Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius endospores function as nuclei for

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Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius endospores function as nuclei for

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formation of single calcite crystals

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Rie Murai and Naoto Yoshida*

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Department of Biochemistry and Applied Biosciences, University of Miyazaki, 1-1

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Gakuen Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan

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*Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Biochemistry and Applied 20

Biosciences, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, 21

Japan. Phone: +81-985-58-7218. E-mail: a04109u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp 22

Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. doi:10.1128/AEM.03991-12

AEM Accepts, published online ahead of print on 1 March 2013

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Abstract

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Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius colonies were placed on an agar-hydrogel

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containing acetate, calcium ions, and magnesium ions, resulting in the formation of

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single calcite crystals (calcites) within and peripheral to the plating area or parent

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colony. Microscopic observation of purified calcites placed on the surface of SCD

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nutrient medium revealed interior crevices from which bacterial colonies

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originated. Calcites formed on the gel contained 1-13C and 2-13C labeled acetate,

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demonstrating that G. thermoglucosidasius utilizes carbon derived from acetate for

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calcite formation. During calcite formation, vegetative cells swam away from the

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parent colony in the hydrogel. Hard-agar hydrogel inhibited the formation of

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calcites peripheral to the parent colony. The calcite dissolved completely in 1 M

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HCl, with production of bubbles, and the remaining endospore-like particles were

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easily stained with Brilliant Green dye. The presence of DNA and protein in

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calcites was demonstrated by electrophoresis. We propose that endospores initiate

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the nucleation of calcites. Endospores of G. thermoglucosidasius remain alive in

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calcite, encapsulated in calcite.

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INTRODUCTION

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Biomineralization is defined as the synthesis of inorganic crystalline or 42

amorphous mineral-like materials by living organisms. Bacteria are capable of forming 43

inorganic crystals either intracellularly (12) or extracellularly (11). Magnetic bacteria 44

migrate along the lines of the earth’s magnetic field, and synthesize intracellular 45

particles of magnetite that are aligned in a chain-like fashion and enveloped by a 46

membrane (3, 17). The use of bacterial magnetic particles in biomedical applications is 47

increasing because they are easy to handle and to separate from biological samples. In 48

particular, the lipid bilayer surrounding magnetic particles is reportedly amenable to 49

insertion of recombinant transmembrane proteins (16, 29). Calcite (calcium carbonate) 50

precipitation is a well-known example of extracellular bacterial biomineralization. The 51

precipitation of calcium carbonates by Halobacillus trueperi (spore-forming, 52

moderately halophilic bacterium) isolated from hypersaline sediments of the Great Salt 53

Lake in Utah has been investigated (24). Scanning electron microscopy indicated that 54

the dominant morphology of H. trueperi calcium carbonate is spherulitic calcite with a 55

fibrous radiated interior. 56

In our own research, we isolated a biomineralizing thermophilic spore-forming 57

bacterium from bark compost that has an optimum growth temperature of 60°C. 58

Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the organism as 59

Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius (28). Geobacillus spp. are a phenotypically and

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phylogenetically similar group of thermophilic bacilli (19). To date, we have found that 61

G. thermoglucosidasius extracellularly catalyzes the formation of 100-µm spheres and

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hexagonal crystals at 60°C in hydrogel containing sodium acetate, calcium chloride, and 63

magnesium sulfate (calcite-promoting hydrogel). Microscopic analysis revealed that the 64

minerals have polarizing properties and are thus highly crystallized. Under fluorescent 65

microscopy, excitation occurred at 365 ± 5, 480 ± 20, and 545 ± 15 nm, and 66

broad-spectrum fluorescence was emitted with excitation at 350 nm. The maximum 67

emitted wavelength was 446.9 nm for excitation at 369.6 nm. An X-ray diffraction 68

analysis showed the crystals to be magnesium-calcite in calcium carbonate group (28). 69

