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Experiment Investigation of Combustion Characteristics Analysis of Blend of Diesel with Low Concentration Linseed Methyl Ester at Different Compression Ratio on VCR Diesel Engine

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2014)

167

Experiment Investigation of Combustion Characteristics

Analysis of Blend of Diesel with Low Concentration Linseed

Methyl Ester at Different Compression Ratio on VCR Diesel

Engine

Mahendra Singh Solanki

1

, Vineet Kumar

2

, Dr. Y. B. Mathur

3

1M.Tech Scholar, 2Assistant Professor, Govt. Engineering College Bikaner, (Raj.), India 3Associate Professor, Govt. Polytechnic College Bikaner (Raj.), India

Abstract Energy is one of the basic requirements of human life in the entire world. The growing demand for energy sustainably is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. India is a developing country and the world’s second most populous nation. The world is confronted with the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. As the fossil fuels are depleting day by day, there is a need to find out an alternative fuel to fulfill the energy demand of the world. Biodiesel is one of the best available alternate resources of conventional fuel that have come to the forefront recently.

In the present experiment the linseed oil is chosen for making biodiesel. And discuss on process of biodiesel production methods, Diesel and biodiesel from linseed oil and blends B10 by v % were used for conducting combustion tests at varying loads (0 to 100%) and also varying combustion ratio 18,19 and 20. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, mass fraction burnt, and heat release rate and ignition delay were computed on variable compression ratio engine.

Keywords—Biodiesel, Combustion Characteristics, Linseed oil, Biofuel, High compression ratio.

I. INTRODUCTION

The world pollution has increased a lot due to the change in the globally life style and agrius growth of population. Now days all over world pollution are devastating problem and most of country are facing that problem and want to control as much as possible. Majorly developing countries are involved in this kind of issue. The fresh atmospheric composition of fresh air is consists of 78.1% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 0.95% Argon and 0.04% Carbon Di-oxide. The disturbance in these air compositions due to harmful gases may cause our environment to be polluted.

The air may be polluted by elements like hydrocarbon gases, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and some greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane etc. these elements are increasing in the environment due to industries emission and motor vehicle emission and results in increasing the CO and many harmful gases.

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2014)

168

The primary energy consumption of India is 563.5 MT oil equivalents which are increased by 5.1% from the last year. The India’s primary energy consumption share is 4.5% of the total world. Which indicates the energy consumption is increasing day by day. The Indian economy has experienced unprecedented economic growth over the last decade. Today, India is the ninth largest economy in the world, driven by a real GDP growth of 8.7% was the 5th highest in the world. A projection in the Twelfth Plan document of the Planning Commission indicates that total domestic energy production of 669.6 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) will be reached by 2016-17 and 844 MTOE by 2021-22. This will meet around 71 per cent and 69 per cent of expected energy consumption, with the balance to be met from imports, projected to be about 267.8 MTOE by 2016-17 and 375.6 MTOE by 2021-22[4].

The Biofuels are energy carriers that store the energy derived from biomass. Biomass is organic matter derived from or produced by plants and animals. It comprises mainly wood, agricultural crops and products, aquatic plants, forestry products, wastes and residues, and animal wastes. In its most general meaning, biofuels are all types of solid, gaseous and liquid fuels that can be derived from biomass. Examples of liquid biofuels include methanol, ethanol, plant oils and the methyl esters produced from these oils commonly referred to as biodiesel.

Biodiesel is a safe alternative fuel to replace traditional petroleum diesel. It has high-lubricity, is a clean-burning fuel and can be a fuel component for use in existing, unmodified diesel engines. More specifically, biodiesel is defined as an oxygenated, sulfur-free, biodegradable, non-toxic, and eco-friendly alternative diesel oil. Chemically, it can be defined as a fuel composed of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable sources, such as vegetable oil, animal fat, and used cooking oil designated as B100, and also it must meet the special requirements such as the ASTM and the European standards [5]. The demand for diesel is five times higher than the demand for petrol in India. But while the ethanol industry is mature, the biodiesel industry is still in its infancy. India's current biodiesel technology of choice is the transesterification of vegetable oil. The Government of India has launched an National Biodiesel Mission in 2003 comprising six micro missions covering all aspects of plantation, procurement of seed, extraction of oil, trans-esterification, blending & trade, and research and development to replace 20 percent of petroleum fuel consumption with biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) by end of 12th Five-Year Plan (2017).[6]

