igin Sa%! a+! as &o''o,s

A",'! #n%ict B't4''n B"itish an! M*s%i,sT$! M0s'i%s in S0-Contin!nt +!!''! against B+itis$ in 5678 M0s'i% so'i!+s +!!''! against t$! ins0'ting !$a*io0+ o& t$!i+ s0"!+io+s3 ki''! B+itis$ o&&i#!+s3 &+!! t$!i+ #o%+a!s an !st+o! t$! Co%"an o&&i#!s5 Soon t$! sa%! ,as !2t!n! a'' o*!+ 

Inian soi' 0t ,as o*!+#o%! an #+0s$! +0ta''  t$! B+itis$ T$os! #on*i#t! o& .%0tin/ ,!+! 'as$! to t$! %0@@'!s o& #annon an &i+! t$+o0g$ t$!i+ o55 T$! !t!ntion an !"o+tations o& t$! M0s'i% a#ti*ists to .>a'a Pani/

(Ana%an Is'ans) #ontin0! &o+ !#a!s a&t!+ A%a'a (56KF) an Patna (5685) +!sistan#! att'!s T$! %04a$iin s$o,! ga''ant+ an #o0+ag! against t$!

8 A'-Ti+%i$i3 Hait$ 8F <0ot! in

$tt"11,,,is'a%a,a+!n!ssn!t1>no,'!g!1kno,'!g!a+ti#'!5$t%'

%  $tt"11a'iga+$%o*!%!nt#o%1si+s!

1! $tt"11,,,+aian#!,!!k'#o%1F615K71%0s'i%s-an-5678-,a+-o&-in!"!n!n#!1K-5-51#o*!+-sto+1sto+-!tai'1%0s'i%s-an-5678-,a+-o&-in!"!n!n#!$t%'

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B+itis$ t+oo"s 0+ing t$! sai att'!s5 T$!s! !"iso!s %a! M0s'i%s an B+itis$

nat0+a' !''ig!+!nts o& !a#$ ot$!+ an in#0'#at! !'!%!nt o& %i'itan# in Inian M0s'i%s &o+ &+!!o%

*nt'" R'$#"t T$! B+itis$ t0+n! &i!+#!' on M0s'i%s as t$!i+ +!a' !n!%i!s an !n!a*o0+! to "0t an !n to t$! !$a %o*!%!nt3 ,$i#$ .s!itio0s

9a$ais/ $a 'a0n#$!5On  Ma3 5685 Lo+ Mao3 ,$o ,as an I+is$ an

S!#+!ta+ in B+itis$ !, PM M+ Dis+a!'i/s Minist+3 ask! a #i*i'ian 99 H0nt!+ to ,+it! a +!"o+t on t$! 0+ning <0!stion o& t$! a 9$!t$!+ t$! Inian M0s'i%s ,!+! #o%"!''!  t$!i+ &ait$ to +!!' against t$! B+itis$ +0'! 5F

H0nt!+ "0'is$! $is +!"o+t (!2#!+"ts a+! gi*!n in A$$'n!i+-I) in 5685 0n!+ t$! tit'! .T$! Inian M0sa'a%ans A+! t$! o0n in #ons#i!n#! to +!!' against t$! Q0!!n/ H! #on#'0! on "ag! 5= o& $is +!"o+t

T$! ,$o'! >o+an ,as as! 0"on t$! #on#!"tion o& t$! M0sa'%ans as a #on<0!+ing an not as a #on<0!+! "!o"'! It ,as $o"!'!ss to 'ook &o+  ant$ing 'ik! !nt$0siasti# 'oa't &+o% o0+ M0$a%%a!n s04!#ts57

On "ag! 55 o& t$! sa%! +!"o+t $! ,+it!s T$! M0sa'%ans o& Inia a+! an $a*! !!n &o+ %an !a+s a so0+#! o& #$+oni# ang!+ to t$! B+itis$ Po,!+ in Inia5K

12 $tt"11a'$a&!!@o+g1+as$i1+itis$-4!,is$14#5$t% +!t+i!*! on 5 No* 55

13 Ii 14 Ii 15&uoted in htt"11ooksgoog'!#o%"k1ooks it96BAAAAQAA"gPA=so0+#!gsto#+#aF*on!"ag!<M0$a%%a!n s04!#ts&&a's! 16 Ii

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T$!+!&o+! t$! B+itis$ !sti%at! t$at Inian M0s'i%s ,!+! t$!i+ ,o+st !n!%i!s an t$!+!&o+! sta+t! ta+g!ting t$!% t$! %ost

B"itish S*$$#"t t# M*sh"##, 5a"i#*s R'%i)i#*s 3acti#nsAs !n0n#iat! in t$! Q0!!n/s P+o#'a%ation (5676)3 %an +!'igio0s a*!nt0+!+s ,!+! +o0g$t o0t in t$! +!'igio0s .%a+k!t/ o& Inia ,it$ t$!i+ ."+o0#ts  B+itis$ in*a!+s T$! I%"!+ia'ist/s *!+ o,n +!'igio0s "'antation ,it$in Is'a% ,as Qaiani &a#tion Mi+@a G$0a'% A$%! Qaiani3 '!a!+ o& Qaiani g+o0" ,as #$os!n &o+  t$! +o'! o& a &ak! "+o"$!t3 so t$at t$! M0s'i%s ,o0' gat$!+ a+o0n $i% an $! ,o0' ist+a#t t$!% &+o% ,aging 4i$aa against t$! Eng'is$ #o'onia'ists58

 A%ong M0s'i%s %an s!#ts an s0-s!#ts s"+ang T$!+! ,!+! Nat0+ists3  Hait$3 A$'! Q0+an (C$ak+a',is)3 "a#i&ist S0&is3 D!oani3 Ba+!'*i3 A$'-!-Hait$3 !si!s t,o 'a+g!+ S$ia an S0nni g+o0"s T$! ,$o'! Inian so#i!t ,as i*i! into a 'a+g! n0%!+ o& $osti'! g+o0"s a'' o& ,$o% ,!+! itt!+' at ,a+ ,it$ !a#$ ot$!+ 56 T$! B+itis$ !2"'oit! t$! sa%! in t$!i+ o,n &a*o0+ an !2t+!%is%

"+!*ai'! in t$! so#i!t !#a0s! o& t$! t,o&o' a#ts; o& t$! o""+!sso+ (&0!'ing t$! i&&!+!n#!s into o%!sti# *io'!n#!) an o""+!ss! (not 0niting against B+itis$) ot$

Initiati#n # R'%i)i#*s Mi%itanc&M!%!+s o& t$! >$i'a&at Co%%itt!! iss0! a &at,a s0""o+ting t$! non-#oo"!+ation %o*!%!nt in 0' 5= a*o#at!  Gan$i T$! &at,a3 "0'is$! in t$! A'4a%iaat U+0 ai' o& D!'$i3 ,as sign!  7 0'!%a !#'a+ing t$! B+itis$ go*!+n%!nt as $a+aa% ("+o$iit!  t$!

17 $tt"11a'$a&!!@o+g1+as$i1+itis$-4!,is$14#5$t% +!t+i!*! on 5 No* 55

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S$a+ia3 t$! Is'a%i# La,) an o*!+t$+o, it  &o+#!5= T$is initiat! t$! !'!%!nt o& 

+!'igio0s %i'itan# in t$! s0 #ontin!nt ,$i#$ $a t$! 'ong 'asting i%"+!ssions in t$! $isto+ to #o%!

