Identifying external ports and interfacing
Objective:To learn about different ports and how to connect devices to them. This diagram shows different ports available on the back panel of the PC.
Parallel port (LPT parallel port):
As shown in the diagram parallel port with 25-pins can be used to connect a parallel port printer. Previously dot matrix, ink jet, bubble jet printers etc were connected to parallel port. Nowadays-parallel port is used to connect Dot-Matrix printers.
As shown in the diagram serial ports with 9-pins protruding outwards can be used to connect modem but it can also be used for connecting mouse, provided serial port mouse is available.
VGA port which has 15-pins is used to connect a monitor.
Two 6-pin PS/2 ports are there, one is violet to which keyboard is connected and other is Light green to which mouse is connected.
Connecting a USB device to a computer is simple — you find the USB connector on the back of your machine and plug the USB connector into it. USB ports are used to connect to Inkjet printers, Web Cams, Scanners etc.
Ethernet port is used to connect a computer on network through RJ-45 connector.
Game Port is used to connect joystick, which is usually used in video games.
Three more ports are available for multimedia connections. Green port is used connect
speakers, blue port is used to connect headphones and light Orange is used to connect microphone.
Identifying PCI cards and interfacing
Objective: To identify different PC cards and to learn how to install them. Sound card:
A sound card or audio board, which allows computers to output audio signals through speakers and or headphones.
Diagram 3: Sound card
Diagram 4: VGA card
This piece of hardware allows your computer to be connected to a network of other computers (known as a LAN or Local Area Network)
Example:Procedure to install a sound card
1. Remove any unnecessary temporary metal plates. Only remove the metal plates from the
slots you are going to use. If you do not remove these, you cannot install any PCI components. Most either unscrew or pop out.
2. Locate PCI Slots on Motherboard. Your PCI Slots should look similar to the ones in the
3. Line up component with PCI slot and install. Simply line up the component with the slot
and gently press down on both sides until it slides in place.
4. Insert screw. There is only one screw needed to secure each PCI component in place.
5. Give it CD Sound. Remember that audio cable from the CD-ROM drive? Now we will
connect the other end of it. If you want to hear audio when play a cd in your CD-ROM, you need to connect the CD-ROM to the Sound Card (or motherboard if your sound card is integrated in) using the audio cable as seen below. Refer to your sound card owner’s manual for correct placement. If you did not purchase a sound card and you have one integrated into your motherboard, refer to your motherboard owner’s manual for correct placement
6. Repeat for any other components. Every component is different but as long as its PCI
compatible, it is installed the same way (except for the audio cable. It is installed only on sound cards and motherboards.)
Identifying ports on the cards and interfacing:
MIDI / Game port is a port which is most commonly used for the game port which will allow you to connect a game paddle and or Joystick to the computer. This port will also allow you to connect a device such as a MIDI keyboard to the computer, additional information on this can be found in the Midi section. Line In connector allows you to connect a Cassette Tape, CD or record player to the computer. Line Out connector is the location which the speakers or headphones will be connected to get sound out of the sound card. Volume control is generally no longer found on sound cards. However for cards that do include this as a feature this allows for the volume to be turned up and down on a non-amplified output such as a set of headphones. Microphone allows you to connect a microphone to the computer and record your own sound files.
Diagram 6:Graphic port on VGA Card
Components of mother board
To learn about the components of the mother board.
There are primarily two types of motherboards, AT motherboard, and ATX motherboard. AT motherboards are older, and not commonly used now a days. The AT and ATX motherboards differ in the form factor. Full AT is 12" wide x 13.8" deep, and Baby AT is 8.57" wide x 13.04" deep. Full-ATX is 12" wide x 9.6" deep and Mini-ATX is 11.2" wide x 8.2" deep. Other major differences include power supply connector, and keyboard connector. AT has 5-pin large keyboard connector, where as ATX has 6-pin mini connector. Similarly, AT has single row two connectors +/-5V, and +/-12V, whereas ATX motherboard has double row single connector providing +/-5V, +/-12V, and +3.3V.
The important constituent components of an ATX Motherboard are given below:
1. Mouse & keyboard 2. USB 3. Parallel port 4. CPU Chip 5. RAM slots 6. Floppy controller 7. IDE controller 8. PCI slot 9. ISA slot 10. CMOS Battery 11. AGP slot 12. CPU slot
13. Power supply plug in
1. Mouse & keyboard: Keyboard Connectors are two types basically. All PCs have a Key
board port connected directly to the motherboard. The oldest, but still quite common type, is a special DIN, and most PCs until recently retained this style connector. The AT-style keyboard connector is quickly disappearing, being replaced by the smaller mini DIN PS/2-style keyboard connector.
You can use an AT-style keyboard with a PS/2-style socket (or the other way around) by using a converter. Although the AT connector is unique in PCs, the PS/2-style mini-DIN is also used in more modern PCs for the mouse. Fortunately, most PCs that use the mini-DIN for both the keyboard and mouse clearly mark each mini-DIN socket as to its correct use. Some keyboards
have a USB connection, but these are fairly rare compared to the PS/2 connection keyboards.
