The Philippine Health Care Delivery System & Primary Health Care

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The Philippine health

care delivery system

& primary health care

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PROGRAMS OF DOH

D – ental Health

O – steoporosis Prevention

H – ealth Education and Community Organizing

P – revention and Control of Communicable Diseases R – eproductive Health (RH)

O – lder Persons Health Services G – uidelines for Nutrition

R – ehabilitation and Management of Non-Communicable

Diseases.

A – lternative Health Care Practices (Herbal Meds/Acupressure) M – aternal and Child Health and Integrated Management of

Childhood Illness (IMCI)

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Primary Health Care

• An essential health care made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by means acceptable to them through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford every stage of development (WHO).

• CONCEPT: PHC is characterized by PARTNERSHIP & EMPOWERMENT of the people towards SELF-RELIANCE.

“accessible, acceptable and sustainable”

• It is a strategy, which focuses responsibility for health on the individual, families and the communities.

“full participation

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Primary Health Care

PHC

Community- Based Accessible Affordable Acceptable Sustainable 10/16/2013 4

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FUNCTIONS OF PHC

1. Community-Based

• Within the community, health services should be delivered to where the people are

2. Accessible

• Within the reach of the people and those in far-flung areas should not be deprived of these health services by regular periodic visits by the health personnel and training of indigenous resident volunteers of the area

3. Acceptable

• Serves for the people; the willingness of the people to identify and solve their problems

• The people agree and are satisfied with the health care services which meet the requirements and needs of the area

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FUNCTIONS OF PHC

5. Sustainable

• For these health services to be successfully utilized, maintained and continue needs the active participation and involvement of the

community members.

• The residents, once they have developed awareness building and knowledge on health and health-related issues, will consequently

develop self-confidence and self-efficacy which are the driving forces for empowerment and self-reliance

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FUNCTIONS OF PHC

6. Affordable

• At a cost the people & the government can afford

• Traditional herbal medicines and other alternative forms of healing must be used together with the essential drugs which are generic and are more affordable

7. Self-reliance

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OBSTACLES TO PRIMARY HEALTH

CARE

• Role Complexity – the CHNurse is mandated to perform a lot of functions with its inherent responsibilities which requires the

provision of a high level of nursing care. He/she needs to be skillful in both technical and communication skills.

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PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

•GOAL: Health for all Filipinos and Health

in the Hands of the People by the year

2020

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Framework of PHC

People Empowerment

Partnership

“Health for All Filipinos by the

Year 2000 and Health in the Hands of the People by 2020”

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PRINCIPLES OF PRIMARY HEALTH

CARE

1. Accessibility, Acceptability, Availability, and Affordability of Health Services

2. Partnership between the community and health agencies in the provision of quality basic and essential health services

3. Community participation 4. Self-Reliance

5. Social Mobilization 6. Decentralization

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PRINCIPLES OF PRIMARY HEALTH

CARE

1. Accessibility, Acceptability, Availability, and Affordability of Health Services

Health services are delivered where the people live and work.

Indigenous residents and volunteer health workers should be given training to develop their capabilities for them to provide health care in their own locality with an ideal ration of 1 health worker for 10-20 households depending on the distance between these households.

Low cost appropriate technologies should be utilized for the community to sustain combining it with traditional medicines.

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PRINCIPLES OF PRIMARY HEALTH

CARE

2. Partnership between the community and health agencies in the provision of quality basic and essential health services

People should be the center of development not as objects.

Participation is always encouraged and that community needs and priorities

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PRINCIPLES OF PRIMARY HEALTH

CARE

3. Community Participation

Participation is considered the core of community organization.

Community should be aware and conscious about health and development issues.

Planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation should be done by the people, even in the selection of Community Health Workers and formation of health committees.

Community Participation assumes that people have the capacity to care for their own welfare.

Having a sense of ownership for one’s action ensure a sustainable

development effort rather than depending on services through external or dole out activities.

Partnership within the community ensures a more responsible development initiative.

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PRINCIPLES OF PRIMARY HEALTH

CARE

4. Self-Reliance

Through community participation and cohesiveness of people’s organization, people can generate support for health care through social mobilization,

networking, and mobilization of local resources.

Leadership and management skills should be developed among the people. Existence of sustained and progressive income generating projects (IGPs),

cooperatives, family production, and sustained health care facilities managed by the people are some of the major indicators that the community is leading into self-reliance.

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PRINCIPLES OF PRIMARY HEALTH

CARE

5. Social Mobilization

Convincing all sectors to support and participate in community-based

activities through policy, advocacy, media channels, information education campaign, organizational linkages and community mobilization, and

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PRINCIPLES OF PRIMARY HEALTH

CARE

6. Decentralization

This ensures empowerment and that empowerment can only be facilitated if the administrative structure provides local level political structures with more substantive responsibilities for development initiators.

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STRATEGIES

• Reorientation and reorganization of the national health care system (RA 7160/Local Government Code of 1991) • Effective preparation and enabling process for health

action at all levels

• Mobilization of the people with the end view of providing appropriate solutions leading to self-reliance and self

determination

• Development and utilization of appropriate technology focusing on local indigenous resources available in and acceptable to the community

• Organization of communities arising from their expressed needs increase opportunities for community participation • Development of intra-sectoral linkages with other

government and private agencies • Emphasizing partnership

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Primary Health Care

• May 1977 - 30

th

World Health Assembly

decided that the main health target of the

government and WHO is the attainment of

a level of health that would permit them

to lead a socially and economically

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Primary Health Care

• September 6-12, 1978 - First International

Conference on PHC held in Alma Ata, Russia

(USSR). The Alma Ata Declaration stated

that PHC was the key to attain the “Health

for All by the year 2000” goal

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Primary Health Care

• October 19, 1979 - Letter of Instruction (LOI) 949, the legal basis of PHC was signed by then Pres.

Ferdinand E. Marcos, which adopted PHC as an approach towards the design, development and implementation of programs focusing on health development at community level.