Ec#n#,ic "ac!#4n #n M*s%i,sBanning t$! %o!+n !0#ation $a it s i%"'i#ations M0s'i%s ,$o i not ,ant to '!a*! t$! +!'igio0s !'!%!nts3 ,!+! !"+i*! o& go*!+n%!nt 4os3 'at!st an in t0+n t$!i+ !#ono%i#a' #onitions !#a%! ,o+s! T$! B+itis$ att+i0t! t$! ,a+ o& 5678 to t$! M0s'i%s a'on! As a +!s0't3 "+o"!+t !'onging to M0s'i%s ,as #on&is#at! an t$! ,!+! !ni! !%"'o%!nt o""o+t0niti!s !*!+,$!+! in t$! a+%3 +!*!n0! !"a+t%!nt3 an  40i#ia+

aistan a,' Int# B'in) Inh'"itin) R'%i)i#*s E+t"',is,On an o##asion inna$ sai T$! g+!at %a4o+it o& 0s a+! M0s'i%s 9! &o''o, t$! t!a#$ings o& t$! P+o"$!t Mo$a%%a (PBUH) 9! a+! %!%!+s o& t$! +ot$!+$oo o& Is'a% in ,$i#$ a'' a+! !<0a' in +ig$t3 ignit an s!'&-+!s"!#t Cons!<0!nt'3 ,! $a*! a s"!#ia' an a *!+ !!" s!ns! o& 0nit B0t %ak! no %istak! Pakistan is not a t$!o#+a# o+ ant$ing 'ik! it5

Is'a%i# D!%o#+a#3 as !n*ision!  &o0ning &at$!+ &ai'! to tak! +oots an Is'a% ,as "o'iti#is! &o+ ini*i0a' gains in Pakistan T$! +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% in Pakistan #an ! s!g+!gat! in t$+!! !+as; "ost Pakistan3 "ost #o' ,a+ an "ost =155

1%

$tt"11,,,inian%0s'i%sin&o1a+ti#'!s1&i+o@ak$ta$%!1+o'!%a+asas5678,a+in!"!n!n #!$t%' +!t+i!*! on 5F D!# 55

2! $tt"11,,,sto+o&"akistan#o%1a+ti#'!t!2tas"a+tiA +!t+i!*! on  No* 55

21 G$a@a'i3 A0' Satta+3 .Is'a%i# Pakistan3 I''0sions an R!a'it3 (Nationa' Book C'03 Is'a%aa 5===) <0ot! in $tt"11g$a@a'in!t1ook51#$a"t!+5$t% C$a"t!+ 5 +!t+i!*! on 5F D!# 55

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#st aistan E"a (1678 – 1661.

T$is "!+io #an &0+t$!+ ! s0-i*i! in t$+!! "!+ios t$at is3 &+o% 5=F8  5=883 &+o% 5=88  5=66 an &+o% 5=66-5==5 

1678 t# 1688 - Disa)"'','nt b't4''n R'%i)i#*s an! M#!'"nistsThis  period can be characterised as a clash of interpretations between the Islamic 

modernists and orthodox lemas over the role of Islam in the state.!!  ?i+st st!"

to,a+s Pakistan/s Is'a%isation ,as t$! O4!#ti*!s R!so'0tion o& 5=F= The

constitutional drafters followed the guidance of the obectives resolution# and  $akistan was declared an Islamic %epublic in &'().!*The preamble to the &'()  +onstitution prohibited any laws ,repugnant- to Islam as set forth in uran and  Sunnah!( 

Lat!+ t$! &')! +onstitution# given by /yub0s regime# added an additional 

 phrase to repugnancy clause that no law shall be repugnant to the teachings and  re1uirements of Islam as set out in 2oly uran and Sunnah!)  A g'i%"s! o& 

+!'igio0s %i'itan# ,as os!+*! 0+ing 5=85 ,a+ !t,!!n Inia an Pakistan ,$!n t,o a+%! ,ings o& a%aat-!- Is'a%i na%!' .A'-Ba+/ an .A'-S$a%s/ &o0g$t against .M0kti Ba$ini/ G0!++i''as in t$! t$!n East Pakistan T$at %i'itan#

22 Asa%a a<oo3 M0s'i% as an I!ntit G+o0" in So0t$ Asia3 R!giona' St0i!s3 A0t0%n 3 "=6

23 Hassan Aas3 Pakistan/s D+i&t into E2t+!%is% (N!, o+k An East Gat! Book3 7)3 "5K6

24 Ii3 "5KK

25 ?a+oo< H0ss!in3 R!'igio0s Li!+t in Pakistan La,3 R!a'it an P!+#!"tion3 C0++!nt A&&ai+s3 D!#!%!+ F3 "55

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,as a't$o0g$ in t$! &a*o0+ o& t$! stat! 0t $o,!*!+ +!&'!#t! t$! t+a#!s o&  %i'itan# in M0s'i%s o& Pakistan8

T$! 5=8 #onstit0tion3 gi*!n  3hotto regime# formally establish Islam as

the state religion in $akistan!4  3hutto also tried to counter the political nuisance value of the conservative religious parties by conceding to a number of their   political demands# ... banning the consumption of alcohol and declaring the

5riday as weekly holiday !'

1688 t# 1699 – G'n'"a% :ia;s B"an! # Is%a,T$! G!n!+a'/s "!+io t$at &o''o,! B$0tto sa, t$! a''-!n#o%"assing VIs'a%isationV o& Pakistan/s so#io-"o'iti#a' st+0#t0+! Constit0tiona' a%!n%!nts +!s0't! in t,o signi&i#ant aitions

to t$! Constit0tiona' st+0#t0+! article (&6*/7 6to bar non8Muslims from voting in

general elections7 and article !!9 6to bring all existing laws into conformity with 2oly uran and Sunnah7. The Islamic laws include 2adood rdinance# ;ina rdinance# ;akat rdinance# $roperty rdinance# anun8e8Shahadat rder and  3lasphemy <aw => 

Ma4o+ a%!n%!nts in Pakistan P!na' Co! in#'0! (Un!+ B'as"$!%

La,)3 Section !'(3 6?efiling the 2oly uran: $unishment8Imprisonment for life7

and Section !'(+ 6se of derogatory remarks with respect to the 2oly $rophet: $unishment8 death@ imprisonment for life7 5 5ederal Shariat +ourt and the

27 $tt"11,,,+itanni#a#o%1EB#$!#k!1to"i#1758K1Bang'a!s$1887671Bang'a!s$-sin#!-in!"!n!n#!

28 ?a+oo< H0ss!in3 O"#it 5

2% As%a a<oo3 O"#it

3! Sa'%an Ak+a% Ra4a Is'a%isation o& La,s in Pakistan3 C0++!nt A&ai+s3 an0a+ F3 "F

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Shariat /ppellate 3ench of the Supreme +ourt were established under udicial  reforms=!  T$is !+a in#'0!s t,o i%"o+tant !*!nts o& 5=8=3 t$! Is'a%i# +!*o'0tion

in I+an an t$! So*i!t in*asion in A&g$anistan

I"anian R'<#%*ti#n5=8= I+anian +!*o'0tion #an ! t!+%! as a %a4o+  +!ason &o+ !!"!ning s!#ta+ian i*isions an *io'!n#! T$! "ost +!*o'0tion I+an ao"t! as a %att!+ o& "o'i# t$! s"+!a o& S$ia i!as

 As a +!s0't3 TN? (T!$+ik-!-Na&a@-!-?i<a$-!-a&&+ia) !%!+g! as a

"+!ss0+! g+o0" in Pakistan an t$! S$ia #o%%0nit !#a%! %o+! *o#a' an

%i'itant T$! !ns0ing !a+s ,itn!ss! in#+!asing S$ia a#ti*is% an %i'itan#; an st+ong S0nni a#k'as$F T$! !%!+g!n#! o& An40%an Si"a$-!-Sa$aa

(ASS)3 'at!+ +!na%! Si"a$-!-Sa$aa Pakistan (SSP)3 in 5=6 ,it$ st+ong anti-S$ia o4!#ti*!s ,as a #'!a+ %ani&!station7 T$is ,as t$! !ginning o& s!#ta+ian

#on&'i#t in t$! #o0nt+ ,it$ !2t!+na' s0""o+t

A)han =a" So*i!t in*asion o& A&g$anistan in 5=8= ,as a t0+ning "oint t$at +o0g$t t$! +i*a'+ o& t,o s0"!+"o,!+s (US an USSR) into Pakistan/s n!ig$o0+$oo :ia +!gi%! o&&!+! to "'a +o'! o& a &+ont'in! stat! an so0g$t "o'iti#a'3 !#ono%i# an %i'ita+ s0""o+t &+o% US It ,as #onsi!+! n!#!ssa+ to %oi'is! +!'igio0s &!!'ings an i$ai s"i+it &o+ A&g$an +!sistan#! S0s!<0!nt'3 !2t+!%ist !'!%!nts ('ik! a%aat-!-Is'a%i3 a%iat-!-U'!%a-!-Is'a% an 0%iat-!-U'!%a-!-Pakistan) ,!+! !n#o0+ag! an i$ai s!nti%!nts ,!+! s0""o+t!