From the observation that calcite was formed both on the interior and exterior of the G. 70

thermoglucosidasius colony, we deduced that endospores constituted the nucleus of the

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calcites. 72

The starvation for nitrogen and phosphate source in calcite-promoting hydrogel 73

promotes sporulation. In this study, we investigated the swimming behavior of 74

vegetative cells in calcite-promoting hydrogel and the effect of hydrogel hardness on 75

calcite formation to test whether that vegetative cells are vehicles for the nonmotile 76

endospores that we believe serve as the foci for calcite nucleation. Glucose is known to 77

repress sporulation in spore-forming gram-positive bacteria, thus the effect of glucose 78

on calcite nucleation was also examined. In addition, we investigated whether biological 79

substances such as nucleic acids and proteins are present in calcites to support the 80

hypothesis that G. thermoglucosidasius endospores serve as nuclei for calcite formation. 81 82 83

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

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Stock culture

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Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius NY05 was inoculated onto soybean casein digest

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(SCD) agar (Nissui, Japan) plates and incubated aerobically at 60˚C for 18 hr. Colonies 88

were collected by microbial loop and inoculated onto calcite-promoting hydrogels for 89

assay. 90

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Formation of single calcite crystals (calcites) on hydrogel

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Calcite-promoting hydrogels were prepared by adding sodium acetate (25 mM), calcium 93

chloride (7.0 mM), and magnesium sulfate (2.0 mM) to a 1.5% agar (Nacalai Tesque, 94

Japan) solution, bringing the solution to a boil and allowing it to solidify in 9-cm petri 95

dishes. A wet weight of 10 to 20 mg of G. thermoglucosidasius colonies were placed by 96

loop in a circular spot with a diameter of 1.0 cm on calcite-promoting hydrogel plates 97

and incubated at 60˚C for 24 to 168 h. To isolate the calcites, the parts of the gel on 98

which calcites formed were excised using a sterilized spatula and solubilized in QX1 99

buffer (Qiagen, CA, USA) in test tubes at room temperature. Calcites were recovered 100

from the bottom of the test tube and washed repeatedly four times with sterilized 101

distilled water and ethanol and then dried at 60˚C (28). 102

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Migration of vegetative cells in calcite-promoting hydrogel

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A total of 20 mg of fresh G. thermoglucosidasius colonies were placed on a 1-cm 105

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circle on a calcite-promoting hydrogel plate (parent colony) and incubated at 60°C for 106

24, 72, 120, and 168 h. The gel, excluding the parent colony, was excised with a 107

sterilized scalpel and placed in contact with the surface of an SCD agar plate, which 108

was then incubated at 60°C for 14 h. The number of vegetative cells migrating away 109

from the parent colony was determined as the number of subcolonies formed on the 110

SCD agar plate. In addition, the number of calcites formed at distances of 0-10, 10-15, 111

15-20, 20-25, and 25-30 mm from the center of the parent colony on the 112

calcite-promoting hydrogel was determined after incubation at 60°C for 168 h. 113

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Effect of gel hardness on calcite formation

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Calcite-promoting hydrogel dissolved in agar solution (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, or 116

4.0%) was solidified in 9-cm petri dishes. Next, 20 mg of fresh G. thermoglucosidasius 117

colonies cultured at 60°C for 24 h on an SCD plate were placed within a 1-cm circle on 118

the surface of each calcite-promoting hydrogel plate, which was then incubated at 60°C. 119

The distance between the edge of the parent colony and the most distant calcite formed 120

was measured with a ruler after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days. 121

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Effect of glucose on calcite nucleation events

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A total of 10-20 mg of fresh G. thermoglucosidasius colonies were placed within 124

a 1-cm circle at the center of calcite-promoting hydrogel plates (parent colony) 125

containing 2-10 mM glucose, and the plates were then incubated at 60°C for 96 h. The 126

number of calcites formed per mg of parent colony was determined by counting the 127

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number of calcites formed within the parent colony. 128

