READING PASSAGE 1. Reading Practice Test 3 HOW TO USE. You have 2 ways to access the test

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IELTS Recent Mock Tests Volume 2

Reading Practice Test 3

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READING PASSAGE 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

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Dirty River But Clean Water

Floods can occur in rivers when the ow rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel, particularly at bends or meanders in the waterway. Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are in the natural ood plains of rivers. While riverine ood damage can be eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, people have traditionally lived and worked by rivers because the land is usually at and fertile and because rivers provide easy travel and access to commerce and industry.

A Fire and ood are two of humanity’s worst nightmares. People have,therefore,always sought to control them. Forest res are snuffed out quickly. The ow of rivers is regulated by weirs and dams. At least, that is how it used to be. But foresters have learned that forests need fires to clear out the brash and even to get seeds to germinate. And a similar revelation is now – dawning on hydrologists. Rivers – and the ecosystems they support – need oods. That is why a man-made torrent has been surging down the Grand Canyon. By Thursday March 6th it was running at full throttle, which was expected to be sustained for 60 hours.

B Floods once raged through the canyon every year. Spring Snow from as far away as Wyoming would melt and swell the Colorado river to a ow that averaged around 1,500 cubic metres (50,000 cubic feet) a second. Every eight years or so, that gure rose to almost 3,000 cubic metres. These oods infused the river with sediment, carved its beaches and built its sandbars.

C However, in the four decades since the building of the Glen Canyon dam, just upstream of the Grand Canyon, the only sediment that it has collected has come from tiny, undammed tributaries. Even that has not been much use as those tributaries are not powerful enough to distribute the sediment in an ecologically valuable way.

D This lack of ooding has harmed local wildlife. The humpback chub,for example, thrived in the rust-redwaters of the Colorado. Recently, though, its population has crashed. At rst sight,

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it looked as if the reason was that the chub were being eaten by trout introduced for sport shing in the mid-20th century. But trout and chub co-existed until the Glen Canyon dam was built, so something else is going on. Steve Gloss, of the United States’ Geological Survey (USGS), reckons that the chub’s decline is the result of their losing their most valuable natural defense, the Colorado’s rusty sediment. The chub were well adapted to the poor visibility created by the thick, red water which gave the river its name, and depended on it to hide from predators. Without the cloudy water the chub became vulnerable.

E And the chub are not alone. In the years since the Glen Canyon dam was built, several species have vanished altogether. These include the Colorado pike-minnow, the razorback sucker and the round-tail chub. Meanwhile, aliens including fathead minnows, channel cat sh and common carp, which would have been hard, put to survive in the savage waters of the undammed canyon, have moved in.

F So ooding is the obvious answer. Unfortunately, it is easier said than done. Floods were sent down the Grand Canyon in 1996 and 2004 and the results were mixed. In 1996 the ood was allowed to go on too long. To start with,all seemed well. The oodwaters built up sandbanks and infused the river with sediment. Eventually, however, the continued ow washed most of the sediment out of the canyon. This problem was avoided in 2004, but unfortunately, on that occasion, the volume of sand available behind the dam was too low to rebuild the sandbanks. This time, the USGS is convinced that things will be better. The amount of sediment available is three times greater than it was in 2004. So if a ood is going to do some good, this is the time to unleash one.

G Even so, it may turn out to be an empty gesture. At less than 1,200 cubic metres a second, this ood is smaller than even an average spring ood, let alone one of the mightier deluges of the past. Those glorious inundations moved massive quantities of sediment through the Grand Canyon,wiping the slate dirty, and making a muddy mess of silt and muck that would make modern river rafters cringe.

Questions 1-7

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?

In boxes 1-7 1-7 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN If there is no information on this

1 Damage caused by fire is worse than that caused by flood 2 The flood peaks at almost 1500 cubic meters every eight years.

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Questions 8-13

3 Contribution of sediments delivered by tributaries has little impact.

4 Decreasing number of chubs is always caused by introducing of trout since mid 20th century.

5 It seemed that the artificial flood in 1996 had achieved success partly at the very beginning.

6 In fact, the yield of artificial flood water is smaller than an average natural flood at present.

7 Mighty floods drove fast moving flows with clean and high quality water.

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 8-13 8-13 on your answer sheet.

