Industrial Security Management Reviewer


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Industrial Security

Management Reviewer

Active Security Measures

1. Physical Barriers 2. Security lighting 3. Vaults

4. Locks

Passive Security Measures

1.Those that will deter man from committing such act for fear of being caught charged in court or get dismissed

2.Security education programs, investigation, fire prevention seminars, personal security checks.

Company Guard Force – (CGF) a security force maintained and operated

by any private company/corporation utilizing any of its employees to watch, secure or guard its business establishment premises, compound or properties.

Duty Detail Order - is a written order/schedule issued by a superior

officer usually the private security agency/branch manager or operations officer assigning the performance of private

security/detective services duties.

Factors that Bring About Unsecured Conditions

1. Threats - an activity that could lead to a loss. 2. Hazards - a condition that could lead to a loss.

3. Vulnerability - a weakness that can be used to gain access to an asset.


4. Risk - a potential loss or damage to an asset.

Government Guard Unit – (GGU) a security unit maintained and operated

by any government entity other than military or police, which is established and maintained for the purpose of securing the office or compound and/or extension of such government entity.

Government Security Personnel – shall be natural persons which include

government security guards, detectives, security consultants and security officers except those of the AFP, PNP, or BJMP rendering or performing security and/or detective services as employed by

government entities.

License to Exercise Profession – shall mean any document issued by

the Chief, PNP or his duly authorized representative recognizing a person to be qualified to perform his duties as private security or training personnel.

License to Operate – (LTO) is a License Certificate document, issued

by the Chief, Philippine National Police or his duly authorized

representative, authorizing a person to engage in employing security guard or detective, or a juridical person to establish, engage, direct, manage or operate an individual or a private detective agency or private security agency/company security force after payment of the prescribed dues or fees.

Note:New applicants for license to operate shall be required to obtain a minimum capitalization of one million pesos

(P1,000,000.00) with a minimum bank deposit of five hundred thousand (P500, 000.00) pesos in order to start its business operation.


No regular license shall be granted to any private security agency unless it has a minimum of two hundred (200) licensed private security personnel under its employ.

No regular license shall be granted to any company guard force or private detective agency unless it has a minimum of thirty (30) licensed private security personnel under its employ. The maximum number of private security personnel that a PSA/CGF/PDA may employ shall be one thousand (1000).

PADPAO – Philippine Association of Detective and Protective Agency

Operators. Is an association of all licensed security agencies and company security forces in the Philippines.

Person - shall include not only natural persons but also juridical

persons such as corporation, partnership, company or association duly registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Physical Barrier - any structure or physical device capable of

restricting, deterring, delaying, illegal access to an installation.

PNP - Philippine National Police, under the DILG, organized pursuant

to the provision of RA 6975 otherwise known as the National Police Act of 1991. The PNP shall exercise general supervision over

the operators of all security agencies and guards.

Powers and Duties of a Security Guard

1. To watch and secure the property of the client. Service shall not extend beyond the property or compound of client. Exception:


1. Escort duties

2. Hot pursuit of criminal offenders

2. Security Guard and Private Detective have no police authority.

Private Detective - is any person who does detective work for hire,

reward or commission, other than members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, guards of the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, municipal or city jail guards, and members of the Philippine National Police or of any other law enforcement agency of the government. Qualifications of a Private Detective

1. Must be a Filipino citizen

2. Must be a high school graduate 3. Must be physically and mentally fit

4. Must not be less than 21 nor more than 50 years of age 5. Must be at least 5 feet and 4 inches in height

6. Must not be suffering from any of the ff: disqualifications a. Dishonorably discharged or separated from the AFP b. Mental incompetent

c. Addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs d. Habitual drunkard

7. Must not be convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude

Private Detective Agency - is any person, who, for hire or reward or

on commission, conducts or carries on or holds himself or itself out as conducting or carrying on a detective agency, or detective service. Notes:

1. All person used in a private detective work must be licensed 2. All person employed solely for clerical or manual work need no private detective license.


3. License (LTO) shall be displayed at all times in a conspicuous and suitable place in the agency office or headquarters of the agency and shall be exhibited at the request of any person whose jurisdiction is in relation with the business of the

agency or the employees thereof, or of the Chief of the PNP or his duly authorized representative or any peace officer. 4. The PNP shall exercise general supervision over the operation of all private detective and privated detective agency.

The rules above applies to a Private Security Agency.

Private Security Guard - (watchman) shall include any person who

offers or renders personal service to watch or secure either a

residence, business establishment, or buildings, compounds, areas, or property, inspects/monitors bodily checks/searches individuals and/or baggage and other forms of security inspection, physically/ manually or scientifically electronic, including but not limited to, logging concessions and agricultural, mining or pasture lands,

transportation, for hire or compensation , or as an employee thereof, including any employee of the national or local governments or agencies or instrumentality’s thereof and or government owned or controlled firm or corporations who is employed to watch or secure government buildings, compounds, premises and other properties, other than members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, guards of the Bureau of Jail management and Penology, Municipal or City jail

guards, and members of the Philippine National Police or of any other law enforcement agency of the Government.

Qualifications of a Security Guard 1. Must be a Filipino citizen

2. Must be a high school graduate 3. Must be physically and mentally fit


4. Must not be less than 21 nor more than 50 years of age 5. Must be at least 5 feet and 4 inches in height (RA 5487) 6. Must not be suffering from any of the ff: disqualifications a. Dishonorably discharged or separated from the AFP b. Mental incompetent

c. Addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs d. Habitual drunkard

7. Must have undergone a pre-licensing training course

8. Must not be convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude Moral Turpitude - A phrase used in Criminal Law to describe conduct that is considered contrary to

community standards of justice, honesty, or good morals. Crimes involving moral turpitude have an inherent quality of baseness, vileness, or depravity with respect to a

person's duty to another or to society in general. Examples of Crime Involving Moral Turpitude 1. Rape

2. Forgery 3. Robbery 4. Prostitution

Private Security Guard Agency - any person, association,

partnership, or corporation, who recruits, trains, muster, furnishes, solicits individuals or business firms, private or government-owned or controlled corporations to engage his service or those of its watchmen.