2. USB (Universal serial bus):
USB is the General-purpose connection for PC. You can find USB versions of many different devices, such as mice, keyboards, scanners, cameras, and even printers. a USB connector's distinctive rectangular shape makes it easily recognizable.
USB has a number of features that makes it particularly popular on PCs. First, USB devices are hot swappable. You can insert or remove them without restarting your system.
3. Parallel port: Most printers use a special connector called a parallel port. Parallel port carry
data on more than one wire, as opposed to the serial port, which uses only one wire. Parallel ports use a 25-pin female DB connector. Parallel ports are directly supported by the motherboard through a direct connection or through a dangle.
4. CPU Chip: The central processing unit, also called the microprocessor performs all the
calculations that take place inside a pc. CPUs come in Variety of shapes and sizes. Modern CPUs generate a lot of heat and thus require a cooling fan or heat sink. The cooling
device (such as a cooling fan) is removable, although some CPU manufactures sell the CPU with a fan permanently attached.
5. RAM slots: Random-Access Memory (RAM) stores programs and data currently being used
by the CPU. RAM is measured in units called bytes. RAM has been packaged in many different ways. The most current package is called a 168-pin DIMM (Dual Inline Memory module).
6. Floppy controller: The floppy drive connects to the computer via a 34-pin ribbon cable,
which in turn connects to the motherboard. A floppy controller is one that is used to control the floppy drive.
7. IDE controller: Industry standards define two common types of hard drives: EIDE and
SCSI. Majority of the PCs use EIDE drives. SCSI drives show up in high end PCs such as network servers or graphical workstations. The EIDE drive connects to the hard drive via a 2-inch-wide, 40-pin ribbon cable, which in turn connects to the motherboard. IDE controller is responsible for controlling the hard drive.
8. PCI slot: Intel introduced the Peripheral component interconnect bus protocol. The PCI
bus is used to connect I/O devices (such as NIC or RAID controllers) to the main logic of the computer. PCI bus has replaced the ISA bus.
9. ISA slot: (Industry Standard Architecture) It is the standard architecture of the Expansion
bus. Motherboard may contain some slots to connect ISA compatible cards.
10. CMOS Battery: To provide CMOS with the power when the computer is turned off all
motherboards comes with a battery. These batteries mount on the motherboard in one of three ways: the obsolete external battery, the most common onboard battery, and built-in battery.
11. AGP slot: If you have a modern motherboard, you will almost certainly notice a single
connector that looks like a PCI slot, but is slightly shorter and usually brown. You also probably have a video card inserted into this slot. This is an Advanced Graphics Port (AGP) slot.
12. CPU slot: To install the CPU, just slide it straight down into the slot. Special notches in the
slot make it impossible to install them incorrectly. So remember if it does not go easily, it is probably not correct. Be sure to plugin the CPU fan's power.
13. Power supply plug in:
The Power supply, as its name implies, provides the necessary electrical power to make the pc operate. The power supply takes standard 110-V AC power and converts into +/-12-Volt, +/-5-Volt, and 3.3-Volt DC power. The power supply connector has 20-pins, and the connector can go in only one direction.
Formatting and partitioning hard disks
To learn how to partition and format the hard disk.
Hard Disk Partitions
This procedure explains how to setup a new hard disk. Before a new hard disk can be used it needs to be setup. This involves partitioning and formatting the hard disk. Windows 98 or ME boot disk contains the required software to perform this procedure. FDISK.EXE and FORMAT.COM are the files required in your bootable floppy disk. Start the partition and format procedure by booting your PC using a Windows boot disk. Make sure you set the BIOS so that the boot sequence is set to detect the floppy disk first. If your system has no problems booting you will be presented with a Windows boot disk menu. This gives you the option to start the system with or without CD-ROM support. At this stage you do not need the CD-ROM support, so choose the option to boot without CD-ROM support. You should end up in the MS DOS prompt A: (A drive). From A: command prompt type fdisk. You will be presented with following message:
Choose “Y” to enable large disk support. You will now be presented with the FDISK main menu as shown below.
From the menu, choose option 1 - Create DOS partition or Logical DOS drive. Another menu will present the following options.
Choose option 1 - Create primary DOS Partition. FDISK verifies the integrity of your drive and will ask you if want to use the maximum available size of your hard disk to create the primary partition and set it active. To keep things simple we will create one large partition. Choose “Y” to use maximum available space. You will be notified by the system when the partition has been created successfully. Your drive is now known as C: (C drive). Press “Esc” to return to the menu. Press “Esc” again to exit FDISK. You need to restart your system for the changes to take effect. Leave boot disk in the drive. When the system reboots, choose start without CD-ROM from the
boot disk menu. While booting from floppy disk you might get error message like “Invalid media type reading drive C” this is OK for this stage as the hard disk is not formatted. If you want to create extended DOS partitions, specify the size of the partitions in the bytes for primary partition. And remaining space can be utilized to create logical drives in the extended partition. Like D, E, F etc. You will get a message saying “WARNING, ALL DATA ON NONREMOVABLE DISK DRIVE C: WILL BE LOST. Proceed with Format (Y/N)?” Don’t worry about the message, as you do not have any data in the new hard disk. Choose “Y”. The format will proceed and would show you a progress indicator. The time it takes to format a hard disk depends on the size and speed of the drive. This could be around 5-30 minutes. Once the format is complete you need to reset your system. You are now ready to install an operating system.
