• No results found

Kuki_Chin_Zomi_Mizo. Myanmar Version

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2021

Share "Kuki_Chin_Zomi_Mizo. Myanmar Version"

Copied!
335
0
0

Full text

(1)

pma&;ol\ trSmpm

þpmtkyfxkwfa0&jcif;\ t"du&nf&G,fcsufrSm jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHawmfwGif rSDwif;aexdkifaom wdkif;&if;om;rsKd;(8)ckxJrS vlrsdK;wpfck tjzpf&yfwnfaeaom csif;vlrsKd;rsm;\&mZ0ifudk od&Sdap&eftwGuf jzpfygonf/ xdkUaemuf csif;vlrsdK;rsm;\ZmwdrSef? trnfrSefazmfjycsufrsm; o r k d i f ; o k a w o e j y K p k o l r s m ; u avhvmEkdif&efESifhjyefvnfudk;um;Ekdif&ef twGuf a&;om;xm;jcif; jzpfonf/ þpmtkyfxJwGif y&dwfowfvuf xJodkYra&mufao;aom orkdif;tcsdKUvnf; yg0ifovdk od&SdNyD;aom taMumif; wcsdKUudkvnf; xnfhoGif;xm;ygonf/ þpmtkyfxJwGif azmfjyxm;aom taMumif;t&mrsm;tm; jiif;y,fjcif; (odkY) vufcHjcif;onf pmzwfol y&dwfrsm;\ qHk;jzwfcsufyif jzpfonf/

(2)

csif;vlrsdK;rsm;onf rGef*dk;&D;,m; rsdK;EG,frsm;r[kwfyg/ qDrD;wdcf ( Semitic-Hebrew)vlrsdK;EG,fpkrS qif;oufí wdAufEkdifiHa&mufaomtcg wdAufbmompum;toHk;jyKygonf/ jrefrmEkdifiHodkYa&muf&Sdvmaomtcg wdAuf- jrefrm bmompum;toHk;jyKaom rsdK;EG,fpkrsm;[k owfrSwfonf/ ,cktcg jrefrmjynfü csif;vlrsdK;rsm;tm; jrefrmEkdifiHom; ( Na-tionality) ESifhcsif;vlrsdK;rsm;( National)? tdE´d,EkdifiHwGif tdE´d,EkdifiHom;ESifhrD;ZdkvlrsdK;rsm; ESifhZdkrD;vlrsdK;rsm;[k ac:qdkMuonf/

(3)

aus;Zl;wifpum;

þpmtkyfxkwfa0&jcif;\ t"du&nf&G,fcsufrSm jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHawmfwGif rSDwif;aexdkifaom wdkif;&if;om;rsKd;(8)ckxJrS vlrsdK;wpfck tjzpf&yfwnfaeaom csif;vlrsKd;rsm;\&mZ0ifudk od&Sdap&eftwGuf jzpfygonf/ xdkUaemuf csif;vlrsdK;rsm;\ZmwdrSef? trnfrSefazmfjycsufrsm; o r k d i f ; o k a w o e j y K p k o l r s m ; u avhvmEkdif&efESifhjyefvnfudk;um;Ekdif&ef twGuf a&;om;xm;jcif; jzpfonf/ þpmtkyfxJwGif y&dwfowfvuf xJodkYra&mufao;aom orkdif;tcsdKUvnf; yg0ifovdk od&SdNyD;aom taMumif; wcsdKUudkvnf; xnfhoGif;xm;ygonf/ þpmtkyfxJwGif azmfjyxm;aom taMumif;t&mrsm;tm; jiif;y,fjcif; (odkY) vufcHjcif;onf pmzwfol y&dwfrsm;\ qHk;jzwfcsufyif jzpfonf/

(4)

orkdif; (&mZ0if) trsdK;rsdK;&SdouJhodkY 'DpmtkyfxJrSm jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHwGif aexkdifaom wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;orkdif;ESifhEkdifiHa&;orkdif; yg0ifygonf/

uRefawmfpma&;olonf jrefrmpmjzifh pmtkyfwpftkyf a&;om;xkwf a0EkdifzdkU&ef ynmt&nftcsif;? jrefrmpma&;om;enf;ESifh jref rmpm;uRrf; usifrI tm;enf;ojzifh rdrdukd,fudk ,HkMunfEkdifpGrf;r&Sdyg/ odkYaomf rsdK;cspfpdwf "gwfjyif;xefvGef;jcif;? jrefrmpmudk &Hk;oHk;pmjzpfouJhodkY tenf;qHk; EkdifiHom; oef;ig;q,fu zwfwwfa&;wwfaomaMumifh jzpfonf/ pma&; olonf Zolai

pum;jzifh pmtkyfwpftkyfa&;xm;cJhNyD; ,ck jrefrmvdkjzifh xkwfa0aompmtkyf onf 'kwd,ajrmufpmtkyfjzpfonf/ orkdif;taMumif;a&;om;jcif;xJrSm vl rsdK;orkdif;a&;om;jcif;onf tcufqHk;ESifhowdcsyf&ef tvdktyfqHk;jzpfonf/ taMumif;u vlrsdK;EG,fpktrsdK;rsdK;eSifhywfoufaomaMumifh trSefqHk;a&;zdkU cufvSygonf/ rSm;wmudk a&;cJhrdvQif vlwpfcskKdUu tjypfwifa0zef&rnf udk aocsmonf/ 0w¦K? uAsm a&;om;jcif;uJhodkY r[kwfyg/ vlrsdK;taMumif; a&;onfhtcg

(5)

vlrsdK;trnfESifh vlwpfa,muftrnf zkef;uG,fír&yg/ uavmifemrnfoHk;ívnf;r&yg/

wdAuf-jrefrmpum; pmaya&;om;enf; oHk;rsdK;jzifh a&;om;Ekdif onf/ t*Fvdyfpm a&;om;jcif;ESifhrwlyg/

om"r- ( u ) rHk&Gm rS &efukefodkY igvmonf/ ( c ) &efukefokdY rHk&GmrS igvmonf/ ( * ) igrHk&GmrS &efukefokdYvmonf/

w d A u f - j r e f r m p u m ; t E G , f 0 i f pma&;om;enf;rSm o'´gt& uH + uwÅm;+ Mud,m ( Object+ Subject + Verb)/ þuJhodkY jrefrmpm a&;ovdk wkdif;&if;om;

wdAuf-jrefrmpum;tEG,f0ifrsm;jzpfMuaom csif; vlrsdK;? ucsifvlrsdK;rsm;uvnf; a&;om;avh&Sdonf/ t*Fvdyfpma&;om; enf;rSm ( Subject +Object+ Verb) jzpfonf

/ þpmtkyfxJwGif txufyg jrefrmpma&;om;enf; oHk;rsdK;pvHk;udk a&maESmum toHk;jyKxm;ygonf/ rSm;wmr&Sif;wmrsm;udk cGifhvTwfay;yg&ef awmif;yeftyfygonf/ þpmtkyf jzpfajrmuf&eftwGuf OmPfynmESifhusef;rma&;ay;aom zefqif;&Sifbk&m; ociftay:ü aomfvnf;aumif;? tbufbufrS

(6)

ulnDtm;ay;aom oli,f csif;ESifhrdom;pkrsm;? txl;ojzifh? aiGaMu;ESifhaxmufyHhay;aom Rev. Zambawi

ESifhrdom;pk (oefvsif)? uGefysLwmESifh'DZkdif;udk aeYn rtm;r vyfMum;xJrSm tprS tqHk;txd ulnDay;aom oli,fcsif;

Saya Zam Lam Thang, David (,kZe) *kPfjyKpma&;ay;ol (

)? rdwfqufpum; a&;ay; ( )rsm;ESifh pmtkyf0,f,lolrsm;? zwf&Iolrsm; tm;ay;aomoltm;vHk; tay:rSm aus;Zl;Oumw&txl;wifvsuf&SdaMumif; azmfjyvkdygonf/

aus;Zl;wifvsuf crfvrfawGmif uav;NrdKU/

(7)

rmwdum

pma&;ol\ trSmpm aus;Zl;wifpum; rdwfqufpum; rdwfqufpum; ed'gef; tcef; 1 csif;vlrsdK;orkdif;tp 1/ vlrsKd;qif;oufvmyHk 2/ vlrsKd;rSnfhac:jcif; tcef; 2 ZdkrD;ESifhcsif;tac:ta0: 1/ZdkrD;[laom trnfqif;oufvmjcif;

2/]] csif; }} (Chiang) [laom trnfpwifjzpfay:vmyHk 3/ csif;(Chiang)[laom a0g[m&tm; bmompum;t&avhvmrI 4/]]csif;}}[k ac:qdkaom ordkif;rSwfwrf;rsm;

(8)

waumif;jynfwnfaxmifolrsm; 1/ oufvlrsdK;rsm;ESifh csif;vlrsdK;rsm; 2/ ]]jref}}vlrsdK;rS jrefrm 3/ ArmESifhjrefrm 4/ csif;rBudKufaom ZdkrD;rsm; 5/ emrnfESifhvdifcGJjcm;jcif;toHk;tEIef; 6/ e,fedrdwfowfrSwfjcif;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&; 7/ 1974ckESpfrS 2010txd EkdifiHawmfor®wrsm; tcef; 4 jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEkdifiHawmf zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'rS aumufEIwfcsufrsm; 1/ 1947 zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya' 2/ 1974 ckeSpf zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya' 3/ 2008 zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya' tcef; 5 wkdif;&if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;\t"du vdkvm;aom tcsuf (4) csuf 1/ udk;uG,fonfhbmom

(9)

2/ wkdif;&if;om;rsm;\pmayjr§ifhwifa&; 3/ &Hk;oHk;pmESifhbHkpum; 4/ rnfonfht&yfa'orqdk aexkdifcGifhjyKjcif; tcef; 6 csif;ESifhucsifwkdY nDtpfjzpfjcif; 1/ csif;ESifhucsifnDtpfudkawmfrsm;jzpfjcif; 2/ ucsif"g;tdrfESifhtdyfcef;oD;oefYxm;jcif; 3/ csif;u ucsifrsm;udk tdrfcJGay;jcif; 4/ ucsifwkdYu tpfudkBuD;csif;wdkYudk rarhao;bl;/ tcef; 7

csif;jynfe,frS ac:oH

1/ csif;jynfe,f vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;

2/ csif;jynfe,f\ e,fedrdwfudk rSefuefpGm owfrSwfjcif;r&Sd 3/ csif;jynfe,frS jrefrmppfom;rsm;ESifh csif;vlrsdK;rsm;ppf&mxl; wkd;jr§ifhay;jcif;

4/ csif;jynfe,f vQyfppfpDrHudef;

(10)

6/ csif;jynfe,f jyefwrf;0ift&m&Sd ppfXmerS pmar;yGJajzqdkjcif;

7/ csif;jynfe,fodkY ekdifiHjcm;om;rsm; c&D;oGm;vmjcif; 8/ csif;jynfe,f a'oaumvdyftm; uav;aumvdyftjzpf jzpfjcif;

9/ csif;jynfe,ftkyfcsKYyfa&;ESifh c&kdifNrdKUe,ftqifh (u) csif;awmife,fedrdwfowfrSwfjcif;

(c) tdE´d, ESifh csif;awmife,fedrdwf (8) c½dkif? NrdKUe,frsm;

(11)

ed'gef;

]] csif; }}[laom a0g[m&pum;vHk;onf csif;vlrsKd;rsm; aexkdif&m e,fajraa'otoD;oD;rSm oHk;EIef; xm;jcif; vHk;0r&Sdyg/ ]] csif; }} [laom a0g[m&pum;vHk;\ teuft"dyÜg,frSm ,ckxd csif;vlrsKd;rsm; rod&SD ao;aom pum;vHk;yif jzpfaeonf/ yk*Hacwf ausmufpmrsm;wGif jrefrmbk&ifrsm;u owfyHkrSm;,Gif;pGm a&;om;xm;aomaMumifh NAdwdoQtpdk;& vufxufrSm "CHIN" csif;[k

a&;om;azmfjyxm;jcif;udk ,aeYxd wdkifatmif EdkifiHawmftpdk;&u w&m;0if ( official)todtrSwfjyKNyD; oHk;EIef;xm;aMumif;udk od&Sd&ygonf/ jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdkifiH wGif aexdkifMuaom wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd; (8)rsKd;xJrSmyif vlrsKd;BuD;wpfcktjzpf &yfwnfvmcJhygonf/ ,aeYacwf umvrSmyif ]] csif;}}[laom