The eco-impact of the Canyon Dam

Floods are people’s nightmare. In the past, canyon was raged by ood every year. The snow from far Wyoming would melt in the season of 8 and caused a ood ow peak in Colorado river. In the four decades after people built the Glen Canyon dam, it only could gather 9 together from tiny, undammed tributaries.

Humpback chub population on reduced, why?

Then, several species disappeared including Colorado pike-minnow, 10

and the round-tail chub. Meanwhile, some moved in such as fathead minnows, channel cat sh and 11 . The non-stopped ow leaded to the washing away of the sediment out of the canyon, which poses great threat to the chubs because they have poor 12 away from predators. In addition, the volume of 13 available behind the dam was too low to rebuild the bars and flooding became more serious.

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READING PASSAGE 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

Activities for Children

A Twenty-five years ago, children in London walked to school and played in parks and playing fields after school and at the weekend. Today they are usually driven to school by parents anxious about safety and spend hours glued to television screens or computer games.

Meanwhile, community playing fields are being sold off to property developers at an alarming rate. ‘This change in lifestyle has, sadly, meant greater restrictions on children,’ says Neil Armstrong, Professor of Health and Exercise Sciences at the University of Exeter. ‘If children continue to be this inactive, they’ll be storing up big problems for the future.’

B In 1985, Professor Armstrong headed a five-year research project into children’s fitness. The results, published in 1990, were alarming. The survey, which monitored 700 11-16-year-olds, found that 48 per cent of girls and 41 per cent of boys already exceeded safe cholesterol levels set for children by the American Heart Foundation. Armstrong adds, “heart is a muscle and need exercise, or it loses its strength.” It also found that 13 per cent of boys and 10 per cent of girls were overweight. More disturbingly, the survey found that over a four-day period, half the girls and one-third of the boys did less exercise than the equivalent of a brisk 10-minute walk.

High levels of cholesterol, excess body fat and inactivity are believed to increase the risk of coronary heart disease.

C Physical education is under pressure in the UK – most schools devote little more than 100 minutes a week to it in curriculum time, which is less than many other European countries.

Three European countries are giving children a head start in PE, France, Austria and

Switzerland – offer at least two hours in primary and secondary schools. These findings, from

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the European Union of Physical Education Associations, prompted specialists in children’s physiology to call on European governments to give youngsters a daily PE programme. The survey shows that the UK ranks 13th out of the 25 countries, with Ireland bottom, averaging under an hour a week for PE. From age six to 18 British children received, on average, 106 minutes of PE a week. Professor Armstrong, who presented the findings at the meeting, noted that since the introduction of the national curriculum there had been a marked fall in the time devoted to PE in UK schools, with only a minority of pupils getting two hours a week.

D As a former junior football international, Professor Armstrong is a passionate advocate for sport. Although the Government has poured millions into beefing up sport in the community, there is less commitment to it as part of the crammed school curriculum. This means that many children never acquire the necessary skills to thrive in team games. If they are no good at them, they lose interest and establish an inactive pattern of behaviour. When this is coupled with a poor diet, it will lead inevitably to weight gain. Seventy per cent of British children give up all sport when they leave school, compared with only 20 per cent of French teenagers. Professor Armstrong believes that there is far too great an emphasis on team games at school. “We need to look at the time devoted to PE and balance it between individual and pair activities, such as aerobics and badminton, as well as team sports. “He added that children need to have the opportunity to take part in a wide variety of individual, partner and team sports.

E The good news, however, is that a few small companies and children’s activity groups have reacted positively and creatively to the problem. Take That, shouts Gloria Thomas, striking a disco pose astride her mini-spacehopper. Take That, echo a flock of toddlers, adopting

outrageous postures astride their space hoppers. ‘Michael Jackson, she shouts, and they all do a spoof fan-crazed shriek. During the wild and chaotic hopper race across the studio floor,

commands like this are issued and responded to with untrammelled glee. The sight of 15 bouncing seven-year-olds who seem about to launch into orbit at every bounce brings tears to the eyes. Uncoordinated, loud, excited and emotional, children provide raw comedy.

F Any cardiovascular exercise is a good option, and it doesn’t necessarily have to be high intensity. It can be anything that gets your heart rate up: such as walking the dog, swimming, miming, skipping, hiking. “Even walking through the grocery store can be exercise,” Samis- Smith said. What they don’t know is that they’re at a Fit Kids class, and that the fun is a disguise for the serious exercise plan they’re covertly being taken through. Fit Kids trains parents to run fitness classes for children. ‘Ninety per cent of children don’t like team sports,’

says company director, Gillian Gale.

