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AP Syllabus 2018-2019


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AP Chemistry IISyllabus 2018-2019 AP Chemistry Exam Date: 8:00 AM on May 9, 2019

Mrs. Busby-NE 238 Mock exam date: 8:00 AM on March 19, 2019

Email: busbyp@cfbisd.edu Phone: (972) 968-5200 ext. 5381

Tutorials: Tuesday Afternoons and Thursday Mornings (all other times by appointment) Twitter handle: @MrsBusbyChem

Check school webpage regularly for assignments, answer keys, updates, and test schedules: www.tinyurl.com/APchembusby *A composition book is required for all laboratory work

*There are four Saturday review sessions from 1-4 pm on the following dates: April 6, 13, 27, and May 4


AP chemistry II is a second year course designed to provide students with a solid first-year college chemistry experience, both conceptually and in the laboratory. At the end of this course, students should be able to earn college credit by examination and enter college well prepared.

Due to the nature of this course and the amount of new material that are covered, a strong preparatory background in Chemistry I is a requirement. Students must be proficient with the following concepts:

 atomic structure  electron configurations  bonding

 VSEPR theory  acid-base chemistry  nuclear chemistry

 chemical names and formulas  chemical reactions (balancing

and completing)  periodicity  behavior of gases  mole concept

 mole calculations  stoichiometry

 making and interpreting graphs  making observations from

laboratory situations

Chemical literacy requires the student to know certain basic facts that MUST be committed to memory. Mathematics is an integral part of this class. The course will incorporate problem-solving strategies throughout the year. The student must be able to solve problems WITH and WITHOUT a calculator.


Chemistry, A Molecular Approach, Nivaldo J. Tro (publisher Pearson) 3rd Edition – AP Edition © 2014


AP Chemistry revolves around six big ideas and seven science practices. The big ideas are:

Big Idea 1: The chemical elements are fundamental building materials of matter, and all matter can be understood in terms of arrangements of atoms. These atoms retain their identity in chemical reactions.

Big Idea 2: Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.

Big Idea 3: Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons. Big Idea 4: Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions.

Big Idea 5: The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter.


The bulk of the content from big ideas one, two and three were covered in Chemistry I; however, Chemistry I did not cover big ideas four, five and six in great depth, if at all. In an effort to deepen the understanding of chemistry, as the course focuses on the new concepts the prior concepts will be incorporated and review.

The science practices for AP Chemistry are the same for all AP science classes. The science practices are a continuation of the skills fostered in Chemistry I and are designed to get the students to think and act like scientists. The science practices are:

Science Practice 1: The student can use representations and models to communicate scientific phenomena and solve scientific problems.

Science Practice 2: The student can use mathematics appropriately.

Science Practice 3: The student can engage in scientific questioning to extend thinking or to guide investigations within the context of the AP course.

Science Practice 4: The student can plan and implement data collection strategies in relation to a particular scientific question Science Practice 5: The student can perform data analysis and evaluation of evidence.

Science Practice 6: The student can work with scientific explanations and theories.

Science Practice 7: The student is able to connect and relate knowledge across various scales, concepts, and representations in and across domains.


The laboratory portion of this class is to be the equivalent of a college laboratory experience. All students will keep a bound laboratory notebook as part of this college laboratory experience. Every student will write up complete lab reports for each laboratory experience including an introduction, purpose, safety, procedure, results, error analysis (SP 5), questions (SP 3), and conclusion (SP 6). Students will also include raw data and observations (SP 4), drawings (SP 1), calculations (SP 2), and graphs (SP 5) if appropriate. Some of the laboratory investigations may require the students to spend time in tutorials before school. Students will spend at a minimum twenty-five percent of their time in laboratory investigations.

The school is on a traditional seven period schedule, so class length is approximately 50 minutes, which generally allows enough time for students to complete the laboratory investigation in one or two class days. To make the most of the 50 minutes, students are required to come in on lab days prepared and ready to work. After each laboratory investigation, students are required to answer a series of questions based on “what if…” The main purpose of these questions is to help the students analyze and think critically about what will happen to their results based on specific errors that could occur. Error analysis is a large portion of each lab when applicable. At the end of each lab, students verbally process the important concepts of that lab through class discussion. The students will participate in seventeen “wet-lab” laboratory investigations and three computer and/or calculator simulations. Seven of the twenty laboratory investigations will be inquiry based.