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Incorporation of isotopically labeled carbon from acetate into calcites

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Stable carbon isotope-labeled (1-13C or 2-13C) sodium acetate (25 mM) (50 131

atom% of 13C: Cambridge Isotope Laboratory, Inc., USA), calcium chloride (7 mM), 132

and magnesium sulfate (2 mM) were added to liquefied agar solution (1.5%), the 133

solution was brought to a boil, allowed to solidify in 9-cm petri dishes, and employed as 134

calcite-promoting hydrogels for evaluating the uptake of stable carbon isotopes into 135

calcites. A wet weight of 10-20 mg of G. thermoglucosidasius colonies were placed by 136

loop onto a 1-cm circular spot at the center of each of the calcite-promoting hydrogel 137

plates, which were then incubated at 60°C for 36 h. Calcites were purified according to 138

a previously described method (28). The CO2 gas produced as a result of the reaction 139

between phosphoric acid and purified calcite was analyzed quantitatively using LC/MS 140

(Hitachi RMI-2, Tokyo, Japan) to determine the ratio of 13C atoms to total carbon 141

(12C+13C) atoms (atom%) in the calcites (11). 142

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Dissolving calcites

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A purified calcite formed peripheral to the parent colony was placed on a slide 145

glass and dissolved in 2 µL of 1 N HCl (4). Residual substances that remained on the 146

slide glass were directly subjected to heat fixation by exposure to a flame, stained with 147

7.6% Brilliant Green (Wako Chemicals, Osaka, Japan) for 10 min, rinsed, and observed 148

under a light microscope. 149

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Extraction of DNA from calcites

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Purified calcites (10 mg) formed peripheral to the parent colony were dissolved 152

in 20 µL of 1 M HCl. The particle-like residue was collected by centrifugation and 153

washed 4 times with sterilized distilled water, after which DNA was extracted from the 154

washed residue using a DNA extraction kit (Isoplant, Nippon Gene Co. Ltd., Tokyo, 155

Japan). The extracted DNA was dissolved in 50 µL of TE buffer (pH 7.6), a portion of 156

which was treated with 10 U of DNase I (Roche, Mannheim, Germany) at 25°C for 60 157

min. The DNA samples were then subjected to electrophoresis on a 1.5% agarose gel to 158

evaluate the integrity of the nucleic acid. 159

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Extraction of protein from calcites, endospores, and vegetative cells

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Purified calcites (30 mg) formed peripheral to the parent colony were physically 162

disrupted using a metal spatula, suspended in 10 µL of SDS-PAGE sample buffer, and 163

boiled for 5 min. G. thermoglucosidasius cells (20 mg wet weight) cultured on SCD 164

plates at 60°C for 48 h were dissolved in 300 µL of sterilized distilled water and 165

incubated at 37°C for 60 min with 300 µL of lysozyme solution (10 mg/mL) (Wako 166

Chemicals, Osaka, Japan), after which the resulting protoplasts were ruptured by the 167

addition of 30 µL of 10% SDS solution. The resulting endospores were washed with 168

water, dissolved in 10 µL of SDS-PAGE sample buffer and boiled for 5 min. G. 169

thermoglucosidasius cells (20 mg) were dissolved in 10 µL of SDS-PAGE sample

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buffer and boiled for 5 min to extract total protein from vegetative cells. Proteins 171

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extracted from calcites, endospores, and vegetative cells were analyzed on a 172

one-dimensional 12.5% SDS-PAGE gel using conventional methods. 173

Coomassie-stained protein bands were excised and washed twice for 10 min each in a 174

mixture of acetonitrile/50 mM NH4HCO3 in water (1:1 by volume). The gel pieces were 175

then dried in vacuo and 1 µg of trypsin in 50-100 µL of 50 mM NH4HCO3 solution was 176

added. The digestion was allowed to proceed overnight at 37°C and was terminated by 177

adding 3 µL of formic acid. Peptide mass fingerprints (PMF) were generated using a 178