Who May Organize a Security Agency 1. Any Filipino citizen


2. Corporation 3. Partnership 4. Association

Limitations/Disqualification/Prohibitions In Organizing A

Security Agency

1. Security Agency must be 100% Filipino owned

2. No person shall organize or have an interest in, more than security agency

3. No agency shall offer, render or accept services in gambling dens or other illegal business establishments or enterprises. 4. Must not be an elective or appointive government employees who may be called upon on account of the functions of their respective offices in the implementation and enforcement of the Private Security Agency Law and any person related to such government employees by affinity or consanguinity in the third civil degree shall not hold any interest, directly or indirectly in any security guard or watchman agency. 5. The extent of the security guard service being furnished by the security agency shall not go beyond the compound and/or property of the person or establishment contracting the

security service except when the security guards is escorting big amount of money or valuables.

6. Main Office - All agencies shall maintain a main office in their registered addresses.

Branch offices - may be established and maintained in other provinces/ cities where the security agency has deployed security guards.

7. Rules - Authority to operate outside principal offices. 1. No new or moribund but previously licensed private


security agency shall be granted license to operate unless its business viability is supported by

evidence of assured clientele, adequate capitalization and the like.

Moribund - (dying)(stagnant)(obsolescent) in terminal decline; lacking vitality or vigour.

2. Private Security Agency operating at regions outside its main office shall be required to register with the nearest Police Provincial Office and shall submit an authenticated machine copy of the following documents:

a) License to Operate

b) License of the FA’s to be issued

c) List of the officers and security guards d) Appointment Order of Branch/Detachment Manager (if any)

8. All applicants for license to operate shall be required to attend a private security agency/company guard force operators and management seminar/workshop.

9. Prohibition on “KABIT SYSTEM” operators

1. No licensed security agency shall operate, promote and enter into an agreement of “merger“

(kabit system) with any person or a group of persons for the purpose of organizing a branch unit or

subsidiary under separate control and ownership. Merger of security and detective agencies shall not be recognized without prior approval from the SEC with respect to their Articles of Incorporation and the DTI, with regards their business name.


thereof shall be considered prima-facie evidence of the existence of “Kabit System”.

a) Maintaining a separate branch, unit or subsidiary office aside from the main office of the agency situated within the same locality b) Receiving direct payments from the agency’s clientele and issuing officials receipt of

their own distinct from that issued by the agency concerned

c) Remitting directly Social Security System premiums, Medicare contributions and other premium for other policy insurance benefits d) Existence of an agreement between the licensee and a branch manager thereof, whereby the latter obligates himself to pay a certain

percentage of his income to the former on the condition that the control and supervision of the guards posted by said branch shall course on the manager thereof and that the licensee shall be exempt from liabilities/ obligations attendant to the operation of said branch. e) Keeping/maintaining separate payrolls for the branch employees signed and/or approved by the branch manager only

f) Absence of record of monthly income remittances to the main office when said branch is

authorized to make collections from the clients of the licensee

g) All other similar acts tending to show separate and distinct relationship/personality/


Qualifications of the Operator/Manager of a Security Agency 1. Must be at least 25 years of age

2. Must be a College Graduate and/or No.3 below.

3. Must be a commissioned officer in the inactive service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines

4. Must be of good moral character

5. Must have no previous record of any conviction of any crime or offense involving moral turpitude

6. Must not be suffering from any of the following disqualifications:

a. Dishonorably discharged or separated from the AFP b. Mental incompetent

c. Addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs d. Habitual drunkard

7. Must have taken a course/seminar on industrial Security

Management and/or must have adequate training or experience in security business (IRR)

Note: One can not be a Commissioned officer in the inactive service of the AFP unless college graduate. The law used the word and/or.

RA 5487 is a law. In case of conflict between the law and its implementing rules and regulations promulgated by the chief PNP, The law shall prevail.

Private Security Industry – shall cover those in the legitimate

business of providing private security and detective services.

Private Security Personnel – shall be natural persons which include

private security guards, private detectives, security consultants, and security officers rendering/performing security and/or detective


services as employed by private security agencies and/or private firms.

Protective Security System - are those measures taken by an

installation or unit to protect itself against sabotage, espionage or subversion.

RA 5487 - known as "The Private Security Agency Law."

Restricted Area - is any area in which personnel or vehicles are

controlled for reasons of security. Restricted area is established to provide security for installation or facilities and to promote efficiency of security operations and economy in the use of security personnel.

SAGSD - Security Agency and Guard Supervision Division. SAGSD is

under the PNP Civil Security Group.

Security - is the state or quality of being secured, freedom from

fear or danger;assurance; certainty. To secure is to make safe or be protected. From the Greek word SECUROS which means safe, safety or secured.

Security Guard - (watchman) Any person who offers or renders

personal service to watch or secure either residential or business establishment, or both, or any building, compound, or area including but not limited to logging concessions, agricultural, mining or

pasture lands for hire or compensation, or as an employee thereof.

Security Hazards - is an act or condition which results in a situation

like a breach of the protection system and the subsequent loss or compromise of defense information, company secret or damage to personnel, property or facilities.


Three Major Areas of Security

1. Physical Security - this concern with the physical measures adopted to prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, material and document and to safeguard them against espionage, damage, loss and theft

2. Personnel Security - this is as important as physical security. Personnel security starts even before the hiring of an employee and remains to be maintained for as long as the person is employed. Its purpose is to insure that a firm hires those best suited to

assist the firm in achieving its goals and objectives and once hired assist in providing necessary security to the work force while carrying out their functions

3. Document and Information Security - this involves the protection of documents as classified papers from loss, access by unauthorized persons, damage, theft and compromise through disclosure

Two Instances When the Chief PNP may deputize any security guard to assist the PNP in the performance of police duties.