Laboratory Equipment

The school is equipped with a full range of glassware (beakers, flasks, burets, graduated cylinders, pipets, etc.), instruments (Spec-20s, analytical balances, centrifuges, ovens, etc.), and data gathering probes. All raw data will be recorded in the students’ laboratory notebooks. All students have access to computers with a full range of MS Office products and TI-83+ calculators to help students analyze laboratory data. Students will be required to enter their results in spreadsheets to verify their calculations when applicable. A PowerPoint of common lab equipment is available online.

Laboratory Investigation Sequence First Nine Weeks

MSDS and laboratory safety (embedded with all laboratory investigations as appropriate)

 Students will read and understand MSDS (and GHS compliant SDS when implemented).  Students will demonstate safe laboratory practices for various laboratory situtations. 1. Quantitative analysis of a salt mixture (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)

 Student Guided Inquiry Lab (1 of 7 guided inquiry labs)—students will not be given any procedures to determine the percent of potassium chlorate in a mixture of potassium chlorate and potassium chloride—they will have to develop the procedures on their own


 Calculator simulation

 To understand mathematical manipulations of data such as successive subtraction to find the fundamental charge of an electron

 To review the history of the development of the atomic theory 3. Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

 Computer simulation

 To understand atomic structure and to relate how to use experimental data to draw conclusions about the relative volume of the nucleus compared to the volume of the atom.

 To review the history of the development of the atomic theory

4. Determine the Density of a Plastic Screw Anchor without a balance (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

 Student Guided Inquiry Lab (2 of 7 guided inquiry labs)—students must develop their own procedure in determining how to calculate the density of a plastic screw anchor with only water and isopropyl alcohol as a basis for comparison  To understand that volumes of different substances are not always additive

 To review physical and chemical properties, intensive versus extensive properties 5. Types of Reactions Lab (SP 1, 3, 4, 5, 6)

 Predict products in eleven different chemical reactions

 Perform the eleven reactions and verify the product predictions through splint tests, litmus tests, observation of physical property changes, color changes, and formation of gases and precipitates

 Practice writing net ionic equations

 Focusing on descriptive chemistry and observations in the laboratory supported by evidence

Second Nine Weeks

6. Electrolysis of Potassium Iodide (SP 1, 3, 4, 6, 7)

 Student Guided Inquiry Lab (3 of 7 guided inquiry labs)—Given only the materials, the student must determine how to set up the electrolytic cell, determine which terminal is the cathode and which is the anode, and which possible reactions are most likely to occur at each electrode

 Students are to change out the material used as the electrodes and determine what changes, if any, occurs to the redox reaction

 Students are to explore uses of electrochemistry—electroplating, batteries, etc.  Focusing on descriptive chemistry and observations in the laboratory

 Practice writing and balancing redox equations

7. Redox Titration (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

 To perform a standardization of potassium permanganate with sodium oxalate and understand the purpose of standardization

 To use the potassium permanganate in a redox titration against hydrogen peroxide to determine its concentration  Reinforce the concept of titration and lab techniques

 Focusing on descriptive chemistry and observation s in the laboratory 8. Thermochemistry: Enthalpy and Hess’s Law (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)

 Using coffee cup calorimetry to determine the ΔH of reactions and to show enthalpies are additive according to Hess’s Law

 Explore uses of thermochemistry—hand warmers, ice packs, etc.

Third Nine Weeks

9. Kinetics Lab—Iodine Clock Reaction (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

 To determine the rate law of a reaction and understand that orders must be determined experimentally  To study the affect of a catalyst on a reaction

 To determine the activation energy of a reaction

 Using graphing calculators to manipulate data through linear regression and interpreting r2 values to determine the most linear graph and understand the meanings of the slopes of different graphs

10. Equilibrium Lab—Le Chatelier’s Principle (SP 1, 3, 4, 5, 6)

 Student Guided Inquiry lab (4 of 7 guided inquiry labs)—Student must determine on their own how to stress the reaction in order to cause the reaction to shift (towards the reactants, then towards the products) to determine the colors of the cobalt complex ions involved in the reaction

 Once the students have determined the colors of the complex ions, they are to determine whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic


 Focusing on descriptive chemistry and observations in the laboratory 11. Titration Lab—Ka of a weak acid (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

