Does it require energy for you to move? Does active transport require energy? Does cell division require energy? If you need energy to power your flashlight, what is a quick source of energy

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Full text

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Today

■ Unit 4 Plan and Today’s Workshop -

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ENERGY IN A CELL

ATP

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Does it require energy for you to

move?

Does active transport require

energy?

Does cell division require energy?

If you need energy to power your

flashlight, what is a quick source

of energy?

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All Cells Need Energy to do “work”

Mitochondria supply the energy in the form of ATP.

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ATP is the energy

ATP – adenosine triphosphate

Made of an adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups

Adenin e

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ATP

■ Phosphate groups have a

-

charge

Energy is stored in the bond between

the 2nd and 3rd phosphate group

■ When the bond is broken, energy is released and ADP is formed

Adenin e

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ATP

Adenin e

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How Does ATP Work?

ADP - adenosine diphosphate (di means

2; only 2 phosphate groups attached)

Adenine

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Bozeman Science

■ First 6 minutes of Bozeman Science – ATP

■ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5GML

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Cellular proteins

have a

specific site where

ATP

can

bind

The ATP provides energy to

cellular proteins

What cellular proteins?

ENZYMES

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How could we recharge

this ATP “battery”?

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The chemical reaction

ADP ATP

happens with help of the enzyme

ATP synthase

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ATP Synthase

■ What is ATP synthase?

■ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PjdPT

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ATP Synthase

projects

inward from

inner

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Quick Review

1. What do cells use energy for?

2. What do organisms use energy for?

3. What is a quick source of energy for cells? 4. Where in ATP is the energy stored?

5. How do you get the energy?

6. How do you “recharge” the energy

molecule?

7. Why is the enzyme ATP synthase

important?

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Pick up the

C

hr

oma

tog

ra

phy

Lab handout

QUIETLY read the lab activity,

then complete the hypothesis

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Today (If chromatography lab is

done)

■ Chromatography Lab

■ Review ATP after the test assignment and HW

■ Today’s Workshop –

Photosynthesis

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Today

■ Today’s Workshop –

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Background:

C

hr

oma

tog

ra

phy

= process of

separating

pigments according to

COL

O

R

Rate solvent moves up paper:

1) how soluble the substance is in the solvent 2) how well the substance adheres to the paper

Chlorophyll

=

pigment

that traps sun’s

energy and

absorbs

most

λ

except

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Background:

Chlorophyll

=

pigment

that traps sun’s

energy and

absorbs

most

λ

except

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Photosynthesis

Photo means light

Synthesis means putting together

Photosynthesis is the process that

plants use to change water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and

carbohydrates (called glucose) that they can use for food

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Photosynthesis

6CO

2

+ 6H

2

O

C

6

H

12

O

6

+ 6O

2 GLUCOSE

In the presence of light and chlorophyll

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Chlorophyll

A pigment in chloroplasts that

enables plants to perform

photosynthesis

Chlorophyll traps the sun’s energy and

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Photosynthesis

Why do

leaves

change

color

in the

fall?

■ Shorter days and lower temperatures

signal leaves to decrease amounts of chlorophyll. So you now see other

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Chlorophyll

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1. Wavelength of light

Red & blue increases PS; green decreases PS

2. Light intensity

3. Temperature (within range) 4. Water availability

5. CO2 concentration 6. Nutrient availability

Photosynthesis

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Section 23-4

Leaves

1. Stomata: pores on the leaves that allow

carbon dioxide (CO2) in and oxygen (O2) out during photosynthesis

2. Guard cells control the opening & closing of

the stomata (open during the day for photosynthesis & closed at night)

3. Transpiration: loss of water through the

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Stoma-exchange of CO2 and O2 Guard cells Cuticle – waterproof

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Guard

Cells

Stoma

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The source of energy for life on

earth is the

sun

The only way to get that energy

to living things on earth is

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS

• O

2

• GLUCOSE

GOES

INTO

Water

IS PRODUCED

• CO

2

IN THE PRESENCE OF:

SUNLIGHT

CHLOROPHYLL

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Quick Review

1. What do cells use energy for?

2. What is a quick source of energy for cells?

3. Where in ATP is the energy stored? 4. How do you get the energy?

5. How do you “recharge” the energy

molecule?

6. Why is the enzyme ATP synthase

important?

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Quick Review

1. What is the equation for photosynthesis?

2. What organelle contains chlorophyll?

3. What “goes into” photosynthesis?

4. What “comes out of” photosynthesis?

5. What is the ultimate energy source for all

life on Earth?