• LOI 949 mandated the DOH to use PHC as an approach in planning and implementing health programs

• LOI 949 is the “legal basis of PHC in the country” and has an underlying theme “Health in the Hands of the People by 2020”

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Board Question

What is the legal basis of Primary Health Care

approach in the Philippines?

A. Alma Ata Declaration of PHC B. Letter of Instruction No 949 C. Presidential Decree No. 147 D. Presidential Decree 996

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Primary Health Care

How can PHC be POSSIBLE?

Control of Communicable Diseases

Offers Health Education

Maternal and Child Care

Provision of Medical Care and Emergency Treatment

Offers “Immunization”

Nutrition and Food Supply

Environmental Sanitation

N “Family Planning”

Treatment of Locally Endemic Diseases

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Primary Health Care

E Education for Health (priority)

L Locally endemic disease prevention and control

E Essential drug provision

M Maternal and child health and family planning

E Expanded program on immunization (PD 996)

N Nutrition (adequate food and proper nutrition)

T Treatment of communicable disease

S Safe water and environmental sanitation

H Hospital as a center of wellness

O Oral and dental health

M Mental health

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EDUCATION FOR HEALTH

• Involves human development and is people-oriented.

• It is a dynamic process of giving information and is the 1st step to

improve knowledge, skills, and attitude of the people in order for

them to voluntarily adopt these teachings as an entry point to human development.

• As health educators, we are not here to change the behavior of the individual but rather to motivate him through information campaign for him to voluntarily adapt to these changes as he interacts with the environment.

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LOCALLY ENDEMIC DISEASE

CONTROL

• Focuses on the prevention of the occurrence of endemic diseases because it is continuously present in the community

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EXPANDED PROGRAM ON

IMMUNIZATION

• Exists to control the occurrence of preventable illnesses especially in children.

• Immunizations on poliomyelitis, measles, tetanus, diphtheria, and other deadly but preventable diseases are given for free by the government and is an on-going program of the DOH.

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MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

• The mother and child are the most delicate members of the community.

• Therefore, the maternal and infant mortality and morbidity rates are among the indicators of health of a particular community.

• The protection of the mother and child to illness and other risks would ensure a good health for the community.

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ESSENTIAL DRUGS

• This focuses on the information campaign on the proper utilization and acquisition of drugs.

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ESSENTIAL DRUG PROVISION

• C otrixomazole • C arboceistine • A moxicillin • A mpicillin • R ifampicin • I soniazid (INH) • P yrazinamide (PZA) • P aracetamol • O resol • N ifedipine

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NUTRITION

• Food is one of the basic needs of the individual.

• Appropriate kind of food and food preparation can contribute to a healthy state.

• There are a lot of resources available in our setting but because of lack of knowledge as well as faulty preparation, it leads to

malnutrition, which is one of the major health problems we have in our country.

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TREATMENT OF COMMUNICABLE

DISEASES

• Tuberculosis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and other communicable diseases associated with poverty continue to be a serious problem with economic implications.

• 75,000 Filipino babies die of preventable causes every year and that most of these preventable diseases are communicable in nature.

• The government then has to focus on the prevention, control, and treatment of these diseases.

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SAFE WATER & SANITATION

• Access to potable water within 250 meters or 10-minute walk and sanitary toilet is a must for every family.

• The government then has to see to it that policies, rules, and

regulations related to this must be implemented and followed strictly. • Because this is also one of the basic needs of human beings for

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C O M M U N I T Y P A R T I C I P A T I O N I N T R A A N D I N T E R SEC L I N K A P P R O P R I A T E T E C H N O L O G Y S U P P O R T M E C H A N I S M

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Four Cornerstone of PHC (MAUS)

1. Multisectoral Linkages - Intra and inter

sectoral linkages

*Intra sectoral - within the health system/

facilities:

Primary – RHU, LGU, HC, BHS

Secondary - regional health sector

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Four Cornerstone of PHC

2. Active community participation and involvement

 Participation is considered the core of community

organization.

 Community should be aware and be conscious about

health and development issues.

 Planning, implementation, monitoring, and

evaluation should be done by the people, even in the selection of Community Health Workers and

formation of health committees.

 Assumes that people have the capacity to care for

their own welfare.

 Having a sense of ownership for one’s action ensure a

sustainable development effort rather than

depending on services through external or dole out activities.

 Partnership with the community ensures a more

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Four Cornerstone of PHC

3. Use of appropriate technology

 Provide social and environmental service that is

acceptable to all level and has a quality of product with the least cost.

 Criteria for Selection of Technology 1. Efficacy and safety

2. Complexity and simplicity 3. The cost

4. Acceptability

5. Scope of technology 6. Visibility

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Four Cornerstone of PHC

4. Support mechanism made available

*The primary health care, as a nurse one must try to determine the needs of the community (ex. teach income generating program (IGP) such as basket weaving, candle making, soap making etc.)

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REPUBLIC ACT NO 8423 – “Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (TAMA) of 1997”.

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8423 - AN ACT CREATING THE PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE OF TRADITIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE HEALTH CARE (PITAHC) TO ACCELERATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRADITIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE HEALTH CARE IN THE PHILIPPINES, PROVIDING FOR A TRADITIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE HEALTH CARE DEVELOPMENT FUND AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

Section 1. Short Title — This Act shall be known as the “Traditional and

Alternative Medicine Act (TAMA) of 1997”.

Section 2. Declaration of Policy — It is hereby declared the policy of the State to improve the quality and delivery of health care services to the Filipino people through the development of traditional and alternative health care and its integration into the national health care delivery system.

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REPUBLIC ACT NO 8423 – “Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (TAMA) of 1997”.

 Calls for the effective utilization of medicinal plants as an alternative for high cost medications

 The law forwards the following policies 1. The indications and/or uses of plants 2. The part of the plant to be used

3. Preparation of

a. Decoction – laga/boil

b. Poultice – tapal (may add oil)

c. Infusion – an example is tea where hot water is added and steeped for at least 24 hours

d. Syrup – add sugar and for storage – lasts 3-5 days e. Oils – bawang, luya, mansanilya extract

f. Ointment – with wax

g. Tincture – preparation composed of water and alcohol h. Elixir based

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REPUBLIC ACT NO 8423 – “Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (TAMA) of 1997”.