In Rajasthan state, a Biofuel Authority of Rajasthan (BFA) was established and entrusted with the responsibility of promoting biofuels in the state. The state has own strategy for promoting biodiesel as many groups and companies involved in this policy Rajasthan has adopted a multi-pronged strategy that combines the services of Self-Help Groups (SHG), community development organizations, Panchayats , and private companies in production and marketing operations of jatropha seeds.[7]

II. BIODIESEL

The Biodiesel has been potentially used in diesel engines as a neat or partial substitute with diesel within the past few Years. It is mainly due to its comparable properties to those of diesel, environmental concerns, and energy security.

Linseed oil is derived by the cold pressed method from the seeds of the Flax plant.

A. Linseed as a alternate Biofuel

Linseed is one of the most important non-edible oil crops of the world cultivated. The important linseed growing countries are India, Canada, China, USA and Ethiopia. Its cultivation is mostly confined to Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in India. Linseed has oil fraction of 35-45 % which is used for production of Biodiesel.

TABLE I

The Basic Properties of Raw Linseed Oil

B. Method to Produce Biodiesel

The fuel modification is mainly aimed at reducing the viscosity to get rid of flow and combustion-related problem. For these modifications in fuel characteristics there are mainly four processes named as Dilution or blending, micro-emulsification, transesterification and Pyrolysis. Among all these techniques, the transesterification seems to be the best choice, as the physical characteristics of fatty acid esters are very close to those of diesel fuel and the process is relatively simple.

Sr.No Common Name Raw Linseed oil

1 Botanical name Linum Usitatissimum

2 Cetane No. 34.6

3 Heating value 39.3 MJ/kg 4 Cloud Point 1.7 ˚C 5 Pour Point -15.0 ˚C 6 Flash Point 241 ˚C

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2014)

169 1 Transesterification: Transesterification is the process of using an alcohol (e.g. methanol, ethanol or butanol), in presence of a catalyst, such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, to break the molecule of the raw renewable oil chemically into methyl or ethyl esters of the renewable oil, with glycerol as a byproduct. Transesterification of triglycerides produces fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol. The glycerol layer settles down at the bottom of the reaction vessel.

The reaction equation is given below

[image:3.612.331.554.195.367.2]

Triglyceride + Methanol ⇔ Glycerol + Fatty acid esters Properties of Blended Linseed oil are [8]

TABLE II Blended Fuel Properties

Fuels Calorific Value

(MJ/Kg)

Density (Kg/m3)

Diesel 42.56 850

B10 42.25 855

B20 41.94 861

B30 41.73 865

III. EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE AND SET-UP

An experimental test rig is developed to undertake the thermal performance evaluation and compression characteristics evaluation of a variable compression ratio compression ignition engine fuelled with biodiesel and its blends with Diesel oil. The experimental test rig is suitably developed to conduct various test runs under different working conditions to evaluate the thermal performance and emission constituents of a bio-diesel run engine in comparison with that of a conventional diesel operated engine.

Fig.1 Complete set-up of VCR single cylinder engine

The engine is mounted on sturdy base frame. The base frame is fabricated with mild steel “c” channel. The engine and dynamometer are coupled using standard tyre coupling. The engine consists of variable compression ratio head assembly [9].

Fig. 2 Lever assembly for change of compression ratio

[image:3.612.75.266.304.382.2]

The complete set can run both fuel petrol and diesel with different compression ratio. Firstly compression ratio fix at 18 and move later 19, 20 for further data. And injection timing and injection pressure are fix at 23 BTDC, 203 bar respectively. Reading taken at LME10 for different compression ratio and Diesel is fix at CR18 because it give optimized results. Combustion characteristics come on above level for observation.