32 'alman (kram )a*a+ ,pcit+ p.52. 33 uhammad (mir )ana+,pcit+p.113.

34 # )eport+ 0he 'tate o 'ectarianism in akistan+(pril+2!!5

35 ariam ($ou aha$+ 0he )eional imensions o 'ectarian onlicts in akistan+ ("aila$le on www.ceri-sciences-po.or + accessed on 28 9an 2!12.

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a'ong,it$ 'i!+a' &0ns "+o*i! to g+o0"s an instit0tions &o+ t+aining A&g$an an ot$!+ M0s'i% nationa's &+o% a $ost o& #o0nt+i!s to ,ag! ,a+ against So*i!tsK

R!'igio0s s#$oo's %0'ti"'i! 0+ing t$is "!+io an  t$! ti%! A&g$an ,a+ !n! in 5=6=3 i$ai #0't0+! $a a#<0i+! !!" +oots in Pakistani so#i!t

Ris' # Ethnic G"#*$s an! R'%i)i#*s a"ti's T$! instit0tiona' +oots o&   Is'a%i# &anati#is% ,!+! 'ai ,$!n :ia +!gi%! 0+ing its t!n0+! "+o*i! &0ns &o+  !sta'is$ing Mos<0!s an Maa+is3 "a+ti#0'a+' in s%a'' to,ns an +0+a' a+!as T$! sa%! a'so '! to t$! +a"i g+o,t$ o& %i'itant +!'igio0s o+ganisations D0+ing 5=8=-5=6=3 CIA ga*! W 5 i''ion &o+ t$! t+aining o& 3 A&g$an M04a$i!!n

an o*!+ 3 A+as in#'0ing Osa%a in La!n8

Un&o+t0nat!'3 t$! :ia +!gi%! !ing &0'' a,a+! +!%ain! 0n%o*! 0+ing t$is "!+io inst!a o& taking "+!*!nti*! %!as0+!s It is i%"o+tant to 'ist so%! '!aing !2t+!%ist an %i'itant g+o0"s ,$i#$ $a*! !!n !ngag! in !2t+!%ist an %i'itant *io'!n#! in Pakistan R!'igio0s o0t&its o& Pakistan a+! 'ist! at

A$$'n!i+-II T$! S0nni a#k! g+o0"s inis#+i%inat!' ki''! s$ia s!#t %!%!+s an *i#!

*!+sa So%! g+o0"s a+!

Shia  T!$+ik-!-Na&a@-!-?i<a$-!-a&&+ia (TN?)  T!$+ik-!-a&&a+ia Pakistan (TP)  Si"a$-!-M0$a%%a Pakistan (SMP) S*nni 36 Ii

37 Lt C+ A%i+ Hasan PN3 In#+!asing R!'igio0s E2t+!%is% In Pakistan  9as To A+!ss3 (8t$

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 Si"a$-!-Sa$aa Pakistan (SSP)

 Las$ka+-!-$ang*i (L!)

1696 U$"isin) In ash,i" T$! ,a+s ,it$ Pakistan %a! t$! >as$%i+ a

s!nsiti*! o+!+ stat! in Inia Inian go*!+n%!nt a##0s! Pakistan &o+ 

s0""o+ting an s"onso+ing t$! &+!!o% &ig$t!+s It ,as G!n :ia/s anot$!+  i%!nsion o& Is'a%isation to !n#o0+ag! *a+io0s s!#ta+ian g+o0"s3 "a+ti#0'a+' t$! D!oani S#$oo's an "+o%ot! t$! s!tting 0" o& Maa+is  +!'igio0s "a+ti!s an s0#$ g+o0"s6 Man o& t$!% ,!+! %!ant &o+ +!&0g!!s &+o% A&g$anistan

T$!s! Maa+is 0'ti%at!' !#a%! instit0t!s &o+ "+o0#ing $ans &o+ i$a to &ig$t in >as$%i+ Cons!<0!nt'3 t$!s! o0ng st0!nts !#o%! +!'igio0s !2t+!%ists an a+! 0s! in n0%!+ o& t!++o+ist a#ti*iti!s So0+#!s o& %an"o,!+ &o+ 4i$ai

o+ganisations a+! !'i!+at! at A$$'n!i+-III ?0+t$!+%o+!3 a s0i#i! atta#k on

Inian #ont+o''! >as$%i+/s '!gis'ati*! ass!%' on 5 O#to!+ 5 an 5 D!#!%!+ 5 atta#k on t$! Inian "a+'ia%!nt  >as$%i+i i$ais +o0g$t t$! i'!%%a to 'ig$t=

1699 t# 1661 – D',#c"ac& R'<isitsA&g$an i$a +o0g$t t$! A+% an +!'igio0s "a+ti!s in #'os! #onta#t !s"!#ia'' t$! ISI Therefore# ISI chief <t Aen 2amid Aul cobbled together the Islamic ?emocratic /lliance against $$$ in &'44  elections*>  D!s"it! a'' $is !&&o+ts3 B!na@i+ ,on t$! !'!#tions an took o&&i#!

38 A+ti#'! on R!giona' I%"'i#ations o& t$! Ris! o& Is'a%i# ?0na%!nta'is% in Pakistan  >a'i% Ba$a0+3 (St+at!gi# Ana'sis an-Ma+ K)3 "8 <0ot! in Hasan33 A%i+ Lt C+ PN3 In#+!asing R!'igio0s E2t+!%is% in Pakistan (La$o+! PN9C IRP 8) " =-55

3% Hasan Aas3 Paksitan/s D+i&t into E2t+!%is%3 (N!, D!$'i E'!gant3 7)3 " 7

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 /lthough democracy returned# even then /rmy continued to play vital role in of  $akistan by keeping /fghan and Bashmir $olicies under her control *&

#st #%! =a" E"a> 1661 - 2001

B t$! !n o& 5==53 So*i!t Union isint!g+at! an US a#k! a,a &+o%  A&g$an a&&ai+sF At t$at ti%!3 Na,a@ S$a+i& ,as "+i%! %inist!+ o& Pakistan On!

i%"o+tant !*!'o"%!nt in t$!s! !a+s ,as t$! involvement of ISI chief 6<t Aen Caved Dasir7# in supporting Muslims in Eingian $rovince of +hina# rebel Muslims in the $hilippines and some religious groups in +entral /sian States on the name of Islam*=

T$is s"oi'! t$! Pakistan/s i%"+!ssion int!+nationa'' an "0t Pakistan on

t$! US stat! !"a+t%!nt/s ,at#$ 'ist In 'at! 5==3 MI stumbled upon a

conspiracy planned by fundamentalist senior /rmy fficers** As a +!s0't o& sai

$a""!nings an o,ing to US "+!ss0+!3 Aeneral Faheed Baker the then +/S#

sent two previous chiefs of ISI home and mandated <t Aen Caved /shraf aGi to cleanse the ISI of Islamists*( 

E,'")'nc' # Ta%iban an! S'cta"ianis,In 5==F3 Ta'ian "$!no%!non !%!+g! in A&g$anistan Pakistan ,!'#o%! t$! Ta'ian3 as t$! ,!+! Pakistan &+i!n' Ta'ian go*!+n%!nt in A&g$anistan an t$!i+ "o'i#i!s ins"i+! t$! !2t+!%ist !'!%!nts in Pakistan T$is in&'0!n#! t$! inig!no0s Taliban8style

41 Ii

42 riin+ ichael+ )eapin the hirlwind ;ondon: luto ress+ 2!!1+ p..<ii. 43 =assan ($$as+ ,pcit+ p.148

44 #$id+ p153. 45 #$id.