Installing system and application software
To learn how to install system and application software. First let us learn how to install a system software i.e. Windows 7.
Windows 7 Installation:
This is what you will need before installing windows 7. 1.Windows 7 CD.
2. Computer with CD-ROM Access.
Configuring your BIOS for the Install:
To find out how to access the BIOS please refer to your motherboard manual or the manufacturer of your computer. (The system bios can usually be entered on boot, usually by pressing the F1, F2, F8, F10 or DEL key. Make sure you save the settings before exiting. If you are unsure or don’t want to enter the BIOS then just test the computer by putting the CD-ROM in the drive and rebooting the computer. This is the recommended way to install windows 7.
Starting the Setup:
3. Click Install now.
5. Click Upgrade if you already have a previous Windows version or Custom (advanced) if you don’t have a previous Windows version or want to install a fresh copy of Windows 7.
6. (Skip this step if you chose Upgrade and have only one partition) Select the drive where you want to install Windows 7 and click Next. If you want to make any partitions, click Drive options (advanced), make the partitions and then click Next.
7. It will now start installing Windows 7. The first step, (i.e. Copying Windows files) was already done when you booted the Windows 7 DVD so it will complete instantly.
10. After that it will automatically restart after 15 seconds and continue the setup. You can also click
11. After restarting for the first time, it will continue the setup. This is the last step so it will take the most time than the previous steps.
12. It will now automatically restart again and continue the setup. You can click Restart now to restart without any delays.
13. Type your desired user name in the text-box and click Next. It will automatically fill up the computer name.
15. Type your product key in the text-box and click Next. You can also skip this step and simply click
16. Select your desired option for Windows Updates.
19. A fresh copy of windows 7 installed successfully.
Now let us learn installing application software i.e MS-Office installation.
MS OFFICE 2003 INSTALLATION
In order to install Microsoft Office 2003, simply begin by putting the Office CD in the CD or DVD drive. The XP operating system will begin the loading process and the software will ask if you want to install Office. Click Yes as usual. And then assent to the license agreement. You will then be asked for the 25 digit security code which we have made available to you. Type this in
exactly as it has been given to you (Figure 1). You will then be asked what type of installation
you wish to perform. Please choose “Complete Installation” as indicated in Figure 2. The Complete Installation assures you that you have all the file converters necessary to read these documents after you have chosen the Complete Installation, click next. You will get a review screen which should look like Figure 3. After you click the Install box the software should begin to install from the CD.
Diagram 8 - MS Office software review prior to installation
After MS Office installs, you will get a screen which will allow you to Check the web for updates and Delete installation files (Figure 4). You will certainly want to Check the web for updates (so check this box) and you may want to Delete the installation files to save disk space (this is up to you). Click the appropriate boxes and click on the Finish box. You will be directed to the Microsoft Office Update website.
You certainly want to Check the web for MS Office updates now because you have the CD. Microsoft Office updates often require a CD and the CDs are only available through the Library and Computer Services. So save yourself the hassle and check for updates now.
Diagram 10: The MS Office update website
The Microsoft Office update website currently looks like diagram10. Because you have not previously checked for Office updates, you will be asked to install the Office updated installation engine (Figure 6). Click Yes and install this on your computer (when you go back to the Office Update site, you will not be asked about nor do you need to reinstall this update engine). The update engine is a small piece of software which works with this website and will check Office on your computer to determine what components need updating. The update list (Figure 7) will depend on exactly what release of Office 2003 you have installed and what updates are available subsequent to that release. Some of these updates need to be installed independently of the others. Often then can be bundled together so you can download a number of updates together and install them together. Click the updates you wish to install (we recommend installing all the security related updates and all the updates that are appropriate for your computer. If you don’t have a tablet PC and there are updates specifically for this type of computer, you don’t have to install them.) You can’t go wrong by installing all the updates for MS Office. After you have checked the boxes of the updates you wish to install, click the Start Installation box. The updates will begin to download and install.
Diagram 11: The Office update installation engine
Diagram 12: Choose the updates you wish to install
After you have installed the updates successfully, the MS Office update site will provide you with a screen which tells you which updates have been successfully installed (diagram12).
Diagram 13: Successful MS Office update installation
Understanding BIOS configuration
Understand and configure your computer's BIOS.