Bruker AutoFlexIII matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass 179

spectrometer (MALDI-TOF MS; Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany). Proteins were 180

identified using MASCOT (Matrix Science, London, UK) search algorithms and a 181 nonredundant database (8). 182 183 Morphological observation 184

Following colloidal gold (50 Å) sputtering, calcites were examined under a 185

scanning electron microscope (SEM; Hitachi S-4100, Tokyo, Japan) with an 186

accelerating voltage of 5.0 kV. Light microscopic observation of calcite morphology 187

was carried out as described previously (27). 188

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RESULTS

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Formation of single calcite crystals (calcites) on calcite-promoting hydrogel

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Following inoculation of calcite-promoting hydrogel with G. 192

thermoglucosidasius (parent colony) and incubation at 60°C, visible calcites formed

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both within and to the exterior of the parent colony within 48 h (Fig. 1A). 194

Hexagonal-shaped calcites (141.7 ± 13.8 µm) tended to form within the parent colony, 195

whereas spherical or dumbbell-shaped calcites (114.7 ± 7.8 µm) preferentially formed 196

peripheral to the parent colony. The calcites formed peripheral to the parent colony 197

tended to be smaller than those formed within the colony. 198

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Germination from calcites

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Light microscopic observation of calcites formed peripheral to the parent colony 201

showed that the crystal nucleus was clearly formed (Fig. 1B). Colonies of G. 202

thermoglucosidasius were found to grow around purified calcites incubated on the

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surface of SCD plates at 60°C for 24 h. Stereomicroscopic observation showed calcites 204

embedded in growing colonies. The centrally localized calcites became thin and 205

appeared likely to split open (Fig. 1C). Observation of calcites embedded in growing 206

colonies by SEM following washes with sterilized distilled water and ethanol showed 207

that the calcites appeared to be split in two at the center (Fig. 1D). Traces of crystal 208

nuclei were present at the center of the split calcites. In addition, a clear crevice was 209

noted to form at the center of the calcite (indicated by arrow in Fig. 1E). 210

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Migration of vegetative cells in calcite-promoting hydrogel

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The radius of the parent colony did not increase during incubation at 60°C on 213

calcite-promoting hydrogel. Subcolonies of G. thermoglucosidasius generated on SCD 214

agar plates following a 24-h incubation on calcite-promoting hydrogel were detected 215

within a 30-mm radius around the center of the parent colony (Fig. 2, upper). About 70 216

subcolonies were generated within a 10-mm radius around the center of the parent 217

colony. These results indicate that individual cells swim through the gel away from the 218

parent colony; the most active cells could swim as far as 25 mm from the edge of the 219

parent colony. The number of individual subcolonies generated within the 10-mm radius 220

of the parent colony decreased with longer incubation times, and no subcolonies were 221

generated after 168 h of incubation. After incubation for 24 and 168 h, 5 and 70 222

individual subcolonies, respectively, were generated 25-30 mm from the center of the 223

parent colony. This result shows that as incubation time increases, so does the distance 224

individual cells can move away from the parent colony. 225

Placement of a G. thermoglucosidasius parent colony on calcite-promoting 226

hydrogel followed by incubation at 60°C for 24 h resulted in formation of tens of 227

calcites exterior to and within the parent colony in a 10-mm radius of the center of the 228

parent colony (Fig. 2, lower). The number of calcites formed within a 10-mm radius 229

increased to 425 after 72 h of incubation, and this state was stably maintained through 230

168 h of incubation. A total of 130, 300, and 310 calcites formed 15-20 mm from the 231

center of the parent colony following 72, 120, and 168 h of incubation, respectively. At 232

a distance of 25-30 mm from the center of the parent colony, no calcites were formed 233