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movement in Malakand by Tehrik8e8DifaG8e8Shariat8e8Mohammadi 6TDSM7 led  by Sufi Muhammad  The government arrested the Sufi Muhammad but also succumbed to the TDSM demand of introducing Islamic <aw in the area*) 

B 5==K3 ,$!n t$! Ta'ian #a%! to "o,!+ in A&g$anistan3 t$!s! o+ganisations3 ,it$ t$! a#ti*! s0""o+t o& t$! Pakistani go*!+n%!nt3 !#a%! t$! ,a+!$o0s! o& %i'itant s0""'i!s &o+ t$! >as$%i+ #on&'i#t an s!#ta+ianis% Ta'ian $!'"! "a+ti#0'a+' Las$ka+-!-$ang*i against s$ias Statisti#s o& s!#ta+ian

atta#ks on Pakistan a+! is#0ss! in A$$'n!i+-I5

 A##o+ing to o&&i#ia' !sti%at!s3 t$! L! $a !!n in*o'*! in o*!+ 7 *io'!nt in#i!nts ,$i#$ ki''! %o+! t$an 537 "!o"'! a#+oss Pakistan T$! Ta'ian ,!+! a &i+% a'' o& t$! Las$ka+ an a''o,! t$! 'att!+ to !sta'is$ t+aining as!s on its t!++ito+F8

#st 6? 11 E"a> 2001 Ti%% 2012 > #a%iti#n A)ainst T'""#" 

9it$in $o0+s o& t$! atta#ks o& =1 553 US a%inist+ation #on#'0! t$at Osa%a o"!+ating &+o% A&g$anistan is !$in t$! atta#ks T$!+!a&t!+3 $resident  3ush declared that#- Fe will make no distinction between those who planned  these acts and those who harbour them*4  O,ing to US "+!ss0+!3 M0s$a++a& 

took U t0+n on A&g$an "o'i#3 ann! i&&!+!nt i$ai O+ganisations 'ik! L!T an Ha+kat 0' Ansa+ (H0A)3 !t#3 an st+!ss! %a+assa$s/ +!&o+%s

46 #$id. (khtar+ uhammad+ ;t cdr > ,p it p 8 47 usa ?han 9ala@ai+,pcit+p.8!.

48 eore  Aush+ resident o B'+ statement $y the president in his address to the nation+ ashinton 'eptem$er 11+ 2!!1 at http:// www.white house. o"/ news/ releases/ 2!!1/ !%/ 2!!1!%11-16.html cited on 13 >o" 11.

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On "o'iti#a' &+ont3 t$! "+o-A%!+i#an an anti !2t+!%ist "o'i#i!s o& "+!s!nt go*!+n%!nt '! to a +!'igio-"o'iti#a' #oa'ition o& i&&!+!nt +!'igio0s "a+ti!s in &o+%

o& M0tta$ia Ma4'is-!-A%a' #o%%on' kno,n as MMA <ater the S attack on

 /fghanistan created anger among general public *' ,$i#$ ,as !2"'oit!  MM/ who won (=# highest ever seats in Dational /ssembly during general elections held in !>>! and was also able to form government in DF5$ (>  MMA t$!+!a&t!+ 

&ai'! to "+o0#! an istin#t "+os"!+it 0n!+ t$! &'ag o& so-#a''! Is'a%

4% Ta$%ina Ras$i3 I%"'i#ations o& t$! =155 A Pakistani P!+s"!#ti*!3 IPRI3 ?!+0a+ 3 "

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ATER-III

E33ETS O3 RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM ON AISTANI SOIETY

M&stiicati#n O<'" R*%' # Is%a, 5ather of the nation wanted $akistan to be a ,state for the Muslims- (&# rather than an- Islamic state- (!  In contrast# as  per ,bectives %esolution- $akistan was to be a federal# democratic# and 

Islamic entity 7 T$is +!s0't! in !#'a+ation o& Pakistan as an Is'a%i# R!"0'i# in

5=7K T$!s! t,o &a#ts ini#at! t$! #on&0sion o& '!a!+s$i" o*!+ t$! +o'! o& Is'a% in go*!+nan#! o& Pakistan T$! 0'ti%at! !&&!#t ,as 0n!si+! t0ss'! a%ong +0'!+s o& i&&!+!nt s#$oo's o& t$o0g$t

E+$%#itati#n # Is%a, b& R*%in) E%it'L!a!+s 'ik! A0 an B$0tto ,$o ,!+! not int!+!st! in gi*ing an +o'! to Is'a% in t$! a&&ai+s o& t$! stat! 0t 0s! Is'a% as "o'iti#a' too' &o+ "!+sona' gains E2a%"'!s a+! A0/s3 0s! o& ?at,a  U'!%a against ?ati%a inna$ (&o+ "+o$iition o& +0'!  ,o%!n) in "+!si!ntia' !'!#tions o& 5=K7 an !#'a+ation o& A$%ais as non-M0s'i%s  B$0tto in 5=8

to st+!ngt$!n $is +0'! ?0+t$!+%o+!3 history seems to indicate that the pressure

on the governments by the poor masses is so overwhelming that the nation0s leaders often use the shelter of Islam to fend it off (* T$! o*!+a'' !&&!#t on

Pakistan ,as t$at o0nti!s o& a t+0! Is'a%i# so#i!t "+o%oting to'!+an#!3

51 As "!+ St!"$!n P$i'i" Co$!n3 M0s'i% stat! +!&!+s to a stat! ,$os! #iti@!ns a+! !nti+!' o+ "+!o%inant' M0s'i%s; Is'a%i#3 +!&!+s to t$! !'i!& t$at a M0s'i% stat! #an ! %a! to &o''o, Is'a%i# g0i!'in!s

52 St!"$!n P$i'i" Co$!n3 T$! I!a o& Pakistan (La$o+! Jang0a+ Books3 7)"5K5

53 Hassan Aas3 O"#it3 "78

54 ?a+oo< H0ss!in3 R!'igio0s Li!+t in Pakistan La,3 R!a'it an P!+#!"tion3 C0++!nt A&ai+s3 D!#!%!+ F

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a&&!#tion a%ong %ass!s an +0'!+s a%i nationa' #ong+!gation &o+ t$! "+os"!+it o& stat!3 +!%ain! $i!n &+o% t$! %ass!s

:ia;s Is%a, R'ta%iat'! Ba!%&T$! !n&o+#!%!nt o& :ia/s s!'& "+o#'ai%! Is'a%i# #o! ,it$ +!s"!#t to #onstit0tion; Is'a%i# 'a,s3 P!na' Co!3 40i#ia+3 ,o%!n a&&ai+s3 !0#ationa' an s$o,i@ +!&o+%s +!s0't! in t$! s0+&a#ing o&  #'as$ o& int!+"+!tations in a'+!a #on&0s! Pakistani so#i!t an i*i! t$! nation on s!#ta+ian g+o0ns

ha#s b& R'%i)i#*s a"ti's A'' +!'igio0s "o'iti#a' "a+ti!s o& Pakistan a+! $a*ing a #o%%on !%an on t$!i+ ag!na t$at is !n&o+#!%!nt o& Is'a%i# 'a, in Pakistan Ho,!*!+3 $isto+ ,itn!ss! t$at t$!i+ '!a!+s %a! #oa'ition ,it$ i&&!+!nt go*!+n%!nts an o""osition "a+ti!s istin#ti*!' &o+ "!+sona' gains on'