• It shall also be the policy of the State to seek a legally workable basis by which indigenous societies would own their knowledge of traditional medicine. When such knowledge is used by outsiders, the indigenous societies can require the permitted users to acknowledge its source and can demand a share of any financial return that may come from its authorized commercial use.

• In promoting herbal medicines:

Encourage client to backyard gardening.

• When using herbal medicines, advise the client never to use insecticides or pesticides

• Use one herbal medicine at a time

When cooking the herb, use clay pot and remove the cover to prevent “over cook”.

• If there is a reaction to the herbal medicine, advice client to go to the nearest health center.

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10 HERBAL PLANTS ADVOCATED BY THE DOH

1) Lagundi-cough, asthma, and colds

2) Ulasimang-Bato-lowers uric acid

3) Bawang-anti cholesterol

4) Bayabas- antiseptic; diarrhea

5) Yerba Buena- toothache, pain, and arthritis

6) Sambong- renal calculi

7) Ampalaya- diabetes mellitus

8) Niyog-niyogan- anti-helminthic

9) Tsaang-Gubat- diarrhea

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1. Lagundi (Vitex negundo)

Other Names:

5 leavechaste tree (Eng.) Kamalan (Tag.) Limo-limo (Ilk.) Dabtan (If.)

Tugas (Ceb) Molave aso (Sul) • A shrub known in English as the “5-leaved chase

tree” which grows wild in vacant lots and waste land. The flowers are blue and bell-shaped and

small fruits turn black when ripe. It is better to collect the leaves where are in bloom. Matured branches

are planted.

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1. Lagundi (Vitex negundo) – available as Ascof tablet

Benefits:

• Skin diseases (dermatitis, scabies, ulcer) and wounds

• Headache

• Asthma, pharyngitis, cough, fever

• Aromatic bath for sick patients

• Rheumatism, sprain, contusions, insect bites

• Eczema

• Dysentery (blood in the stool), colds and pain in any part of the body (influenza)

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LAGUNDI

• Asthma, cough and fever- boil the chopped raw fruits or leaves in 2 glasses of water left for 15

minutes until the water left in only one glass. Strain. The following dosages of the decoction are given to age group.

DRIED LEAVES FRESH LEAVES

Adult 4 tbsp 6 tbsp 2-6 years old 1 tbsp 1 ½ tbsp

7-12 years old 2 tbsp 3 tbsp

• Dysentery, colds and pain in any part of the body as influenza – boil a handful of leaves and flowers in water to produce a glass full of decoction 3 times a day.

• Skin Diseases (dermatitis, scabies, ulcer, eczema) and wounds – prepare a decoction of the leaves.

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LAGUNDI

• Headache- crushed leaves may be applied on

the forehead.

• Rheumatism, sprain, contusion insect bites-

pound the leaves and apply on affected part.

• Aromatic bath for sick patients - prepare leaf

decoction for use in sick and newly delivered

patients.

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2. Ulasimang bato/Pansit-pansitan (Peperomia pellucida)

Other Names:

Pansit-pansitan (Tag.)

 A weed, with heart-shaped leaves also known as "pansit-pansitan", grows in shady parts of the

garden and yard. It is effective in fighting arthritis and gout. The leaves can be eaten fresh (about a cupful) as salad or like tea.

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2. Ulasimang bato / pansit-pansitan (Peperomia pellucida)

Uses:

• Uric acid excretion (rheumatism & gout)

Preparation:

• Wash leaves well. One and a half cup leaves are boiled in two glassfuls of water over lower fire. Do not cover pot. Cool and strain. Divide into three parts and drink each part three times a day after meals.

• May also be eaten as salad. Wash the leaves well. Prepare one and a half cups of leaves. Divide into 3 parts and take as salad three times a day.

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3. Bawang (Allium sativum)

• Other Names:

Garlic (Eng) Ajos (Span., Bis.)

• Popularly known as "garlic", it mainly reduces cholesterol in the blood and

hence, helps control blood pressure. Also a remedy for toothache

• Parts utilized: garlic bulb • Preparation:

1. May be fried, roasted, soaked in vinegar for 30 minutes or blanched in boiled Water for 5

minutes. Take 2 pieces three times a day after meals.

2. For toothache: pound a small piece and apply to affected part.

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3. Bawang (Allium sativum)

Benefits:

 BawHat: Bawang for HYPERTENSION & TOOTHACHE

 Helps lower bad cholesterol levels (LDL)  Good for the heart

 Remedy for arteriosclerosis

 May help prevent certain types of cancer  Boosts immune system to fight infection  With anti oxidant properties

 Cough and cold remedy  Relieves sore throat

 Aids in treatment of tuberculosis  With anticoagulant properties

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4. Bayabas/Guava (Psidium guajava)

• A tree about 4- 5 meters high with tiny flowers with round or

oval fruits that are eaten raw. Propagated through seeds.

• Parts utilized: leaves • Preparation:

1. For washing wounds- may be used twice a day. 2. For diarrhea- may be taken 3-4 twice a day.

3. As gargle and to relieve toothache. Warm decoction is used for gargle.

Freshly pounded leaves are used for toothache. Guava leaves are to be

washed well and chopped. Boil for 15 minutes at low fire. Do not cover

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4. Bayabas/Guava (Psidium guajava) Uses of Bayabas:

 Diarrhea

 Washing of wounds – antiseptic, astringent (kills bacteria, fungi, and ameba)

 Gargle to relieve toothache

 For hypertension, diabetes and asthma  Promotes menstruation

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5. Yerba Buena (Clinopodium douglasii)

• Other Names:

Peppermint mint (Eng.) Herba

Buena (most dialects)

• A small multi- branching aromatic herb

commonly known

as Peppermint. The leaves are small,

elliptical ands with

soothed margin. The stem creeps to

ground, and

develops roots. May also be

propagated through

cuttings.