TABLE III

Technical Engine Specification of Experimented Test Rig.

Description Specification

VCR Engine make Legion Brother(india) Compression Ratio 5:1 to 20:1

Engine Make Kirloskar Ltd No of cylinder Single

Cooling Water

Fuel Diesel/ petrol

Speed 1400-1500 RPM

HP 3-5 HP

Starting Manual crank start Lubrication Forced

IV. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS RESULTS

[image:3.612.57.278.529.698.2]
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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2014)

170

Attempt has also been made to interpret the graphs and find the reasons of variation in trends for specific parameters. Performance and combustion characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine with diesel, blends of Linseed oil biodiesel with diesel in different proportion were evaluated and analyzed. The results also highlight the optimization of engine operation with diesel and different blends of linseed oil biodiesel with diesel and effect of major engine parameters on combustion behavior of diesel engine. The test for biodiesel is conducted with blending ratio LME10 and blend is tested on compression ratios of CR18, CR19 and CR20. The test is also conducted with pure diesel at set CR 18 to compare the biodiesel results with diesel. For diesel CR 18 is fixed, since it gives the optimized result.

A. The Effects of blends on Cylinder pressure at CR 18.

[image:4.612.325.562.128.307.2]

The curve showing variation of Pressure and Crank angle in a compression ignition engine the cylinder pressure mainly depends upon the fuel-burning rate during the premixed burning phase, which in turn leads the overall combustion and heat release rate in the phases of combustion to follow. Cylinder pressure versus crank angle data over the compression and expansion strokes of the engine operating cycle can be used to obtain the useful quantitative information on the progress of combustion. It can be concluded that peak cylinder pressure rise for LME10 compare to diesel are 5.25 bar obtained.

Fig. 3 Curve showing varition of Pressure v/s crank angle

B. The Effects of blends on Heat release rate at CR 18.

[image:4.612.49.290.461.666.2]

Fig. 4 Curve showing varition of Heat Release v/s CA

The curve showing variation of heat release and crank angle Due to increase in viscosity of fuels which are derived from edible or non edible vegetable oils it results in poor atomization and slower mixing which ultimately results in the longer ignition delay and the effect on ignition delay affect the heat release rate of the fuel. It can be observed from graph that the maximum heat release obtained for pure diesel is 27.16 C at C 18 and for corresponding maximum heat release rate obtained for LME10 at C 18 are 25.19 C .

C. The Effects of blends on BSFC at CR 18

The curve showing the variations of brake specific fuel consumption with load at blend of biodiesel i.e. LME10 at CR18 and Pure diesel BSFC decreases with increasing the load. BSFC of biodiesels is higher because they contain the oxygen content which results in the lower heating value. The BSFC of the engine when fueled with diesel is lower than compared to LME10 at all full load for CR18.

[image:4.612.325.564.548.700.2]
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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2014)

171 D. The Effects of blend on Mass fraction brunt at CR 18

The Mass fraction burned in each individual engine cycle is a normalized quantity, describing the process of chemical energy release as a function of crank angle.

Fig.6 Curve showing varition of MFB v/s crank angle

It is evident that combustion duration on the basis of mass fraction burnt is comes out to be 127.76⁰ CA at compression ratio 18 for diesel and for LME10 is 35.93⁰

CA at CR18.

E. The Effects of blend on Cylinder pressure at CR19

Fig.7 Curve showing varition of Pressure v/s CA

The curve showing the variation of cylinder pressure with crank angle at compression ratio CR19 when the engine is fueled with pure diesel and blends of linseed oil methyl ester that is LME10

It can be concluded that peak cylinder pressure rise for LME10 compare to diesel is 5.15 bar obtained.

F. The Effects of blend on Heat release rate at CR 19

It can be observed from graph that the maximum heat release obtained for pure diesel is 27.16 C at C 18 and for corresponding maximum heat release rate obtained for LME10 at CR19 is 25.22 C .