Issuance of fatwa by the lemas of C$ in support of /yub in presidential  elections of &')( (( # CI0s support to Hahya in &'9> () # CI0s coalition with $$$  government in &'44 (9 a+! t$! &!, !2a%"'!s

Inst!a o& s"+!aing 'o*! an &+at!+na' &!!'ings a%ong &!''o, Pakistanis3 t$!s! "a+ti!s $a*! #+!at! $at+!3 i*i! t$! "!o"'! into i&&!+!nt !''ig!+!nt g+o0"s an $a*! "+o%ot! s!#ta+ianis%76

I"anian R'<#%*ti#nI+anian +!*o'0tion in 5=8= a##!'!+at! t$! s!#ta+ian *io'!n#! in Pakistan T$is "$!no%!non ,as a %o+a'! oost!+ &o+ S$ia

#o%%0nit as the Iranian government0s declared aim has been to export the

55 usa ?han 9ala@ai+ 0he 'unni-'hia onlict in akistan+ ;ahore: Aook 0raders+ 1%%8+ p.1%7. 56 #$id+ p.16!.

57 #$id+ p.126.

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revolution to Muslim countries('. T$! +!*o'0tiona+ go*!+n%!nt !!%! it

#on*!ni!nt to !2t!n %o+a' an %at!+ia' s0""o+t to S$ias o& Pakistan R!s0'tant'3 S$ia %i'itan# in Pakistan in#+!as! %ani&o'3 in t0+n gi*ing +is! to anti-s$ia s!#ta+ian S0nni o+ganisations

A)han =a" Q0!stion a+is!s t$at ,$!t$!+ A&g$an ,a+ ,as a 4i$a o+  t!++o+is%3 ,$!t$!+ t$! "!o"'! t+ain! &o+ A&g$an i$a a+! M04a$!!n o+  t!++o+ists an ,$!t$!+ t$! "0+"os! o& A&g$an i$a ,as +!a'' to 'i!+at!  A&g$anistan o+ to +!sist Co%%0nist !2"ansion Ans,!+ to t$!s! <0!stions #an ! &o0n &+o% t$! &a#ts $ig$'ig$t!  M0$a%%a A%i+ Rana in $is ook A to : o& i$ai O+gani@ations in Pakistan H! stat!s t$at

@   / / C im my + a rt er h ad s et a si de a s e cr et f un d o f ( >>   m i l li o n  S d o ll a r s . T h e p u r po s e o f t h is f u n d # a c co r d i ng t o C o h n $ i lg e r# w a s t o c r ea t e a t e rr o r is t o r ga n i Ga t io n t h at e n co u r ag e d   a nd u ti li Ge d I sl am ic e xt re mi sm t o u nd er mi ne th e % us si an A o v e r n m e n t i n + e n t r a l / s i a . + . I . / . c a l l e d i t ,  p e r a t i o n + y c l o n e -   a n d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s * b i l l i o n d o l l a r s w e r e c o m m i t t e d t o i t s  p r o m o t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e d t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f a l a r g e n u mb e r o f  r el i g io us  m ad ra ss ah s0 o r s ch oo ls i n $ ak i st an . J JJ JI n $ a k i s t a n  f f i c e r s o f t h e 3 r i t i s h M I 8 ) a n d t h e l o c a l I S I p l a y e d t h e r o l e o f  t e a c h e r 0 -  K /

5% #at alik+ ?ashmir D Cthnic onlict+ #nternational ispute+ ,<ord Bni"ersity ress+ 2!!2+  24%. 6! uhammad (mir )ana+ ,pcit+ p. 83.

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T$! !&&!#t ,as %0s$+oo%ing o& 4i$ai o+ganisations3 >a'as$niko* an +0g #0't0+!3 o% atta#ks3 +is! o& !t$ni# "o'iti#a' "a+ti!s 0! to 'oos! #ont+o' o&  go*!+n%!nt3 0n#ont+o''! a+%s an !2t+!%ist !'!%!nts "+o'i&!+ation insi! Pakistani so#i!t

 a s h , i " U $ " i s i n ) A&t!+ t$! ,it$+a,a' o& So*i!t &o+#!s &+o%  A&g$anistan3 &o#0s o& i$ai a#ti*iti!s ,as s$i&t! to Inian $!' >as$%i+ in 5=6= T$is ga*! +is! to t$! !sta'is$%!nt o& i$ai o+ganisations in Pakistan3 as t$! +!'igio0s "a+ti!s3 ,$i#$ i not "a+ti#i"at! in A&g$an i$a a'so sta+t! taking "a+t in >as$%i+ i$a %ain' 0! to &inan#ia' gains 

T$! desired human resource for Cihadi activities consists of students of  Madrassahs# members of student unions of different religious parties and many   obless people)& Mo+!o*!+3 i$a $as !#o%! so0+#! o& %aking %on! &o+ 

'!a!+s o& i$ai o+ganisations ,$o 40st !#a0s! o& t$!i+ o,n !n!&it s!n so#ia'' !"+i*! "!o"'! &o+ i$aK >!!"ing in *i!, t$! ao*! is#0ssion3 it #an

! !0#! t$at A&g$an an >as$%i+ i$as "+o%ot! i$ai #0't0+! in Pakistan an "'a! %a4o+ +o'! to "0t Pakistani so#i!t on t$! "at$ o& !2t+!%is%

I,$act #n aistan – #st 6?11?o''o,ing t$! !*!nts o& =1553 Pakistan $a to +ai#a'' +!*a%" its &o+!ign "o'i# Unit! Stat!s $as !"!n! $!a*i' on Pakistan &o+ ta#k'ing t$! t!++o+is% "+o'!% o+iginating in t$! +!gion A s!+i!s o&  int!+nationa' t!++o+is% "'ots 0n#o*!+! in US3 U> an A0st+a'ia $a t+a#!s to

61 Data is as! on i&&!+!nt so0+#!s an !tai's a+! gi*!n in A""!ni2 III

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Pakistan It is t$0s n!#!ssa+ to ana's! t$! i%"a#t on Pakistan in t$! a&t!+%at$ o& =155 in t$! &o''o,ing "!+s"!#ti*!s

ash,i" #%ic& T$! %ost #+iti#a' task &o+ Pakistan in t$! "ost =155 "!+io ,as to "+!s!+*! t$! '!giti%a# o& t$! >as$%i+i &+!!o% &ig$t!+s/ st+0gg'! an not a''o, it to &a'' "+! to t$! n!, !&inition o& t!++o+is% K On t$! ot$!+ $an

Inia ,ant! to s!i@! t$! o""o+t0nit to "0t %o+! "+!ss0+! on Pakistan on a##o0nt o& its a''!g! s0""o+t to t$! in&i't+ation a#+oss t$! LOC T$is 0n!+%in! t$! ongoing st+0gg'! o& >as$%i+i "!o"'!KF

aistan;s N*c%'a" A"s'na% ?o+ Pakistan3 4oining t$! US '! anti t!++o+ist #oa'ition +!&'!#t! a %a4o+ "o'i# s$i&t3 ,$i#$ +!<0i+! ,it$+a,ing s0""o+t &+o% t$! Ta'ian go*!+n%!nt ?o+ Pakistan3 t$! 'ogi# o& t$is s$i&t ,as #'!a+ i! to "+!s!+*! its st+at!gi# ass!ts an nationa' so*!+!ignt B t$is #oa'ition3 it is ass0%! t$at Pakistan $as !!n a'! to sa&!g0a+ its st+at!gi# ass!ts T$! iss0! o& 9!a"ons o& Mass D!st+0#tion sti'' o%inat!s t$! US an 9!st!+n "o'i# %ak!+s

Ec#n#,ic M'%t!#4n A&t!+ Pakistan "a+ti#i"ation as a &+ont'in! stat! &o+ ,a+ on t!++o+ in A&g$anistan3 it $as s0&&!+! 'oss o& P>R 36 Bi''ion &+o% F to 6-= T$! !sti%at! #ost o& t$! ,a+ on t!++o+ ,as a+o0n F6F i''ion +0"!!s in 8-6K7 T$! Minist+ o& ?inan#! $as #a'#0'at! t$at t$!