1. In case of emergency

2. In times of disaster or calamities

Types of Security

1. Industrial Security - a type of security applied to business groups engaged in industries like manufacturing, assembling, research and development, processing, warehousing and even agriculture. It may also mean the business of providing security. 2. Hotel Security- a type of security applied to hotels where its properties are protected from pilferage, loss damage and the function in the hotel restaurants are not disturbed and troubled by outsiders or the guest themselves. This type of security employs house detectives, uniforms guard and supervisor and


insures that hotel guests and their personal effects are safeguarded. 3. Bank Security- this type of security is concern with the bank


4. VIP Security- a type of security applied for the protection of top-ranking officials of the government or private entity, visiting persons of illustrious standing and foreign dignitaries. 5. School Security- a type of security that is concern with the

protection of the students, faculty members, and school properties. 6. Supermarket or Mall Security- a type of security which is concern with the protection of the stores, warehouses, storage, its

immediate premises and properties as well as the supermarket personnel and customers. Security personnel are trained to detect shoplifter, robbery, and bomb detection and customer relation. 7. Other Types- this includes all other security matters not covered in the above enumeration.


Police Patrol Reviewer

By criminologists - Sunday, November 16, 2014 - No Comments

Police Patrol

Police Patrol Reviewer

1842 - the London Metropolitan Police established the first detective


Bobbies - British police.

Boston Police - first public police force established in 1631.

Bow Street Patrols - a small body of police in London who had been


Henry Fielding and his half brother, Sir John Fielding.

Compurgation - also called Wager Of Law, in early English law, method

of settling issues of fact by appeal to a type of character witness.

Egypt - the first policing organization was created in about 3000 BC. Emperor Augustus - organized one of the earliest form of organized

policing in Rome in 7 BC. He divided the city of Rome into 14 regiones (wards), each consisting of vici (precincts) overseen by vicomagistri, who were responsible for fire protection and other administrative and religious duties.

New Scotland Yard - the headquarters of the London Metropolitan Police. New York Police - The first police department in the United States,

it was established in 1844 and it was officially organized in 1845.

Patrol - keep watch over (an area) by regularly walking or travelling

around it.

Patrol Functions (Categories)

1. Crime prevention - pro-active deterrence 2. Law Enforcement - reactive deterrence 3. Order Maintenance - security

4. Social Services - community welfare

Patrol As A Function

1. Constant Movement 2. Prevent/deter crime


Patrol Activities and Purposes

1. Crime Detection and Prevention

2. Apprehension of Criminals & Wanted Suspects 3. Data & Information Collection

4. Report Writing & Documentation 5. Public Assistance

6. Peace Keeping and Order Maintenance 7. Conflict Resolution

8. Traffic Control and Enforcement 9. Parking Enforcement

10.Law Enforcement Reduce Citizens’ Fear of Crime 11.Detect and Enforce Code and Safety Violations 12.Rapid Responses to Emergencies

13.Public Relations 14.Police Visibility 15.Property Protection Patrol Method 1. Foot Patrol 2. Motorcycle Patrol 3. Motorized Patrol 4. Bike Patrol 5. Horse Patrol 6. Aircraft Patrol 7. Watercraft Patrol

Patrol Officer - is the backbone of the police department. Patrol Supervision

1. Hands on - supervisor involved in day to day activities. 2. Command - supervisor shows up at incident sites and gives orders


3. Counsel - supervisor available and when requested shows up at incident sites. Patrol Techniques 1. Routine Patrol 2. Directed Patrol 3. D-Runs 4. Saturation Patrol 5. Split Force 6. Suspect-Oriented Patrol

Police Traffic Enforcement Activities

1. Issue Traffic Citations 2. Issue Parking Citations 3. Investigate Traffic Accidents 4. Arrest Drunk Drivers

5. Enforce Seat belt Laws 6. Direct Traffic

Police Traffic Enforcement Purposes

1. Insure Safety of Public

2. Reduce Accidents and Injuries 3. Collect Information

4. Make Criminal Arrests 5. Enforce Laws

6. Facilitate Traffic Flow

Peel's 9 (Nine) Principle

Principle 1. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder.

Principle 2 - The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions.


Principle 3 - Police must secure the willing co-operation of

the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public.

Principle 4 - The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force.

Principle 5 - Police seek and preserve public favour not by catering to the public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law.

Principle 6 - Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient.

Principle 7 - Police, at all times, should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.”

Principle 8 - Police should always direct their action strictly

towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary.

Principle 9 - The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it.

Peeler - a police officer, especially in the United Kingdom and

Australia. Derived from the name of Sir Robert Peel who developed the Metropolitan Police Act in 1928 which proved to be the foundation for the modern police force in Britain.


1. Bureau - the largest organic functional unit within a large department. It comprises of numbers of divisions.

2. Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau.

3. Section -functional unit within a division that is necessary for specialization.

4. Unit -functional group within a section; or the smallest functional group within an organization.

Police Operations

1. Patrol - 50 % Of Force - 80 % Of Budget

2. Criminal Investigation (Detectives) - Solve 20 % Of Cases Solved In Depth case screening

3. Traffic

4. Support/Special Services

Police Territorial Units

1. Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty, such as a designated desk or office or an intersection or cross walk from traffic duty.It is a spot location for general guard duty.

2. Route -a length of streets designated for patrol purposes. It is also called Line Beat.

3. Beat - an area assigned for patrol purposes, whether foot or motorized.

4. Sector - an area containing two or more beats, routes, or post. 5. District-a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol

purposes, usually with its own station.

6. Area- a section or territorial division of a large city each comprised of designated districts.


Purposes of Criminal Investigation

1. Determine whether or not a crime has been committed. 2. Decide if the crime was committed within the investigator’s jurisdiction.