(12)

pum;vHk;oHk;EIef;yHkudk rESpfoufMuaomfvnf; EdkifiHawmftpdk;&\ todtrSwf jyKaom wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;BuD;wpfrsKd; EdkifiHom;tppftrSeftjzpf &yfwnfaexdkifMuavonf/ csif;vlrsKd;rsm; onf csif; [k ac:a0:jcif;udk rjiif;qdkEdkifcJhaomfvnf; csif;vlrsKd;rsm;tm; ZdkrD; (Zomi) [k

ac:qdkí csif;vlrsKd; rsm;wGif ]] csif;ykwf}} [k ac:qdkaom vlrsKd;rsm; vHk;0r&Sdyg[k pma&;q&m OD;odef;azjrifhu olYpmtkyf (csif;0daoowdkif;\ ordkif; tpç 1 967-pm-172)wGif azmfjyay;aeNyD; jzpfygonf/ aemifwGif vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;\ qif;oufyHkESifh ac:a0:Muaom pum;vHk; toHk;tEIef;tm; jrefrmowfyHk a&;om;azmfjyMuaom pmayavmurSm *½kwpdkuf owdjyKoifhygonf/ wdkif;&if; om;vlrsKd;rsm;\ trnfrsm;udk a&;om;&mwGif rsm;pGmrSm;,Gif; aeaMumif;udk xif&Sm;aeygonf/

csif;vlrsKd; pum;vHk; Chin pong csif;yHkudk csif;ykef;[k

a&;í Chinbok (Cho) csif;abmcf^csif;bkwfudk

jrefrmtu©&ma&;om;&mwGif csif;ykwf^csif;ykyf[k a&;rSm;í t"dyÜg,frsm; uGJjym;jcm;em;aeygonf/ Chon Bik

<urfbdcfudkvnf; qGefyuf[k a&;rSm;xm;aomaMumifh EdkifiHawmf tpdk;&u AdkvfqGefyufvrf;[k a&;í vHk;0rSm;,Gif;azmfjyxm;ygonf/

(13)

csif;ykef;[laom pum;vHk;\ teuft"dyÜg,fem;rvnfaomfvnf; csif;ykef;&Gmudk ,if;rowf aus;&Gmtkyfpk? ,if;rmyifNrdKUe,f (c½dkif)ppfudkif; wdkif;wGif wnf&Sdí? NAdwdoQacwf csif;uif;wyfudk csif;uif;&Gm[k ac:í pnfomaus;&Gm tkyfpk? uav;NrdKUwGif wnf&Sdí aexdkifMuygonf/ ,ck ppfudkif;wHwm;em; a&S;jrefrmbk&ifNrdKUa[mif;trm&yl&NrdKU teD; jrpfurf;em; csif;&Gmwpf&Gm wnfí tcsdefMumjrifhpGm aexkdifcJhonf/ ausmufuAÁnf; tjrifhay 13 udk ,aeYtxd jrifawGUEkdifonf/ teD;&SdArmvlrsdK;rsm;u csif;bk&m;[k ac:Muonf/ ppfukdif;wHwm;teD;rSmvnf; csif;pk&Gmwpf&Gm onf ,aeYtxd &Sdao;onf/ ( S.B Khan Tin Vungh, 2001, Sukzo Bawmkhai Khang tangthu, p. 109)csif;vlrsKd;rsm;\ vlrsKd;qif;oufykH?

vlrsKd;trnf trSefrl&if;udk atmufygtwdkif; azmfjyygonf/ pmzwfolu vufcHwm? vufrcHwm ta&;rBuD;bl;? udk,fhordkif;? udk,fvlrsKd; a,bk,strnf (Noman clature/Ge-neric name) trSefudk a&;om;azmfjy&ef ]]EdkifiHom;wdkif; onf

rdrd\,Hk Munfcsuf? xifjrif,lqcsufrsm;udk xkwfazmfajymqdkcGifh? a&;om;jzefYa0cGifh&Sd onf (nTef;-zGJUpnf;yHk 2008 yk'fr 35 (u)) [k azmfjyxm;onf/

(14)

'DpmtkyfrSm ]] csif; }} [kqdkaom pum;&yfrSm "KUKI-CHIN-LUSHAI" tygt0if jzpfonf/ KUKI u ]] csif;}}

udk,fpm; KUKI ( Thado pum;oHk;) a&G;cs,fonf/ Lushai

u ZOFA (Lusei) tpm; Mizoram rSm Mizo oHk;í

jrefrmjynfrSmvnf; Chin tpm; Mizo a&G;cs,fonf/ tdE´d,ESifh

jrefrmjynfrSm Kuki-Chin tpm; TEDIM, PAITE, SIMTE, VAIPHE, GANGTE, ZOU, THADO, KOM, TEDIMG-CHIN udk,fpm;jyK a,bk,strnf (Generic Name) ZOMI

a&G;cs,fonf/ ZOMI ESifh MIZO bmompum;uGJjym;rI&Sdaomf

vnf; Mizoram MIZO (Duhlian) pum;ajymolrsm; ordkif;trSef

od&donfjzpfaomaMumifh ZOMI ESifh MIZO udk

trSm;trSefac:a0:jcif; ruGJjym;atmif "ZO" a0g[m& (Ety-mology of ZO) udk tajccHí Zote / Zofa, Zogan/Zoram, Zopau/ Zotawng/Zoxen/Zohram [k twdaumufjzifh

ac:qdkcJhavonfudk awGU &onf/ Kawlmi, Vaimi, Simmi, Laimi, Hmarmi, Zomi [kvnf;ac:onf/

jrefrmjynfcsif;vlrsKd;xJrSm ajrjyefYcsif;rsm;u ]]csif;}} udk ckdifNrJpGm toHk;jyKcsifygonf/ 1974 ckESpf zGJUnf;yHk tajccHoya'a&;qGJwJhtcg csif; tpm; Zomi xnfhoGif;rnf[k

(15)

tqdk&Sdaomfvnf; ajrjyefcsif;rsm; wcsKdUu uefYuGufcJhonf[k od&Sd&onf/ csif;jynfe,f vlrsKd;rsm;xJrSm Hakha u Laimi, Tedim u ZOMI, Paletwa u Khumi [lí 2014

oef;acgifpm&if;aumufrnfhtcsdefrSm rSwfyHkwifrSmwJhtcg xnfhoGif;a&;om; jcif;udk vdkvm;ygonf/ Tedim e,frS Zomi

udk ESpfoufaomfvnf; Chin udk ydkrdkESpfoufvmaom

vlrsKd;EG,fuGJ &Sdao;onf/ tb,fhaMumifhenf;[k ar;cJhvQif a&S;acwfu tkyfyD;acwfwGif zvrf;e,frsKd;EG,frsm; wDwdefe,frS tkyfyD;wpfcsKdUu uReftjzpf zrf;cJhaom olrsm;\ rsKd;½dk;pOfquf wpfcsKdU wDwdefe,frSm ,aeYtxd aexkdifcJhí xdkolwdkYu zvrf;u Chin [kac:qdkMuonf/ Salai ESifh Mai

okH;onf/ 2014 ckESpf oef;acgifpm&if;aumufNyD;rS rSwfyHkwifrSm udk,fhvlrsKd;\ emrnftrSef a&;rnfjzifh Zomi tppfESifh trSefudk

od&rSmjzpfonf/ Zomi tenf;qHk; 3 odef;ausmf&Sdrnf/ rPdyl& Kuki-Chin ESifh aygif;vQif 7 odef;ausmf Mizoram ESifh aygif;&if

odef; 15 ausmfrnf[k tenf;qHk;cefYrSef;&onf/

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHwGif wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd; (9)rsKd;? vlrsKd;EG,fpk (136)ausmf aexkdifcJhaom EdkifiH jzpfonf/ Arm? csif; (53)? ucsif? &Srf;? rGef? &cdkif? u,m;? u&if [k

(16)

twlwlaexkdifcJhaomfvnf; bmompum; EG,fpkt& ynm&Sifrsm;u rwlonf[k cGJjcm;aomfvnf; rGef*dk vD;,m;tEG,f0ifrsm; jzpfonf[k qdkygonf/

Amrm? csif;? ucsif? &cdkifwdkYonf wDAuf-jrefrmbmompum;ajymtEG,f0ifrsm;jzpfonf[k qdkygonf/ 'Dpmtkyfudk csif; (Zomi) taMumif;jzpfaomaMumifh

tajccHOD;pm;ay;í &Sif;jyygrnfjzpfonf/

rEkomaA' ynm&Sifrsm; (Anthropologist) rsm;u

tm&SvlrsKd;rsm;udk ½kyfydkif;qdkif&m ta&mif (Colour) udk Munfhí

tom;0g (Yellow) rsKd;EG,frsm;udk rGef*dk;vD,m; (Mongolian)

rsKd;EG,fpk[k cGJjcm;owfrSwfcJhonf/ xdkYaMumifh j y n f a x m i f p k w d k i f ; & i f ; o m ; r s m ; u d k v n f ; rGef*dkvD,m;tEG,f0ifjzpfonf[k EdkifiHawmftpdk;&u ordkif;t& vufcHygonf/

1947 ckESpf yifvHktpnf;ta0; usif;yí vGwfvyfa&;twlwuG ,lrnf[k AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; atmifqef;awmifwef;a'orsm;wGif c&D;xGufí pnf;½Hk;a&;vIyf&Sm;cJhonf/

(17)

AdkvfcsKyfaqmifqef;u-1/ csif;wdkYudk rGef*dkvD;EG,f0if;rsm;? wdAuf-jrefrmpum;ajymtEG,f0ifrsm;jzpfí (Arm) uRefawmfESifh rsKd;wl jzpfonf[kqdkíaomf¤if;? (yifvHktpnf;ta0; 1947)

2/ ucsifwdkYbufoGm;í csif;ESifh ucsif? ArmwdkYudk rsKd;EG,ft&twl rGef*Dk&D;,m;tEG,f0if? wDAuf-jrefrmpum;ajym tEG,fpkjzpf[kqdkum? (jrpfBuD;em; 1947)

3/ &cdkifbufodkYoGm;í jrefrmEdkifiHrSm bmompum;t& ArmESifh &cdkifvlrsKd; eD;pyfqHk;rsm;jzpfí &Srf;? &cdkif? Arm rsm;udk udk;uG,faom bmomwlaom Ak'¨bmom0iffrsm; jzpfonf[kí¤if;? (ppfawGUNrdKU 1946)

4/ &Srf;wdkY bufa&mufaomtcg ArmESifh &Srf;wdkYudk wjcm;wdkif;&if;om;rsm;xuf udk;uG,faom bmomcsif;wl? ,Ofaus;rI? "avhxHkpHvnf; wlaomvlrsKd;rsm;jzpfí csif;? ucsif? &Srf;? u&ifeDESifh jrefrmjynfudk yl;aygif;í vGwfvyfa&;twlwuG ,l&rnf[k uRrf;usifpGm pnf;½Hk;cJhygonf/

(18)

ucsifvlrsKd;rsm;ESifh ArmvlrsKd;udk rGef*dkvD;,m;rsKd;EG,f? wDAuf-jrefrmpum;ajymtEG,f0ifrsm;[k pnf;½Hk;cJhí rEkomaA'ynm&Sifrsm;\ av;vmawGU&Sdjcif;udkvnf; vufcHonf[k xif&Sm;onf/

vlYordkif;avhvmenf;

vlYordkif;avhvmenf;

vlYordkif;avhvmenf;

vlYordkif;avhvmenf;

vlYordkif;avhvmenf;

ynm&Sifrsm;u rGef*dkvD;,m;EG,frsm; cGJjcm;avhvmjcif; ynm&Sifrsm;u rGef*dkvD;,m;EG,frsm; cGJjcm;avhvmjcif; ynm&Sifrsm;u rGef*dkvD;,m;EG,frsm; cGJjcm;avhvmjcif; ynm&Sifrsm;u rGef*dkvD;,m;EG,frsm; cGJjcm;avhvmjcif; ynm&Sifrsm;u rGef*dkvD;,m;EG,frsm; cGJjcm;avhvmjcif; ynm&Sif[laom pum;&yf (toHk;tEIef;) udk vlrsKd;EG,frsm;\ ordkif;ESifh ,SOfNyD; trSefavhvmpHk;prf;wJhtcg owd&bdkY&ef ta&;BuD;vdrfhrnf[k owday;csifygonf/ ynm&Sif[k yg&*lbGJU& (Ph.D) rsm;udkvnf; 'Dordkif; taMumif;udk

olwdkYajymwJhtwdkif; rSefonf[k (100 %) vufcHEdkifp&m r&Sdyg/

ynm&Sdwkdif;u yg&*lbGJU &r[kwf? yg&*lbGJU r&aom olrsm;vnf; vlrsKd;taMumif; yg&*lbGJU&aomvlrsKd;uJhodkY olYvlrsKd;rsm;\ ordkif;ydkrdkod&Sdonf/ TEDIM bmompum;jzifh pm (Zolai)

(19)

oifcef;pmausmif;oHk;pmtkyfjyKpkaomtcg 1923 ckESpf Rev. Dr. J.H.Cope u Zomi vlrsKd;taMumif;udk Zomi rsm;udk ar;í

todtrSwfjyKí rSefonf[k vufcHygonf/ xdkuJhodkY ynm&Sifwpfa,mufu csif;vlrsKd;rsm;udk rGef*dkvD;,m;tEG,f0ifrsm;jzpfonf[k vufcHoifhoavmh? vufrcH oifhoavm? pOf;pm;p&m (tdrfpm) &Sdao;onf/ pma&;olu Pu. PC Biak Lian a&;om;aom Bible & Sciense

zwfcJhbl;onf/ wuúodkvfwpfckrS Ph. D

ausmif;om;wpfa,mufudk (okawoe)usrf;jyKol (Disertation)

tif'dkeD;&Sm; uRef;pG,fuRef;i,fwpfckrS ausmufwHk;rsm;udk ESpfaygif; b,favmuf&Sdonfudktwdkif; cdkif; ( ) onf/ xdkausmif;om;tajz&wJh wdkif;wuúodkvfu todtrSwfjyKí