63 ?a@a' 0+ R!$%an3 Pakistan an 9a+ on T!++o+is%3 A*ai'a'! at ,,,issi#o%3 a##!ss! on  ?! 55

64 A$%a Aas3 I%"a#t o& =155 on S%a''!+ Stat!s o& So0t$ Asia3 A*ai'a'! at ,,,issi#o% a##!ss! on  ?! 55

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%a#+o!#ono%i# stai'isation is 'ik!' to s'o, o,n t$! !#ono%i# g+o,t$3 #a0s! "o*!+t an "0s$ "o*!+t +at! 0" in t$! s$o+t +0n

Int'"na% S'c*"it&Pakistan/s s'i! to,a+s stat! &ai'0+! a##!'!+at! +a%ati#a'' in 8 T$! assassination o& &o+%!+ P+i%! Minist!+ B!na@i+ B$0tto on 8 D!#!%!+ 8 ,as a +!%in!+3 t$at t$! #o0nt+/s "+og+!ssi*! #o''a"s! ,as %0#$ %o+! +a"i an i++!t+i!*a'! t$an %ost $a !n*isag! B!si!s t$is g+a*! in#i!nt so%! %o+! !*!nts $a""!n! ,$i#$ $as !t!+io+at! &a+i# o&  so#i!t T$! sa%! a+! 'ist! !'o,

La' Mas4i E"iso!

O"!+ations in 9ana3 Ba4a0+ an S,at S0i#i! Bo%ings

Ho,!*!+ t$! La, En&o+#!%!nt Ag!n#i!s (LEAs) o& Pakistan $a*! !!n *!+ !&&!#ti*! in !a+ 55 an t!++o+ atta#ks $a*! !!n so%!,$at #on&in! Statisti#s o& t$! sa%! a+! gi*!n at A$$'n!i+-5

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ATER-I5

=AY 3OR=ARD AND REOMMENMDATIONS

E2t+!%! $o"!s a+! o+n o& !2t+!%! %is!+KK As sai  B!+t+an R0ss!'

#'!a+' !"i#ts a "i#t0+! o& $o"! to !*is! t$! st+at!gi!s &o+ #0+ing +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% in Pakistan T$! +oot #a0s!s as !&in! in #$a"t!+s II an III ,o0' ! tak!n as +!&!+!n#! to s0gg!st *ia'! o"tions T$! +!#o%%!nations %a ! as &o''o,s

%a"i&in) R#%' # Is%a, in R*nnin) Stat' Aai"s Con&0sion o*!+ t$! iss0! %a ! #'a+i&i!  a 4oint t!a% o& int!''!#t0a's an 0'!%a in o+!+ to !'i%inat! t$! #$an#!s o& 0sing Is'a% as a s$i!'  #'!+g an "o'iti#ians in &0t0+!

E"a!icati#n # :ia R')i,' R'#",s A't$o0g$ %an o& t$! +!&o+%s !*is!  :ia +!gi%! $a*! !!n i'0t! 0t t$!+! is sti'' a n!! to o a,a ,it$ t$! a&t!+ !&&!#ts B!'i!*!s o& +!'igio0s %ino+iti!s an a'' s!#ts o& Is'a% s$o0' ! #onsi!+! ,$i'! %aking '!gis'ations in t$! #o0nt+ in 'in! ,it$ Q0ai/s *ision T$! sa%! ,o0' #0+tai' t$! !'!%!nt o& +!'igio0s !2t+!%is%

E%i,inatin) S#cia% E<i%s Po*!+t3 I''it!+a#3 an 0sti#! a &0!' to t$! &i+! o& +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% E#ono%i# +!&o+%s on t$! 'in!s o& Bang'a!s$3 !sign!  D+ M 0n0s (G+a%!!n Bank &a%!) %a ! gi*!n a t$o0g$t Sin#! t$! st+ong !#ono% is t$! "+i%! +i*ing &a#to+ in !'i%inating t$!s! so#ia' !*i's t$!+!&o+!3 a ,!''-o&&3 'it!+at! an satis&i! ini*i0a' is '!ss 'ik!' to t0+n into a +!'igio0s &anati#

66 B!+t+an R0ss!''3 Un"o"0'a+ Essas3 <0ot! in $tt"11,,,nota'!-<0ot!s#o%1$1$o"!<0ot!s$t%' +!t+i!*! on 5 D!# 55

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''$in) =atch #n R'%i)i#*s Instit*t's Histo+ s$o,s t$at !*!n t$! '!a+n!3 "+os"!+o0s an 9!st-o+i!nt! int!''ig!ntsia %ig$t g!t att+a#t! to,a+s t$! +!'igio0s !2t+!%ist o+gnisations Osa%a Bin La!n3 A0 S$!ik$ M >$a'i3 ?aisa' S$a$@a3 Ai%an-A'-:,a$i+i an %an ot$!+s a+! !2a%"'!s T$!+!&o+! !si!s "o*!+t a''!*iation an 40i#ia' +!&o+%s t$!+! is a s!+io0s n!! to #$!#k t$! a#ti*iti!s on i&&!+!nt +!'igio0s o+gani@ations1%a+!ssa$s  Int!''ig!n#! ag!n#i!s against "ossi'! +!#+0it%!nt o& o0ng g!n!+ation Ea+' ,a+ning to "+!*!nt t$! t$+!at ,o0' "+o*! *ita' in t$is +!ga+

#ntin*ati#n # Ban #n S'cta"ian an! Mi%itant O*tits Ban on s!#ta+ian an %i'itant o+ganisations s$o0' ! #ontin0! an a #ontin0o0s ,at#$ is a'so +!<0i+! on t$os! ,$i#$ a+! o"!+ating 0n!+ n!, na%!s a%at-0-Da,a ("+!*io0s' Las$ka+ ! Taaa) is on! !2a%"'! T$! os!+*ation an "+!*!nti*! %!as0+!s s$o0' ! i++!s"!#ti*! o& t$! s!#ts to !ns0+! t+ans"a+!n#

Int'"-S'ct a",#n& In o+!+ to sa&!g0a+ against +!s0+&a#ing o&  s!#ta+ianis% %ain +o'! is n!! to ! "'a!  t$! U'!%as o& i&&!+!nt s!#ts an t$os! ,$o $a*! in&'0!n#! on i$ai o+ganisations T$! &i+st st!" to +!so'*! t$!s! "+o'!%s %a ! t$! *o'0nta+ an on iss0an#! o& t$! #ont+o*!+sia' 'it!+at0+! S!#on st!" %a ! t$at U'!%a o& S0nni1 S$ia s!#ts %0st +!a#$ so%! #o%"+o%is! in o+!+ to +!0#! s!#ta+ian st+i&! &+o% so#i!t ?ina' st!" #an ! t$! !*o'0tion o& 0ni&o+% #o! #onsisting o& a'' ag+!! an non-#ont+o*!+sia' "oints #o%%on to a'' s!#ts

