Psychology Chapter Definition of Learning Learning- 5.2 It Makes Your Mouth Water: Classical Conditioning Reflex- Classical conditioning-

Download (0)

Full text


Psychology Chapter 5

5.1 Definition of Learning

o Learning- is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice

o Maturation- kind of change due to biology, not experience  Changes like the increase in height, or the size of brain  5.2 It Makes Your Mouth Water: Classical Conditioning

o Pavlov brought about the study of basic principles in learning

o Reflex- an unlearned involuntary response that is not under personal control or choice o Stimulus- can be defined as any object, event, or experience that causes response

o Reponses- that reaction of an organism o Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs

Classical conditioning- learning to elicit an involuntary, reflex-like, response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the response

o Elements of Classical Conditioning  Unconditioned Stimulus

Unconditioned stimulus- the original, naturally occurring stimulus  “unlearned”

 Ordinarily leads to the involuntary response  Unconditioned Response

Unconditioned response- the automatic and involuntary response to the unconditioned stimulus

 Unlearned and occurs because of genetic wiring in the nervous system  Conditioned Stimulus

Neutral stimulus- has no effect on the desired response prior to conditioning

Conditioned stimulus- in classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that becomes able to produce a conditioned response, after pairing with an unconditioned stimulus

Conditioned Response

Conditioned response- learned response to a controlled stimulus o Putting it all together: Pavlov’s Canine Classic

 Pavlov did an experiment in which he pair the ticking sound of a metronome with the presentation of food to see if the dogs would eventually salivate at the sound of the metronome

 Metronome- a simple device the produces a rhythmic ticking sound

Acquisition- the repeated pairing of the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned response stimulus

 An unconditioned stimulus is always followed by an unconditioned response stimulus and a conditioned stimulus is always followed by a conditioned response stimulus

 Basic Principles to Classic Conditioning  The CS must come before the UCS


 Placed a hungry cat in a box with a lever that if pushed it would let the cat out and eventually lead the cat to food

 The cat never learned to push the lever to escape right away but took less time to find the lever

Law of Effect

 If an action is followed by pleasurable consequences it will tend to be repeated; if the action if followed by unpleasable consequences it will tend not to be repeated

o B.F. Skinner: The behaviorist’s behaviorist

 Gave the learning of voluntary behavior a special name: operant conditioning  Operant- any behavior that is voluntary and not elicited by specific stimuli  In operant conditioning learning depends on what comes after the response

5.5 The Concept of Reinforcement

o Reinforcement- any event of stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again

o Consequence that is in some way pleasurable to the organism o Primary and Secondary Resources

Reinforces- items or events that when following a response will strengthen it Primary reinforcers- any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic

biological need such as hungry, thirst, or touch

Secondary reinforcer- any reinfocer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such a praise, tokens, or gold stars

o Positive and Negative Reinforcement

Positive reinforcement- the reinforcement of a response by the addition of experience of a pleasurable consequence, such as a reward or a pat on the back  Negative reinforcement- following the response with the removal or escape from

something unpleasant will also increase the likelihood of that response being repeated

5.6 Schedules of Reinforcement: Why the one-armed bandit is so seductive

o The Partial Reinforcement Effect

partial reinforcement effect- a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct response will be more resistant to extinction

Example- Bianca’s mother giving her a dollar at the end of the week if she has put her clothes in the hamper every day for the week; when Bianca’s mom stops giving her a dollar Bianca will not stop putting her clothes in the hamper

continuous reinforcement effect- a reinforcer for each and every correct response; more like to fall back to old habits once the reinforcer has been taken away

example: Ashley’s mom gives her a quarter after she outs her clothes in the hamper when Ashley’s mom stops giving her quarters for putting her clothes in the hamper Ashley will most likely stop putting her clothes in the hamper again

interval schedule- when the timing of the response is more important

ratio schedule- when it is the number of responses that is more important because a certain number of responses is required for each reinforcer


punishment by removal- the kind of punishment most often confused with negative reinforcement; behavior is punished by the removal of something pleasurable or desired after the behavior occurs

example- grounding a teenager if removing freedom to do what the teenager want, placing a child in time out

Negative Reinforcement versus Punishment by Removal

Examples of Negative Reinforcement Examples of Punishment By Removal Stopping at a red light to avoid getting in an

accident Losing the privilege of driving because you’ve had too many accidents Mailing an income tax return by April 15th to avoid

a penalty Having to lose some of your money to pay the penalty for late tax filing Obeying a parent before the parent reaches the

count of “three” to avoid getting a scolding Being “grounded” (losing your freedom) because of disobedience

5.8 Problems with Punishment

o Punishment is used to weaken a response and getting rid of a response that is already well established is not that easy

o Punishment typically only serves to temporarily suppress or inhibit a behavior until enough time has passed

 Example: punishing a child’s behavior doesn’t always eliminate that behavior completely

o Punishment by Application can be quite severe and typically stops the behavior immediately  Severe Punishment may cause:

 The child to avoid the punisher instead of the behavior being punished, so the child learns the wrong response

 May encourage lying to avoid the punishment

 Create fear and anxiety, emotional response that do not encourage learning  Hitting provides a successful model for aggression

o How to make Punishment more Effective

Punishment should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish  If the punishment comes long after the behavior, it will not be associated

with that behavior

Punishment should be Consistent

 First, if the parent says a certain punishment will follow a certain behavior, then the parent must make sure to follow through and do what he or she promised to do

 Second, punishment for a particular behavior should stay at the same intensity or increase slightly but never decrease

Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible, with reinforcement of the right behavior

 Instead of yelling at a two year old for eating with their finger the parent should pull her hand gently out of her plate and say “No, we do not eat with our fingers”




Related subjects :