3. Discover all facts pertaining to the complaint. 4. Gather and preserve physical evidence.

5. Identify the perpetrator.

6. Develop and follow up all clues.

7. Locate and apprehend the perpetrator.

8. Aid in the prosecution of the offender by providing evidence of guilt that is admissible in court.

9. Testify effectively as a witness in court. 10.Recover stolen property.

Robert Peel - established the Metropolitan Police Force for London based

at Scotland Yard in 1929. Father of modern policing system.

Specialized Units and Operations

1. Special Weapons & Tactics 2. Vice & Drugs

3. K-9 4. Organized Crime 5. Community Services 6. Crime analysis 7. Domestic Violence 8. Sex Crimes 9. Internal Affairs 10.Crime Prevention

11.Juvenile & School Service 12.Intelligence


Police Intelligence Reviewer

By criminologists - Thursday, September 18, 2014 - No Comments

Police Intelligence

Police Intelligence Reviewer

Accuracy of Information

1 - Confirmed By Other Sources 2 - Probably True

3 - Possibly True 4 - Doubtfully True 5 - Improbable

6 - Truth Can Not Be Judged

Alexander The Great - A Greek Conqueror, was able to identify those


letter of his men and was successful in uplifting the esprit de corps and morale of his men.

ASIS - Australian Secret Intelligence Service - Primary responsibility

is gathering intelligence from mainly Asian and Pacific interest

using agents stationed in wide variety of areas. Its main purpose like other most agencies is to protect the country's political and

economic interest and ensure the safety of its citizens against national threats.

Bundesnachrichtendienst - BND, Federal Intelligence Service, is the

foreign intelligence agency of the German government, the BND act as the early warning system to alert the German government against threats to its interest coming from abroad.

Categories of Intelligence

1. National Intelligence - integrated product of intelligence

developed by all government departments concerning the broad aspect of national policy and national security.

2. Departmental Intelligence - the intelligence required by the

department or agencies of the government to execute iys mission and discharge its responsibilities.

3. Military Intelligence - refers to the knowledge by the military institution essential in the preparation and execution of military plans, policies and programs.

CIA - Central Intelligence Agency, is the civilian intelligence agency

of the USA. It is the largest intelligence agency in the world.

Classifications of Documents

1. Top Secret - calls for the utmost degree of protection, Unauthorized revelation of this materials and information will cause extremely


severe damage to the nation, politically, economically, or militarily.

2. Secret - unauthorized disclosure of this documents or things may put at risk the national security, cause serious injury to the

reputation of the nation.

3. Confidential - Unauthorized revelation of which may be injurious to the reputation of the nation or governmental activity or will cause administrative humiliation or unnecessary injury.

4. Restricted - this are information which should not be published or communicated to anyone except for official purposes. These records are daily files, routine in nature even if lost or

destroyed will not affect operation or administration.

Classification of Sources of Information

1. Open Sources - 99% of the information collected are coming from open sources or obtained from overt operation.

2. Close Sources - only 1% of information are obtained from covert operation.

Elements of Clandestine Operation

1. Sponsor - directs the organization conducting the clandestine activity.

2. Target - person, place or things against which the clandestine activity is to be conducted.

3. Agent - refers to a person who conducts the clandestine operations, includes principal agents, action agents, and support agents.

Principal Agent - leader or management agent in clandestine operation usually undertaken by the case officer.


that includes:

a. Espionage Agent - agent who clandestinely procure or collect information.

b. Propagandist - agents who molds the attitudes, opinions and actions of an individual group or nation.

Support Agent - agent who is engaged in activities which supports the clandestine operations that includes the ff: a. Surveillant - agent who observes persons and places of operation of interest.

b. Investigator - agent who undertakes to procure information or things of clandestine operation.

Procurer of Funds - agent who obtains money when needed for operational use.

Safe House Keeper - agents who manages and maintains a safe house for clandestine operations like meetings, safe heavens, training, briefing and debriefing.

Communication Agent - agent who is detailed to secure clandestine communications.

Coding - the changing of message from plain clear text to unintelligible

form, also known as encrypting.

Decoding - transforming of coded message into plain text, also known as decrypting.

Counter Intelligence - phase of intelligence covering the activity


and the protection of information against espionage, subversion and sabotage.

Types of Counter Intelligence

1. Passive CI Measures - protection of classified and sensitive information against unauthorized access through secrecy, communication security and other safeguards.

2. Active CI Measures - are those measures which seek actively to block enemies effort to gain information or engage in espionage, subversion and sabotage.

Categories of Counter Intelligence Operations

1. Military Security - it encompasses the measures taken by a command to protect itself against espionage, enemy operation, sabotage, subversion, or surprise.

2. Port Boundary and Travel Security - application of both military and civil security measures for counter-intelligence control at point of entry and departure, international borders and boundaries.

3. Civil Security - active and passive counter-intelligence measures affecting the non-military nationals permanently or temporarily residing in an area under military


4. Special Operations - counter subversion, sabotage and espionage. Objectives of Counter-Intelligence

1. It denies information to the enemy 2. It reduces the risk of a command 3. Aid in achieving surprises

4. Increases the security of the command

5. Decrease the ability of the enemy to create information about he forces.


Functions/Activities of Counter-Intelligence 1. Protection of Information against espionage 2. Protection of personnel against subversion

3. Protection of installations and materials against sabotage

Cryptography - arts and science of codes and ciphers.

Crypto Analyst - refers to those persons who break intercepted codes. Cryptographer - refers to a person who is highly skilled in converting

message from clear to unintelligible forms by use of codes and ciphers.

Delilah - a biblical personality, she was able to gain information

by using her beauty and charm, she was responsible for the fall of Samson, a known Israelite leader and enemy of the Philistines.

Frederick The Great - Father of organized military espionage.

FSD - Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, is the main

domestic security agency of the Russian Federation, and the main successor of the Cheka, NKVD and the KGB.