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R'#",s # Ma!"assahs As is#0ss! !a+'i!+3 st0!nts o& t$!s! %a+assa$s a+! *0'n!+a'! to !#o%! t!++o+ists 0! to o*io0s +!asons Most i%"o+tant a+! #ons!+*ati*! #0++i#0'0%3 in&'0!n#! o& i$ai an s!#ta+ian o+ganisations an in#+!asing 0n!%"'o%!nt &o+ g+a0at!s o& %a+assa$s B+inging t$!s! instit0t!s 0n!+ %ain st+!a% !0#ation sst!%3 ,at#$&0' a""+oa#$ to,a+s t$! s''a0s o&  t$!s! %a+assa$s3 st+i#t an on i$ai an s!#ta+ian o+ganisations an a++ang!%!nt o& t!#$ni#a' t+aining &o+ %a+assa$s st0!nts1 g+a0at!s %a ! a &!, st!"s A +a&t o+inan#! ,it$ +!s"!#t to Ma+!ssa$s is "+o"os! at

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ATER 5 ONLUSION

R!'igio0s !2t+!%is% is a %0'ti&a+io0s iss0! in Pakistan T$! t!n!n# o&  %i'itan# in S0-Contin!nt M0s'i%s ,as a nat0+a' "$!no%!non 0! to B+itis$ o""+!ssion an so ,as its in$!+itan#!  Pakistani M0s'i%s E2"'oiting +!'igion  B+itis$ in t$!i+ &a*o0+ an M0s'i% +!'igio0s s#$o'a+s/ 'a#k o& %o!+n !0#ation #ont+i0t! to,a+s t$! s!'& int!+"+!t! Is'a% T$at *!+ ,+ong i%"+!ssion o&  Is'a% ,as #a++i! on an %a! t$! asis o& ,!ak %o+a' &a+i# o& #'!+i#s3 "o'iti#ians an %ass!s R!'igio0s %i'itan#3 s!#ta+ianis%3 t!++o+is% an ,+ong 0s! o& ,o+ .i$a/ ,as t$! #onn!#tion o& t$is ,+ong int!+"+!tation3 a0s!  :ia an #o%ing go*!+n%!nts

Post =155 !*!nts3 Mi'ita+ O"!+ations in ?ATA3 s0i#i! atta#ks an !#ono%i# s'as$ ,o+s!n! t$! sit0ation %aking +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% a nig$t%a+! &o+ "o"0'a#! an Go*!+n%!nt A't$o0g$ t$! U-t0+n "o'i# o& P+!si!nt M0s$a++a&  $as so%!$o, $a't! t$is "!+i'3 0t $as #on*!+s!' a&&!#t! o0+ '!giti%at! nationa' stan#! on >as$%i+ an int!+na' s!#0+it sit0ation Ca+!&0' ,at#$ on +!'igio0s o0t&its1%a+!ssa$s3 !'i%ination o& so#ia' !*i's3 !#ono%i# s0st!nan#! an 'ast o&  a''3 t$! nationa' ,i''3 #o0' ! t$! "at$ '!aing to s0##!ss in &ig$ting against +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% in Pakistan

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AENDIX-I

E+c'"$ts "#, th' *nt'" R'$#"t

---T2K T2%KK5<? /S$K+T 5 ---T2K +/SK &&

Traitors0 +amp on our 5rontier and to elect once and for all whether he shall play  the part of a devoted follower of Islam or of a peaceable subect of the ueen In order to enable the Muhammadans to decide these points they have consulted  not only the leading ?octors of their <aw in India but they have gone as far as Mecca itself The obligation of the Indian Musalmans to rebel or not rebel hung  for some months on the deliberations of three Suni priests in the 2oly +ity of   /rabia

I propose to exhibit this spirit of unrest among our Musalman subects in the threefold form which it has assumed I shall briefly narrate the events which led to the formation of the %ebel +olony on our 5rontier and lay before the reader a few of the chronic disasters in which it has involved the 3ritish $ower In my second chapter I shall explain the treasonable organiGation by which the %ebel +amp has drawn unfailing supplies of money and men from the interior  ?istricts of the Kmpire I shall then unfold the legal discussions to which this anomalous state of things has given rise discussions which disclose the Muhammadan masses eagerly drinking in the poisoned teachings of the  /postles of Insurrection and a small minority anxiously seeking to get rid of the duty to rebel by ingenious interpretations of their Sacred <aw 3ut if I were to end  here I should have only told half the truth The Musalmans of India are and  have been for many years a source of chronic danger to the British Poer  in India 5or some reason or other they have held aloof from our system and the changes in which the more flexible 2indus have cheerfully ac1uiesced are regarded by them as deep personal wrongs I propose therefore in my fourth chapter to in1uire into the grievances of the Muhammadans under  KnglishJJJ. 88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 8 6$age &&7 88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 8

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 tion of the devout Musalmans believe India to be now a +ountry of the Knemy  3ut the more sensible maority of them while sorrowfully lamenting its lapsed  state are willing to accept the duties belonging to that condition The hole !uran is based u"on the conce"tion of the Musalmans as a con#uering  and not as a con#uered "eo"le. /s already explained however the Buran was long ago found inade1uate to the necessities of +ivil $olity and a system of  +anon and $ublic <aw has been developed from it to suit the exigencies of 

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Musalman nations. It is ho"eless to loo$ for anything li$e enthusiastic  loyalty from our Muhammadan sub%ects& 3ut we can reasonably expect that  so long as we scrupulously discharge our obligations to them they will honestly  fulfil their duties in the position in which Aod has placed them to us.

The more acute among the <aw ?octors long ago detected the coming  change in the status of the Musalmans of India the change which has now  become an accomplished fact 5rom time to time ?ecisions have appeared which show that in spite of the cautious timidity of the Kast India +ompany the revolution was not going on unperceived ne of these ?ecisions declared that  India would remain a +ountry of Islam only so long as the Muhammadan Cudges whom we have abolished continued to administer the <aw 3ut perhaps the two most important were those of Shah /bdul /GiG the Sun of India and of his nephew Maulavi /bdul 2ai /s we gradually transferred the administration to our  own hands pious Musalmans were greatly agitated touching the relation which they should hold to us They accordingly consulted the highest Indian authorities on the point and both the celebrated men above mentioned 

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AENDIX II

RELIGIOUS OUT3ITS IN AISTAN

'ect Political 'ectarian (ihadi Tableeghi Total  

?eobandi * == ( = *)  

3arelvi ) !! &= ! *=  /hle 2adees * &> = = !> 

Shia = &) = & !=

CI = 8 * 9 &*

Total )* +) ,-* ). )/0  

RO3ILES O3 RELIGIOUS ARTIES

$rofiles of maor political@ ihadi@ sectarian organiGations is given in ensuing paragraphs

POLITI1AL PARTIE' 

(ama2at3e3Islami 4(I5. CI c ame into being on !) /ugust & '*& and was founded by Maulana /bdul /0ala Maudodi. /fter the creation of $akistan the organisation really flourished and in &'(= it played a maor role in the Bhatam8e8 Dabuwat movement and the campaign against /yub Bhan. CI did not meet with much success in the &'9> elections. In &'99 CI organiGed the DiGam8e8Mustafa movement. CI oined the ;ia0s Malis8e8Shura# played a significant role in /fghan war and participated in the &'4( non8party elections. $resently it is well8 organised religious and political party. ther than $akistan# CI also works in India# 3angladesh and ccupied Bashmir# but the management there is independent of $akistan. The circles working in the /rab Kmirates# Kurope and   /merica are under the CI $akistan. CI has a student wing which is known as

Islami Camiat8e8Tulaba. This student wing is active in different schools and  colleges of $akistan. It has also a wing for female students known as Islami  Camiat8e8Talibat.