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5. Yerba Buena (Clinopodium douglasii)

Preparation:

1) For pain in different parts of the body as headache, stomach ache – boil chopped leaves in two glasses of water for 15 minutes. Cool and strain. Divide

decoction into two parts and drink one part every three hours.

2) Rheumatism, arthritis and headache – crush the fresh leaves squeeze sap. Massage sap on painful parts with eucalyptus.

3) Cough and colds – get about 10 fresh leaves and soak in a glass of hot water. Drink as tea. Acts as an expectorant.

4) Swollen Gums (Gingivitis) – steep 6 grams of fresh plant in a glass of boiling water for 30 minutes. Use solution as gargle.

5) Toothaches – cut fresh plant and squeeze sap. Soak a piece of cotton in the sap and insert this in aching tooth cavity. Mouth should be rinsed by

gargling salt solution before inserting the cotton. To prepare salt solution add 5 grams of table salt to one glass of water.

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5. Yerba Buena (Clinopodium douglasii) Clinopodium douglasii)

Preparation:.

6) Menstrual and gas pain – soak a handful of leaves in a glass of boiling water. Drink infusion. It induces menstrual flow and sweating.

7) Nausea and fainting – crush leaves and apply at nostrils of patients.

8) Insect bites – crush leaves and apply juice on

affected part or pound leaves until paste-like. Then rub this on affected part.

9) Pruritis- boil plant alone or with eucalyptus in water. Use decoction as wash on affected area.

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5. Yerba Buena (Clinopodium douglasii)

• Benefits & Treatment of:

• S

wollen gums

• P

ain

• I

nsect bites

• T

oothache

• M

enstrual and gas pain

• A

rthritis

• N

ausea and fainting

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DIARRHEA

• B anana – rich in Potassium

• R ice – carbohydrates

• A pple – balat rich in pectin; adsorbent and astringent effect

• T oast

• A pple - balat (peel)

• B anana - flesh

• K aimito - flesh

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CONSTIPATION

• High fiber diet

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6. Sambong (Blumea balsamifera)

anti-edema

diuretic, anti-lithiasis (stone)

Other Names:

Haliban/Camphor, Blumea

camphora (Eng.)

Aliminon, Alibhon, Kambihon.

Lakdanbulan (Vis.)

• A plant that reaches 1.5 to 3 meters

high with

rough hairy leaves. Young plants

around mother

plant may be separated when they

have three or

more leaves.

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6. Sambong (Blumea balsamifera)

Benefits:

• A

nti-edema

• D

iuretic

• A

nt-urolithiasis (effective in

dissolving kidney stones)

• Anti – diarrheic & Anti – gastralgic

properties

• Helps remove worms, boils

• Treats dysentery, sore throat

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7. Ampalaya (Mamordica charantia)

- for

those with non-insulin

diabetes mellitus, non-ketosis prone diabetes,

maturity onset or

juvenile diabetes.

• Other Names:

Balsam Apple, Balsam Pear, Bitter Gourd

(Eng.)

Palia (Bis.)

• Known as "bitter gourd" or "bitter melon" in

English, it most known as a treatment of

diabetes (diabetes mellitus), for the non-insulin

dependent patients.

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7. Ampalaya (Momordica charantia)

Herbal Benefits of Ampalaya:

• Good for rheumatism and gout

• And diseases of the spleen and liver

• Aids in lowering blood sugar levels

• Helps in lowering blood pressure

• Relieves headaches

• Disinfects and heals wounds and

burns

• Can be used as a cough & fever

remedy

• Treatment of intestinal worms, diarrhea

• Helps prevent some type of cancer

• Enhance immune system to fight

infection

• Is an antioxidant, parasiticide,

antibacterial & antipyretic

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8. Niyug-niyogan (Quisqualis indica L.)

Anti-helminthic: ASCARIASIS

Other Names:

 Balitadham, Pnones, Pinio, Bonor (Bis.)

 Bawe-bawe (Pamp.)

 Kasumbal, Talolong (Bik.)

 Tagrau, Tagulo Totoraok (Tag.)

 Tartarau (Ilk.)

 Burma creeper Chinese honey suckle

(English)

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8. Niyug-niyogan (Quisqualis indica L.)

 A vine which bears tiny fruits and grows wild in backyards. The seeds must come from mature, dried but newly

opened fruits.

 Propagated through stem cuttings about 20 cm. in height.  Parts utilized: Seeds

 Use: Anti-helminthic – used to expel roundworms (ascariasis)

 The seeds are taken 2 hours after supper.

 If no worms are expelled, the dose may be repeated after one week.

 Adult 8-10 seeds

 7-12 years old 6-7 seeds  6-8 years old 5-6 seeds  4-5 years old 4-5 seeds  CAUTION:

a. Not to be given to children below 4 years old

b. Follow recommended dosage. Overdose causes hiccups.

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9. Tsaang Gubat (Carmona retusa)

- for those with

diarrhea, stomach ache, can be used as mouthwash

because it is rich in fluoride.

Other Names:

 Alibungog (Vis.)

 Kalabonog, Maragued (Ilk)

 Kalimunog, Taglokot, Talibunog, Tsa (Tag.). Malatadian (Gad.)

Parts utilized: Leaves

Benefits and Treatment of:

• Stomach pains

• Gastroenteritis

• Intestinal motility

• Dysentery

• Diarrhea or Loose Bowel Movement (LBM)

• Mouth gargle

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9. Tsaang Gubat (Carmona retusa)

Uses:

 Diarrhea – Boil the following amount of chopped

leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 minutes or until

amount of water goes down to 1 glass. Cool and

strain.

Dried Leaves Fresh Leaves

Adult 10 tbsp.

12 tbsp.

7-12 y.o.

5 tbsp.

6 tbsp.

2-6 y.o.

2 ½ tbsp. 3 tbsp.

Divide decoction into 4 parts. Let patient drink 1

part every 3 hours.

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9. Tsaang Gubat (Carmona retusa)

Uses:

 Stomachace – Wash leaves and chop. Boil

chopped leaves in 1 glass of water for 15 minutes.