Understand and configure your computer's BIOS:
BIOS, for Basic Input Output System, is this little piece of program that allows your computer to provide functions such as booting the machine or the detection of various components connected to your motherboard, as the graphics card,your keyboard or mouse. But it may contain a range of options and features much more complex, turning around the overclocking or setting up a RAID stack, among other things. That is why we decided to develop this guide you will learn more about this aspect of your computer. There are three major manufacturers, American Megatrends, Award and Phoenix, first two are less present on your motherboard that the . Free projects are also being renovated as Coreboot and we are not talking about the two historical BIOS for PowerPC as PREP and CHRP. In addition, each manufacturer of the motherboard can also change the BIOS. Finally, some options are highly dependent on the material used, particularly CPU and RAM. All this implies the existence of a large number of different versions and we could therefore not give every detail. That's why you may find this guide features which do not always cover your motherboard.
Navigating a BIOS:
Ways to achieve differ depending on the BIOS manufacturer of your motherboard. So you will be most often use the F2 or Delete. At Gigabyte, there has been little mention of a BIOS
'advanced', actually a way to hide the most sensitive options, which are activated via the shortcut CRTL + F1. Similarly, some manufacturers provide a combination of buttons dedicated to a utility to update the BIOS, but this is beyond our purpose.
Navigation in the BIOS is a much more homogeneous, the controls are practically the same from one manufacturer to another, from one motherboard to another.
To change an option: + / -- Access through: F1
Getting around in the menus: Arrows To save the configuration and restart: F10
To load the settings without failure: F8 (Fail-Safe Defaults) To choose the optimized parameters: F6 (Optimized Defaults) Finally, to exit the BIOS, a menu or a sub-menu: ESC
Some precautions :
The first advice is simply to restore the factory settings in your BIOS. You can do this to remove the battery from your motherboard a few moments to restore the default settings. Some recent motherboards are also equipped with a dedicated button, available on the motherboard or on the back of it, next to the connector. For older cards, it also remains the possibility to play with the positioning of a jumper (jumper). You can find this information in the manual of your
motherboard. Note that it is obviously advisable to carry out these manipulations in which
previously put off the computer. Alternatively, use the functions provided for this purpose within your BIOS. On that type of Phoenix, you should use the F9 key to restore the default constructor. Of the type Award BIOS, pressing the F5 key restores the previous settings, pressing F6 restores the default values and the F7 key allows restoring the default settings provided by the
manufacturer of the motherboard.
Information on the machine:
Date or Date System: Neither more nor less than the date that your operating system. A
BIOS that is not the correct date may be the source of many worries, like a virus that refuses to update, for example.
Time and System Time: After the date, time of the system. You can change the values
using keys + and -.
IDE Channel (Access Mode, CHS, LBA, Large, Auto): This is the mode operation of an IDE hard disk; leave on Auto most of the time, but the disks are detected each time you start the computer, which extends even this step. Then everything depends on how you formatted your hard disk. These modes specify how the cylinders are used and sectors of the disk.
Floppy 3 Mode Support (Disabled, Drive A): Keep Disabled, this option is only of
Halt On (All, But Keyboard - All, But Disk / Key - All, But Diskette - No Errors - All Errors): Changes after what type (s) (s) problem (s) the boot must fail. The option "All, but Keyboard allows you to have the hand, even concern.
System Information: This screen delivers all sorts of useful information such as BIOS
version, the model of processor you use, its frequency, amount of RAM onboard ...
CPU Monitor: set to "Temp", the active probe that monitors the temperature of your
processor. Indispensable if one wishes to have a view on this data in its operating system, or if one wants to benefit from automatic when the motherboard allows.
MB Temperature: Same comment as for the processor.
CPU Warning Temperature (Disabled, 60, 70, 80, 90 ° C): Sets from what temperature your computer will notify you of its overheating.
CPU Fan Speed : Displays the speed of the fans connected to the motherboard to check
if one is defective. Keep an eye on this value also helps to know when a good cleaning is needed, because then you will see a steady decline in performance of your fan because of the dust that accumulates.
CPU Fan Fail Warning : On Enable, warns you that the CPU fan is not running, or not
fast enough. It's a good idea to leave this option enabled unless you have a fan running voluntarily idle.
CPU Smart Fan Control : On the motherboard that allow this option, if enabled, to
adjust the fan speed of the processor depending on the temperature of the latter.
Current System Fan Speed (value ignored): Specifies the speed of the fan connected to
the connector "System Fan" on your motherboard.
System Fan Fail Warning (Enable / Disabled): As for the CPU, can warn of rotations
too weak or nonexistent fan system.
System Smart Fan Control or Q-Fan Control : Select this option to have the motherboard automatically modulates fan speed according to system temperature.
Power Fan Speed (Ignored, N / A, value): Give the fan speed of power supply when the
latter and the motherboard are compatible.
Chassis Fan 1 Speed : the speed of the fan connected to a connector on the motherboard
other than CPU or System.
Chassis Q-Fan Control : Allows control the fans on the case, they are connected to a
CPU Smart Fan Mode : Manages the way the CPU fan is regulated. For the PWM
mode, the connector from your fan should be 4 pins. This mode allows more flexible control to obtain the best results in terms of silent operation.
Control voltages :
Voltage or CPU vCore (Ignored, value): Gives the value of the voltage of electricity
provided to the processor.