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after 24 h of incubation, but about 20 calcites had formed by 72 h (Fig. 2, lower). The 234

number of calcites formed to the exterior of the parent colony was shown to be 235

dependent on the incubation time at 60°C, and increased with incubation time up to 168 236

h. 237 238

Effect of gel hardness on calcite formation

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Distances between calcites and the edge of parent colonies incubated on 240

calcite-promoting hydrogels containing different concentrations of agar are investigated. 241

Incubation for 1.5, 2, and 3 days on calcite-promoting hydrogel containing 1.0% agar 242

resulted in formation of calcites 2.0, 6.0, and 7.0 mm, respectively, from the edge of the 243

G. thermoglucosidasius parent colony. On calcite-promoting hydrogel containing 1.5%

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agar, calcite formed 7.0 mm away from the edge of the parent colony at 4 days. The 245

longest distances between the calcite formations and the edge of the parent colony on 246

calcite-promoting hydrogel containing 1.5%, 2.0%, and 3.0% agar were 6.0, 3.5, and 247

2.0 mm, respectively, for a 3-day incubation. No calcites formed to the exterior of the 248

parent colony on calcite-promoting hydrogel containing 4.0% agar, indicating that it is 249

more difficult to form calcites peripheral to the parent colony on gels of more than 3% 250

agar. 251 252

Effect of glucose on calcite formation events

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As shown in Figure 3, calcite-promoting hydrogel lacking glucose supported the 254

formation of 187 calcites per mg of G. thermoglucosidasius vegetative cells (parent 255

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colony). The number of calcites formed per mg of vegetative cells on hydrogels 256

containing 2.0 and 4.0 mM glucose decreased to 102 and 14, respectively. No calcites 257

were formed on hydrogels containing glucose at concentrations of 6.0 mM or higher, 258

indicating that glucose inhibits G. thermoglucosidasius-catalyzed calcite formation. 259

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Incorporation of stable carbon isotopes into calcites

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The stable carbon isotope abundance (13C/12C+13C) in calcites formed with 262

unlabeled sodium acetate was 1.08%, which is close to the natural stable carbon isotope 263

abundance of 1.11% in Pee Dee Belemnite standard (9). The stable carbon isotope 264

abundance in calcites formed with 1-13C and 2-13C sodium acetate was 43.1% and 265

37.9%, respectively, indicating that the carboxyl carbon atoms are incorporated into 266

calcites at a higher rate than are methyl group carbons. These data suggested that the 267

carbon in calcites is derived from both the methyl and carboxyl carbons of acetate. A 268

stable carbon isotope abundance less than 50% indicates that 12C is more available for 269

incorporation into calcite than the heavier 13C isotope. 270

271

Dissolution of calcites

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Dissolving purified calcite on a slide glass with 2 µL of 1 N HCl was 273

accompanied by the production of carbon dioxide bubbles. A particle-like residue 274

remained on the slide glass after the bubbles dissipated. As shown in Figure 4, the 275

residual particles were oval-shaped and 0.5-1.0 µm in size, and were easily stained with 276

Brilliant Green, which is frequently used to stain the endospores of gram-positive 277

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bacteria (1). One calcite was found to contain 300 to 400 oval-shaped particles. The 278

shape and size of the residual particles obtained by dissolving purified calcite were 279

similar to G. thermoglucosidasius endospores. 280

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Extraction of DNA from calcites

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Fragments of DNA extracted from the residue of dissolved calcites were 283

determined to be around 150-750 bp in size, based on agarose gel electrophoresis 284

analysis. No bands were detected following treatment with DNase I (Fig. 5A). In 285

addition, analysis of the absorption spectra of the extracts showed an absorption peak at 286

260 nm attributable to nucleic acids (Fig. 5B). These results indicate that extracts of the 287

oval-shaped residual matter contain DNA. The yield of DNA extracted from 10 mg of 288

calcites was 15 µg. Based on these results, we conclude that the DNA in the calcite 289

residue originated from endospores. 290

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Extraction of protein from calcites