Cool and filter/strain and drink.

Adult Dried Leaves Fresh Leaves

Adult 2 tbsp.

3 tbsp.

7-12 y.o. 1/2 tbsp. 1 tbsp.

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10. Akapulko (Cassia alata) – anti-fungal: tinea flava, ringworm,

scabies, Athlete’s foot. Other Names:

 Bayabas-bayabasan, Kapurko, Kantada, Katandang Aso, Pakagonkin, Sonting (Tag.)

 Sunting, Palo china (Bis.)

 Ringworm bush or shrub (English) Parts utilized: Leaves

Uses of Akapulko:

• Treatment of skin diseases: Tinea infection, insects bites, ringworms, eczema, scabies and itchiness.

• Internal:

Expectorant for bronchitis and dyspnoea, mouthwash in

stomatitis, alleviation of asthma symptoms, used as diuretic and purgative, for cough and fever, as a laxative to expel intestinal parasites and other stomach problems. A strong decoction of the leaves is an abortifacient.

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10. Akapulko (Cassia alata)

anti-fungal: tinea flava, ringworm, scabies,

Athlete’s foot.

Preparation:

Fresh matured leaves are pounded,

Apply as soap to the affected part 1-2

times a day.

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HERBALISM

• A traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts

• Also known as botanical medicine, medical herbalism, herbal medicine, herbology, and phythotherapy

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HERBAL MEDICINE PREPARATIONS

1. Aromatic Preparations

• Have volatile oil for treatment of fever, cough, colds, itchiness, and gas pain

• Include luya, bawang, sibuyas, yerba buena, oregano, manzanilla, tanglad (lemon grass), sambong, lagundi, petals of sampaguita, jasmine, and rosal.

• Luya or ginger should not be taken on an empty stomach. Tincture of bawang 1:5

Add 5 Tbsp. of gin; 1 Tbsp. chopped bawang

Shake 10 minutes for 1 week – good for superficial wounds Tanglad/lemon grass – for fever

Sambong – stomachache

(83)

HERBAL MEDICINE PREPARATIONS

2. Astringents

• Bitter-tasting because they contain tannin and pectin • Generally effective for diarrhea and wounds

• Examples: Avocado leaves Guava leaves Kamilo leaves Duhat leaves Banana leaves

(84)

HERBAL MEDICINE PREPARATIONS

3. Bitter-Tasting Preparations

Skin problems – akapulko, kalachuchi, malunggay, kakawati, makabuhay

Depressants (to put hyperactive people to sleep) – dapdap, dita, makabuhay, makahiya

Anti-cancer drug – tsitsirika

Aches and pains – sambong, damong maria Asthma – talampugay – can cause psychosis

(85)

HERBAL MEDICINE PREPARATIONS

4. Seeds

• Have fixed oils and are good anti-helminthics  Niyug-niyogan

 Patola  Ipil-ipil

 Betel nut or bunga  Balanyog

 Squash seeds

(86)

HERBAL MEDICINE PREPARATIONS

5. Grass Family • Good diuretics Kugon Tubo Tanglad Pandan Pugo-pugo Buton-butones Gatas-gatas Ulasimang bato

Corn hair – good for kidney stones Palay – used for hypertension

(87)

MALUNGGAY

• Known as horseradish

• A “backyard pharmacy” because all parts of the tree have medicinal or therapeutic value – “miracle vegetable”

• Propagation is through stem cuttings and seeds and is a low maintenance plant • Contains the following:

4 times the calcium in milk

7 times the vitamin C in orange

4 times the vitamin A in carrots which is good for the eyes and effective against cancer

3 times the potassium in banana 2 times the protein in milk

(88)

MALUNGGAY

• A multi-use plant, its various parts are used in a variety of ways:

Leaves – food, medicine (for stomach, it is applied as a poultice) and animal feed; converted to powder and used as food supplement

Trees – used as backyard hedges, alley cropping, and erosion control Flowers – food or medicine

Pods – food or medicine

Roots – medicine (has abortive effect)

Dry and mature seeds – water purification and used as oil (has more

impressive attributes/properties than olive oil)

Bark/stem – medicine (laxative) and tenderizer Fruit or seed – arthritis

(89)

MALUNGGAY

• Other uses:

Promotes good eyesight Good for digestion

Natural source of energy supplement Facilitates bowel movement

Local cure for stomachache

Prevents arthritis, cancer, heart, and kidney diseases Known to increase milk production

(90)

GUIDELINES ON HERBAL PLANT

PREPARATION

1. Use only half the dosage prescribed for fresh parts like leaves when using dried parts.

2. Do not use stainless steel utensils when boiling decoctions. Only use earthen, enameled, glass or like utensils.

3. Decoctions lose potency after some time. Dispose of decoctions after one day. To keep fresh during the day, keep lukewarm in a flask or thermos.

(91)

GUIDELINES IN HANDLING OF

MEDICINAL PLANTS

1. If possible, buy herbs that are grown organically – without pesticides.

2. Medicinal parts of plants are best harvested on sunny mornings. Avoid picking leaves, fruits, or nuts during and after heavy rainfall.

3. Leaves, fruits, flowers, or nuts must be mature before harvesting. Less medicinal substances are found on young parts.

4. After harvesting, if drying is required, it is advisable to dry the plant parts

either in the oven or air-dried on screens above ground and never on concrete floors.

5. Store plant parts in sealed plastic bags or brown bottles in a cool dry place without sunlight preferably with a moisture absorbent material like charcoal. Leaves and other plant parts that are prepared properly, well-dried and

(92)

REMINDERS ON THE USE OF HERBAL

PLANTS (ABONUS)

• Accurate dosage of medication – follow

• Boiling at low heat: remove cover

• One kind of plant for each type of sign/symptom

• No insecticides – may leave poison on plants

• Use clay pot and plant part being advocated

• Stop in case of untoward reaction such as allergy occurs; seek medical consultation if s/sx not relieved after 2-3 doses of herbal medication

(93)

• Decoctions loose potency after some time. Dispose of decoctions

after one day. To keep fresh during the day, keep lukewarm in a flask or thermos.