(Ph. Degree) yg&*lbGJUtyfESHjcif;cHonf/ xdkYaemuf tjcm; Ph.D

ausmif;om;wpfa,muf a&S;a[mif;okawoejyKolu

(Archeology)jyKolu xdkuRef;qG,frSm ausmufwHk;rsm;

oufwrf;udk wdkif;ckdif;onf/ yxrausmif;olu wkdif;aomtcg ESpfoufwrf; 20 oef;ausmf[kqdkum Ph. D bGJU tyfESif;cJhNyD?

odkYaomf aemufqHk;ausmif;om;u xdkuRef;qG,fteD;tem;rS aexdkifaom a'ocH oufBuD;&G,ftdkrsm;udk

(20)

xdkuRef;qG,ftaMumif; ar;jref;cJh&m 'DuRef;qG,fi,f (Island)

udk igwdkY i,fi,fwkef;upí a&wdkufpm;rIaMumifh uRef;qG,fi,ftjzpf ay:aygufvmcJhonf/ ajray:odkY ay:vmaom ausmufwHk;rsm;udkvnf; oufwrf; 100 rausmfao;yg[k ac:qdkonf/ xdkYaMumifh ausmif;om; okawoejyKolu ausmufwdkif;u&d,m ( )ta[mif;jzpfí t&ifokwejyKoloHk;aom wdkif;ud&d,mrrSefbl;[k qdkum wkdif;ud&d,mtopfESifh xdkausmufwHk;rsm;udk aocsm wdkif;í tESpf 100 ausmavmufay:vmonf/ xdkwuúodkvfrsm; Ph.D

bGJUay;aom aumfrDwDrsm;u thhhHMoaomfvnf; yxrokawoejyKudk Ph.D bGJU tyfESif;cJhNyD;jzpfí

odrf;,ljcif;vnf;raumif;? 'kwd, okawoejyKudkvnf; Ph.D

bGJU (Archeology) ESifh &oGm;onf/

þ ynm&Sif[laom pum;&yfESifh ywfoufol jrefrmhordkif;a&;om;aom a'gufwmbGJU&rsm;pGmxJrSm emrnfausmf a'gwmoef;xGef;a&;om;aom ordkif;tm;vHk; olu yg&*lbGJU&jzpfí tm;vHk;rSefonf[k ajymvdkY r& vufcHvdkYvnf; r&yg/ yg&*lbGJU&? ynm&Sifr[kwf&ifawmifrS ola&;om;enf;? okawoejyKa&;udk tajccHuspepfjzifh a&;om;ygu

(21)

rSm;onf[kvnf; ajymvdkYr&yg/ atmufygtwkdif; ynm&Sifrsm;ESifh vrf;ab;u vlrsm;\ vlrsKd;cGJjcm;jcif;udk azmfjyygonf/ tpdk;&owfrSwfwJhtaMumif;vnf; trSm;trSef udkvnf; &Sdrnf/

avhvmpHkprf;enf; (7)rsKd;ESifh oif\ t&nftcsif;

avhvmpHkprf;enf; (7)rsKd;ESifh oif\ t&nftcsif;

avhvmpHkprf;enf; (7)rsKd;ESifh oif\ t&nftcsif;

avhvmpHkprf;enf; (7)rsKd;ESifh oif\ t&nftcsif;

avhvmpHkprf;enf; (7)rsKd;ESifh oif\ t&nftcsif;

wdkif;wmyg/

wdkif;wmyg/

wdkif;wmyg/

wdkif;wmyg/

wdkif;wmyg/

1/ 1/ 1/ 1/

1/ ½kyfydkif;qdkifavhmjcif;½kyfydkif;qdkifavhmjcif;½kyfydkif;qdkifavhmjcif;½kyfydkif;qdkifavhmjcif;½kyfydkif;qdkifavhmjcif;

rEkomaA'ynm&Sif (Anthropologist) rsm;u

½kyfydkif;qdkif&m (Body Structure of appearence) udk Munfhí

tm&SvlrsKd;rsm;udk tom;0g (Yellow) vlrsKd;[k

c G J j c m ; o w f r S w f j c i f ; j z p f í rGef*dkvD;,m;EG,f0ifrsm;jzpfonf[k qdkonf/ olwdkYavhvm,lqcsuf jrefrmh ordkif;rSmvnf; vufcHonf/

2/ 2/ 2/ 2/

2/ bmompum;ESifh avhvmjcif;bmompum;ESifh avhvmjcif;bmompum;ESifh avhvmjcif;bmompum;ESifh avhvmjcif;bmompum;ESifh avhvmjcif;

(22)

rav;&Sm;uRef;qG,ftxd jyefYESHaexkdifaom vlrsKd;rsm;udk bmompum;t& wDAuf-jrefrmpum;tEG,frsm;jzpfonf[k qdkygonf/

odkYaomf wcsKdUt*Fvdyftbd"mef (Dictionary) ESifh

orkdif;rsm;wGif

* Mon vlrsKd;rsm;udk Austro-Asiatic Language Family

[k a&;í

* Shan vlrsKd;rsm;udk Tai-Kadai Language Family [k

a&;onf/

'Dae&mrSm ynm&Sifrsm;[k ac:qdkaom olrsm; rEkóaA'ynm&Sifrsm; vufcHrSmvm;? bmomaA'ynm&Sif rsm; vufcHrvm;? tbd"mefa&;oludk vufcHrSmvm;? pm½Iol qHk;jzwfcsufjzpfonf/ vlrsKd;EG,fqdkwm bmompum;aysmufvQif vlrsKd;aysmufí rsKd;½dk;pOfqufrsm;u wjcm;vlrsKd;bmompum;oHk;í vlrsKd;trnf vnf; ajymif;vJwwfonf/ 3/ 3/ 3/ 3/

3/ t½dk;udk "mwfcGJavhvmjcif;t½dk;udk "mwfcGJavhvmjcif;t½dk;udk "mwfcGJavhvmjcif;t½dk;udk "mwfcGJavhvmjcif;t½dk;udk "mwfcGJavhvmjcif;

(23)

'kwd,urÇmpfprSm ppfom;aoqHk;vlrsm;\ tavmif; udk jyefvnfwl;azmfum "mwfcGJppfaq;í t½dk;uae *syefvlrsKd;[kwfr[kwf cGJjcm;od&Sdonf/

4/ 4/ 4/ 4/

4/ aoG;ppfavhvmjcif;aoG;ppfavhvmjcif;aoG;ppfavhvmjcif;aoG;ppfavhvmjcif;aoG;ppfavhvmjcif;

tpöa&;tpdk;&u olYvlrsKd;rsm;trSm;trSefudk cGJjcm;Edkifatmif rsKd;½dk;ADZ (DNA) aoG;ppfaq;í aoG;uae

cGJjcm;od&SdEdkifonf/ 5/

5/ 5/ 5/

5/ EdkifiHom;pdppfa&;uwfjym;MunfhrS cGJjcm;jcif;EdkifiHom;pdppfa&;uwfjym;MunfhrS cGJjcm;jcif;EdkifiHom;pdppfa&;uwfjym;MunfhrS cGJjcm;jcif;EdkifiHom;pdppfa&;uwfjym;MunfhrS cGJjcm;jcif;EdkifiHom;pdppfa&;uwfjym;MunfhrS cGJjcm;jcif; jrefrmtpdk;&u EdkifiHom;pdppfa&;uwfjym;udk MunfhNyD;rS wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; cGJjcm;wwfonf/ 6/

6/ 6/ 6/

6/ pum;0dkif;vdk ArmESifh wdkif;&if;om;cGJjcm;jcif;pum;0dkif;vdk ArmESifh wdkif;&if;om;cGJjcm;jcif;pum;0dkif;vdk ArmESifh wdkif;&if;om;cGJjcm;jcif;pum;0dkif;vdk ArmESifh wdkif;&if;om;cGJjcm;jcif;pum;0dkif;vdk ArmESifh wdkif;&if;om;cGJjcm;jcif; vrf;ab;ta&mif;t0,fqkdif&SifwcsKdUu pum;0dkif;vdkd cifAsm; &cdkifvm;? bdwfvm;? csif;vm;? ucsifvm; [k ar;wwfonf/ uRefawmf Armpum; ruRrf;vdkY pum;0dkif;wm jrefrmEdkifiHom;yg[k jyefajzí bmvlrsKd;vJ? jrefrmjynfrSm wdkif;&if;om;tcsif;csif; ar;p&mrvdk/ EdkifiHjcm;wdkif;jynfrSm awGUovdk

(24)

ar;p&mrvdkbl;vdkY pOf;pm;ygonf/ 7/

7/ 7/ 7/

7/ emrnfa&SUyk'fESifh vdifcGJjcm;jcif;emrnfa&SUyk'fESifh vdifcGJjcm;jcif;emrnfa&SUyk'fESifh vdifcGJjcm;jcif;emrnfa&SUyk'fESifh vdifcGJjcm;jcif;emrnfa&SUyk'fESifh vdifcGJjcm;jcif;

vlrsKd;wkdif;rSm emrnfr[kwfaom emrnfrSm vdifcGJjcm;jcif;oHk;avh&Sdonf/ vdifcGJjcm;emrnf[k qdk&rnf/ Oyrm- OD; ? a': ? armif ? r - (Arm)? apm? aemf (u&if)?

pdkif; ? eef; (&Srf;) wmef? vsm (Zomi) qvdkif? rdkif; (csif;t½Id) a ESifh i (Mizo) 'Dpum;vHk;rsm; wpfckckESifh wGJí

emrnfa&;aomtcg a,musfm;? rdef;r csufjcif; cGJjcm;vdkY&onf/ wkdif;&if;om;rsm;u oHk;aomtcg pmzwfolu olYvlrsKd;cefYrSef;ajymqdk vdkY&onf/ jrefrmtpdk;&u ½Hk;oHk;pm jrefrmpmoHk;aomtcg wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk; trnfvnf;? OD; ? a':? armif? r xnfh? ½Hk;pmrSmvnf; xnfha&;í ,cktcg ArmvlrsKd;[k emrnfMunfh ? zwfjcif;tm;jzifh cGJjcm;vdk r&wmrsm;onf/ xl;jcm;wpfcku Zomi

vlrsKd;tppfemrnfudk armifESifhr rxnfhaomfvnf; wpfa,mufu ajymcJhvQif a,musfm;? rdef;r cGJjcm;vdkY&onf/

(25)

ta&mif^udk,fcE¨mudk Munfhí rGef*dkvD;vlrsKd;EG,f[k ac:qdkjcif;jzpf onf/ ppfom;r[kwfaom vlwpfa,mufu ppfom;0wfpHk0wfaomtcg ppfom;jzpfrnf[k cefYrSef;ajymqdk ouJhodkY jzpfonf[k ,lqygonf/

bmomaA'ynm&Sifrsm;u wDAuf-jrefrmpum;ajym EG,f0if[k avhvmjcif;udk vufcHonf/ taMumif;u vlrsKd;EG,fpkrsm; a&maESmaexdkifum ,aeYtxd wDAuf-jrefrmpum;t& pmayESifh pum;rSm oHk;aeqJjzpfonf? (Oyrm - Object uH + Subject - uwåm; + Verb - Bud,mjzpfí

t*Fvdyfpum;ESifh qefYusifhonf/ t*FvdyfrSm Subject + Verb + Object jzpfonf/ odkYaomf ,ckacwfrSm

pma&;om;enf;tqifjrifhrSm t*Fvdyfpma&;enf;udk toHk;rsm;Muonf/

vlYordkif; avhvma&;om;enf;vlrskd;rsm;\ordkif;? vlrsKd;EG,fcGJrsm;\ordkif; avhvmygu pmrsm;pGm ul;um;jcif;? ynm&Sifrsm; tBuHay;awmif;jcif;? pmtkyfrsm;rsm;zwfjcif; t"dutcsufr[kwfyg/ ta&;ygqHk;u vlYordkif;avhvmwJhtcg atmufazmfjyaom r[kwf pmtkyfrsKd;pHkzwf½Iavhvmjcif;

(26)

vdktyfonf/

(1) vlrsKd;tpudk rdrd,HkMunfaombmom (Religious)

usrf;tajccHNyD; wjcm;bmomusrf;*efudk avhvmyg/

(2) vlrsKd;trnfudk rsKd;½dk;ADZESifhqdkifaom (Generic (adj) )

pmtkyfudk yxrqHk;avhvmyg/ oifa&;rnfh vlrsKd;udk OD;pm;ay;yg/

(3) a0g[m&Zpfjrpfavhvmolynm&Sif (Etynologist) rsm;\

pmtkyfrsm;udk avhvmí uddk;um;yg/

(4) udk;uG,fonfhbmom? "avhxHkpHaemufcHorkdif;udk avhvmyg/

(Religious Background)

(5) rEkóaA'qdkif&mynm&Sif (Anthropology) rsm;\

pmtkyfudk zwfyg/

(6) bmomaA'ynm&Sif (Linguist) rsm;\ pmtkyfzwfyg/

(7) a&SUa[mif;okawoeynm&Sif (Archeologist) rsm;\

pmtkyfavhvmyg/

(8) ordkif;ynm&Sif (Historian) pmtkyfzwfyg/

(9) vlrsm;taMumif; avhvmaom odyÜHynm&Sif

(27)