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An SDS-PAGE analysis of the proteins extracted from calcites showed a band of 293

approximately 75 kDa (Fig. 5C). The 75 kDa protein band was also present among the 294

proteins extracted from endospores. A prominent 15 kDa band present in the endospore 295

extract was determined to be lysozyme, which was used to lyse the vegetative cells to 296

obtain endospores. Analysis of a digest of the 75 kDa protein using MALDI-TOF MS 297

and subsequent database searching indicated that the protein is closely related to the 298

putative N-acetyltransferase YitH (GenBank: CAB12939) (6, 13) derived from Bacillus 299

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subtilis. 300 301 302

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DISCUSSION

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Based on the shape and size of the particles remaining after HCl treatment of 304

calcites, we suspected that endospores might be encapsulated in calcites. The calcites 305

were split and colonies of G. thermoglucosidasius were generated from the broken 306

calcites, suggesting that endospores were indeed encapsulated in calcites and that they 307

were still viable. Absorption of nutrients into the internal calcite crystal structure would 308

be possible due to its porous structure (14). The encapsulated endospores could thus 309

have been activated by the nutrient environment, leading to spore germination. 310

We also demonstrated that individual G. thermoglucosidasius vegetative cells are 311

capable of swimming over the gel surface away from the parent colony during 312

incubation at 60°C. Following a 24-h incubation, many swimming cells were detected 313

within a 10 mm radius around the parent colony. Weak calcite formation was observed 314

within this area at this time, but after 72 h of incubation, many calcites began to rapidly 315

form within the 10 mm radius around the parent colony. Migration of individual 316

vegetative cells is linked to the formation of calcites, which are formed peripheral to the 317

parent colony. Thus, swimming individual vegetative cells likely serve as vehicles for 318

endospore migration. 319

Due to their low concentration of agar, soft gel structures entrap more moisture 320

than hard gel structures (5). Hence, individual vegetative cells were able to swim farther 321

from the edge of parent colony on the soft gel (1% agar), whereas a hard gel (4% agar) 322

hindered individual vegetative cells from swimming away from the parent colony. 323

Calcites formed 7 mm away from the center of the parent colony on gel containing 1% 324

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agar. However, no calcite formed to the exterior of the parent colony on gel containing 325

4.0% agar. These results support the supposition that swimming of individual vegetative 326

cells away from the parent colony is essential for calcite formation to the exterior of the 327

parent colony. 328

Supplementation of calcite-promoting hydrogel with glucose prevented the 329

formation of calcites by G. thermoglucosidasius. In particular, glucose in excess of 6 330

mM completely inhibited the formation of calcites. Synthesis of the enzymes and 331

permeases involved in the utilization of other carbon-containing compounds is often 332

inhibited in bacteria grown on media containing metabolized carbohydrates (i.e., 333

glucose). Such regulation of gene expression in response to carbon availability is known 334

as catabolite repression (21, 27), and initiation of sporulation is known to be regulated 335

by catabolite repression (25). We confirmed that sporulation of G. thermoglucosidasius 336

on calcite-promoting hydrogel is inhibited in the presence of excess glucose (data not 337

shown). These results support the hypothesis that endospores behave as initialized 338

nuclei for calcite formation. Newly generated endospores in calcite-promoting hydrogel 339

may be involved in initialization of calcite formation. 340

Half of the carbon atoms in calcites formed in the presence of 1-13C- or 341

2-13C-labeled acetate were replaced with the stable carbon isotopes, indicating that 342

calcites derive carbon from acetate. The carbon in the calcite crystalline lattice was 343

shown to consist of acetate-derived carbon. In bacterial metabolism, acetate is utilized 344

in the glyoxylic acid cycle to synthesize oxaloacetic acid, which is subsequently 345

converted to carbon dioxide through the tricarboxylic acid cycle (25). Hence, the carbon 346

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atoms in the carbon dioxide produced on dissolution of calcite are derived from acetate. 347