DDR (Ignored, value): Provides an indication of the value of the voltage level of memory
3.3 V Voltage (Ignored, value): The rail is 3.3 V to power the USB ports on your
motherboard. If you have any problems with them, check this value.
5V Voltage (Ignored, value): Controls the output voltage of your power supply on the 5V
rail, which is used for hard drives and optical drives.
12V Voltage (Ignored, value): The 12V is used to power the processor. The stability of
this voltage is very important, especially for those who push their machine into a corner.
1st Boot Device : Allows you to choose the first element on which the machine will look
for a boot sector. This can range from a removable device (a USB key ...) to a hard drive via the DVD player. You can also choose the second and third boot devices.
Quick Boot : Activate this option to not see certain messages at startup and go use some
Full Screen Logo : Some manufacturers do not hesitate to display large logo on your
screen every time you start your computer, disable this option to not display.
AddOn ROM Display Mode : Allows Force (BIOS) or not displaying the information to
start the RAID module.
Bootup Num-Lock : Select this option for the start of the keypad locked. Wait For 'F1' If
Error (Enabled, Disabled), If the system detects an error at startup, it shows or not, depending on whether or not this option, wait for a confirmation from you via the F1 key. Hit 'DEL' Message Display : Allows or not to display the message indicating that the
BIOS is accessible via the DELETE key.
Suspend Mode (Auto, S1 (POS) Only, S3 Only): Energy Management during a pause. In
S1, the CPU is stopped, the memory is refreshed, the machine is in sleep state. In S3, the CPU is stopped, and the memory is refreshed as little as possible.
ACPI 2.0 Support (Enabled, Disabled): This option is to start to enjoy the latest
ACPI APIC Support (Enabled, Disabled): Activate this option also energy management
APM Configuration : Other power management that is rarely used at present. Restore on
AC Power Loss or AC Back Function (Power Off, Power On, Last State), Choose the behavior of your BIOS in case of voltage drop significantly.
Power On By RTC Alarm (Enabled, Disabled): Ability to turn on your computer to a
set time (for RTC Real Time Clock).
Power On By External Modems (Enabled, Disabled): Activate this option to be able to
turn on your computer remotely via your modem and the sending of the famous "magic packet".
Power On By PCI Devices : Starting the PC via a PCI card.
Power On By PCIE Devices : Similarly, with a PCI-Express.
Power On By PS / 2 Keyboard (Disabled, Space Bar, Ctrl-Esc, Power Key): Turn on
your computer by simply pressing the space bar or another shortcut on your keyboard. USB Wake Up from S3 (Enable / Disabled): Wake up a computer into standby type S3
Power On By Mouse (Disabled / Double click): Turn on your computer via a double
Connecting computer in a network
To learn how to connect a computer in a network. Configure network access using the networking applets.
Materials and Setup:
The materials you need for this lab are
Access to a PC with Windows installed
Access to the LAN
Each computer that will be connected to the LAN must have the following:
A NIC with correct drivers installed
Client software, such as Client for Microsoft Networks
Protocols (what language[s] you’ll use on the network and the settings)
Services, such as File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks
A computer name
A workgroup name
Step 1: Go to Device Manager and verify that the correct NIC drivers are installed. Reinstall the
driver if necessary. In Device Manager, expand Network adapters. Right-click your network card and select Properties. Click the Driver tab to see what driver is installed or to update the driver.
Step 2: In this step, you’ll verify what network services are installed. In Windows 2000, go to
the Control Panel, double-click Network and Dial-Up Connections, right-click Local Area Connection, and select Properties. In Windows XP, go to Control Panel | Network Connections. Right-click Local Area Connection and select Properties. In Windows Vista, go to the Control Panel and open the Network and Sharing Center. In the Tasks menu on the left, click Manage network connections. Right-click Local Area Connection and select Properties. You should find the following components listed in a selection window. Your system may have others as well.
Client for Microsoft Networks (default)
Protocol TCP/IP (default)
Step 3: Now that you’ve found the network configuration screen, take a look at the various
• Install: the Install button enables you to add network components. Clicking the Install button
gives you three choices:
• Client: Adds a client to the configuration (must have at least one).
• Protocol: Microsoft TCP/IP is the default (must have a protocol to communicate).
• Service: File and Printer Sharing must be enabled for other computers on the network to access
the one on which you’re working.
• Remove/Uninstall The Remove or Uninstall button enables you to remove network
• Properties The Properties button displays a variety of dialog boxes based on the network
Step 4 Now that your system is configured for networking, you need to have an identity for it
and join a workgroup to be recognized by the network and access network resources.
In Windows 2000, go to Control Panel and double-click System. Open the Network Identification tab. In Windows XP, do the same, but select the Computer Name tab. Windows Vista is also the same, but the information should be displayed all on one screen. Record your system settings here:
Computer name _____________________________________ Workgroup name ____________________________________
Step 5: Now that you’ve confirmed and recorded the networking components, your computer
name, and your workgroup, the next step is to practice reinstalling your network adapter.