(10) a0g[m&aA'ynm&Sif (Philologist) rsm;\ pmtkyfzwfyg/

(11) 0g' (Ism) ESifh pdwfynm (Psychology) rsm;udk

&mcdkifEIef;om OD;pm;ay;yg/

txufygpmtkyf (10)rsKd;udk avhvmNyD;rS pepfuspGm (systemitically) avhvmcJhvQif ordkif;udk

jiif;p&mr&Sdyg[k ,HkMunfygonf/ ordkif;udk avhvmvdkolrsm;u pmtkyfrsm;rsm; 0,f ydkufqHukef? tcsdefvnf; ukefonf/ 0goemygvdkY ordkif;a&;wm;xuf vlrsKd;cspfpdwf pdwf"mwfjyif;xef;vdkY a&;om;jcif;jzpfonf[k ,HkMunfygonf/ vlrsKd;rsm;ordkif;a&;wmudk omrefpma&;q&m? aqmif;yg;? 0w¬Krsm;ESifh rwlygbl; uGmjcm; ygonf/ vlrskKd;rsm;\ ordkif;a&;rSm;cJhvQif vlrsKd;trsm;pk xdcdkufonf/ pnf;vHk;a&;ysufjym;apwwfonf/ pma&;olu csif;vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh rsKd;EG,fwlrsm;udk tpöa&;vlrsKd;EG,fpkjzpfí rGef*dkvD;,m;vlrsKd;EG,fpkr[kwf[k a&;om;&Sif;jyaomfvnf; ordkif;trSefavhvmolrsm;twGuf rdwfqufjcif;omjzpfonf/

Israel vlrskkd;tjzpf cH,lygu c&pf,mefbmomuae *sKH;bmom (Judaism) odkY ajymif;vJrnfjzpfí Israel vlrsKd;tjzpf

(28)

jrefrmEdkifiHom;jzpf&wm *kPf,l0rf;omygw,f/ odkYaomf 1947 ckESpfrSpí 'DaeY (2013) jynfaxmifpk jynfe,frsm;rSm csif;jynfe,f tqif;&JqHk;jzpfí tqif;&J qHk;jynfe,frsm;aewmxuf tpöa&;EdkifiHom;jzpfí csrf;omjcif;udkvnf; tem*wfrSm a&G;cs,fpOf;pm;wJh tcsdefr&Sdbl;vdkY ajymvdkYr&yg/

txufyg vlrsKd;avhvmenf; (7)rsKd;udk Munfhaomtcg ynm&Sifrsm; okawoejyKwkdif; rSefonf? rSm;onf[k pmzwfolESifh ordkif;avhvmolrsm; qHk;jzwfcsufjzpfonf/ Ph.D

wpfa,mufjzpfvdkY ynm&Sifjzpfaom aMumif; olajymwJhtwdkif; vdkufemrnf[k twif;tusyf r&bl;? vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;\ tcGifhta&;rSm vlrsKd;tkyfpkESifh pmay? bmompum;? udk;uG,fonfhbmomrsm; tjynfht0cHpm;jcif;? toHk;jyKjcif;udk tvdktyfqHk;jzpfonf/ acgif;aqmifaumif;&zdkY aemufvdkufi,fom;rsm;u zefwD;vdkY&ovdk? aemufvdkufaumif; ysKd;axmifzdkY&ef acgif;aqmifaumif;wpfa,mufvdktyfonf[k (Rev. Lang Khan Hau ZBCM) u qdkcJhonf/ rSefonf/ vlrsKd;a&;? pmay?

pum;rsm acgif;aqmifynm&Sifwpfa,muf oljyKpkaom ordkif;? pmwrf;rsm;udk jynfolvlxk u zwfwJhtcg pmzwfenf;oHk;rsKd;

(29)

uGrf;,m;pm;ovdk? tkef;oD;tcGHcGmí pm;ovdk? BuHudkvSD;í pm;ovdk pm;ygovm;[k pOf;pm;oihfaom t"duvdktyfcsufjzpfonf/ vlwpfa,mufu ydkufqH&Sdí oli,fcsif;udk auR;aom 0ufom;olY oli,fcsif;u aoG;wdk;a&m*g&Sdí rpm;csifovdk pmayordkif;avmuvnf; þuJhodkY pmzwfoltwGuf jzpfwwfonf/

ynm&Sifrsm; avhvmawGU&Sdt& jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;rsm;wcsKdUudk rGef*dk;vD;,m;tEG,f0if[kqdkaomf vnf; csif;vlrsKd;tcsKdUESifh tEG,f0ifrsm;udk (Kuki-Chin-Lushai) Semitic tEG,f0ifrS qif;oufaomfvlrsKd;rsm;jzpfí rGef*dk&D;,m;?

wDAufa&mufaomtcg wjcm;vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh aoG;a&m

(Bloodsheed) jcif;aMumifh wjcm;vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh

a&m,Sufaexdkifum bmompum;rdoGm;jcif;? udk;uG,fonfh bk&m;? udk;uG,fenf; rdoGm;í ,cktcg rGef*dkvD;,m;tEG,f0if wDAuf-jrefrmpum;ajymEG,f[k owfrSwf cHonfjzpfonf/ pma&;olu Zomi rsm;udk a&S;acwfbdk;bGm;rsm;\ ,zfylaZmfjcif;?

boma&;udk tajccHí tpöa&;rsKd;EG,f[k ,HkMunfí txufygordkif; avhvmenf;/ usifhoHk;aom tcg rGef*dkvD;,m; tEG,f0ifr[kwfyg[k em;vnf;ygonf/

(30)

ar;cGef; - tdrfpmtwGuf trSef ( Â) ESifh trSm; (

_

)

ajzyg/ (Rhetorical question)

(1) csif;vlrsKd;rsm; (Kuki-Chin-Lushai)

r E k ó a A ' y n m & S i f r s m ; u rGef*dkvD;tEG,f0ifrsm;[kívnf;aumif;? bmomaA'ynm&Sifrsm;u wdAuf-jrefrmpum;ajymtEG,f[lí okawoet& awGU&SdcJhonf/ rSefonf[kqdk&if ( _____ )rSm;onf[k

qdk&if ( ______) rSefonf[kqdkcJhvQif bmjzpfvdkY Mizoram

ESifh Manipur jynfe,frsm;rSm KuKi-Chin Lushai " (Zomi-Mizo) rsm; (Shinlong-Mamesi-Israel) tpöa&;vlrsKd;ADZ (DNA) aoG;ppfatmifoenf;/ KuKi-Chin-Lushai

rsKd;EG,frsm;udk ,ck jrefrmjynf yk*Hacwfupí csif;vlrsKd;rsm;[k ac:qdkonf/

(2) rEkóaA'ynm&Sifrsm;tm; vlwdkY\ ½kyfydkif;qdkif&m ta&miftqif;udk Munfhí tm&Swdkufom;rsm;udk tom;a&mifvlrsKd; (Yellow Colour)

(31)

jrefrm ordkif;uvnf; vufcHonf/ rSefonf[kqdk&if (_____ )? rSm;onf[k qdk&if ( ______) ? rSefonfqdkygu

bmjzpfvdkY 1991 ckESpfavmufrSm tzd&duwdkufrSm tDoDyD;,m; (Ethiopia) vlrsKdvlrJwufrJvlarSmif (Darkmen) rsm;udk Israel rsKd;½dk;ADZ (DNA)

aoG;ppfatmifygoenf;/ rEkóaA't& Israel vlrsKd;

rsm;udk tom;\eD (Red) jzpfí tzd&duvlrsKd;rsm;udk

tom;rJ (Black) tm&Swdkufom;rsm;udk tom;0g (Yel-low) jzpfonf/

tcef; (1) csif;vlrsKd;rsm;\ ordkif;tp

tcef; (1) csif;vlrsKd;rsm;\ ordkif;tp

tcef; (1) csif;vlrsKd;rsm;\ ordkif;tp

tcef; (1) csif;vlrsKd;rsm;\ ordkif;tp

tcef; (1) csif;vlrsKd;rsm;\ ordkif;tp

csif;vlrsKd;ordkif;tprSm vlrsKd;qif;oufvmyHkESifh vlrsKd;rSnfhac:jcif;aMumif;udk pm;a&;ol c&pf,mef bmom0ifwpfa,mufjzpfaomaMumifh usrf;pmt& (Biblically)

&Sif;jyygonf/ wjcm;bmom0if (Non-Christian) rsm;u

em;vnfay;yg&ef awmif;yefygonf/

tcef; (2) ZdkrD;ESifh csif;tac:ta0:

tcef; (2) ZdkrD;ESifh csif;tac:ta0:

tcef; (2) ZdkrD;ESifh csif;tac:ta0:

tcef; (2) ZdkrD;ESifh csif;tac:ta0:

tcef; (2) ZdkrD;ESifh csif;tac:ta0:

(32)

tm;vHk; eD;yg;udkordkif;udk tajccHí ordkif;t& ravhvmbJ ynm&yfa0g[m& (Terminology) ESifh a0g[m&ZpfaA' (Ety-mology) t& tajccHí a&;om;&Sif;jy ygonf/ rSm;wm?

rjynfhpHkwmwdkY &Sdrnf[k aocsmygonf/ wcsKdUudkpma&;q&mrsm;u jynfhpHk? rSefuefpGm a&;&ef csefxm;ygrnf/ trSm;wcsKdU&Sd olYrsm;uae tBuHay;jcif;&rSmjzpfonf/

t c e f ; ( 3 )

t c e f ; ( 3 )

t c e f ; ( 3 )

t c e f ; ( 3 )

-t c e f ; ( 3 ) -

waumif;jynfwnfaxmifolrsm; acgif;pOfwyfxm;í oufvlrsKd;ESifh csif;qufpyfyHk? ]] jrefvlrsKd;rS jrefrm}} jzpfvmjcif;? ArmESifh jreffrma0g[m& &vmjcif;udk &Sif;jyygonf/ 'Davhvma&;om;yHkudkvnf; a0g [m&t&if;tjrpft&ESifh ynmt&yfa0g[m& tajccHí a&;om;jcif;jzpfonf/ cdkifvHkaom ordkif;t& (Historically)

(rqvtpdk;&) tajccHí pdwfynmt& (Psychologically)

a&;jcif;om r[kwfyg/

csif;rBudKufaom ZdkrD;rsm;[k eHygwf (4)rSm acgif;pOfwyfí a&;om;cJhonf/ csif;rBudKufaomcsif;vlrsKd; rsm;udk ajrjyefYcsif;rS vGJvdkY csif;jynfe,frsm; aexkdifaom csif;vlrsKd;rsm;u vufrcHyg/

(33)

odkYaomf 2010 ckESpf rSpí ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDzGJUpnf;wJhtcg ]] csif;}} oHk;cJhvQif us,fjyefYí EdkifiHjcm;rSaomfvnf;aumif;? NGO

rS aomfvnf;aumif;? tpdk;&rSaomfvnf;aumif;? tzGJUtpnf;wckckudkvnf;aumif; zGJUpnf;wJhtzGJUemrnfcsif; ygcJhvQif axmufyHhaMu;ydkrdk&bdkY vG,fonf[k qdkcJhaom EdkifiHa&;ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;\ t,l0g'jzpfonf/ 1953 ckESpfwGif csif;ESifh csif;c&pf,meftzGJUcsKyfudk Chin a,bk,strnf (udk,fpm;jyK) Zomi Baptist Convention [k zGJUpnf;cJhí 1995 ckESpfwGif ZBCM Zomi Baptist Convention of Myanmar cGJxGufum " ZBC rS Tedim Beptist Convention 2011 ckESpfwGif xyfrHcGJxGufí? 2013

ckESpfrSm KVBA = Kalay Valuey Paptist Assocation udk cGJxGufí? Convention tm; zGJUpnf;í Chin BudKufaomolrsm;om

usef&pfcJhonf/ ZBA=Zo Baptist Association ESifh SRBA-Sihzang Region Baptist Association udk 2013 ckESpf? rwfv

25 &uf uav;NrdKUrS ZBC uae CBC = Chin Baptist Con-vention tzGJUrSm usef&pfcJhygonf/ þtaMumif;udk

jyefvnfpOf;pm; aomtcg csif;rBudKufaom ZdkrD;rsm;[k acgif;pOfwyfcJhygonf/

(34)

ESifh Mai, "a" ESifh "i" udkvnf; azmfjyygonf/ jrefrmuvnf;

armifESifhr? OD;ESifh a': oHk;onf/ tpdk;&½Hk;rsm;wGif wdkif;&if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;\ bmompum; pmayjr§ifhwifa&; [efYwm;jcif;aMumifh OD;wmefqvdkif;[k oHk;rsKd;a&;aom vli,fwpfcsKdUvnf; &Sdonf/ csif;vlrsKd;u OD;tpm; Pu, a':tpm; Pi oHk;onf/ (om"u - Salai Tawna - qvdkif;aome

csif;vli,frsm;ESifh ordkif;ravvmholrsm;u vlysKdESifh tysKdrsm; Tang ESifh Lia, Slai ESifh Mai oHk;í vlBuD;ydkif;rSm roHk;&[k