General Directorate For External Security - France external

intelligence agency, operating under the direction of the french Ministry of Defense.

Informants - any person who hand over information to the agents which

is relevant to the subject. Type of Informants


2. False Informant - reveals information of no consequences or value.

3. Frightened Informants - weakest link in criminal chain, motivated by anxiety.

4. Self-Aggrandizing - moves around the the center of criminals delight in surprising the police about bits of information.

5. Mercenary - information for sale, needed something for exchange of information.

6. Double Crosser - wants to get more information from the police more than what he gives.

7. Women Informant - most dangerous type of informant. 8. Legitimate - operators of business.

Motives of Informants

1. Vanity - conceited act/character of the criminal resulting to self betrayal or tantamount to guilt, gaining favorable attention and importance by the police.

2. Civic-Mindedness - sense of duty and obligation to assist the police.

3. Fear - a person under an illusion of oppression by enemies or of other impending danger.

4. Repentance - one who has a change of heart and wishes to report a crime that is preying on his conscience.

5. Gratitude or Gain - an expression of appreciation to obtain a privilege or an interest in the welfare of his family

during his detention.

6. Revenge - to settle a grudge due to settle a previous injury. 7. Jealousy - envious of the accomplishments or possessions of another and wishes to humiliate him.

8. Remuneration - a person who informs solely for the pecuniary or other material gain he is to receive.


Informers - refers to any person who provides information to the agents

in a regular basis regarding a subject, they are paid either on a regular or case to case basis.

Intelligence - the organized effort to collect information, to assist

it Little by little, and piece it together until it forms larger and clear pattern. (intelligence as an activity)

- the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all available information which may have immediate or potential

significance to the development and execution of plan, policies and programs of the user.(intelligence as a product)

- an institution composed of person who prepares a plan or formulating policies.(intelligence as an institution)

Intelligence Cycle

1. Planning 2. Collection 3. Processing 4. Dissemination

Planning - the intelligence officer must have a thorough knowledge of the available sources of information, the collecting agencies and type of information the latter can provide.

Collection - the intelligence officer must have thorough knowledge of the available sources of information and collecting agencies and the type of information they can provide and consider the following:

a. Determine collecting agency b. Send orders or request


c. Supervise collection efforts

d. Use tools or techniques in collection e. Ensure timely collection

Factors in Choosing Collection Agents

a. Capability - agents placement or access to target b. Multiplicity - more agents

c. Balance

Processing - Five Steps

1. Recording - is the reduction of information in writing or other form of graphical representation and

arranging the information into groups of related items. 2. Evaluation - is the determination of the pertinence of the information to the operation, reliability of the source or agency and the accuracy of the information.

Pertinence - does it holds some value to current operation.

Reliability - judging the source of information or agency

Credibility - truth of information

3. Analysis - is the stage in which the collected information is subjected to review in order to satisfy significant facts and derive conclusions there from.

4. Integration - the combination of the elements isolated analysis with other known information related to the operation.

5. Interpretation - process of determining the significance of new information and its meaning.

Dissemination - processed information or intelligence data are disseminated to end users, common methods of disseminating intel


data are conferences, briefing and person to person exchanges. In this process, consider the factors of timeliness, correctness and security.

ISI - Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistan's premier intelligence

agency. It was established in 1948. Its office is located in Islamabad.

Julius Caesar - in his time, the staff of each legion includes ten

speculators who served as an information collecting agency. The Speculators were the first intelligence personnel to appear in a military organization. Military success of the Romans was aided by the communication system. Made use of pigeons as carrier which made intelligence transmittal very fast.

Karl Schulmeister - known as Napoleon's Eye, he was credited for

establishing counter-intelligence against spies. He is a master of deceit who used black mail to obtain vital information to identify the enemy's of Napoleon.

Kinds of Covert Operation

1. Surveillance - is the covert, discreet observation of people and places for the purpose of obtaining information concerning the identities or activities of subjects.

Surveillant - is the plainclothes investigator assigned to make the observation.

Subject - can be a person, place, property and vehicle, group of people, organization, or object.


for purposes of debriefing and reporting.

Live Drop - refers to a place where agents or informants leave their messages to the other agents.

Decoy - a person or object used by the subject in an attempt to elude the surveillant.

Convoy - an associate of the subject who follows him to detect surveillance.

Log - chronological records of activities that took place in the establishment under surveillance.

Methods of Surveillance

1. Stationary Surveillance - also referred to as Fixed or Stakeout Surveillance - is used when you know or suspect that a person is at or will come to a known location, when you suspect that stolen goods are to be dropped or when informants have told you that a crime is going to be


2. Moving Surveillance/Shadowing/Tailing - simply the act of following a person.

Forms of Shadowing/Tailing

1. Loose Tail - employed where a general impression of the subject's habits and associates is required.

2. Rough Shadowing - employed without special

precautions, subject maybe aware of the surveillance, employed also when the subject is a material


witness and must be protected from harm or other undesirable influences.

3. Close Tail - extreme precautions are taken against losing the subject is employed where constant surveillance is necessary.

2. Casing - it is the careful inspection of a place to determine its suitability for a particular operational purpose.

3. Elicitation - the process of extracting information from a person believe to be in possession of vital information without his

knowledge or suspicion.

4. Employment of Technical Means

Bugging - the use of an equipment or tool to listen and record discreetly conversation of other people.

Wiretapping - a method of collecting information through interception of telephone conversation.

5. Tactical Interrogation - it is the process or method of obtaining information from a captured enemy who is reluctant to divulge information.

6. Observation and Description - it is a method of collecting information by just merely using the different senses.

Methods and Techniques of Collecting Information


including those derived from observation, reports, rumors, imagery and other sources from which intelligence is produced. Types of Agents Used in Collecting Information

1. Agent of Influence - agent who uses authority to gain information.

2. Agent in Place - agent who has been recruited within a highly sensitive target

3. Penetration Agent - agent who have reached the enemy, gather information and able to get back without being caught.

4. Expendable Agent - agent who leaks false information to the enemy.

5. Double Agent - an enemy agent who has been taken into custody turned around and sent back where he came from as an agent of his captors.