6. How can the sun’s energy be made usable

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FOCUS ASSIGNMENT

7 questions

NOT A QUIZ - LOOK IT UP IF YOU

DON’T KNOW

1. What is the equation for photosynthesis? 2. What organelle is the site of

photosynthesis?

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Section 23-4

FOCUS ASSIGNMENT:

7 questions

4. What is the waxy coating on plant leaf

surfaces called?

5. stomata: pores on the leaves that allow

_____ in and ___ out during photosynthesis

6. ________ cells control the opening & closing of the stomata (open during the day for photosynthesis & closed at night)

7. State one thing that cells need energy for.

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TURN YOUR PAPER OVER FOR A QUIZ. YOU MAY USE YOUR FOCUS

ASSIGNMENT ON THIS QUIZ.

chloroplast mitochondria nucleus

1. What organelle is the site of photosynthesis?

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O2 CO2 C6H12O6 H2O

3. Stomata on lower leaf surfaces allow ______ in and _____ out during

photosynthesis.

4. ______ cells control the opening and closing of the stomata

(no word bank for this one - what is the name of those two cells?)

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Section 23-4

FOCUS ASSIGNMENT:

9 questions

6. State one thing that cells need energy for.

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Review Video: Photosynthesis

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

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Aerobic = needs

oxygen

Examples: mammals, trees, bacteria

Anaerobic-does

NOT

need

oxygen

Examples: tetanus, and botulism

Obligate anaerobes =

must

have

no

oxygen

Clostridium and methane-producing archaea (ancient bacteria)

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Glucose

is broken down for

energy -

ATP

!!!!!

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Two different metabolic pathways

begin in cytoplasm

:

A. Fermentation

(anaerobic)

B. Aerobic cellular respiration

Moves into mitochondria

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Glucose incompletely broken

down

Some energy remains in

resulting molecule

2 ATP

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

In yeast - fermentation:

Glucose carbon dioxide &

ethanol

C

6

H

12

O

6

2CO

2

+ C

2

H

5

OH

Yeast cells do alcoholic fermentation

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Wine and beer industry – ferment

carbohydrates in fruits and grains to

produce ______________

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Baking – CO

2

causes bread to rise

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Animals and some microbes

produce lactic acid

Yogurt

Cheeses

Sourdough bread

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Animals and some microbes

produce lactic acid

Muscle fatigue

From lactic acid in muscles

Want to hop on one foot for 2

minutes?

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Glucose completely broken down

to inorganic molecules

More

chemical energy converted

to

ATP

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water

C

6

H

12

O

6

+ 6O

2

6CO

2

+ 6H

2

O

Note – oxygen required!!

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Final steps occur in

the mitochondria

36 ATP

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Pathway

ATP

Fermentation

2

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How much energy (ATP) is produced during respiration?

Anaerobic Respiration – 2 ATP

Aerobic Respiration – 36 ATP

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CELLULAR

RESPIRATION

C

6

H

12

O

6

+ 6O

2

6CO

2

+ 6H

2

O

Cellular respiration

is how cells get ATP from glucose!

Glucose cellular respiration ATP

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Think …

How does the formula for

photosynthesis compare to the

formula for cellular respiration ?

PS:

6CO

2

+ 6H

2

O

C

6

H

12

O

6

+ 6O

2

CR:

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Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration

Photosynthesis

■ Food (glucose) is made ■ Energy from the Sun

stored in Glucose

■ CO

2 taken in

■ Oxygen given off ■ Occurs in plants

Respiration

■ Food (glucose) is broken

down

■ Energy of Glucose

Released as ATP

■ CO

2 given off

■ Oxygen taken in

■ Occurs in plants and

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Review video: Cellular Respiration

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Quick Review

1. What molecule is like a battery for the cell?

2. Where in ATP is the energy stored? 3. How do you get the energy?

4. How do you “recharge” ADP?

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7. What molecule is broken down by cellular respiration to make ATP?

8.Where in the cell does cellular respiration begin?

9. What organism uses fermentation to produce carbon dioxide and alcohol?

10. What is one use of the carbon dioxide that yeasts produce?

11. Is fermentation aerobic or anaerobic?

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12. Where in the cell does aerobic cellular respiration conclude?

13. How many ATP molecules are produced by fermentation? aerobic cellular

respiration?

14. What is the formula for cellular respiration?

15. How does PS compare with CR? How else?

16. T/F? Plants and animals do CR.

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Classwork

Assignment from the textbook:

A) page 237, Copy the

information in Table 9.1

B) page 236, read the Minilab

and complete the 4 Analysis

Figure

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