,lqygonf/ Tang udk a,musfm;[k ac:qdkjcif;? Lia udk rdef;r[k

ac:qdkjcif;jzpfí vdifcGJjcm;jcif; (Gender) omjzpfaomaMumifh

oufBuD;^oufi,fcGJjcm;jcif; r[kwfyg/ qvdkif;ESifh rdkifudk awmifay:csif;u toHk;&Sdaomfvnf; ajrjyefYcsif;rsm; oHk;aom pum;rS iSm;í oHk;jcif;omjzpfí olwdkYvnf; t"dyÜg,f rodyg/ csif;vlrsKd;rsm;\ a&m*gwpfckvnf;jzpfonf/ 1981 ckESpf &efukefwuúodkvf csif;ausmif;om; rsm;xJrS jyóemay;cJhzl;onf/ tqdkawmfwmef T.S Khai udk qvdkif; T.S. Khai u oDcsif;qdkrnf[k ac:qdkaomaMumifh jzpfonf/

(35)

aMujimwJhtcgrSm Lia ESifh Tang oHk;onf/ qvdkif;ESifh rdkifudk

ausmif;om;a&;aqmif qvdkif;wifarmif0if; aoqHk;onfh aemufydkif;wGif toHk;rsm;vmonf/

csif;jynfe,fESifh e,ferdwf ppfudkif;wdkif;? rauG;wdkif;? &cdkifjynf? b*Fvma'&SfU? rDZdk&rf;? rPdyl&jynfe,fESifh e,fpyfe,fedrdwfESifh qufpyfaomaMumifh ukd,fe,fajr? a'otrSefqHk;jzpfatmif vli,frsm;u tem*wfrSm apmifhxdef;&rnfjzpfonf/

2008 zGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya'udk AdkvfcsKyfrSL;BuD; oef;a&T(a[mif;)u twnfjyK vufrSwfa&;xdk;aom Oya'jzpfí oltNidrf;pm;,lcJhonfjzpfapqHk;oGm;onfjzpfap? olYtrdefYESifh a&;qGJtwnfjyKcJhaom zGJUpnf;yHkOya'wpfvHk; rusef usifhoHk;aeonfh wumvywfvHk; OD;oef;a&Tu EdkifiHom;trsm;tay:rSm tpdk;&tay:rSmvnf; tmPm&Sdonf[k ajymvdkY&onf/ a*gwrAk'¨qHk;oGm;aomfvnf; olYMo0g'udk touf&Sifae ao;í Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm;u ,HkMunfvdkufemouJhodkY jzpfonf/ pum;vHk;? trdefYtouf&Sifovm;/ aooGm;NyD;vm;/ ta&;BuD;qHk;jzpfonf/ vlonf tNidrf;pm;,lwwf? aoqHk;

(36)

wwfonf/

t c e f ; ( 4 )

t c e f ; ( 4 )

t c e f ; ( 4 )

t c e f ; ( 4 )

t c e f ; ( 4 )

-jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEdkifiHzGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya' 1947? 1974? 2008 rS aumufEIwfcsuf rsm; a&;om;í ppfrSefaom 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHrsm; oHk;aom vlenf;pkrsm; tcGifhta&;&oifh&xkdufrsm;uJhodkY EdkifiHawmftpdk;&uvnf; tajccHOya'udk jyifqifoifhonf[k azmfjyygonf/

tcef; (5)

tcef; (5)

tcef; (5)

tcef; (5)

-tcef; (5) -

wdkif;&if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;\ t"duvdkvm;aom tcsuf (4)csufudk (1) udk;uG,fonfhbmom vGwfvyfcGifh? (2) wkdif;&if;om;rsm;udk pmayjr§ifhwifa&;? (3) ½Hk;oHk;pmESifh bkHpum;? (4) rnfonfht&yfa'orqdk aexdkifcGifhjyKjcif; udk zGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya' 1947? 1974? 2008 rSm jy|mef;cJhaom þtcsuf (4)rsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;aom Oya'rsm;udk n§dEIdif;í &Sif;jyygonf/ 2013 Edk0ifbmv18 &ufaeYwGif aejynfawmfor®w½Hk;odkY ydkYcJhaom tdwfzGifhpm zGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya'jyqif&ef vdkvm;aom t"du (4) csufjzpfygonf/

tcef; (6) -

tcef; (6) -

tcef; (6) -

tcef; (6) -

(37)

&Sif;jycJhygonf/

tcef; (7) -

tcef; (7) -

tcef; (7) -

tcef; (7) -

tcef; (7) -

em*g;vlrsKd;rsm;u csif;vlrsKd;EG,f[k nHhqdk

tcef; (8) -

tcef; (8) -

tcef; (8) -

tcef; (8) -

tcef; (8) -

csif;jynfe,frS idkoH[k acgif;pOfa&;í csif;jynfe,fudk 1948 ckESpf? azaz:0g&Dv 4 &ufrSpí jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdkifiH jynfe,ftzGJU0ifjzpfaomfvnf; ,cktcg csif;jynfe,f tqif;&JqHk;jynfe,f[k owfrSwfjcif;cHxm;í csif;jynfe,frS ikdoH[k acgif;pOfwyfcJhjcif;jzpfygonf/ tcsuf (11 rS 9)txdygaom csif;jynfe,fzGHU NzdK;wdk;wufrIESifh tm;omcsufESifh tm;enf;csufudk azmfjyonf/ aemufqHk; ed*Hk;csKyfa&;cJhyg onf/

(38)

tcef; 1

csif;vlrsdK;orkdif;tp

1/ vlrsKd;qif;oufvmyHk

]]xm0&bk&m;ocifonf rdrd\ yHko@efESifhtnD vla,mufsm; (Adam) ESifh vlrdef;r (Eve) udk zefqif;awmf

rlcJhonf/ xm0&bk&m; ocifuvnf; vlrsKd;rsm;jym;arG;zGm;Mu avmh}} [k rdefYawmfrlcJhonf/ (urÇmOD; usrf; 1;27-28)/ tmA&m [rf (Abraham) uvnf; [m*& (Hagar) ESifh om; Ismael

arG;zGm;í Ismael u om; (12) a,mufudk arG;zGm;cJhyg

onf/ (u 16;11) Abraham u Sarah ESifh om; (Isaac)

udk arG;zGm;í om; (Isaac) uvnf; {aom (Esau)

ESifh (Jacob) ,mukyfudk arG;zGm;cJhygonf/ (u 21;3?

(39)

vlrsKd;BuD;tjzpf aexdkifcJhMuygnf/ (u? 35;23-26)/ 1948 ckESpf {NyDvm 26&ufwGif urÇmay:rSm tpöa&;EkdifiHopfjyefvnf ay:aygufvmcJhonf/ vlrsdK;rsm;\tp (zefqif;jcif;)udk c&pf,mefbmom &IaxmifhrS a&;om;jcif;jzpfí tjcm;bmomt,l0g'ESifh nDnGwfrIr&Sdygu pm&Iolrsm;tjzifh em;vnfay;&ef today;ygonf/

2/ vlrsKd;rSnfhac:jcif;

xm0&bk&m;ocifonf ,mukyf (Jocob) udk Is-rael ]]tpöa&;}} [k trnfajymif;vJac:qdkcJhonfudk od&Sd&onf/ Israel [laom t"dyÜg,frSm bk&m;ocif\ wyfrawmf The Army of God [k qdkvdkonf/ (u.32;28-30)

,mukyfom;rsm;udk Israel vlrsKd;[k ac:Muaomfvnf; ,mukyf\

om;wpfa,muf,k' (Judah) trnfudk pGJjyKí *sL; (Jews)

vlrsKd;[lívnf; ac:a0:Muonf/ ,mukyfom; a,moyf (Jo-seph) \ om;ESpfa,muf rmea&S (Manasseh) ESifh tDz&drf (Ephraim) arG;zGm;cJhonf/ (u 48;5)/ tpöa&;vlrsKd;rsm;rS

aysmufqHk;aeaom rmema&SESifh tDz&drfvlrsKd;EG,frsm;onf ta&SUtv,fydkif; tD&ef? tD&wf? tzm*efedpöwefrS wDAuf? w½kwf? jrefrm? tdE´d, jynfrsm;odkY ajymif;a&TUaexkdifcJhMuygonf/

(40)

¤if;tm; ordkif;t& ,ckcsif;vlrsKd;rsm; ESifhvnf; ywfoufaeMuonfudk od&SdEdkifonf/

tpöa&;vlrsKd;rsm;rS aysmufqHk;aeaom vlrsKd;rsm;onf ,aeYcsif; vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh qufEG,frI&SdouJhodkY Joseph

a,moyfudk tpGJjyKí Jo rS (History and 20th Century Dictio-nary, cited by Mr. Kham Tung Naulak, Reproduced by Rev. Go Khan Dal, Zolai Simbu,1913-1998 Zomi) [lí

ac:a0:Mujcif;jzpfonf/ tjcm;tbd"mefü t*Fvdyfvdk ]] Jo-Arare spelling variant of Joe diminutive of the male given name Joseph. Joe (n) A common nickname for Joseph, also used as a formal male given name- (n-plural Joes)}}csif;vlrsKd;rsm;uvnf; "J" tpm; "Z" udk toHk;jyKí Zomi

[k ac:a0:orkwfMuygonf/ þuJhodkYyif ordkif;aMumif;t& avhvm oHk;oyfaomtcg trSefyif qufEG,frI&dSaMumif; todtrSwfjyK Muygonf/

wDAufjynf? w½kwfEdkifiHrS csD;tJef (Chiang) vlrsKd;rsm;

c&pfESpf ray:rDtESpf 723-722 BC ü ajrmufydkif;jynfudk

tpöa&;bk&if a[mpDacwfu qD;&D;,m;bk&if &S,frefeJqmvf - 5 u odrf;ydkufí awmifydkif;jynfudk bk&ifZJ'DuJ acwf 500

(41)

uReftjzpf zrf;qD;ac:aqmif oGm;Muonf/ ("r®&mZ0if - 17;1-8ç 25;1-20) aysmufqHk;aeaom Israel vlrsKd;rsm; ,ck

ZdkrD;vlrsKd;wdkYonf wDAufEdkifiHodkY a&muf&Sdum awmawmifa'orsm;wGif odk;xdef;avh&SdMuonf/ Marcus Dictionary ü Chiang udk Qiang ESifh a&;í the Tibeto-Burma Language Spoken in Sichuan, China , Synonyms: Quangic ) wDAufvlrsKd; rsm;u Jo/Zo vlrsKd;rsm;udk CHIANG

[k ac:qdkMuum ¤if;qdkvdk&if; t"dyÜg,frSm awmifukef;awmifwef;rsm;odkY aexkdifaom vlrsKd;rsm;? awmxJwGif odk;xdef;rsm; jzpfonf/ Jo udk w½kwfvl rsKd;rsm;u "Chou" [k ac:a0:Muí ,cktcg Zhou [k a&;om;ac:a0:Mu

ygonf/ NAdwdoQ vufxufwGif tdE´d,ppfwyfrsm; uvnf;

AD 1790 0efusif;wGif Chiang (csD;tJef) vlrsKd;rsm;udk b*FgvD (Bangali) pum;rS Korki udk Kuki [k ac:qdkMuonf/ Kuki

uluD;\ t"dyÜg,fqdkvdk&if;rSm awmifwef; a'ovlrsKd;rsm; (Hills Tribes Khamtungmi) yifjzpfonf/ Chiang ESifh Kuki (Thado)qufEG,frI&Sdí t"dyÜg,fvnf;wl? vlrsKd;wlrsm; jzpfonf/

yk*Hacwf utp csif;vlrsKd;[k ac:qdkonf/

(42)

vlrsKd;rsm;udk wdAufjrefrmbmompum;ajymqdk aeol rsm;jzpfonf/ Chiang vlrskd;rsm; onf odk;xdef;aomtvkyfudk

vkyfudkifMuí w½kwfvlrsKd;rsm;onf uRJ? EGm;? 0ufwdkYudk t"duarG;jrLvkyfudkifMuygonf/ þuJhodkY ¤if;vlrsKd;EG,fpkrsm; twlaexkdifMuum pm;usuf ajrudpöaMumifh odk;xdef;ESifh EGm;xdef;wdkY 0g'uGJjym;rIjzpfvmNyD; w½kwfvlrsKd;rsm;u Chiang

vlrsKd;rsm;udk zrf;qD; owfjzwfí,ZfylaZmf&mwGif toHk;jyKonfudk azmfjyxm;Muygonf/ xdktcg Chiang vlrsKd;

rsm;onf taemufajrmufbufodkY wdrf;a&Smifí (Chi'n Dy-nasty 552-202) wGif Shi Wang Di &SD[GefwDu

jyefvnfvma&muf wdkufcdkuf rIaMumifh awmifwef;rsm;udk ausmfjzwf&if;eJU jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; rSmyif a&muf&Sd vmMuonfudk azmfjyxm;ygonf/ a&S;acwfjrefrmordkif;wGif wDAufudk Khawh a chan/ Gang Jong [k ac:í 9 &mpkcefYwGif rGwfpvifordkif;

pma&;q&mrsm;u Tubbet, ESihf Tibbet [k a&;om;azmfjycJhNyD;

¤if;qdkvdk&if; teuft"dyÜg,frSm ywåjrm;a'o (Golden Re-gion) [k t"dyÜg,f&ygonf/ ( Rev. Thawng Go Thang)/ An autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China; located in the Hilmalayas. Synonyms: Thibet, Xizang,