G A Prevention survey found that children whose parents keep in shape are much more likely to have healthy body weights themselves. “There’s nothing worse than telling a child what he needs to do and not doing it yourself,” says Elizabeth Ward, R.D., a Boston nutritional

consultant and author of Healthy Foods, Healthy Kids . “Set a good example and get your nutritional house in order first.” In the 1930s and ’40s, kids expended 800 calories a day just

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walking, carrying water, and doing other chores, notes Fima Lifshitz, M.D., a pediatric

endocrinologist in Santa Barbara. “Now, kids in obese families are expending only 200 calories a day in physical activity,” says Lifshitz, “incorporate more movement in your family’s lifepark farther away from the stores at the mall, take stairs instead of the elevator, and walk to nearby friends’ houses instead of driving.”

Questions 14-17

Questions 18-21

The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-G.A-G.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-GA-G, in boxes 14-1714-17 on your answer sheet.

14 Health and living condition of children

15 Health organization monitored physical activity

16 Comparison of exercise time between UK and other countries

17 Wrong approach for school activity

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 18-2118-21 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN If there is no information on this

18 According to American Heart Foundation, cholesterol levels of boys are higher than girls’.

19 British children generally do less exercise than some other European countries.

20 Skipping becomes more and more popular in schools of UK.

21 According to Healthy Kids, the first task is for parents to encourage their children to keep the same healthy body weight.

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Questions 22-26

Choose the correct letter, A, B, CA, B, C or DD.

Write your answers in boxes 22-2622-26 on your answer sheet.

22 According to paragraph A, what does Professor Neil Armstrong concern about?

A B C D

23 What does Armstrong indicate in Paragraph B?

A B C D

24 What is aim of Fit Kids’ trainning?

A B C D

25 What did Lifshitz suggest in the end of this passage?

A B C D

26 What is main idea of this passage?

A

Spending more time on TV affect academic level Parents have less time stay with their children Future health of British children

Increasing speed of property’s development

We need to take a 10 minute walk everyday We should do more activity to exercise heart Girls’ situation is better than boys

Exercise can cure many disease

Make profit by running several sessions

Only concentrate on one activity for each child

To guide parents how to organize activities for children Spread the idea that team sport is better

Create opportunities to exercise your body Taking elevator saves your time

Kids should spend more than 200 calories each day We should never drive but walk

health of the children who are overweight is at risk in the future

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B C D

Children in UK need proper exercises

Government mistaken approach for children

Parents play the most important role in children’s activity

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READING PASSAGE 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

Mechanisms of Linguistic Change

A The changes that have caused the most disagreement are those in pronunciation. We have various sources of evidence for the pronunciations of earlier times, such as the spellings, the treatment of words borrowed from other languages or borrowed by them, the descriptions of contemporary grammarians and spelling-reformers, and the modern pronunciations in all the languages and dialects concerned From the middle of the sixteenth century, there are in England writers who attempt to describe the position of the speech-organs for the production of English phonemes, and who invent what are in effect systems of phonetic symbols. These various kinds of evidence, combined with a knowledge of the mechanisms of speech- production, can often give us a very good idea of the pronunciation of an earlier age, though absolute certainty is never possible.

B When we study the pronunciation of a language over any period of a few generations or more, we nd there are always large-scale regularities in the changes: for example, over a certain period of time, just about all the long [a:] vowels in a language may change into long [e:]

vowels, or all the [b] consonants in a certain position (for example at the end of a word) may change into [p] consonants. Such regular changes are often called sound laws. There are no universal sound laws (even though sound laws often re ect universal tendencies), but simply particular sound laws for one given language (or dialect) at one given period

C It is also possible that fashion plays a part in the process of change. It certainly plays a part in the spread of change: one person imitates another, and people with the most prestige are most likely to be imitated, so that a change that takes place in one social group may be imitated

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(more or less accurately) by speakers in another group. When a social group goes up or down in the world, its pronunciation of Russian, which had formerly been considered desirable, became on the contrary an undesirable kind of accent to have, so that people tried to disguise it. Some of the changes in accepted English pronunciation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries have been shown to consist in the replacement of one style of pronunciation by another style already existing, and it is likely that such substitutions were a result of the great social changes of the period: the increased power and wealth of the middle classes, and their steady in ltration upwards into the ranks of the landed gentry, probably carried elements of middle-class pronunciation into upper-class speech.