(94)

Tips on Handling Medical Plants / Herbs:

• If possible, buy herbs that are grown organically

without pesticides.

• Medicinal parts of plants are best harvested on

sunny mornings. Avoid picking leaves, fruits or

nuts during and after heavy rainfall.

• Leaves, fruits, flowers or nuts must be mature

before harvesting. Less medicinal substances are

found on young parts.

• After harvesting, if drying is required, it is

advisable to dry the plant parts either in the oven

or air-dried on screens above ground and never

on concrete floors.

• Store plant parts in sealed plastic bags or brown

bottles in a cool dry place without sunlight

preferably with a moisture absorbent material like

charcoal. Leaves and other plant parts that are

prepared properly, well-dried and stored can be

used up to six months

(95)

Maternal & Child Care

• GOALS

• Qualified for Home Deliveries • POINTERS… 3 CLEANS

• HANDS • SURFACE • CORD

(96)

Maternal & Child Care

• GOALS:

1. To ensure that every expectant & nursing mother: a. Maintains good health

b. Learns the art of child care c. Achieve normal delivery d. Bears healthy children 2. That every child:

a. Grows up in a family with LOVE & SECURITY b. Live in HEALTHY surroundings

c. Receives: adequate NOURISHMENT

Health supervision & MEDICAL attention d. Taught elements of healthy living

(97)

Maternal & Child Care

• Qualified for Home Deliveries

1. Full term

2. Adequate pelvis

3. CEPHALIC presentation 4. Imminent deliveries

5. Abdominal enlargement appropriate for AOG

• POINTERS… 3 CLEANS

CLEAN HANDS CLEAN SURFACE CLEAN CORD

(98)

Maternal & Child Care

•Postpartum Visits

1. FIRST: within 24 hours

2. 2

ND

: at least one week after delivery

3. 3

RD

: two to four weeks later

(99)

LIGTAS BUNTIS CAMPAIGN

• A strategy to increase the visibility of family planning as an essential public health service

• To improve access of men, women, and couples to family planning and safe motherhood services

(100)

EXPANDED PROGRAM ON IMMUNIZATION (EPI)

• OBJECTIVE: To reduce the morbidity and mortality among infants and children

caused by the 7 childhood immunizable diseases (TB, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus,

Hepatitis B, Poliomyelitis, & Measles) • ELEMENTS OF EPI:

1) T ARGET SETTING – main element

Infants 0-12 months

Pregnant and Post Partum Women School Entrants/ Grade 1 / 7 years old

2) I E C (information, education, communication)

3) C old chain logistics management - vaccine distribution through cold chain is

designed to ensure that the vaccines were maintained under proper

environmental condition until the time of administration.A ssessment and

evaluation of overall performance

(101)

EXPANDED PROGRAM ON

IMMUNIZATION

• MAIN PRINCIPLE: Based on EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION

• PRESIDENTIAL DECREE (PD) 996: Providing for compulsory basic immunization for infants and children below 8 years old

• IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE: Provide maximal immunity to the SEVEN EPI diseases BEFORE THE CHILD’S FIRST BIRTHDAY

(102)

EXPANDED PROGRAM ON

IMMUNIZATION

VACCINE FIRST DOSE NO. OF DOSES INTERVAL

BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin)

AT BIRTH 1 DPT 3 DOSES GIVEN AS EARLY

AS 6 WEEKS AFTER BIRTH

3 4 WEEKS IN BETWEEN DOSES

HEPA B SIX WEEKS 3 4 WEEKS/1 MONTH OPV (Sabin)

MEASLES 9 MONTHS 1 MMR 15-18 MONTHS 1

(103)

ADMINISTRATION OF VACCINES

VACCINE DOSE ROUTE SITE

BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin)

Initial dose AT BIRTH or anytime

after birth (0-1 year): 0.05 ml

Booster dose at SCHOOL ENTRY (Grade 1): 0.10 ml given to all grade

school pupils

regardless of the presence or absence of a BCG scar

Intradermal Right deltoid Left deltoid

DPT 0.5 ml Intramuscular Deltoid

HEPA B 0.5 ml Intramuscular Upper outer portion of thigh

OPV (Sabin) 2-3 drops Oral Mouth

MEASLES 0.5 ml Subcutaneous Upper part of the upper arm

MMR 0.5 ml Subcutaneous Upper part of the upper arm

(104)

Childhood Immunizations

1. BCG

BCG is given at the earliest possible age protects against the possibility of TB infection from the other family members

2. Measles

6 months – earliest dose of measles given in case of outbreak 9months-11months- regular schedule of measles vaccine

15 months- latest dose of measles given 4-5 years old- catch up dose

At least 80%-85% of measles may be prevented 3. DPT

Early start with DPT vaccine reduces chances of severe pertussis 4. OPV

Extent of protection is increased the earlier the OPV is given 5. Hepatitis B

Early start with Hep B vaccine reduces chances of being infected and becoming a carrier

(105)

TETANUS TOXOID IMMUNIZATION

SCHEDULE FOR WOMEN

Vaccine Minimum Age interval % protected Duration of Protection

TT1 As early as possible 0% 0 TT2 4 weeks later 80% 3 years

TT3 6 months later 95% 5 years TT4 1year later/during next

pregnancy

99% 10 years

TT5 1 year later/third pregnancy 99% Lifetime

Tetanus Toxiod Immunization Schedule for Women

(106)

Immunization Guidelines

1. BCG vaccine shall be given to all school entrants regardless of the presence or absence of BCG scar.

2. Fever, local soreness, and rash are common side effects.

3. A fully immunized child (FIC) should have received 1 dose of BCG, 3 doses of OPV, 3 doses of DPT, 3 doses of Hepa B, and 1 dose of AMV

4. Contraindications include:

a. BCG vaccine: if child has clinical AIDS

b. DPT2 and DPT3 if child has convulsion or shock within 3 days of the previous dose unless the pertussis component of DPT vaccine is removed

