PERSONALITY PSYCHOANALYTIC TRAIT HUMANISTIC SOCIAL-COGNITION. Individual s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

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(1)

PERSONALITY

PSYCHOANALYTIC TRAIT

HUMANISTIC

SOCIAL-COGNITION

Individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

(2)

PSYCHOANALYTIC

Zeitgeist – “Spirit of the Times”

Sigmund Freud

Brain is the physical energy

Mind is the mental energy

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PSYCHOANALYTIC

Structure of Personality Conscious Preconscious Unconscious E G O ID S U P E R E G O

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PSYCHOANALYTIC

Two Types of Libidinal Energy

- Eros – sexual energy

- Thanatos - energy to destroy and cause harm

ID controls personality at birth

EGO decides how to react and how to release the

energy

SUPEREGO reacts negatively to ID desires

ALL BEHAVIOR IS MOTIVATED BY EITHER SEX OR AGGRESSION

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PSYCHOANALYTIC

Ego Personality – Ego is trying to discharge the energyHow does the ego get rid of the energy?

Defense Mechanisms 1. Repression 2. Regression 3. Reaction Formation 4. Rationalization 5. Displacement 6. Projection 7. Sublimination

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PSYCHOANALYTIC

PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES

Early childhood experience is CRUCIAL to our

development as adults

Identification

1. Oral Stage (0-18months)

2. Anal Stage (18-36months)

3. Phallic Stage (3-6years) - Oedipus/Electra

4. Latency Stage (6-puberty)

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PSYCHOANALYTIC

Parapraxis - Freudian Slip - No MistakesMethodology - Case Study

- Past events affect current behavior

Application

- Free Association

- Dream Interpretation

- Release of dysfunctional libidinal energy - Sublimate – work/love

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PSYCHOANALYTIC

CARL JUNG

Structure of Mind

Consciousness – Two Systems

- Persona – mask for different situations, multiple personas

- Ego – energy discharged system

Unconscious

- Personal Unconscious

- self

- shadow

- anima – feminine archetype in the male

- animus – masculine archetype in the female

- Collective Unconscious – common bond shared by all humans - archetypes

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PSYCHOANALYTIC

Structure of Personality

Libido – energy mindAttitude - extrovert/introvertFunction - abstract/concreteReaction - thinker/feelerDoing - perceiver/judger

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PSYCHOANALYTIC

Alfred Adler

Libidinal Energy – mastery of superiority

Infant’s weakness, helplessness - organ

inferiority

Attempt to overcome feelings of inferiority

- positive outcome – social interest - inferiority complex

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PSYCHOANALYTIC

Need to strive towards personal mastery or goals

Fictional Finalism - value is the pursuit not the

attainment of the goals

Psychological Health

Occupation

Social

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PSYCHOANALYTIC

KAREN HORNEY

Libido – basic anxiety, fear of being alone and helpless in a hostile world

Child-Rearing Experiences

- loved/secure

- indifferent/harshness/overprotection

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

Gordon Allport

Biological

Mathematical

BIG FIVE

THEORY

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

Trait Approach – attempt to label, measure and

classify people in order to describe and compare their psychological attributes and make sense of them

Types – Categories - introvert/extrovert

- neuroticism

- psychoticism

Traits – Continuous and Situational - friendliness

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

GORDON ALLPORT

Traits – neuropsychic structures that affect our

perception of the world, drive our behavior, and show consistency across time and situations

- located in the brain - 4000 traits

Three Types of Traits

CardinalCentral

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

Friendliness

Your trait determines how you respond to the

stimuli

Each trait operates in unique ways in each person

STIMULI RESPONSES

Meeting with a Stranger Outgoing, Pleasant Working with Peers Helpful, Encouraging Visiting Family Warm, Interested Dating Someone Attentive, Thoughtful

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

HANS EYSENCK

Personality physically exists within each of us

- conscious - measurable

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

TYPE

Trait – Trait – Trait – Trait Habit Response

Specific Response

Type - Super Trait

Trait - Various Types

Habit Response - First Thought

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

Three Types/Super Traits

Introversion/Extraversion

- stimulus sensitivity

Neuroticism

- emotionality

Psychoticism

- sensitivity to understanding others

Intelligence

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

The Brain

Optimal level of arousal (OLA) for brain activity

Each person’s OLA is different

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

Introversion/Extroversion

Biological Traits in Brain/ Neurological System

- Ascending RAS

- Excitation - brain waking up to be alert - Inhibition - brain calming itself down

Behavioral System

- Behavioral Activation System (BAS) - Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

Extrovert

- strong biological inhibition - BAS active

- ADHD

Introvert

- strong excitation inhibition - BIS active

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

Raymond Cattel

Mathematical Model

Traits converge or diverge

- converge strong correlation

16 Source Traits – Super Traits

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

Source Traits

Warmth Vigilance

Reasoning Abstractedness

Emotional Stability Privateness

Dominance Apprehension

Liveliness Openness to Change

Rule-Consciousness Self-Reliance

Sensitivity Tension

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

Use factor analysis for Source Traits

Three Types of Data

Life Records

Self-Ratings

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

BIG FIVE THEORY

Five independent factors appeared consistently

across several studies Five Traits(Dimensions)

Neuroticism – negative emotions

Extraversion – friendly, aloof

Openness to Experience – daring, unadventurous

Agreeableness – helpful, uncooperative

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

Does It Work?

1. Replicated in research by diverse investigators

using a variety of English speaking samples

2. Replicated in diverse languages,

3. Replicated in diverse cultures

4. Relatively stable in adults over long periods of

time

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TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL

Person-Situation Controversy

- Power of the Situation

- Personality stabilizes over time

- Personality traits are stable and potent

If-Then Paradigm

- if you are in a certain situation, then what will happen

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HUMANISM

Humans possess an internal force

- inner-directedness

- subjective reality

Two Humanists

- Abraham Maslow - Carl Rogers

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HUMANISM

ABRAHAM MASLOW

Importance of being “in touch” with one’s true

feelings

Vast potential for growth and fulfillment, striving

for actualization the basic quality of being human

Goodness and decency

Base selfish impulses, negative reaction to the

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HUMANISM

Hierarchy of Needs ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM LOVE SAFETY PHYSIOLOGICAL

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HUMANISM

Self-Actualization

- recognition and expression of your potential - a person’s fullest potential

- you need and want it, not what others want - meta-motivation

truth, beauty, unity

Peak Experiences

- ineffable

- clarity of vision - not drug induced

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HUMANISM

CARL ROGERS

Self Concept

Ideal Self

Conditional Positive Regard

Unconditional Positive Regard

Person-Centered Therapy

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SOCIAL-COGNITIVE

Behavior as influenced by the interaction between

people’s traits, cognition and their environment

Individuals x Situations ALBERT BANDURAReciprocal Determinism - behavior - cognition - environmentSelf Efficacy

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SOCIAL-COGNITION

JULIAN ROTTER

How do people perceive their environment?

- External Locus of Control

- Internal Locus of Control

Learned Helplessness

- no control over repeated bad events - feel helpless because of it

Figure

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References

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