G. thermoglucosidasius endospores utilize carbon dioxide derived from acetate

348

metabolism by vegetative cells along with calcium ions contained in the gel to form the 349

calcite lattice. 350

The presence of DNA in the particle-like residue produced by dissolution of 351

calcites with HCl suggested that the particle-like structures were organisms. We 352

attributed the relativity short length of the extracted DNA fragments (150-1000 bp) to 353

exposure of the particle-like structures in the residue to 1.0 N HCl prior to DNA 354

extraction. We also confirmed that DNA extracted from vegetative cells following 355

exposure to 1.0 N HCl was also 150-1000 bp in length. 356

The predominant protein extracted from calcites had a molecular mass of 75 kDa. 357

The band pattern of proteins extracted from calcites was similar to that of the proteins 358

extracted from G. thermoglucosidasius endospores. Homology searching using 359

MASCOT PMF indicated that the calcite-specific proteins are related to putative 360

N-acetyltransferase YitH (GenBank: CAB12939) (6, 13, 23), which is a member of the 361

acetyltransferase family in B. subtilis. The enzyme N-acetyltransferase catalyzes the 362

transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to glucosamine 6-phosphate, the precursor 363

of N-acetylglucosamine, a constituent of the peptidoglycan cell wall of gram-positive 364

bacteria (2, 23). The thick peptidoglycan shell of endospores is known as the spore 365

cortex, and aids in survival during dormancy (22). The expression of 366

N-acetyltransferase thus plays an important role in the heat- and chemical-resistance of 367

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bacterial endospores. The presence of this protein in calcites is further evidence that 368

endospores are present in calcites. 369

Bacillus sp. spores are noted for their longevity and high degree of resistance to

370

environmental extremes (10, 20). Many of the molecular factors responsible for the 371

resistance of spores have been identified within the spore core. A major factor 372

implicated in spore resistance to environmental extremes is the small molecule 373

pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (dipicolic acid or DPA). The Ca2+ chelate of DPA is a 374

minor constituent in the core of dormant spores (18). Endospores are known to 375

concentrate calcium ions on the cell surface prior to intracellular uptake (26). We 376

propose that G. thermoglucosidasius endospores also concentrate Ca2+, creating the 377

supersaturation conditions necessary for calcite nucleation. Endospores have a strong 378

calcium-concentrating effect, and thus cooperate to induce an oriented calcite nucleation. 379

It is assumed that 200-300 individual endospores with concentrated Ca2+ on their 380

surface aggregate and act as nuclei for calcite formation. Based on these nuclei, calcites 381

grow larger with the incorporation of Ca2+, Mg2+, and carbon dioxide produced via 382

acetate metabolism in the respiration of vegetative cells. The inhibition of calcite 383

formation by glucose can be attributed to inhibition of sporulation, because sporulation 384

is linked with the nuclei for calcite orientation. We propose that the carbon dioxide 385

(carbonic acid ion) produced as a result of the metabolism of acetate and newly 386

generated endospores are essential for the formation of calcites by G. 387

thermoglucosidasius. There are several reports (24) suggesting that bacterial cell surface

388

can serve as nucleation sites during the calcification process. Since the cell wall of the 389

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bacteria is negatively charged, the bacteria adsorb Ca2+ ions from the environment to 390

deposit on their cell surface. The Ca2+ ions subsequently react with the CO 32- ions, 391

leading to the precipitation of calcite at the cell surface that serves as a nucleation site. 392

Lian et al. reported calcite formation by B. megaterium (15). They showed that the calcite 393

crystallization process appears to be influenced by the physical presence of bacterial cell 394

surfaces and extrapolysaccharide. The bacterial cell surface would serve as the nucleation 395

site for calcite formation. 396

That microorganisms play an important role in mineral precipitation in natural 397

habitats is widely accepted. Bacteria are believed to have a particularly effect on 398

carbonate precipitation, which may involve different mechanisms in different 399

environments. As shown in Figure 1, calcite formation was initiated under oligotrophic 400

conditions in which acetate and Ca2+ were present (28) along with trace amounts of 401