(107)

Immunization Guidelines

5. The following are not contraindications:

a. Moderate fever up to 38.5 degrees Celsius, malnutrition, mild acute respiratory infection (colds/cough), simple diarrhea, and vomiting (1) Do not expose to sunlight

(2) Do not apply alcohol on site of injection

(3) Side effects include local inflammatory reaction, superficial abscess, ulcer with pus at times

(4) If no side effects, repeat BCG after 2 months

(5) Koch’s phenomenon: begins after 2-4 days like a normal reaction; no special treatment needed

b. Permanent scar formation: 2-12 weeks after

c. Indolent ulceration: does not heal within 12 weeks – indicates the presence of secondary infection and can be treated with local isoniazide (INH)

(108)

Immunization Guidelines

5. The following are not contraindications:

d. Deep (subcutaneous) abscess – indicates wrong technique, SC route instead of ID route. Treatment includes incision and drainage and local INH.

(1) Do not expose to sunlight

(2) Do not apply alcohol on site of injection

(3) Side effects include local inflammatory reaction, superficial abscess, ulcer with pus at times

(4) If no side effects, repeat BCG after 2 months

(5) Koch’s phenomenon: begins after 2-4 days like a normal reaction; no special treatment needed

b. Permanent scar formation: 2-12 weeks after

c. Indolent ulceration: does not heal within 12 weeks – indicates the presence of secondary infection and can be treated with local isoniazide (INH)

(109)

• Malnutrition is not a contraindication for immunizing children rather; it is an indication for immunization since common childhood diseases

(110)

COLD CHAIN UNDER EPI

• Cold Chain is a system used to maintain potency of a vaccine from that of manufacture to the time it is given to child or pregnant woman.

• The allowable timeframes for the storage of vaccines at different levels are: 6months- Regional Level

3months- Provincial Level/District Level 1 month-main health centers-with ref.

Not more than 5days- Health centers using transport boxes. • Most sensitive to heat: Freezer (-15 to -25 degrees C)

OPV Measles

• Sensitive to heat and freezing (body of ref. +2 to +8 degrees Celsius) BCG

DPT Hepa B TT

(111)
(112)

COLD CHAIN UNDER EPI

• Cold Chain is a system used to maintain potency of a vaccine from that of manufacture to the time it is given to child or pregnant woman.

• The allowable timeframes for the storage of vaccines at different levels are: 6months- Regional Level

• 3months- Provincial Level/District Level • 1month-main health centers-with ref.

• Not more than 5days- Health centers using transport boxes. • Most sensitive to heat: Freezer (-15 to -25 degrees C)

• OPV

• Measles

• Sensitive to heat and freezing (body of ref. +2 to +8 degrees Celsius) • BCG

• DPT • Hepa B • TT

• Use those that will expire first, mark “X”/ exposure, 3rd- discard,

• Transport-use cold bags let it stand in room temperature for a while before storing DPT.

• Half life packs: 4hours-BCG, DPT, Polio, 8 hours-measles, TT, Hepa B.

• FEFO (“first expiry and first out”) - vaccine is practiced to assure that all vaccines are utilized before the expiry date. Proper arrangement of vaccines and/or

(113)

Cold Chain Considerations

• OPV and AMV are the most sensitive to HEAT with storage temperature of -15 degrees C to -25 degrees C

• BCG, DPT, HBV, TT are sensitive to heat and freezing with storage temp of 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C; use of cold packs during

(114)

Maximum Storage and Transport

Considerations

1. RHO  PHO  DHO – 3 months 2. RHU – 1 month

(115)

UNDER FIVE CLINIC PROGRAM

Overview

• The first five years of life form the foundations of the child’s physical and mental growth and development. Studies have shown the mortality and morbidity are high among this age group. The Department of Health established the Under Five Clinic Program to address this problem.

Program Objectives and Goals

• Monitor growth and development of the child until 5 years of age.

(116)

UNDER FIVE CLINIC PROGRAM

Activities and Strategies

• Regular height and weight determination/ monitoring until 5 years old. 0-1 year old=monthly 1 year old and above =quarterly

• Recording of immunization, vitamins supplementation, deworming and feeding. • Provision of IEC materials (ex. Posters, charts, and toys) that promote and

enhance child’s proper growth and development.

• Provision of a safe and learning – oriented environment for the child. • Monitoring and Evaluation.

(117)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

Environmental Health

Inter-Agency Committee on Environmental Health

Laws & Policies that Affect Environmental Health & Sanitation Water Supply Sanitation Program

Proper Excreta Disposal Program

Solid Waste Management/Garbage Disposal Vector Control Program

Food Sanitation Program Environmental Quality Proper Housing

Other Environmental Health Services Climate Change

(118)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

OVERVIEW

• Environmental Sanitation is still a health problem in the country. • Diarrheal diseases ranked second in the leading causes of morbidity

among the general population.

• Other sanitation related diseases : tuberculosis, intestinal parasitism, schistossomiasis, malaria, infectious hepatitis, filariasis and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

• The DOH through the Environmental Health Services (EHS) unit is

authorized to act on all issues and concerns in environment and health including the very comprehensive Sanitation Code of the Philippines (PD 856, 1978).

(119)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

Environmental Health

• A branch of public health that deals with the study of preventing illnesses by managing the environment and changing people’s

behavior to reduce exposure to biological and non-biological agents of disease and injury.

Environmental Sanitation

• Study of all factors in man’s physical environment, which may exercise a deleterious effect on his health, well-being, and survival

(120)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

Environmental Sanitation

• Study of all factors in man’s physical environment, which may exercise a deleterious effect on his health, well-being, and survival

• Environmental factors:

1. Water supply sanitation 11. Stream pollution 2. Proper excreta disposal

3. Solid waste management (refuse and garbage disposal) 4. Insect vector and rodent control

5. Food sanitation 6. Air pollution 7. Proper housing 8. Noise 9. Radiological protection 10. Institutional sanitation

(121)

INTER-AGENCY COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL

HEALTH

EO 489

• Inter-Agency Committee on Environmental Health (IACEH) was formed and is

composed of 11 members chaired by the secretary of DOH, with secretary of DENR as vice-chair. Committee members come from DPWH, DILG, DA, DTI, DOTC, DOST, DOLE, NEDA, and Public Information Agency.