D A less speci c variant of the argument is that the imitation of children is imperfect: they copy their parents’ speech, but never reproduce it exactly. This is true, but it is also true that such deviations from adult speech are usually corrected in later childhood. Perhaps it is more signi cant that even adults show a certain amount of random variation in their pronunciation of a given phoneme, even if the phonetic context is kept unchanged. This, however, cannot explain changes in pronunciation unless it can be shown that there is some systematic trend in the failures of imitation: if they are merely random deviations they will cancel one another out and there will be no net change in the language.

E One such force which is often invoked is the principle of ease, or minimization of effort. The change from fussy to fuzzy would be an example of assimilation, which is a very common kind of change. Assimilation is the changing of a sound under the in uence of a neighbouring one.

For example, the word scant was once skamt, but the /m/ has been changed to /n/ under the in uence of the following /t/. Greater ef ciency has hereby been achieved, because /n/ and /t/

are articulated in the same place (with the tip of the tongue against the teeth-ridge), whereas /m/ is articulated elsewhere (with the two lips). So the place of articulation of the nasal consonant has been changed to conform with that of the following plosive. A more recent example of the same kind of thing is the common pronunciation of football as football.

F Assimilation is not the only way in which we change our pronunciation in order to increase ef ciency. It is very common for consonants to be lost at the end of a word: in Middle English, word- nal [-n] was often lost in unstressed syllables, so that baken ‘to bake’ changed from [‘ba:kan] to [‘ba:k3],and later to [ba:k]. Consonant-clusters are often simpli ed. At one time there was a [t] in words like castle and Christmas, and an initial [k] in words like knight and know. Sometimes a whole syllable is dropped out when two successive syllables begin with the same consonant (haplology): a recent example is temporary, which in Britain is often pronounced as if it were tempory.

Questions 27-30

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDSNO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

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Questions 31-37

Write your answers in boxes 27-3027-30 on your answer sheet.

The pronunciation of living language undergo changes throughout thousands of years. Large scale regular Changes are usually called 27 . There are three reasons for these changes. Firstly, the influence of one language on another; when one person imitates another pronunciation(the most prestige’s), the imitation always partly involving factor of 28 . Secondly, the

imitation of children from adults' language sometimes are 29 , and may also contribute to this change if there are insignificant deviations tough later they may be corrected Finally, for those random variations in pronunciation, the

deeper evidence lies in the 30 or minimization of effort.

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 31-3731-37 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN If there is no information on this

31 It is impossible for modern people to find pronunciation of words in an earlier age

32 The great change of language in Russian history is related to the rising status and fortune of middle classes.

33 All the children learn speeches from adults while they assume that certain language is difficult to imitate exactly.

34 Pronunciation with causal inaccuracy will not exert big influence on language changes.

35 The word scant can be pronounced more easily than skamt

36 The [g] in gnat not being pronounced will not be spelt out in the future.

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Questions 38-40

37 The sound of ‘temporary’ cannot wholly present its spelling.

Look at the following sentences and the list of statements below. Match each statement with the correct sentence, A-DA-D.

Write the correct letter, A-DA-D, in boxes 38-4038-40 on your answer sheet

A Since the speakers can pronounce it with less effort

B Assimilation of a sound under the influence of a neighbouring one C It is a trend for changes in pronunciation in a large scale in a given period D Because the speaker can pronounce [n] and [t] both in the same time

38 As a consequence, ‘b’ will be pronounced as ‘p’

39 The pronunciation of [mt] changed to [nt]

40 The omit of 't' in the sound of Christmas

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Solution:

1 NOT GIVEN 2 FALSE

3 TRUE 4 FALSE

5 TRUE 6 TRUE

7 NOT GIVEN 8 spring

9 sediment 10 razorback sucker

11 common carp 12 visibility

13 sand 14 A

15 B 16 C

17 D 18 NOT GIVEN

19 TRUE 20 NOT GIVEN

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21 FALSE 22 C

23 B 24 C

25 A 26 B

27 Sound laws 28 fashion

29 imperfect 30 principle of ease

31 FALSE 32 NOT GIVEN

33 NOT GIVEN 34 TRUE

35 NOT GIVEN 36 NOT GIVEN

37 TRUE 38 C

39 B 40 A

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