Access Device Manager, and uninstall your network adapter. Yes, this will erase all your network settings. Did you take good notes earlier? Expand the Network adapters heading, right-click your specific adapter, and choose Remove or Uninstall.
Reboot your system, and the adapter will be detected (if it’s plug and play) and installed. Access the Network Connections applet, and verify your network configuration using the information you recorded in Steps 1, 2, and 4 previously. If your system doesn’t load the drivers for the network card, you’ll need the driver disc to complete your settings.
Test your system by accessing the network. Can you browse the network now? Look in My Network
Verifying TCP/IP Settings:
Materials and Setup
The materials you need for this lab are
A PC system that’s properly configured for LAN access using Windows
A list of TCP/IP settings provided by the instructor
TCP/IP requires each system to have two basic settings for accessing a LAN and two additional settings for accessing other LANs or the Internet. You can configure your system to automatically obtain the following settings when you log on (Microsoft’s default settings), or you can specify them, depending on the requirements of your network:
IP address (unique to the PC)
Subnet mask (identifies network information)
Gateway (address of the router to the external realm)
Domain Name Service (DNS)
Step 1 First, you’ll locate and verify your current TCP/IP settings.
a) Return to the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box you located in Step 2 of previous procedure. Highlight the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) entry and click the Properties button. When the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties screen appears, one of the setting options shown in Figure 23-3 will be selected.
b) If the settings are manually configured, you will be able to verify them in the TCP/IP Properties dialog box. Write the settings down and verify them with the settings given to you by the instructor.
IP address ______________________________________________________ Subnet mask ____________________________________________________ Gateway _______________________________________________________ Preferred DNS server _____________________________________________
Figure 23-3 Viewing manually configured TCP/IP properties in a Windows XP system
c) If the system is configured to use the Microsoft Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) settings or if the network has a DHCP server (ask the instructor), the Obtain an IP address automatically and Obtain DNS server address automatically radio buttons will be selected. You will not be able to verify the values of the TCP/IP settings from this window. Close this window by clicking OK. To verify the settings, launch a command-line window and, at the prompt, type the following command:
C:\Documents and Settings\%USERNAME%\>IPCONFIG /ALL
This produces a listing similar to the one shown in Figure 23-4. Use these values to fill in the
following settings and then verify them with your instructor.
IP Address ________________________________________________________ Subnet Mask ______________________________________________________ Default Gateway ___________________________________________________ DNS Server _______________________________________________________
APIPA. If Windows is configured to obtain an IP address automatically and no DHCP server is available,
Microsoft will automatically configure an address in the 169.254.0.0 network. Follow these steps to explore APIPA:
a) In a classroom lab environment, have the instructor disable the DHCP server if applicable.Alternatively, you can disconnect the DHCP server’s UTP cable from the hub or switch.
Figure 23-4 Windows IPCONFIG /ALL command results on a system configured
to use DHCP
b) Verify that your TCP/IP Properties settings are set to Obtain an IP address automatically and Obtain DNS server address automatically. Close all windows and reboot the system. c) Launch a command-line window and, at the prompt, type the following command:
C:\Documents and Settings\%USERNAME%\>IPCONFIG /ALL
This produces a listing similar to the one shown in Figure 23-5. Use these values to fill in the
following settings and then verify them with your instructor.
IP Address ____________________________________________________________ Subnet Mask __________________________________________________________ Default Gateway _______________________________________________________ DNS Server ___________________________________________________________ d) Exit the command-line window and launch the TCP/IP Properties window again. Return
all settings to the normal classroom configuration. Click OK to finish, and close all the windows. Reboot the system, and verify that it’s working properly and that you have reestablished network communication to its prior state.
Types of input and output devices.
To learn about the types of input and output devices.
Input devices: Key board Mouse Scanner
Output devices: Monitor Printer Keyboard
The keyboard is easy. We all know what a keyboard is, right? It's the thing that looks like part of a typewriter. Uh, oh, maybe you've never seen a typewriter? OK, it looks
like a cellular phone, except it's bigger and has more buttons.
Seriously, the keyboard is the part with the letters and numbers, where you put your hands and type, but you knew that. On most traditional computers, it is a separate device, connected by a cord, but it may be attached to or built into one of the other parts, particularly in a laptop computer.
The mouse is an accessory. That doesn't make much sense any more, since it's almost
impossible to use a modern computer without one. Besides that, a good mouse can cost almost as much as a good keyboard. In some ways, the mouse is almost as complicated as the keyboard, too. Calling the mouse an accessory is just one of those goofy things technical people do, and it's best not to disturb their delicate sensibilities.
The monitor is the part that looks a lot like a TV set. You look at it and see pictures and words. When you type things on the keyboard, the letters and numbers show up on the
monitor, or at least you hope they will. The monitor is also called the Display Monitor, or just the Display, or sometimes the Video Display, or maybe just The Screen. The important thing to know about the monitor is that it is not really the computer; it's just the part that makes pictures for you to see. It is pretty common for technical support people to find out, after about half an hour on the phone, that the ordinary human being is turning the monitor on and off instead of the computer, and that's why none of their instructions have had any effect. Don't let that happen to you.