• Functions of IACEH:

1. Formulate policies and guidelines and develop programs for environmental health protection

2. Coordinate, monitor, and evaluate EH program and development projects 3. Undertake information dissemination and education campaigns on EH programs

4. Coordinate, assist, and/or support the conduct of research and relevant activities for environmental maintenance and protection

(122)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

Laws & Policies Affecting Environmental Health & Sanitation 1. Senate Resolution 676 2. RA 6969 3. RA 8749 4. RA 9003 5. RA 9275 6. PD 856

(123)

INTER-AGENCY COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL

HEALTH

Senate Resolution 676

• Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in May 2001 where the Phils. was a signatory was ratified by the Senate on Feb. 2, 2004

• Bans the use of POPs in households and industries.

• POPs consists of the so-called “Dirty Dozen” of pesticides, industrial chemicals, and unintentional products of burning which are:

1. Pesticides – aldrin and dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor, DDT,

hexachlorobenzene, mirex, and toxaphene

2. Industrial chemicals – polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene

3. Unintentional by-products of burning – dioxins and furans (caused by burning

(124)

INTER-AGENCY COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL

HEALTH

RA 6969

• Toxic Substances & Nuclear Waste Control Act of 1990

• Regulates the importation, use, movement, treatment, and disposal of toxic chemicals and hazardous and nuclear wastes in the Philippines

(125)

INTER-AGENCY COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL

HEALTH

RA 8749

• Clean Air act of 1999

• Provides a comprehensive air pollution management and control program to achieve and maintain healthy air.

1. Section 20 bans the use of incineration for municipal, bio-medical and hazardous wastes but allows the traditional method of small-scale community burning.

2. All motor vehicles are required to pass the smoke emission test prior to registration. 3. Phasing out leaded gasoline by the end of the year 2000.

4. Lowering of the sulfur content of all automotive diesel fuels.

5. Decreasing the aromatic and benzene levels in unleaded gasoline.

6. Banning of smoking in public places including public transport in order to prevent indoor pollution due to second-hand smoke

(126)

INTER-AGENCY COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL

HEALTH

RA 9003

• Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000

• Declares the adoption of a systematic, comprehensive, and ecological solid waste management program as a policy of the state using the community-based approach and mandating waste diversion through composting and recycling.

(127)

INTER-AGENCY COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL

HEALTH

RA 9275

• Clean Water Act of 2004

• Aims to establish wastewater treatment facilities that will clean waste water before it is released into the bodies of water like rivers and seas.

• Requires LGUs to form Water Management Areas that will manage waste water in their respective areas

(128)

INTER-AGENCY COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL

HEALTH

Supplemental Implementing Rules & Regulations (IRR) of Chapter II of Sanitation Code of the Philippines

• Water refilling stations should regularly monitor their drinking water quality using the following schedules:

1. Monthly for bacteriological quality

2. Every 6 months for physical and chemical properties

3. Annually for biological quality and radiologic properties when the need arises • All water analysis procedures done only in DOH-accredited laboratories

• The water quality should follow the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water

(129)

INTER-AGENCY COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL

HEALTH

PD 856

• Supplemental IRR on Chapter XVII on Sewage Collection and Disposal and Excreta

Disposal and Drainage of the Sanitation Code of the Philippines regulates and

provides proper guidelines for LGUs and establishments involved in the desludging, collection, handling, and transport and disposal of domestic sludge from cesspools, communal septic tanks, domestic sewage treatments plantas/facilities and seepage from household septic tanks

(130)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

Environmental & Occupational Health Office (EOHO)

• This is under the National Center for Disease Prevention & Control Program of the DOH

• Responsible for:

a. Promotion of healthy environmental conditions

b. Prevention of environmental related diseases through appropriate sanitation strategies like:

(1) Water quality surveillance

(2) Evaluation of food establishments

(3) Proper solid and liquid waste management (4) Sanitation of public places

(5) Sanitation management of disaster areas

(6) Impact assessment of environmentally critical projects

(131)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

Environmental & Occupational Health Office (EOHO)

• Has 2 divisions:

1. Water & Sanitation Division

2. Health Care Waste & Toxic/Hazardous Division • Programs/projects:

1. Water for Life

2. Hospital Waste Management

3. Urban Health and National Projects 4. Pasig River Rehabilitation Program

(132)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

Presidential Proclamation 856

• Sanitation Code of the Philippines

WATER SUPPLY SANITATION PROGRAM Approved Types of Water Supply

• Level I: Point Source

• Level II: Communal Faucet System/Stand-Post

(133)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

Level I: Point Source Type

• Protected well or developed spring with an outlet • Without distribution system

• Adaptable for rural areas where the houses are thinly scattered • 15-25 households

• Must not be more than 250 meters from the farthest user • Yield/discharge: 40-140 liters per minute

(134)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

Level II: Communal Faucet System/Stand-Post Type 1. Source

2. Reservoir

3. Piped distribution network 4. Communal faucet

Not more than 25 m away: farthest 40-80 liters/capital/day

Average: 100 households 4-6 households/faucet

For rural areas where houses are clustered densely to justify a simple

(135)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

Level III: Waterworks System/Individual House Connections 1. Source

2. Reservoir

3. Piped distribution network 4. Household taps

Requires minimum disinfection

(136)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

Access to Safe & Potable Drinking Water

• Certification of potability of an existing water source is issued by the Secretary of the DOH or his duly authorized representative.

(137)

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH &

SANITATION

Water Supply & Sanitation-related Diseases

• Food- and water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid fever,

are some of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Phils. • Cholera – manifests 1st as diarrhea but can lead to dehydration and

even death if not treated swiftly

• Typhoid – accompanied by sustained high fever, headaches, weakness and constipation or abdominal discomfort

Figure

Updating...

References