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(amiat 6lema3e3Islam. Camiat lema8e8Islam 6CI7 grew out of the Camiat lema8e82ind. Maulana Shabir /hmed smani laid the foundation of the  party in the country after $akistan came into being# in &'(!. $resently this party 

has been divided in three factions

(amiat 6lema3e3Pa$istan 4(6P5.C$ is a political organisation and was created in &'*4. Syed Mohammad Daeemuddin Muradabadi was first DaGim8e8  /0ala. /ll India Sunni +onference had supported the creation of $akistan and for 

this reason it was given the name of C$. This was probably the only religious  party which supported the creation of $akistan.

'E1TARIA7 OR8A7I'ATIO7' 

Tehri$ 7ifa9 :i#ah3e3(afaria 4T7:(5. The Tehrik came into being in &'9' in response to implementation of ;akat@ shar rdinance. Mufti Cafer 2ussain was its founder. The Iranian revolution was the maor event which made the TD5C a viable pressure group in $akistan. Initially this party was not active in sectarian matters but after the death of Mufti Caffer 2ussain# militancy in the party  increased. nce Said /li Da1vi succeeded as the president# he renamed the  party as Tehreek8i8Cafria $akistan 6TC$7 in &''=. Though this organisation has been banned since &! Canuary !>>! but functioning under the new name of  Millat8e8Cafferia.

'i"ah3e3'ahaba Pa$istan 4''P5. Sipah8e8Sahaba $akistan# the largest ?eobandi organiGation in the country came into being in September# &'4*. Its founder is Maulana 2a1 DawaG Changvi. There are mainly three reasons based on which SS$ was established. 5irst to counter the Tehreek8e8 DifaG8e85i1ah Cafferia# second to oppose the feudalism in Chang where maority  of feudal is Shia and third reason was to counter $$$ in $unab 6Motive of ;ia7. $resent government has banned it since &* /ugust !>>&.

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Lash$are (hangvi 4Le(5. <ashkare Changvi was created in &'') with %iaG 3asra as its Salar8e8/0ala or chief. It is commonly believed that <eC was created by the SS$ leadership to remove its own label of terrorism. $resently  this party has been banned by government and %iaG 3asraa has been killed by  law enforcement agencies in !>>!.

'i"ah3e3Muhammad Pa$istan 4'MP5. In &''*# at a place called Thokar  DiaG 3aig in <ahore# the Shia radicals gathered to form a group. This group was named as SM$ and was led by %aGa Da1vi# a known anti8SS$ militant. The heavily armed members of SM$ certainly left their mark and the public soon saw  increased attacks on SS$ members. In &''9# the $unab $olice succeeded in neutraliGing the safe heavens of SM$ in Thoker DiaG 3aig# which sufficiently  weakened the SM$. %ise in the SS$ and <C strength due to their Taliban nexus also contributed in suppressing the SM$ activities in $akistan.

(IHA;I OR8A7I'ATIO7' 

(aishe Mohammad . Caishe Muhammad 6CM7 was established on =& Canuary !>>> by Maulana Masood /Ghar. Thereafter it became an important  Cihadi organiGation of ?eobandi sect. It was banned on &! Canuary !>>! but still  operating with a new name /l 5ur1an.

Har$atual Mu%ahdeen. 2arkatual Muahdeen 62M7 emerged as an offshoot of 2arkatul Cihadual Islami in &'4*. The new organiGation was created  by Maulana 5aGlur %ehman Bhalil# Maulana Muhammad Masood /lvi and  Saifullah Shaukat. 2M is an important ?eobandi Cihadi organiGation and was banned by S in ctober !>>&. It is considered largest organiGation in terms of  its militant activities in Bashmir and /fghanistan. The greatest accusation against 2M is that it has close contacts with sama bin <aden and that it has been in fore front with threats to /merica.

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Har$atul (ehadul Islami . Mualana Irshad /hmed created 2arkatul  Cehadul Islami in &'9'. Fhen the Soviet troops entered /fghanistan Maulana Irshad /hmed led the first delegation of religious scholars from DF5$ to that  country to participate in the war. There these scholars took military training and  later were instrumental in providing manpower from $akistan and obtaining  religious decrees in favour of Cihad. This organiGation has a structure similar to that of 2iGbual Muahdeen and <ashkare Taiba in strength and cohesiveness. Since 2arkatual Cehadul Islami is active in Myanmar# sbekestan# Taeikstan and  +hechnya along with ccupied Bashmir and /fghanistan# its organiGational  structure is proportionally larger.

Lash$are Taiba 4LeT5. The real recognition of Camaatul ?awa lies in <eT  and the two are mistaken for each other. <eT was banned in $akistan on &= Canuary !>>!# but Camatul ?awa had already taken precautionary measures  prior to this. /s professor 2afiG Saeed announced that his organiGation0s new 

name is Cama0atul ?awa. <eT initiated its militant activities in ccupied Bashmir  on !( Canuary &''>. <eT remained very active since its inception. <eT claims to have played a maor role in the Bargil operation.

S#*"c's Data is as! on &o''o,ing so0+#!s>

Ta+i< R!$%an3 Ma+assas R!'igion3 Po*!+t an t$! Pot!ntia' &o+ Jio'!n#! in Pakistan3 Is'a%aa Po'i# R!s!a+#$ Instit0t!3 9int!+ 73 Jo'0%! 5

M0$a%%a A%i+ >$an3 A to : o& i$ai O+ganisation in Pakistan  (La$o+! Mas$a' Books3 F)

 A +!"o+t on Is'a%i# Pa+ti!s o& Pakistan  Int!+nationa' C+isis G+o0" #it! in

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AENDIX III

SOURES O3 MANO=ER 3OR IADI ORGANISATIONS Organisatio

n

'ect 'ources of man"oer   Caishe

Mohammad 

?eoband  i 

Schools# colleges and religious madrassahs. 2arkatual 

Muahdeen

?eoband  i 

%eligious madrassahs# obless people# Schools and  colleges 2arkatul  Cehadul  Islami. ?eoband  i 

%eligious madrassahs# Cobless people and foreigners

<ashkar8e Taiba

 /hle 2adees

%eligious madrassahs# Cobless people# foreigners and Student unions

 /l 3ara1 3arelvi Cobless people# foreigners and Student unions 2iGbul

Momineen

Shia Student union 6Imamia Student rganisation7

S#*"c's> Data is as! on &o''o,ing so0+#!s>

Ta+i< R!$%an3 Ma+assas R!'igion3 Po*!+t an t$! Pot!ntia' &o+ Jio'!n#! in Pakistan3 Is'a%aa Po'i# R!s!a+#$ Instit0t!3 9int!+ 73 Jo'0%! 5

M0$a%%a A%i+ >$an3 A to : o& i$ai O+ganisation in Pakistan  (La$o+! Mas$a' Books3 F)

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AENDIX I5

SETARIAN BRUTALITY IN AISTAN 1696 – 2012

<ear Incidents !illed In%ured   &'4' )9 &4 &>!   &''> !9* =! =!4   &''& &4> *9 !)= &''! &=( (4 !)&

&''= '> =' !*9   &''* &)! 9= =!)   &''( 44 (' &4'

&'') 4> 4) &)4   &''9 &>= &'= !&'

&''4 &44 &(9 !=& &''' &>= 4) &4' !>>> &>' &*' D/ !>>& &(* !)& *'(   !>>! )= &!& !(9   !>>= !! &>! &>= !>>* &' &49 )&' !>>( )! &)> =(* !>>) =4 !>& =*' !>>9 =*& **& )=>   !>>4 '9 =>) (>(   !>>' &>) &'> ='4   !>&> (9 (>' &&9>   !>&& => !>= !'9   !>&! &4 4( 94   Total )=+. /0./ 000+   Source: 5igures are compiled from news reports and are provisional 

<ear )-,) 

Month Incidents !illed In%ured   Canuary &= *> !9  

5ebruary ( *( (&

Figure

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