Printers are still accessories, for now at least. They perform a process, transferring information onto paper, that is truly external to the other functions of the computer. On a home computer, the printer is usually wired directly to the computer, but it is common
to find printers in businesses where the printer is off away from the computer and performing printing operations for several computers, rather than just one.
The IDE usually has an advanced graphical user interface, or GUI.
Application software allows end users to accomplish one or more specific
(non-computer related) tasks. Typical applications include industrial automation, business software, educational software, medical software, databases, and computer games. Businesses are probably the biggest users of application software, but almost every field of human activity now uses some form of application software
Assembling of a Computer
To learn about how to assemble of a computer.
The Mother Board
CPU Heat Sink & Fan
Hard Disk Drive (HDD)
Floppy Disk Drive (FDD)
CD ROM Drive
Different Screws Used
AGP Card LAN Card Monitor Key Board Mouse Speakers UPS Other components.
Also keep the cables that came with these components close by
Philips head screw driver Flat head screw driver Magnetized screw driver Multi meter
Make sure that a flat surface of a good aria is available when the system is
See that the place where the computer is kept is dust free as dust can harm
Make sure the room has good ventilation.
Check where the system is done earthling properly.
First fix the mother board in the cabinet using screws.
Then fix the processor with the help of pin1 indication in to the socket-478 by unlocking the locking lever .After fixing the processor lock it].
Then fix heat sink fan over the processor.
Fix RAM in its respective slot based on their Notches.
Then fix the Hard disk in the Hard disk drive and floppy disk in the floppy disk drive and fix.
Fix CD drive in its respective drive and fix their screws. Now fix CMOS battery.
Now using IDE connectors connect the different drives to mother board i.e primary and secondary IDE’s corresponding to their own pins.
Now insert different ports (i.e mouse , monitor keyboard and games ports e.t.c) in their respective places such that they are visible on rare view of cabinet.
Then additional ports (or) cards like Ethernet card A.G.P are inserted in P.C.I Slots (Peripheral Component Interconnect).
Now connect SMPS (Switching Mode Power Supply) to mother board by using ATX power connector.
The other connections to FDD,CDD and HDD are given from SMPS.
Care should be taken while giving connections such that red should coincide with red.
Now close the cabinet with the help of screws.
Now input power is given to power supply and output to the monitor by their respective pins(input/output of SMPS).
The Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor are connected to their respective ports.
Finally switch on the power, then assembled P.C will be ready to function (work).
DISASSEMBLING THE COMPUTER
The system can be divided into two major components:
Before disassembling any computer record the CMOS and BIOS settings. Remove all external I/O systems
Remove all peripherals
Disconnect the mouse
Disconnect the key board
Disconnect the monitor
Remove the systems outer cover Map out the architecture of the PC Store all screws properly in a paper cup Remove any option cards.
Record the ribbon cord orientation of the floppy drive. Remove floppy drive Record the ribbon cord orientation of the CD drive.
Remove the CD ROM drive
Record the ribbon code orientation of the C drive Remove the C drive
Record the orientation of the plugs p9, p8 etc. cabling is good idea. Remove the power supply unit.
Remove the system carefully don’t touch the battery or the jumper settings. This could through of the CMOS setting.
Trouble shooting of a computer
To learn about how to trouble shoot a particular computer.
It is a process of sorting out the problems.
The set of steps we follow during trouble shooting are: a) Identify the problem.
b) Identify the set of solutions.
c) Analyze any one solution which is less costly and more efficient. d) Apply the solution.
e) Test the output.
Trouble shooting is generally of 2 types:
1) Hardware troubleshooting: deals with the process of eliminating bugs related to PC components.
2) Software trouble shooting: refers to removal of problems rising due to system soft ware or application software.
The list of techniques under this are: Hard disk troubleshooting Floppy disk troubleshooting Monitor troubleshooting
Modem troubleshooting Keyboard troubleshooting.
a) HARD DISK TROUBLESHOOTING
It contains platters, head arms, classes and headaqualators. Most of the HDDS are connected by either the ATA(i.e.; another name for IDE) or we use SCSI(small computer system interphase) cables.
The difference between SCSI and IDE is
Using IDE we can connect almost two hard disks Using SCSI we can connect 7to 15 hard disks
Maintenance of SCSI is very difficult when compared to IDE The cost of SCSI is more compared to IDE.
Problems related to Hard disk
If the Hdd is not detected inside the configurations
If the system files on the hard disk drive are missing or if they because corrupt. The computer does not boot up when turned on.
Solutions related to hard disk
Check whether HDD is physically available or NOT.
Check if the bias is connected to the hard disk and if it is detected.
On the existing harddisk make sure that you scan the disk very well using the current version of antivirus
Make sure that you setting up a disk or charge of its partitions.
b) FLOPPY DISK TROUBLESHOOTING
A floppy disk may not work because of anyone of the following reasons. Bad floppy disk drivers
No setup C-MOS
Not connected properly. Bad drivers or hardware.