(43)

jrefrmEkdifom;w csdKUudk rGefudk;&D;,m;trsdK;tEG,frS qif;oufvmonf[k ,lqMuonf/ Mongolian Race (N) An Asian Race Synonyms: Yellow race, Mongoloid Race.

odkYaomf pma&;olu csifvlrsdK;ESifhrsdK;EG,fwlrsm;udk rGef*dkvD; ,m;rsdK;EG,fxuf tpöa&; rsdK;EG,frS qif;oufonf[k &Sif;jyvdkygonf/

CHIN udk w½kwfvlrsKd;jzpfNyD; Chin uae China, Chinese [k ac:a0:Mujcif;jzpfonf[k a&;om;cJhygonf/ Capt. Sing Khaw Khai \ azmfjycsufrSm Britanica Encyclopedia

pmtkyfudk udk;um;í ]]csifudk EdkifiHjcm;om; csif;udk w½kwfvlrsKd;}}[k ac:onf/ ("Chi'n is foreigner,Chin is China" ) Chi'n ESifh Chiang

rwlaomfvnf; toHxGuftajccHí owfyHkajymif;vJjcif;om jzpfonf/ w&kwfu Qin- Dynasty - the Chinese dynasty from

BC426- 206 BC.) that establish the first Centralized imperial government and built much of the Great wall. Synonyms: Qin Dynasty Chi'n, Dynasty. Surname of Chinese origin- Chi'n , Zhou-"The end of Shang to the begining of of the Qin, the im-perial dynasty of China from 1122 - 221 BC, notable for the rise of confucianism and Taonism, Synonyms- Zhou dynasty, Chou, Dynasty, Chow Dynasty.(Arcus Dictionary) csif;ESifh Zdk

(44)

t&ifESpfonfrSm csif;orkdif; pma&;q&mrsm;u csif;vlrsdK;trnfESifh ZdkvlrsdK;trnf jzpfay:vmjcif;udk þw&kwfEkdifiH Qin-Dynasty ESifh Zhou-Dynasty u ponf[k

rSm;,Gif; pGm a&;cJhonfudk awGU&onf/ csifvlrsdK;ESifh csD;tJefvlrsdK; wdkYonf vlrsdK;wljzpfonf/ Oyrm Yakhine ESifh Rakhine, Kayin

ESifh Karen, Cin ESifh Chin owfyHkrwlaomf vnf;

qdkjcif;twlwlyifjzpfNyD; vlrsdK; wl jzpfonf/ Laimi ESifh Cimnuaimi

bmom pum;udk tajccHNyD;vlrsdK;EG,fpkcJGjcm;jcif;om jzpfonf/ tqdkygwDAufvlrsKd;awGu Chiang udk olwdkY\

toHxGufa0g[m& owfyHk ajymif;vJa&;om;jcif;aMumifh (Chin)

[k a&;om;jcif;jzpfonf[k ,lqMuygonf/ jrefrmwdkYuvnf;

Chiang uae ]]csif;}} [k wdkuf½dkuf a&;om;azmf jyxm;onfudk

(45)

tcef; 2

ZdkrD;ESifhcsif;tac:ta0:

1/ZdkrD;[laom trnfqif;oufvmjcif;

csif;vlrsKd;rsm;udk a,moyf (Joseph) \ trnfudk

tpGJjyKí Zdk (Jo, Zo) uae ZdkrD;? rDZdk; [k ac:a0:Muaom

vlrsKd;rsm;onf tpöa&;ordkif; wGif aysmufqHk;aom vlrsKd;rsm; jzpfonf[k cH,lMuonf/ csif;vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh tpöa&;vlrsKd;rsm;tm; vHk;0 qufEG,frIr&Sd[k jiif;qdkrnfqdkvQif tdE´d,jynfrS uluD;csif;

(Kuki-Chin-Lusei) wdkYudk csif;wGif;jrpf0Srf;wpfavQmufü

yk*HacwfwGif csif; (Chiang) [k ac:q dk Muaom vlrsKd;rsm;yif

jzpfonf/ tpöa&;tpdk;&u tdE´d,jynfwGif aexkdifaom ZdkrD;^csif;vlrsKd;rsm;onf tpöa&; vlrsKd;EG,ftjzpf rsKd;½dk;ADZppfaq;

(DNA)atmifaomaMumifh ESpfpOf¤if;vlrsKd;rsm;onf

(46)

jrefrmjynfwGif aexdkifaom csif;? ucsif? em*? a,ma'orsm;wGif aexkdifolxJrS wcsKdUudk tpöa&;vlrsKd;rsm;&Sdrnf[k ,lqMuygonf/

1/ wpfcsKdUaom olrsm;onf or®usrf;pmüyg&Sdaom a,moyf (Joseph) \ trnfudk tpGJjyKí Zdk (Nick-name- Jo) uae ZdkrD;^rDZdk;[k ac:qdkjcif;jzpfonf[k

,lqMuygonf/ wDAufjynfüaexkdifaom Jo udk Chou

[k ac:qdk Muí w½kwfvlrsKd;wdkYuvnf; Chou [k

ac:qdkMuí ,cktcg Zhou, Yao ajymqdkMuonf/

csif;vlrsKd;wdkYuvnf; Zomi ESifh Mizo, Asho, Cho, Jo, Khu, Sho, Zo [k oHk;EIef;xm;í vlrsKd;trsm;pkrSm

jrefrmEdkifiH ESifh tdEd´,EdkifiHrsm;pGm aexdkifMuygonf/ 2/ wpfcsKdUu w½kwfjynf Cho rif;qufrsKd;EG,frS

qif;oufvmaom aMumifh Zdk? ZdkrD;[k ac:qdkjcif;jzpfonf[k ,lqMuygonf/

3/ wpfcsKdUu tvGefyif at;csrf;aoma'o awmifukef;awmifwef;rsm; wGif aexkdifMuaomaMumifh Zdk*rf (Zogam) [k ac:qdkjcif;jzpfí ,aeYrSm Zdk

(47)

Zo-Tedim, Zotung, Zophei, Zo- Hakha &Sdonf/

4/ wpfcsKdUu uREkfyfwdkY\ bdk;bGm;emrnf Phu Cho udk tpGJjyKí (Zo, Zomi) ZdkrD;[k ac:qdkjcif;omjzpfonf/ csif;vlrsKd;

rsm;ordkif;wGif ZdkrD;vlrskd;rsm;[k azmfjyum pmayrsm; xkwfa0cJhMuygonf/

þtcsuf(4)csuf vufcHEkdifrSom ZdkrD; vlrsKd;rsm;\ ordkif;wGif ½IyfaxG;rI vHk;0 r&Sdyg[k ,lqygonf/ ,cktcsdefwGif tcsKdUaom csif;vlrsKd;rsm;onf ]] csif; }} [kaom a0g[m&udk vufrcHMuí ZdkrD; (Zomi) rsKd;EG,fpku csif;tm;vHk;udk Zomi

[k ac:onf/ xdkuJhodkY rD;Zdk (Mizo)uvnf; csif;vlrsKd;tm;vHk;udk

rD;Zdk Mizo [k ac:qdkvufcHMuygonf/ Thahdo (KNO) u

csif;vlrsdK; tm;vHk;tpm; KUKI emrnfudk ESpfoufMuonf/

,aeY csif;jynfe,ftwGif;rSmyif aexdkifaom Zdkwkef (Zotung)

vlrskKd;awGu csif;vlrsKd;tm;vHk;udk Zo [k ac:qdkMuygonf/

tdE´d,EkdifiHwGif aexdkifaom csif;vlrsKd;rsm;udk ZdkrD;ESifh rDZdk[k ac:qdkMuygonf/ Zdkudk (Zo) vlwpfa,muftrnf? rD;udkvl (Mi)

[k t"dyÜg,f&onf/ vlrsKd; udka&;wJhtcg ZdkrD;[k a&;onf/ ZdkrD;(vl) Zdk*rf(jynf) Zdkayg(pum;) Zdkom; (rsKd;EG,f) jzpfonf/ tcsdKUaomolrsm;u ZdkrD;ESifhrD;Zdk owfyHkajymif; vJa&;om;jcif;udk

(48)

rSefonf^ rSm;onf[k jiif;aeMuonf/ ESpfrsdK;pvHk; ]]Zdk}}u ae qif;oufvmaom pum;vHk;jzpfNyD; t"dyÜg,fwlygonf/ orkdif;t& ]]ZdkrD;}}udk yk*Hacwf at'D 850 rwkdifrD toHk;jyKcJhNyD; jzpfonf/ at'D 1200 cefYu csif;awmifwef; ( Thangdung/ Kenedy) a&mufaomtcg vlwpfa,mufu 0uf0Hudkzrf;í

tvGeftrif; aysmf&TifjrL;wl;aomaMumifh ]]rD;Zdk}}[k uAsmoDcsif;pyfqdkcJhonf/ ]]ZdkrD;}} bmompum;wGif ]] R}}

oHxGufr&Sd? ]]rD;Zdk}}bmompum;ü om ]] R}} toHxGuf&Sdonf/

]]ZdkrD;}}ESifh ]]rD;Zdk}} ac:a0:jcif;udk pum;t& avhvmvQif ]]Mivom/Midum (blackman), Mikang/Mirang (Whiteman)}}[k

ac:qdkMuonf/ ]]ZdkrD;}} ESifh ]]rD;Zdk}} tac:ta0:jcif;wGif rSefonf^rSm;onf jiif;qdkp&mrvkdtyfay/ 4if;xuf ydkíta&;BuD;aomt&mrSm ]]Zdk}}rS pwif aygufzGm;vmaomvlrsdK;jzpfjcif;udk od&Sdjcif; jzpfonf/

2/]] csif; }}

(Chiang)

[laom trnfpwifjzpfay:vmyHk

"Ching" vlrsdK;udk ]]csif;}} tpm;omr[kwfbJ KUKI-CHIN, Naga-Lusei, Katte wdkYvnf; yg0ifonf/

(49)

yxrtcsuf yxrtcsuf yxrtcsuf yxrtcsuf

yxrtcsuf - wpfcskKdUaom ordkif;pma&;q&mrsm;onf csif; [k ac:qdkjcif;rSm w½kwfjynf? csif;{u&mZf\ trnfudk tpGJjyKí ac:qdkjcif;jzpfonf[k azmfjyMuygonf/ w½kwfjynfwGif (Chi'n Dynasty) Chin [k vHk;0ra&;yJ Chi'n ESifh Cho [k

a&;om;azmfjyxm;onf/ ' k w d , t c s u

' k w d , t c s u ' k w d , t c s u ' k w d , t c s u

' k w d , t c s ufffff - wcsKdUaom pma&;q&mrsm;u csif;vlrsKd;rsm;onf csif;wGif;jrpfw0Srf;wGif aexkdifMuNyD; Arm-csif; cspfMunfa&;rdwfo[m,zGJU í oli,fArm-csif;[k ac:qdkjcif;rS ]] csif;csif;csif;csif;csif; }} [k ac:qdkjcif;omjzpfonf[k azmfjyxm;onf/ wwd,tcsuf

wwd,tcsuf wwd,tcsuf wwd,tcsuf

wwd,tcsuf - csif;vlrsKd;rsm;onf ausmukef;ay:rSm ]] jcif;jcif;jcif;}}jcif;jcif; awmif; (yvdkif;)udk xrf;MuaomaMumifh csif; [k ac:qdkjcif;jzpfonf[k wpfcsKdUu a&;om;Muygonf/ jcif;jcif;jcif;jcif;jcif; [ laom pum;vHk;ESifh csif;csif;csif;csif;csif; [laom pumvHk;\ teuft"dyÜg,fu vHk;0jcm;em;aeygonf/ csif;ESifh ucsifvlrsKd;rsm;onf nDtpfudkawmfaom vlrsKd;rsm; jzpfonf/ csif;vlrsKd;rsm;udk

(Chiang) ]]csifcsifcsifcsifcsif }}[k tb,faMumifh rac:qdkMuwmvJ ? (odkY)

ucsifvlrsKd; rsm;udk (Ka Chin) ]]ucsif;}}]]ucsif;}}]]ucsif;}}]]ucsif;}}]]ucsif;}}[k rac:qdkMuoenf;/

þvlrsKd;ESpfrsKd;\ ac:qdk oHk;EIef;xm;rIrsm pOf;pm;p&myif jzpfayonf/ jrefrmtu©&mrSm ]]u}} (Prefix) udk

(50)

oHk;EIef;xm;yHku av;eufpGm pOf;pm;oifhygonf/ (Oyrm -ucsif? u,m;? uref;? u&if) &cdkifvlrsKd;rsm;u ]] jcif;}} udk

u&meff (Krang) [k ac:í jrefrmtu©&mjzifh uvmef (Klang)