 To determine the Ka of acetic acid with the half titration method

12. Titration Lab—Ksp of Calcium Hydroxide (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

 Student Guided Inquiry lab (5 of 7 guided inquiry labs)—Student must determine on their own what information they need to gather in the lab and their own procedures to determine the the Ksp of calcium hydroxide using hydrochloric acid 13. Atomic Structure Investigations Part I (SP 1, 3, 4, 6)

 To investigate the color of various ions in a flame test

 To understand the behavior of electrons through the emission spectra of different elements  To review the history of the development of the atomic theory

 Focusing on descriptive chemistry and observations in the laboratory 14. Atomic Structure Investigations Part II (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 6)

 Computer simulation of the photoelectric effect to investigate the relationship between frequency and energy of electromagnetic radiation

 To review the history of the development of the atomic theory

15. Molecular Geometry Lab (SP 1, 3, 6)

 Students will draw Lewis Dot Diagrams and then build the models that correspond to the Lewis Dot Diagrams  Students will relate molecular geometry to intermolecular force of attractions and properties of molecules

Fourth Six Weeks

16. Precipitation lab (SP 1, 3, 4, 5, 6)

 To determine the solubility rules from reactions that produce precipitates and observe their color  To investigate the color of various ions in solution

 Focusing on descriptive chemistry and observations in the laboratory 17. Beer’s Law (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

 Prepare and test the absorbance of five standard copper (II) sulfate solutions  Using computer graphing software, graph a standard curve based on data

 Determine the concentration of an unknown copper (II) sulfate solution using the standard curve 18. Synthesis of Aspirin (SP 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7)

 To understand the techniques behind organic synthesis, purification, and product recovery (calculate percent yield)  To test the purity of the product through Beer’s Law

19. Qualitative Analysis Lab (SP 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)

Part I—Student Guided Inquiry Lab (6 of 7 guided inquiry labs)

 Given a mixture of three different cations, students must determine what chemicals and procedures they need to

successfully separate out the three different cations—the methods and chemicals they choose must be “green” in terms of the chemical wastes produced will cause the least impact on the environment

 To thoroughly understand how to utilize selective precipitation based on the different Ksp to separate out ions Part II—following an established “green” qual scheme

 To determine the identity of unknown ions in a solution

 To familiarize the student with a variety of techniques such as reducing volume, centrifuging and decanting, running a chromatography

 To investigate the color of various ions in solution and the color of various precipitates 20. Tie Dye Investigation (SP 1, 3, 4, 6)

 Student Guided Inquiry Lab (7 of 7 guided inquiry labs) Students will research and determine different creative ways to tie dye a variety of materials such as paper, cotton cloth, synthetic cloth, etc.

*Refer and abide by all safety rules and regulations as stated in your lab handouts. A safety PowerPoint is available online.

Summer Homework:


begins and they may email questions to me over the summer. Due to the possibility of schedule changes and student movement, students have until the end of the second week of school to complete the assignment and to take the assessment over the material.

SEQUENCE: First Nine Weeks

Chapter Topics Covered Activities


Matter, measurement, problem solving; atoms and elements; molecules, compounds, and chemical equations

 Review safety and equipment  Review formula writing and

nomenclature (including organic)  Review basic gas laws

 Review basic reaction types, solubility rules, and net ionics  Review mole conversions  Review classification of matter  Review atomic models (scientists,

basic atomic structure)

 Inquiry lab-given a mixture, determine the % composition

 Problem sets including how to determine empirical formulas, molecular formulas, and molecular masses utilizing combustion data, freezing point depressions, gas laws, etc.

 Determine the unit charge on an electron through Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment-calculator simulation

 Determine the relative volume of the nucleus compared to the atom through Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment-computer simulation


Chemical quantities and aqueous reactions

 Review limiting reactants, theoretical yield, % yield  Review solution stoichiometry  Reactions: oxidation-reduction,

acid-base (neutralization), precipitation, evolution of gases

 Inquiry lab-determine the density of an object without the use of a balance

 Types of reactions-Predict products and experimentally verify results for 11 different reactions-wet lab

 Problem sets involving more net ionic equations, limiting reactants, calculating theoretical and percent yield, and other conversions


Electrochemistry  Review redox reactionsOxidation versus reduction  Oxidating and Reducing agents  Galvanic and volatic cells  Electrolytic cells

 Relationship of E with ΔG and Q

 Problem sets balancing redox equations, labeling galvanic and electrolytic cells

 Inquiry lab-electrolysis of potassium iodide (finish during 2nd nine weeks)