Fig.8 Curve showing varition of Heat Release v/s CA

G. The Effects of blend on BSFC at CR 19

Fig.9 Curve showing varition of BSFC v/s Load

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2014)

172 H. The Effects of blend on Mass fraction brunt at CR 19

The curve showing variation of mass fraction brunt and crank angle. The Mass fraction burned in each individual engine cycle is a normalized quantity, describing the process of chemical energy release as a function of crank angle.

It is evident that combustion duration on the basis of mass fraction burnt is comes out to be 127.76⁰ CA at compression ratio 18 for diesel and for LME10 is 29.08⁰

CA at CR19.

Fig.10 Curve showing varition of MFB v/s crank angle

I. The Effects of blend on Cylinder pressure at CR 20

It can be concluded that peak cylinder pressure rise for LME10 compare to diesel is 5.21 bar obtained.

Fig.11 Curve showing varition of Pressure v/s CA

J. The Effects of blend on Heat release rate at CR 20

It can be observed from graph that the maximum heat release obtained for pure diesel is 27.16 C at C 18 and for corresponding maximum heat release rate obtained for LME10 at CR20 is 24.84 C .

Fig.12 Curve showing varition of Heat release v/s CA

K. The Effects of blend on BSFC at CR 20

The curve showing variation of BSFC v/s Load it is observed that on full load diesel is maximum and LME10 is minimum at CR20 as compared to pure diesel at CR18.

Fig.13 Curve showing varition of BSFC v/s Load

L. The Effects of blend on Mass fraction brunt at CR20

The mass fraction burnt at blend of biodiesel and diesel at full load. It is evident that combustion duration on the basis of mass fraction burnt is comes out to be 127.76⁰ CA at compression ratio 18 for diesel and for LME10 is 27.25⁰

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2014)

173

Fig.14 Curve showing varition of MFB v/s crank angle

V. CONCLUSION

1. The kinematic viscosity and the density of LME biodiesel is higher than pure diesel which results in lower calorific value for the LME compare to pure diesel.

2. When the engine is running at full load the BSFC of engines will be minimum compared to part load operations. The BSFC for biodiesel is higher compared to diesel because it contains higher oxygen contents so gives the lower heating value. So for the same energy output more amount of biodiesel will be required which results in increased BSFC.

3. The maximum cylinder pressure for diesel is 68.03 bars and that for optimized linseed oil biodiesel blend LME10 at CR19 is 73.21 bars. The HRR obtained for diesel is 27.16 C and for E10 is 25.22 C is obtained.

4. Some problems were also faced during the test when engine is fueled with LME biodiesel, which include mainly gum formation on injector nozzle and valves sticking etc. But these problems can be resolved very easily by re-scheduling the engine maintenance schedule.

REFERENCES

[1] "Environment Assessment, Country Data: India". The World Bank. 2012

[2] Ministry Of Road, Transport And Highway 2012(MORTH). [3] Planning Commission (Government of India) Report Vol. I and Vol.

II 2013, www.planningcommission.nic.in, www.indiabudget.nic.in [4] Energy statistics 2013, Ministry of Statistics and Programme

Implementation Government of India www.mospi.gov.in

[5] S. Savariraj, T. Ganapathy, C. G. Saravanan, “Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of fish-oil biodiesel engine”, Scholars esearch ibrary, European ournal of pplied Engineering and Scientific Research, 2 (3):26-32, 2013.

[6] Vijay Pratap Singh, “Indian Biofuels scenario: An Assessment of science and policy” eadership for Environment and Development (LEAD India)

[7] S.S. Raju, Shinoj Parappurathu, Ramesh Chand, P.K. Joshi, Praduman Kumar, Siwa sangi, “Biofuels in India: Potential, Policy and Emerging Paradigmsˮ, ICAR, Policy Paper 27, April 2012 [8] P.K. Sahoo, . . Das, “Combustion analysis of atropha, Karanja

and Polanga based biodiesel as fuel in a diesel engine”, Elsevier, Fuel, Vol.-88, issue 6, pp. 994-999, June 2009

Figure

TABLE III Technical Engine Specification of Experimented Test Rig.
Fig. 4 Curve showing varition of Heat Release v/s CA

References

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