[k a&;í jcif; (Krang) ESifh (Klang) toHxGufESifh

owfyHka&;rSm;xm;jcif;aMumifh ]] csif;}} [k ac:qdkMuonf[k ,lqygonf/ ]] jcif; }} udk xrf;aomvlrsKd;rsm;jzpfaomaMumifh csif; [k ac:qdkjcif;jzpf onf[k ,lqygu urÇmay:rSm ]] jcif; }} udk xrf;aom vlrsKd;rsm; tvGefyif rsm;jym;vSygonf/ tm&Swdkuf? tmz&duwkduf? tdE´d,jynf? jrefrmwdkif;&if; om;wpfcsKdUwdkYuvnf; ]] jcif; }} udk xrf;í toHk;jyKMuygonf/ þ,lqcsuf awGudk avhvmaomtcg ordkif;rSm a&;p&mr&SdvdkY yHkazmfNyD; a&;om;jcif;om jzpfonf [k ,lqEdkifayonf/ aemufaemif csif;ordkif;udk a&;om;jyKpk&mwGif þ,lqcsufrsm;uJhodkYyif jyefvnfudk;um;a&;om;jcif; rjyK&ef owdxm; oifhygonf/

3/ csif;(

Chiang

)[laom a0g[m&tm;

bmompum;t&avhvmrI

1/ wDAufpum;rSm Zdk (Jo, Zo, Cho) udk Chiang [k

(51)

t"dyÜg,frSm awmxJ wGif odk;xdef;í aexdkifaom vlrsKd;rsm; (Hill Tribes) [k t"dyÜg,f&ygonf/

2/ w½kwfvlrsKd;rsm;onf "Chiang" udk Chien, Jen, Qin, Cho, Zhou [k a&;om;azmfjyjcif;onf EdkifiHjcm; om;rsm;udk

ac:qdk&mwGif toHk;jyKxm;onfudk awGU&Sd&onf/ 3/ ucsifvlrsKd;rsm;onf Chiang udk Khang [k ac:qdkí

t"dyÜg,frSm nDtpfudktrsKd;awmfpyfonf[k t"dyÜg,f&ygonf/

4/ &cdkif vlrsKd;rsm;onf Chiang udk "Klang" [k a&;&mwGif

]] jcif;}} udk "Krang" csif;udk Klang [k

ajymif;vJac:qdka&;om;Muygonf/

5/ rGefvlrsKd;rsm;onf Chiang udk Chilang (odkY) Khyeng [k

a&;om;ac:qdkonf

6/ &Srf;vlrsKd;rsm;onf Chiang udk Chang [k ac:onf/

7/ t½Idu Chiang udk Khyeng [k ac:onf/

8/ ArmvlrsKd;rsm;url Chiang udk Khlang [k a&;aomtcg Chin [k a&;rSm;jcif;jzpfonf/

txufygazmfjyazmfjycJhaom Chiang \t"dyÜg,frsm;udk

(52)

rSm;onf^rSefonf[k qHk;jzwf &cufonf/

"Chiang or Chiangmin, 250 thousand people in China. This tribe had been living especial Israel way of life for 2300 years. Chiangmin meaning is Miu (Man). The language of the Chiang tribe had been forgotten and they had also lose their ancient script. Today they spelt Chinese and two other lan-guages one, thaht originated from Tibet and the other is Asland which is called Chiaring." (http://moshiach. com/ China.html).

Thailand xdkif;EdkifiHrSm&Sdaom Chiangmai udk csif;rdkifcsif;rdkifcsif;rdkifcsif;rdkifcsif;rdkifNrdKU? Chiang Rai udk csif;½dkifcsif;½dkifcsif;½dkifcsif;½dkifNrdKU? w½kwfEdkifiH csif;½dkif Tsinhua University

udkvnf; csif;[Gmcsif;[Gmcsif;[Gmcsif;[Gmwuúodkvf[k a&;om;Muygonf/ csif;[Gm "Beijing City" udkvnf; ]]ab*sif;}} NrdKUawmf[k a&;a`onf/

txufygazmfjycsufudk avhvm&mwGif "Chiang" [laom

pum;vHk;udk ]] csif;csif;csif;csif;}} [k jrefrmtu©&m jzifh rSm;,Gif;pGmcsif; a&;om;xm;jcif;jzpfonfudk awGU&Sd&ayonf/ t*Fvdyfbm ompum;rSm ]] Ginger}} [kac:aom }}*sif;}}tpm;?

pma&;q&mwcsdKUu ]]csif;}}[k a&;avh&Sdonf/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHawmf &Hk;oHk;pmudk jrefrm pmjzpfaomfvnf; vlwpfa,muf\trnfESifh wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;\em rnfudk a&;aomtcg wjcm;pum;vHk;rsm;ESifh cGJjcm;wwfatmifatmif owdjyK oifhonf/ vlwpfa,muf\trnfESifh

(53)

wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;\vlrsdK;emrnf udk rSefuefpGm a&;om;jcif; Oya'udk jynfolUvTwfawmfuwifjyí jrefrmowf yHktufOya'xJrSm(Myanmar Clause Act)jyXmef; oifhonf/

David Brallay (Linguistic)avhvmcsuft&

&Sif;jyygu-jrefrmudk vlrsdK;jcm;bmomomjcm;aygif;pHkaom vlrsdK;trnf ( Neonmys)jzpfonf/ ArmESifhcsif; ( Chin)udk

vlrsdK;wlaom vlrsdK;trnf ( Exonmyms)jzpfonf/ Jou (Jo-seph) rS&aom Jomi/Zomi udk rsdK;&dk;emrnf uvmaom

vlrsdK;trnf ]] Ethnonyms}}[kac:onf/ Zomi, Mizo, Asho, Khumi wkdYudk vlrsdK;wpfrsdK; owfyHkpvHk;a&;om;jcif;rwlaom

]]Allograms}} [kac:onf/ Laimi, Ciimnuaimi, Falam, Hakha, Matu, Tedim, Mindat, Kanpalet, Paletwa, Zotung, Zote, Zophei, Ngente, Vaiphei, Teizang

ESifhtjcm;a'otvdkufac:qkdaomvlrsdK;rsm;udk ]]Loconyms}}[kac: qdkonf/ ( Khoi Lam Thang, 2013, pg. 2013)/

jrefrmpmrSm "Ch" tpm; "Ky" udk oHk;EIef;xm;aMumif;

od&Sd&ygonf/ usefppfom;udk Chyien Sitta tpm; Kyant Sitta

uvefppfom;udk Klan Sitta [kvnf; a&;xm;avh&Sdonf/

(54)

jrefrmaiGudk Chyat tpm; Kyat [k a&;í jrif;NcHudkvnf; Myan Chyan tpm; Myant Kyan ? acsmpkudk ]] Chaw Su}}csrf;csrf;udk

]]Chyant Chyant}} tpm; ]] Chan Chan}}? ausmf udk

]]Chyaw}}tpm; ]] Kyaw}} a,mf udk ]] Zaw}}tpm; ]] Yaw}}[k

a&;onf/ Rakhine udk Yakhine, u&ifudk Karen tpm; Kayin

[k trsKd;rsKd; a&;om;jcif;udk awGU&ygonf/ EkdifiHjcm;om;rsm; ]]Kh/Khy}} udk ]]cD}}[k toHxGufí Suh Kyi udk ]]pkcD}} Kyat udk ]]cDtwf}} [k ajymqdkonf/ þuJhodkYyif Chiang udk

wdkuf½dkuf ]]csif;}}[k ajymif;vJa&;xm;jcif;jzpfonfudk ay:vGifapygonf/

4/]]csif;}}[k ac:qdkaom ordkif;rSwfwrf;rsm;

1/ a'gufwmoef;xGef;\ azmfjycsuft& ] ] c s i f ; v l r s K d ; r s m ; E S i f h u e f w l v l r s K d ; w d k Y csif;wGif;jrpf0Srf;wpfavQmufudkydkifqdkifzdkY&eftwGuf olwdkYonf tNydKiftqdkifjzpfaeonfudk od&SdEdkifonf/ jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;u csif;vlrsKd;rsm;udk ppfr[mrdwfjyK[efwlygonf/ xdkYtjyif csif;wGif;jrpf wpf0Srf;&Sd jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;onf rHk&GmNrdKU tvHkNrdKUtxuf

(55)

ausmfí usL;ausmfaexkdufjcif; r&Sday/ ordkif;udk avhvmaomtcg csif;-ArmppfjzpfyGm;ae onfudkvnf; rSwfwrf;wGif rawGU&Sd&ay/ csif;vlrsKd;rsm; aexdkifjcif;r&Sdaom a'orsm; udkrl jrefrmvlrsKd; rsm;u e,fcsJUí odrf;ydkufxm;aeonfudk awGU&Sd&ygonf/ Oyrm-xD;vif; ESifhausmfa'o? (acwfa[mif;jrefrm&mZ0if &efukefrHka&G;pmay? 2004? pm-146) at'D 60-100 tMum;[k cefYrSef;onf/

2/ B.Lal thangliana u - at'D 123 &mpkwGif a&SUacwfjrefrm

ausmufpmwGif csif; (Chin) udk Chi'n, Kyien [k

a&;;om;azmfjy xm;ygonf/ csif;wGif;udk BuHwGif; ]]uvef;wGif; }} [k a&;om;cJhyg onf/ (Chi'n-Chin, Kyan Twan, Klantwien, Mizo Chan Chin, Ai Zawl 2009, P.17)

3/ at'D-130 cefYu yk*Hausmufpmü taemufbufawmifwef;a'orsm; wGif aexdkifMuaom vlrsKd;wdkYudk csif (Chien, Chiang) [k azmfjyxm; ygonf/

{&m0wDjrpf\ jrpfvufwuftBuD;qHk; csif;wGif; (odkY) ]]cifwGif}} [k a&;xdk;Mu\/ xdkjrpfwavQmuf ajrmufbuftusqHk; [kod&aom a'owdkYrSm BuHwl

(56)

(tedrfhtjrifh) yifud 10wkdufwkdYjzpf& um;? xdka'owdkY\ajrmufbufodkY xdkacwfu jrefrmwdkYra&muf&Sdao; [k,lqayonf/ (jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf; 1953-pm- 389) ]]wkduf}} [laomt"dyÜg,fudk ]]ZAÁK'DyOaqmifusrf;wGif tkyfcsKyfa&; e,fajrt ac:ta0:t& ]]wkduf}}onf omreftm;jzifh e,fajrtydkif;t jcm;wpf ckjzpfNyD; NrdKUwGif;&Sdi,faom{&d,mudk}} &nfnTef;onf[k a&;onf/ (a'gufwm a*stufzmeDAJvfESifh a'guwmazarmifwif? ZAÁK'DyOaqmif? pm 10? nTef;- OD;ausmfpm 5)/ csif;wGif;jrpfudk wEdkif;c? wa&mifcESifh wa0gifcacsmif; (3)rskKd;aygif;í om&m0g'Djrpf (Tarawadi)[k ac:onf/

csif;vlrsKd;rsm; aexkdifMuaomtcg csif;wGif;jrpf[k ac:onf/ wcsKdUu csif;aoG;jrpfudk csif;wGif;jrpf[k ac:qdkjcif;jzpfonf[k ,lqygonf/ Capt Sing Khaw Khai, (The Culture Meaning of Racial Zomi P.4) wGif

csif;wGif;jrpf0Srf; wpfavQmufwGif aexkdifaom vlrsKd;rsm;\ a'oudk Zdkjynf (Jo province) [k a&;om; azmfjyNyD;?

(57)

a&;um Jo uae Chiang tjzpf ajymif;vJí Chiang udk

jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;u ]] csif;}} [k ac:qdkonf / w½kwfvlrsKd;u

Chiang udk ]]Chi'en}} [ka&;onf csif; a0g[m& tppftrSefudk u "Chin" r[kwfbJ "Chiang" u

qif;oufvmonf/

4/ at'D1784 ckESpfwGif a&mrefumodk vdyfomoemjyKq&mawmf (Father Vicentus Sanger Mono) qdkolu Chiang udk Chien [k

a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygonf/ (A Description of the Bur-mese Emperor Edited by Sir John Jardine; Rangon, 1884)

wGif Chiang udk Chien [k a&;om;xm;aomaMumifh

csif;ESifh ucsif [lí emrnfESpfrsKd; uGJjym;jcm;em;vmonfudk od&Sd&ygonf/ ucsifudkvnf; jrefrm;wkdYay; aomtrnf jzpf[efwlonf/

5/ at'D1880 ckESpfwGif Sir Arthur Pyayre, Lower Burma Commissioners) qdkolu azmfjycsufrSm Sho, Jo, Zo udk Kyeng Chiang vlrskkd;rsm;rS qif;oufvmaomaMumifh Kyeng rS toHxGuf Klang tjzpf

(58)

Armpmjzifh Kyeng [k a&;NyD; Chin [k

ajymif;vJa&;om;xm;ygonf/ iguawmh toHxGuf

Klang pum;vHk;ESifh a&;onf[k (Gazetter of Burma, Vol.1, 1880, P.184) wGif rSwfwrf;wifxm;ygonf/

6/ at'D 881 ckESpfwGif Major W. Gwynne Hughes (North Eastern Frontier Commander,AD 1870-1880-Assam-Lusei-Chin Arakan) tpD&ifcHpmwGif Chien udk Chin [k

azmfjyxm;ygonf/ csif; (Chin) udk NAdwdoQtpdk;&u

w&m;0if (Official) tjzpf toHk;jyKjcif;jzpfonfudk

od&Sd&ygonf/

7/ at'D 1896 ckESpfwGif NAdwdoQwdkYu csif;awmifwef;rsm;tkyfcsKyfa&; tufOya'jy|gef;cJhí (Chin Hills Regulation Act 1896) wGif

csif;wGif;jrpf0Srf;wpfavQmuf aexdkifaom Lusei-Mizo, Kuki-Chin, Thado, Naga, Katte wdkY vlrsKd;wdkYonfvnf;

csif;vlrsKd;rsm; yifjzpfaMumif; yk*Hacwfuyif owfrSwf twnfjyKxm;aMumif;udk od&Sd&ayonf/