Mg2+. Endospores are not normally formed during active vegetative cell growth. 402

Differentiation to endospore formation occurs under conditions of nutrient limitation. G. 403

thermoglucosidasius cells (parent colony) placed on calcite-promoting hydrogel would

404

normally form endospores because the nutrient supply in the hydrogel is limited. When G. 405

thermoglucosidasius endospores are exposed to conditions unsuitable for vegetative

406

growth in the natural environment, they catalyze the formation of calcites and become 407

encapsulated in the calcite crystals, where they survive in a cryptobiotic state until 408

conditions improve. It is thought that encapsulation of G. thermoglucosidasius 409

endospores in calcite enables the endospores to survive until favorable oligotrophic 410

conditions are restored. Calcite formation may therefore be one of the means that G. 411

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thermoglucosidasius uses to survive in extreme environments.

412 413

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

414

We thank Dr. Yoichi Sakakibara, University of Miyazaki, for technical assistance with 415 MALDI-TOF MS analyses. 416 417

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Figure Legends

501 502

FIGURE 1. Microscopic observations of a G. thermoglucosidasius parent colony and 503

bacterial calcites generated after incubation at 60°C for 48 h. The direct 504

stereomicroscopic image of calcite-promoting hydrogel shows calcites generated within 505

and to the exterior of the G. thermoglucosidasius parent colony (A). Light microscopic 506

image of the nucleus of a single calcite crystal (B). Direct stereomicroscopic image of a 507

split calcite on SCD nutrient medium (C). SEM images of split calcites and a crevice in 508

a single calcite crystal (D, E). 509

510

FIGURE 2. Diagrammatic representation of the migration of vegetative cells away from 511

the G. thermoglucosidasius parent colony over the course of a 168-h incubation at 60°C 512

(upper). The parent colony was inoculated onto a 1-cm diameter circle at the center of a 513

calcite-promoting hydrogel plate. Individual dots represent the sites where individual 514

vegetative cells were found at each time point. The number of single calcite crystals 515

formed peripheral to the parent colony is plotted against the distance from the center of 516

the parent colony to the site of single calcite crystal formation (lower). Values are the 517

mean ± SD of 3 independent experiments, each performed in duplicate. 518

519

FIGURE 3. Inhibition of single calcite crystal formation by addition of glucose. Trials 520

at each concentration were carried out in triplicate and the experiment was repeated 3 521

times. Values are the mean ± SD. 522

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523

FIGURE 4. Stereomicroscopic image of a typical single calcite crystal formed 524

peripheral to the parent colony on a calcite-promoting hydrogel (left). Light 525

microscopic images of oval-shaped particles remaining after the calcite was dissolved 526

with HCl (right). 527

528

FIGURE 5. Agarose gel electrophoresis of untreated (lane 1) and DNase I-treated (lane 529

2) extracts of DNA from single calcite crystals (A). Absorbance spectrum of DNA 530

extracted from single calcite crystals (B). Coomassie blue-stained SDS-PAGE gel 531

showing proteins extracted from whole vegetative cells (lane 1), endospores (lane 2), 532

and single calcite crystals (lane 3) (C). 533

534

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Parent colony

A

B

C

D

E

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Distance from the center (mm)

24 hr 72 hr 120 hr 168 hr

30 mm

Murai and Yoshida, Fig. 2

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0 40 80 120 160 200 240 0 2 4 6 8 10 N u m b e r o f c a lc ite p e r m g o f b a c te ri a l w e t w e ig h t Glucose concentration (mM)

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100 µm

1 N HCl

Murai and Yoshida, Fig. 4

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1000 bp

500

300

150

50

1

2

M

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 240 260 280 300 320 340 Wave length (nm) M 10 15 20 25 37 50 75 100 150 250 kDa 1 2 3

A

B

C

75

kDa

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