MI6 - Secret Intelligence Service, supplies the British government

of foreign intelligence.

MSS - Ministry of State Security, is the security agency of the

Peoples Republic of China.

Mole - also known as sleeper agent. Tasked with monitoring an

organization or individual. A mole can spend years in the same place only responding to missions when assigned. They are trained to be visible but to keep their motives unknown.

Mossad - Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations, is

responsible for the intelligence collection and covert operation of the Israel government, Its Director reports directly to the

Israel Prime Minister. It is one of the entities of the Israeli


SHIN BET (Internal Security)

Moses - sent 12 scouts to the land of Canaan to survey the land,

the people, their location and the nature of their cities.

NICA - National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, the primary

intelligence gathering arm of the Philippines. Its motto is Knowledge is Safety. It is headed by a Director General and is

assisted by a Deputy Director General. The Director General reports directly to the President of the Philippines.

EO 492 issued on February 1, 2006, ordered the NICA to activate the National Maritime Aerial Reconnaissance and Surveillance Center or NMARSC. The NMARSC shall serve as the primary intel provider for the Philippine intelligence community. Under the supervision and oversight of the National Security Adviser, the NICA-NMARSC will operate unmanned aerial vehicles or UAV's to cater to the imagery intelligence demands of various government agencies.

Police Intelligence - the end product resulting from the collection,

evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all available information regarding the activities of criminals and other law

violators for the purpose of effecting their arrest, obtaining evidence and prevent plan to commit crimes.

Categories of Police Intelligence

1. Strategic Intelligence - knowledge pertaining to the capabilities and vulnerabilities of a foreign nation which is required by the national planners for the formulation of an adequate national defense. Intelligence is for long range.


2. Counter-Intelligence - preparation and execution of plans and programs to neutralize or prevent any activities undesirable to the police organization.

3. Line or Tactical Intelligence - intelligence information directly contributes to the accomplishment of specific

objectives and immediate in nature and necessary for more effective police planning and operation.

Components of Strategic Intelligence

1. Political Intelligence - deals with domestic and foreign affairs and relations of government operations.

2. Economic Intelligence - deals with the extent and utilization of natural and human resources to the industrial potential of the nation.

3. Transportation and Telecommunication intelligence - concerned with the operations and facilities of the military and


Functional Classification of Police Intelligence

1. Criminal Intelligence - refers to the knowledge essential to the prevention of crimes and the investigation, arrest and prosecution of criminal offenders.

2. Internal Security Intelligence - refers to the knowledge essential to the maintenance of peace and order.

3. Public Safety Intelligence - refers to the knowledge essential to ensure the protection of lives and properties.

Principles of Intelligence

1. Intelligence and Operation are interdependent 2. Intelligence is continuous

3. Intelligence must be useful


5. intelligence must be available on time 6. Intelligence must be flexible

7. Intelligence requires continuous security measures

RAW - Research and Analysis Wing is India's external intelligence

agency. Its primary function is collection of external intelligence, counter-terrorism and covert operations.

Reliability of Information

A - Completely Reliable B - Usually Reliable C - Fairly Reliable

D - Not Usually Reliable E - Unreliable

F - Reliability Can Not Be Judge

Security Clearance - is a certification by a responsible authority

that the person described is clear to access and classify matters at appropriate levels.

Interim Clearance - effective for 2 years. Final Clearance - effective for 5 years.

Security Measures and Operations in Relation To Intelligence

1. Physical Security - the broadest type of security that is concerned with the physical measures designed to safeguard personnel and prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materials, documents and to protect them from espionage, sabotage, damage, or theft.

2. Communication Security - the protection resulting from the

application of various measures which prevent or delay the enemy or unauthorized person in gaining information through communication.


This includes transmission, cryptographic and physical security. 3. Documentary Security - protection of documents, classified matters and vital records from loss, access to unauthorized persons, damage, theft and compromise through proper storage and procedure.

4. Personnel security - the sum total procedures followed, inquiries conducted and criteria applied to determine the work suitable to a particular applicant or the retention or transfer of a

particular employee.

Personnel Security Investigation - is an inquiry into the character, reputation, discretion, integrity, morals and loyalty of an individual in order to determine a person's suitability for appointment and access to classified matters. Types of PSI

1. Local Agency Check - refers to the investigation of the records and files of agency in the area of principal residence of the individual being investigated: Mayor, Police, Fiscal where the individual is a resident.

2. National Agency Check - it consist of LAC supplemented by investigation of the records and files of the following

agencies: PNP. ISAFP, NBI, CSC, Bureau of Immigration and other agencies.

3. Background Investigation - a check made on an individual usually seeking employment through subject's records in the police files, educational institutions, place of

residence and former employers.

Complete Background Investigation - a type of BI which is more comprehensive, it consist of detailed information regarding the subject.


Partial Background Investigation - investigation of the background of an individual but limited only to some of the circumstances.

Sun Tzu - author of the art of war.

Undercover Operation - also called Roping - is disguising one's

own identity or using an assumed identity for the purpose of gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn secret information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order to gain information or evidence.

Cover - it refers to the changing, forging, or falsifying agent's real personality including but not limited to things, location, job and others that will be used in undercover assignments. Types of Cover

1. Artificial -altering the background that will correspond to theh operation.

2. Multiple - includes different cover 3. Natural - actual or true background Hazards of Undercover Operations 1. Reintegration back to normal duty 2. Maintenance of identity

Uses and Types of Undercover Assignment

1. Residential Assignment - it is related to the neighborhood of the subject, where the agent will live as a new resident without making any suspicion. His mission is to make friends within its neighborhood and gather information regarding the subject and possibly getting closer to the subject.