8/ at'D1909 ckESpfwGif R.H Sneyd Hutchison u "Khyang" or "Khayengs" vlrsKd;rsm;onf b*Fvma'&SfUEdkifiHESifh

(59)

&cdkifawmifwef; a'orsm;wGif aexkdifaom vlrsKd;rsm;udk

Cho, Sho, Zo rS csif;vlrsKd; rsm;jzpfonf[k (Chittagong Hills Tracts 1909- P.45) wGif azmfjyxm;ygonf/

5/

csif;rBudKufaom ZdkrD;rsm;

Chi'n [laom pum;vHk;udk csif;vlrsdK;rsm;u

vHk;0t"dyÜg,frodaom vlrsdK;trnfjzpfí jrefrmvlrsdK;uvnf;rod? t*Fvdyfpum;rSm csif;udk ar;&dk; [kac:qdkaomfvnf; csif;vlrsdK;trnfESifh vHk;0qufpyfrIr&Sdyg/ em*vlrsdK; rsm;u csif;vlrsdK;tjzpf vufrcHaomfvnf; a&S;acwfupNyD; csif;vlrsdK; tEG,f0ifrsm;jzpfMuonf/ em*vlrsdK;rsm;\emrnft"dyÜg,frSm Naked

t0wftcsnf;pnf;jzpfí olwkdYu vufcHMuonf/ ZdkrD;ESifh rD;Zdk rsdK;EG,fpku Chin tpm;? Zomi ESifh Mizo udk ydkrdkESpfoufonf/ "Chi'n" udk ]]csif}}[k toHxGufNyD; "Chin" udk ]]csif;}}[k

toHxGufonf/ Chiang ESifh KUKI t"dyÜg,fwlonf/

6/ emrnfESifhvdifcGJjcm;jcif;toHk;tEIef;

(60)

a,musfm;? rdef;r cGJjcm;xm;aom xHk;pH&Sdonf/ xdkuJhodkY t*FvdyfwkdYu Mr. ESifh Miss udk toHk;jyKonf/

csif;vlrsdK;xJrSm-Zdk;rD;wkdYu Lia ESifh Taang (tysdK ESihfvl ysdK)? rD;ZdkwkdUu a,musfm;

emrnfaemufqHk;wGif a udk xnfhí rdef;remrnf aemufqHk;wGif i udk toHk;jyKonf/ avhvmolrsm;u jrefrmjynfrS a&TUajymif;

aexkdifaomolrsm;jzpfí ukvm;vlrsdK;rsm;\ Lalki rdef;r? Lalka

a,musfm; [ktoHk;jyKouJhodkY olwkdYu twk,ltoHk;jyKonf[k qkdMuonf/ csif;awmif wef;wGif a,musfm;wGif qvkdif;? rdef;rwGif rkdif [koHk;í ajrjyefYcsif;rsm; rSwqifh ,lvmjcif; jzpfonf/ rnfolrQ qvkdif;? rkdif pum;vHk;\t"dyÜg,f udk rodyg/ 1981 ckeSpfcefYwGif emrnfa&SUrSm pum;vHk;oHk;jcif;tm;jzifh ZdkrD; ESifhvkdifrD; &efukef aumvdyfausmif;ol^om;rsm; tMum;rSm jyóem jzpfcJhzl; onf/ xdkdokdY jzpf&jcif;taMumif;rSm vlrsdK;a&;pdwf"gwfjyif;jyrIaMumifh jzpf onf/ xdkodkYaom vlrsdK;a&;pdwf"gwfudk aemifumvwGif vlrsdK;acgif;aqmif rsm;u r&Sdoifhay/

(61)

tcef; 3

waumif;jynfwnfaxmifolrsm;

1/

oufvlrsdK;rsm;ESifh csif;vlrsdK;rsm;

ordkif;rSwfwrf;t& avhvm&rnfqdkvQif rGefcrm&f (rGef-crm? crm&f)vlrsKd;rsm;onf jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;odkY a&muf&SdvmMuaom rGef*dkvD;,m;trsKd;EG,f0ifrsm;jzpfonf/ wDAuf-jrefrmrskKd;EG,fpkESifh ysL? u&if(u,ef;) oufvlrsKd;rsm;yif jzpfonf/ ]]ouf}} (Tet/Thet/Sak)vlrsKd;rsm;udk {&m0wDjrpfESifh

csif;wGif;jrpfajrmufydkif;a'oü tajcpdkufí aexdkifMuaomaMumifh csif;vlrsKd;[k ac:qdkjcif;jzpfonf/ oufvlrsKd;rsm;ESifh EG,fwlaomvlrsKd;rsm;onf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif a&S;tusqHk;waumif;NrdKUudk wnfaxmifonf/ waumif;rif;qufudk Ak'¨ryGifhrD 550 bDpD - 500 bDpDwGif

(62)

tbD&mZmac: omuDrsKd;EG,frsm;u tdE´d,EdkifiHrSvmí odrf;ydkufcJhonf/ (urÇmU orkdif;\ rSwfwdkif;rsm; pmtkyfyxrwGJ - &efukef rqyvyHkESdyfwdkuf? yÍörtBudrf 1971? pm - 47? 49? 53)wGif azmfjyxm;ygonf/ oufvlrsKd;udk csif;vlrsKd;[k ac:rnfholrsm;[k a&;om;cJhonf/ oufvlrsKd;rsm;[k ac:qdk&mwGif csif;? ucsif? em*vlrskd;wdkYvnf; yg0ifaeygonf/ omuDrif; rsKd;EG,frsm;udk ukvm;vlrsKd;[k ,lqwmxuf bk&m;om; *sKH; (Jews) rsKd;EG,fpkrS qif;oufonf[k

,lq[ef&Sdonf/

2/

]]jref}}vlrsdK;rS jrefrm

w½kwfjynftaemufajrmufbufwGif aexdkifaom uefpka'oü rGef*dkvD,m;trsKd;tEG,f ]] jrefjrefjrefjrefjref}} vlrsKd; rsm;onf c&pfESpf AD. 650 cefYwGif &Srf;ukef;jrifhudk ausmfjzwfí

ausmufqnfNrdKUwGif aexdkifMuonf/ ¤if;vlrsKd;rsm;onf a&muf&SdMuNyD;aom rGef(crm)vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh a&maESmaexkdifMuum jrefrmvlrsKd;jzpfvmonf/ (urÇmordkif;rSwfwdkifrsm; pmtkyf-yxrwGJ 1971? pm-47? 48) oufvlrsKd;[k ac:aom ]]csif;}} vlrskKd;rsm;ESifhrsKd;EG,fwlrsm;u waumif;jynfudk wnfaxmifonf[k qdkaomfvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHtpdk;&jrefrmordkif;

(63)

ajymif;vJrIu jrefqefvGef; vSonfudk atmufygtwdkif;awGU&Sd&ygonf/

--- jrefrmtpwaumif;ujrefrmtpwaumif;ujrefrmtpwaumif;ujrefrmtpwaumif;ujrefrmtpwaumif;u --- jrefrmtp ausmufqnfujrefrmtp ausmufqnfujrefrmtp ausmufqnfujrefrmtp ausmufqnfujrefrmtp ausmufqnfu

--- jrefrmtp yHkawmifyHknmujrefrmtp yHkawmifyHknmujrefrmtp yHkawmifyHknmujrefrmtp yHkawmifyHknmujrefrmtp yHkawmifyHknmu [kyif ausmif;oifcef;pmrsm;wGif oifMum;ydkYcsvQuf&Sdygonf/ þaumufEIwf csufudk Munfhjcif;tm;jzifh jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;\ vlrsKd;t&if;tjrpfrSm]]jref}}(Mein - w½kwfpum;)jzpfí

,cktcg "Myan" [k a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygonf/ ]]jref}}

vlrsKd;wdkYudk rGef-crmwdkYESifh ausmufqnfNrdKUrSm a&maESm aexdkifMuaomtcg wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;[kyif ac:qdkavh&SdMuonf/ xdkrSwqifh ]]jrefrm}} [laom a0g[m& jzpfay:vm&jcif;yifjzpfonf/ ]]jref}}ESifh rGefcrmaygi;ff= jrefrGefcrmrS]]rGef}}Ekwf? jref+crm = jrefcrm-c=jrefrm jzpfvmonf/ jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;udk jrefrmvlrsKd;t&if;

(Generic name, Root word) onf w½kwfEdkifiHrSpí

]]jref}}vlrsKd;trnfESifh&SdNyD; jzpfonf/ ocsFmwGufenf;t&yif þodkYyif twnfjyKonf/ odkYaomf brif;armifu ]]jrefvnf; jref? rm vnf; rm? rS jrefrm jzpfvmonf[k

(64)

&Sif;jyonf/ (Armvm;? jrefrmvm; 2011)/ pDxefZoGif; uvnf; AdkvfrSL; b&Sif? awmpdefa&;aom 1932 pmtkyfudk;um;í at'D 832 ckESpf cefY wGif &Srf;w&kwfrsm;u ausmufqnfrSm aexkdifaom jrefrmvlrsdK;rsm;udk jrif;pD;&if; wkdufckdufonf/ yg&dpum;rSm jrif;udk ]]rm&ef}} jzpfí jrif;pD;oludk ]]rm}}[k ac:NyD; ]]rm&efrm}}rS jrefrm jzpfvmonf[k udk;um;wifjy onf?? þ,lqcsufrSm vHk;0yifvufcHEkdifp&m taMumif;r&SdEdkifay/ taMumif;rSm wdAufw&kwfjynfuae jref[laomvlrsdK;rsm;&SdcJhNyD; jzpfonf/

3/

ArmESifhjrefrm

Arm (Burma) udk [dE´LwdkY\ bk&m;wqljA[® (Bhrama)

uae qif;oufvmjcif;jzpfonf/ jrefrmudk txufjrefrmjynfrS vmí yk*Hacwfu wjznf;jznf;acwftvkduf jrefrmbk&i f? jrefrmpm? jrefrmpum;? jrefrmjynf? jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHawmfESifhjrefrmEkdifiHom; jzpfay:vmonf/Arm[laom a0g[m&udk jA[®rS qif;oufvmí atmufjrefrmjynf &cdkifjynfudk jzwfoef;um

References

Related documents

ABCDEFGHIBJIEKDBCFHIBJEDLDGCMJCNDJFOKPKCQJIRJFJGISTFBQJCIJKBCDEFGCJUKCNJCNDJKBVKWKVXFPJ

[r]

This Strategy also recognises the considerable expertise and resources that exist across East Dunbartonshire from the East Dunbartonshire Council, East Dunbartonshire Community Health

Furthermore we demonstrate that whole transcriptome sequencing and deep-sequencing of small RNA fractions can be used both to identify which microRNA precursors are expressed

Real time knowledge of which could be used to predict wear of the wheel tread and rail head, predict the formation of rolling contact fatigue, and identify any areas of low

Before completing this declaration, bidders must study the General Conditions, Definitions, Directives applicable in respect of Local Content as prescribed in the

[r]

Id.. based on the EEOC’s protection of private rights. government as the sovereign who carries enforcement authority. The issue of back pay for an employee continues to fall

• A celebrity endorsing multiple brands clutters the minds of the consumers and the strategy of using a celebrities to promote a brand or reposition it or create brand loyal

[r]

[r]

NOW IS THE TIME FOR HEROES! MUTANTS & MASTERMINDS A G R E E N RONIN PRODUCTION Design & Development Steve Kenson Cover Art Ramón Pérez Editing Jon Leitheusser Executive Producer

ó9ê¶Ø/ô9Õ~Ú;çuցè9ÚÕAÙ%Ú;ïˆ×¼ê£ð~Ù%Øué¼Ø7ÕÇÖwêŸÚ åaååaååaååaåHååaåHååHåaååaååaååaåaå õ ä/å¬ò9å~ä

[r]

[r]

Ö %HÑ Ø ÓUÓ1ÜåÖlðÒç1ÖÝ1ÝLÜ éçoæ ç!ÑÓ1Ô Ó1éÐÖRÓ1ܹԂälÑ ç!ÐÜsî·éçfÑ ØóÑ

Menotte, as Successor Chapter 7 Trustee (the “Trustee”) of the estate of the Debtor, Deborah Catherine Peck (the “Debtor”), by undersigned counsel, moves for

In this paper we study the determinants of gross capital flows, project the size of China’s international investment position in 2020, and analyze the implications for the renminbi

[r]

Blazing New Paths From Ancient Footprints: Enactment Of Mexican Traditional Dance And Music folklórico In A New York Urban Community Of Early Childhood Learners Pamela Proscia

Dragendorff’s test: For this test, 2 g of alcoholic and aqueous extract of the drug were dissolved in 5 ml of distilled water, followed by the addition of 2 M

(ii) The ratio of visual signal level to coherent disturbances which are frequency- coincident with the visual carrier shall not be less than 47 decibels for coherent channel