 Standardization of potassium permanganate and the redox titration of hydrogen peroxide-wet lab (experiment during 2nd 9 weeks)

Second Nine Weeks

Chapter Topics Covered Activities

Six and Seventeen: Thermochemistry and thermodynamics

 Energy  Specific Heat

 Three Laws of Thermodynamics  Enthalpy and calorimetry  Hess’s Law

 Spontaneous versus

non-spontaneous (thermodynamically favored versus not favored)  Entropy and free energy

 Hess’s Law-coffee cup calorimetry to determine ΔH of reactions and to show enthalpies are additive according to Hess’s Law-wet lab

 Problem sets involving calculations using q=mcΔT, heat lost=heat gained, entropy, and Gibb’s free energy


Gas Laws  Ideal versus realGas laws

 Kinetic molecular theory

 Problem sets involving calculating for pressure, volume, moles, temperature, gas density, molecular masses, rate of effusion, kinetic energy, velocity, root mean squared velocity, etc.


Kinetics  Reaction rates and collision theoryInstaneous rates and relative rates  Differential and integrated rate law  Determination of rate law

 Graphical methods for zero, first, and second order rate laws.  Mechanisms

 Problem sets involving all things kinetics.


 Determination of activation energy

Third Nine Weeks

Chapter Topics Covered Activities


Chemical Equilibrium  Nature of equilibriumEquilibrium constant  Kc and Kp

 Use of RICE tables to solve Kc, Kp  Conversion between Kc, Kp  Le Chatelier’s Principle

 Problem sets using RICE tables and application of Le Chatelier’s Principle

 Inquiry lab-determine how to stress a reaction and use the results to determine the colors of the different cobalt complex ions-wet lab


Acids and bases  Concepts of acid and basesArrhenius o Bronsted-Lowry o Lewis

 Strength of acid and bases  pH and pOH

 Ka, Kb

 Finding pH of strong and weak acids and bases

 Auto-ionization of water and Kw  pH of different salts

 Problem sets involving all things acids and bases  Determine the Ka of a weak acid using the half

titration method-wet lab

 The student will research and explore the

connection of industrial pollution to the production of acid rain and its effects on the environment.

Sixteen: Aqueous ionic equilibrium

 Acid-base titration curves  Determination of appropriate


 Common ion-effect  Buffers

 Solubilty product constant, Ksp

 Problem sets calculating pH at any point along the titration curve, Ksp calculations

 Inquiry lab-determine the Ksp of calcium hydroxide-wet lab

Seven and eight: Quantum mechanics and periodic trends

 Different models  Quantum view of atom  Electron Configurations

o Aufbau o Hund’s Rule

o Pauli Exclusion Principle  Periodic Trends

o Coulomb’s Law o Different trends  Photoelectronic Spectroscopy

 Problem sets including interpreting photoelectronic spectroscopy data

 Flame tests and atomic spectra-wet lab  Photoelectric effect-computer simulation

Nine, ten, eleven, and twelve:

Lewis structures and molecular shapes; Liquids, solids, and intermolecular forces; Solutions  Bonding o Metallic o Ionic o Covalent

 Types of energy associated with different structures:

o bond dissociation energy o lattice energy

 Types of covalent bonds, sigma, pi, resonance structures

 Lewis Dot Diagrams  Formal Charge  VSEPR Theory  Hybridization  Intermolecular Forces

o London dispersion o Dipole to dipole o Hydrogen bonding  Bond versus molecular polarity

 Problem sets


 Properties of liquids  Structures of solids  Phase Change Diagrams  Solution Chemistry

o Supersaturated solutions o Saturated solutions o Unsaturated solutions  Colligative properties

Fourth Nine Weeks-Review

Chapter Topics Covered Activities

Review  Solubility rules and colors of ions in solution and colors of precipitates

 Combination of nine cations and nine anions to determine trends in solubility and formation of precipitates-wet lab

Twenty and twenty-one:

Organic and biochemsitry

 Nomenclature and formula writing, basic properties and functions  Organic reactions

 Construct a standard curve using a colorimeter (Beer’s law)-wet lab

 Synthesis of an organic compound and test for purity using Beer’s law-wet lab

Nineteen: Radioactivity and nuclear chemistry

 Types of radioactivity

 Half-life (relate back to kinetics)  Nuclear equations

 The students will do the “candy decay chain” activity (M&Ms decay into Skittles which decay into SweeTarts which decay into Smarties, which are stable). They will construct four graphs, to show the relationship over time of the four candies and the half-life of each candy will be determined (this models nuclear decay – first order kinetics).