2. Social Assignment - the agent will gain access to the subject by going to the different hangout places of the subject and gather information like knowing how to drink socially

without getting drunk.

3. Work Assignment - the agent will be employed where the subject work to acquire information. The agent must know his work and focus his mind set and habit to his work assignment

4. Subversive Organization - this is the most dangerous of all the undercover assignment, the agent will join the organization of the subject itself, he must know the ideologies of the

group and the actions while inside should conform to the organization to avoid any suspicion.


Police Personnel and Records

Management Reviewer

By criminologists - Wednesday, October 29, 2014 - No Comments


Police Personnel and Records Management Definition of Terms

Attrition - refers to the retirement or separation from the police

service of PNP uniformed personnel pursuant to any of the means mentioned in RA 8551.

Means of Attrition

1. Attrition by attainment of maximum tenure in position a. Chief PNP - 4 years


c. PNP Deputy chief for Administration - 4 years d. PNP Chief of the Directorial Staff - 4 years e. Regional Directors - 6 years

f. Provincial directors - 9 years g. City Directors - 9 years

h. Other positions higher than provincial director shall have the maximum tenure of 6 years.

2. Attrition by Relief

A PNP member who has been relieved for cause and has not been given an assignment within 2 years from the effective date of such relief shall be retired or separated.

3. Attrition by Demotion in Position

A PNP member who has been relieved and assigned to a position lower than what is established for his/her rank in the PNP

staffing pattern and who shall not be assigned to a position commensurate to such rank despite the existence of a vacancy within 18 months after his/her demotion in position shall be retired or separated.

4. Attrition by Non-Promotion

A PNP member who has not been promoted for a continuous period of 10 years shall be retired or separated.

5. Attrition by Other Means - a PNP member with at least 5 years of accumulated active service shall be separated based on any of the following grounds:

a. Inefficiency based on poor performance during the last 2 successive annual rating periods.

b. Inefficiency based on poor performance for 3 cumulative annual ratings.

c. Physical and/or mental incapacity to perform police functions and duties

d. Failure to pass the required entrance examination twice and/or finish the required career courses except for


justifiable reasons.

e. Refusal to take a periodic PNP Physical fitness test without justifiable reason.

f. Failure to take PNP physical fitness test for 4 consecutive periodic tests due to health reasons.

g. Failure to pass PNP physical fitness test for 2 consecutive periodic tests or 4 cumulative periodic tests.

h. Non-Compliance with the minimum qualification standards for the permanency of original appointment.

Attrition in Action - refers to the action containing the findings

and evidence on a specific means of attrition filed by a particular screening committee before the concerned attrition board.

Authority - Managers must be able to give orders. Authority gives them

this right. Note that responsibility arises wherever authority is exercised.

Budgeting - with all that goes with budgeting in the form of planning,

accounting and control.

Centralization - Centralization refers to the degree to which

subordinates are involved in decision making. Whether decision making is centralized (to management) or decentralized (to subordinates) is a question of proper proportion. The task is to find the optimum degree of centralization for each situation.

Coordinating - that is the all important duty of interrelating the

various parts of the work.

Demotion in Position - refers to the designation of a personnel to a


commensurate to his/her rank in the PNP table of organization.

Directing - that is the continuous task of making decisions and

embodying them in specific and general orders and instructions and serving as the leader of the enterprise.

Discipline - Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the

organisation. Good discipline is the result of effective leadership,

a clear understanding between management and workers regarding the organisation's rules, and the judicious use of penalties for infractions of the rules.

Discipline - the practice of training people to obey rules or a code of behaviour, using punishment to correct disobedience.

Division of labor - Authority and responsibility are clearly defined

and officially sanctioned. Job descriptions are specified with responsibilities and line of authority. All employees have thus clearly defined rules in a system of authority and subordination.

Division of Work - This principle is the same as Adam Smith's

division of labour. Specialization increases output by making employees more efficient.

Equity - Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates. Esprit de corps - Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity

within the organisation.

Field Training Program - refers to the training required to make the


Formal hierarchical structure - An organization is organized into a

hierarchy of authority and follows a clear chain of command. The hierarchical structure effectively delineates the lines of authority and the subordination of the lower levels to the upper levels of the hierarchical structure.

Grievance - a wrong considered as grounds for complaint, or something

believed to cause distress.

Immediate Supervisor - refers to a person authorized to make the

performance evaluation rating of a PNP member.

Initiative - Employees who are allowed to originate and carry out plans

will exert high levels of effort.

Just Cause - refers to the legal grounds that would warrant the relief

or removal of a PNP member from his present position and designation in the PNP organization.

Management by rules - A bureaucracy follows a consistent set of rules

that control the functions of the organization. Management controls the lower levels of the organization's hierarchy by applying established rules in a consistent and predictable manner.

Managers are salaried officials - A manager is a salaried official

and does own the administered unit. All elements of a bureaucracy are defined with clearly defined roles and responsibilities and are managed by trained and experienced specialists.

Mandatory Career Courses - refers to the required training for a PNP


Max Weber - As a German academic, Weber was primarily interested in

the reasons behind the employees’ actions and in why people who work in an organization accept the authority of their superiors and comply with the rules of the organization.

Maximum Tenure of Position - is the maximum cumulative period for a

PNP member to hold a particular position level.

Mental Incapacity - is a condition where a PNP member is unable to

exercise his/her reasoning faculties or incapable of understanding and acting with discernment his/her duties and responsibilities as a result of illness or injury as may be determined by the PNP medical screening committee.

Non-Promotion - refers to the non advancement to the next higher rank

or position beyond the maximum prescribed period.

Order - People and materials should be in the right place at the

right time.

Organic Personnel To A Unit - is a PNP member assigned to a particular

unit covered with appropriate PNP assignment orders.

Original Appointment - refers to the appointment for the initial entry

of PNP member to the uniformed service who meets all the requirements of the position.