PROBLEM: Bad floppy disk drivers
SOLUTION: Verify that the floppy disk drive is not in right protected more,it is not
possible to read and write the data.
PROBLEM: No setup in C-MOS
SOLUTION: If the floppy disk drive is not setup properly we may experience problem
in writing and reading.Most of the computers need to have the floppy disk setup as 3.5 inches and 1.44MB.
PROBLEM: Bad drivers or hardware’s
SOLUTION: Remove the existing floppy disk drive which is not working and replace
PROBLEM: Configuration with other hardware
SOLUTION: If you have recently installed any new hardware such as tape drivers or any
backup medium then temporarily disconnect all those hardwires and make sure that the floppy drive is working.
PROBLEM: NOT connected properly
SOLUTION: Verify that the floppy is connected to the motherboard, FDD connection.
Verify that the cable coming from the motherboard is to the back of the FDD.Verify that the power cable is also connected to the floppy.
C) MONITOR TROUBLESHOOTING:
Which is physically connected to video cards like TV monitor also contains CRT (cathode ray tube).CRT contains 3guns, red, green and blue. These guns stream electrons from left to right.
Set of troubleshooting etc:
PROBLEM: If the picture is not visible
SOLUTION: Check the signal cablue is into the power socket or not.
Set of troubleshooting steps are: Check if the signal cable is connected to graphic admor. Check brightness of the screen.
PROBLEM: If the screen is too bright or dark.
SOLUTION: Check the brightness value. Check if the specified voltage is applied or
not. Check if the frequency is horizontal as well as vertical.
PROBLEM: If the screen is blurred
SOLUTION: More all the objects that emit magnetic field away. Check whether the
specified is applied or not.Check if the signal timing of system is with in the specification. MONITOR ICONS: Power Brightness Contrast Horizontal size Vertical size Full screen
Degauss(de magnetizers the crt) Comer(user can more the picture) Monitor status
d) MODEM TROUBLESHOOTING:
We can call a modem as translator, demodulator, which describes a method by which digital data is converted to analog while receiving the data by the computer it is converted to digital from analog.
There are 2 types of modem which are available they are RJ11 and RJ45.RJ11 consists of 6 pins and RJ45 of 8 pins.
Steps of troubleshooting for modem are:
Check the telephone cable connections 10 feet or less than contain a RJ11 cable connection.
Check to ensure that you are plugged to the correct modem jack i.e; RJ45 will not fit in RJ11 but RJ11 will fit into RJ45.
Check for the error message i.e wrong user name and password the contact your ISP(Internet service provider)for the correct account settings.
Reduce your port speed in your modem settings. Check the initialization settings
Use hyper terminal on another tool to test the modem.
e) KEYBOARD TROUBLESHOOTING:
If the keyboard is not working then check if the keyboard cable is inserted properly in the connector on the motherboard.
Swap a non-functional keyboard with a functioning one. Check if the cable is twisted or damaged.
2) SOFTWARE TROUBLESHOOTING:
Below is a list of common software troubles and the trouble shooting processes are: 1. Computer software troubleshooting.
BASIC SOFTWARE TROUBLESHOOTING:
When you are unable to install a software program do the following. Verify the discs, CD are readable by reading the files for example.
Microsoft windows users can explore the device in windows(appear) explore if the CV attempting auto play explore to browse the drive.
Make sure the program or utility you are installing is compatible with the version of 0.5 percentages. You have dhur computers.
Error devising installation
1. Verify whether your computer meets the requirements of the program or utility. 2. If you are renaming Microsoft windows 95 or higher versions they installing the
program in safe mode.
3. Verify the program or utility documentation makes no mention of the error you are experiencing to how to resolve the error already documented.
4. Verify no patches or updates are available from the developer of the program utility.
5. Income cases the software program may require an update before it can be successfully run on your computer.
6. Make sure all other programs are closed when you attempt to run the program on utility if the program successfully runs after closing the program is possible that the program may have issues with other programs.
Errors that have been secured while windows are loading or after windows has completed loading are often by program i.e automatic loading.
Each time windows is loading problem or miss configuration of a hardware device or computer views.
1. If errors occurs but Microsoft windows still load verify no issues or configures existed in manager device. If errors are found read through device manager page for steps or resolving issues.
2. ensure that if programs are loading automatically that these errors are not associated with these programs many times utility such as virus Program may attempt to load when windows first starts and cause errors to occur.
3. Make sure windows ME is up to data by checking Microsoft update page.
4. if your computer has a virus protection program installed make sure it is important up to date and no virus is detected. If your computer does not have a virus protection program you may wish to consider installing a program to make sure no viruses are causing any problem.
*Other error message:-
If you are experiencing other error messages it is likely these errors are being caused by the software program you are running on a hardware device you are attempting to utilize.
Computer running slowly:-
1. Make sure your computer has at least 500MB hard disk.
2. Close any programs that are running in the background on disabled the background.
3. Click START, search and click for files or folders using command *.tmp as to s. 4. Make sure that windows ME is up to date.