Review  Descriptive chemistry  Solubility rules  Lab techniques:

o Chromatography o Centrifuge and decant o Reduce volume o Utilize Le Chatelier’s


o Formation of complex ions

 Inquiry lab-research, set up, and run a qualitative analysis of 3 ions based on solubility rules  Quanlitative analysis of 6 cations in solution-wet


 Inquiry lab-tie dye techniques on a variety of materials


1. Each nine weeks grades can be calculated by the following:

Summative: 75% (assessments will be similar to the style and content of the college board advanced placement chemistry examinations)

Formative: 25% (formal lab reports, quizzes, class work, homework, and reading notes) 2. Each semester grade is calculated by:

0.8 (average of nine week’s grades) + 0.2 (final exam) 3. SUBSTANDARD WORK WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED!

4. Points may be deducted from student papers for the following reasons: a. incomplete, incorrect, or illegible responses

b. incorrect use of significant figures c. incorrect spelling or grammar d. not following prescribed format

e. failure to show logical progression of work

f. failure to follow safe laboratory procedures as prescribed in the laboratory safety contract

5. All assignments (including tests) must be completed on time. Students who are absent the day an assignment is due are expected to hand in the assignment upon their return to class.

6. An absence prior to a test or quiz will excuse the student from the test or quiz only if they missed new instruction (not review). 7. A student absent on the day of the test is expected to make up the test during class upon their return.


2. Students are TARDY if they are not in the room at the last sound of the bell. 3. Students shall keep an accurate record of their grades to monitor their average.

4. The student will receive a consolidated printed progress report for all seven classes as close as possible to the three week and six week mark of a grading period. Parents of failing students should contact the teacher as soon as possible.

5. The teacher will announce all major tests at least two class days in advance.

6. Students should attempt to resolve any misunderstandings concerning grades with the teacher during tutorials. 7. Tutorials will be available to all students Tuesday and Thursday mornings (all other times by appointment only). 8. Fairness and courtesy are essential for productive student-teacher-parent interactions.


1. NOTIFY THE TEACHER IN THE EVENT OF AN ACCIDENT (including any spills or breakages)!!! 2. Notify the teacher of any allergies to latex, copper, etc. When in doubt, ask!

3. Follow ALL instructions given by the teacher.

4. Read and understand all lab procedures before working in the lab.

5. Safety goggles will be worn when burners, glassware, or caustic chemicals are in use in the lab. 6. Long hair must be tied back.

7. Shoes covering the entire foot MUST BE WORN in the lab at all times. 8. Long sleeves must be rolled up when using burners or chemicals. 9. Eating and drinking are prohibited during lab (including chewing gum.) 10. DO NOT sit on the lab tables or student desks.

11. Handle hot glassware with appropriate tongs or gloves. 12. Never pick up reagent bottles by the lid.

13. Pour acids slowly into water with constant stirring.

14. Be sure that all clamps are secure before beginning an experiment.

15. Flush any chemical spills on the skin with plenty of water and notify the teacher.

16. In the event of any chemical contact with the eyes, use the eyewash and notify the teacher.

17. Use the automatic shower in the event of large quantities of caustic chemicals splashed on the body. If fire is involved, follow the steps as described in class.

18. Never taste chemicals or directly inhale the fumes of chemicals. 19. Never return unused chemicals to the original reagent bottles. 20. Dispose of chemicals appropriately as instructed by the teacher. 21. Carry only the quantity of equipment that can be safely handled. 22. Never perform unauthorized experiments.

23. Disruptive conduct will not be tolerated and will result in the expulsion from lab and all materials turned in immediately for evaluation. Proper lab procedure is worth 50% of each lab grade.



Mrs. Busby—Room NE 238

PLEASE NOTE: Due to large classes, safety is extremely important for laboratory work. Please review and follow all safety rules and regulations. This document must be signed and returned before the student may to participate in laboratory activities.


We the undersigned have read, understood, and agree to abide by the guidelines described in this document.

Student Name (please print): ______________________________________________________________

Student Signature: ____________________________________________________ Date: _____________

Parent/guardian Signature: ____________________________________________________ Date: _______

Daytime phone number: ________________________________

Parent email address: ___________________________________



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