Organizing - that is the establishment of the formal structure of

authority through which work subdivisions are arranged, defined, and coordinated for the defined objective.


endorsement of the PRO regional director or the NSU director of a PCO Attrition action has been officially received by the concerned NHQ PCO attrition board through the NHQ screening committee report of a PNCO attrition action has been officially received by the NHQ/ PRO/NSU attrition board.

Personnel Action on Attrition - is an action filed before the screening

committee based on a verified statement of an alleged means of attrition by an initiating person.

Personnel Administration - Recruitment, induction, placement, transfer,

promotion, salary administration of Police personnel.

Personnel hired on grounds of technical competence - Appointment to

a position within the organization is made on the grounds of technical competence. Work is assigned based on the experience and competence of the individual.

Personnel Programs - refers to the activities programmed to implement

the organization philosophy or creed and the personnel philosophy of central managers in relation to people so as to accomplish organizational objectives.

Planning - that is working out in broad outline the things that need

to be done and the methods for doing them to accomplish the purpose set for the enterprise.

Police Appraisal or Performance Rating - is the evaluation of the

traits, behavior and effectiveness of a police officer on the job as determined by work standards.


salaries constitutes the largest single expenditure for most

organizations. In Metropolitan Manila and other urban centers, wages of salaries represent the sole source to meet the basic needs of food, clothing and shelter.

Police Personnel Management - (Human Resources Management) may be

defined as that area of management concerned with human relations in the police organization.

Police Personnel Planning – is a study of the labor supply of jobs,

which are composed with the demands for employees in an organization to determine future personnel requirements, which either increase or decrease.

Police Placement - is the process of making police officers adjusted

and knowledgeable in a new job and or working environment.

Police Recruitment - is the process of encouraging police applicant

from outside an organization to seek employment in an organization. Recruitment - refers to the overall process of attracting,

selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs within an organisation, either permanent or temporary.

Police Selections (screening) - is the process of determining the

most qualified police applicant for a given position in the police organization.

Police Training and Development – refers to any method used to improve

the attitude, knowledge, and skill or behavior pattern of an employee for adequate performance of a given job.


Promotion - is the advancement of an employee's rank or position in

an organizational hierarchy system.

Promotion - means shifting of an employee to a higher position carrying higher responsibilities, facilities, status and salaries.

Physical Fitness Test - the method of evaluating the physical condition

of PNP members in terms of stamina, strength, speed and agility.

Physical Incapacity - the inability of a PNP member to perform his/her

duties and responsibilities due to physical defect as a result if

disease or injury as may be determined by the PNP medical screening committee.

Poor Performance - is the poor rating in the promulgated PNP

performance evaluation rating system.

Remuneration - Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services. Reporting - that is keeping those to whom the executive is responsible

informed as to what is going on, which thus includes keeping himself and his subordinates informed through records, research, and inspection.

Respondent - refers to the PNP member subjected to attrition proceedings. Retirement - the termination of employment and official relations of a

PNP member who rendered at least 20 years of active service in the government with payment of corresponding benefits.

Scalar Chain - The line of authority from top management to the lowest

ranks represents the scalar chain. Communications should follow this chain. However, if following the chain creates delays,


cross-communications can be allowed if agreed to by all parties and superiors are kept informed.

Second Level PCO Ranks - refers to police commissioned officers below

the third level ranks in the PNP.

Second Level PCNO Ranks - refers to all rank for police non

commissioned officers.

Separation - is the termination of employment and official relations

of a PNP member who rendered less than 20 years of active service in the government with payment of corresponding benefits.

Stability of tenure of personnel - High employee turnover is

inefficient. Management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies.

Staffing - that is the whole personnel function of bringing in and

training the staff and maintaining favorable conditions of work.

Subordination of individual interests to the general interest - The

interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organisation as a whole.

Third Level PCO Ranks - refers to police commissioned officers with

the rank of Police Senior Superintendent and higher.

Total Permanent Physical Disability - is any impairment of the body

which renders PNP member indefinitely incapable of substantially performing the mandated duties and functions of his position.


Unity of Command - Every employee should receive orders from only one


Unity of Direction - Each group of organisational activities that have

the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan.

Waiver Program - refers to the waiver of the minimum age, height,

weight and educational requirements for the initial appointment to the PNP pursuant to existing laws and policies.

Waiver - the act of choosing not to use or require something that you are allowed to have or that is usually required.

Welfare - the health, happiness, and fortunes of a person or group. Written documents - All decisions, rules and actions taken by the

organization are formulated and recorded in writing. Written documents ensure that there is continuity of the organization’s policies and


Comparative Police System


By criminologists - Friday, October 3, 2014 - No Comments

Comparative Police System

Comparative Police System Definition of Terms

Comparative Police System Reviewer

1998 - Asean Chiefs of Police (Aseanapol) was estabished.

Members Aseanapol 1. Indonesia

2. Malaysia 3. Philippines


4. Singapore 5. Thailand 6. Brunei Darussalam 7. Vietnam 8. Laos PDR 9. Myanmar 10.Cambodia

Abu Sayyaf - Abu means father and sayyaf means swordsmith, is a

militant Islamist group based in and around Jolo and Basilan, Philippines.

Al Qaeda - literally means the base, a global militant Islamist

organization founded by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azzam, and several other militants.

Apostasy - is defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a

Muslim in word or through deed. It includes the act of converting to another religion by a person who was born in a Muslim family or who had previously accepted Islam.

Arvan Tavnii Tsagdaa - The National Police Agency of Mongolia.

Created in 1965 and with its headquarters in the capital Ulaanbaatar.

Asean Police - Comparison

1. Afghanistan - Name of Police Agency - ANP (Afghanistan National Police) Under What Department - Ministry of the Interior

Highest Ranking Officer - Police General Lowest Ranking Officer - 2nd Patrolman

2. Armenia - Name of Police Agency - Police of the Republic of Armenia Under What Department - Ministry of Defense



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