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(3) STUDIES IN THE SPIRITUALITY OF JESUITS. On c. <%. °Ueoc. i0p£. »rv. ,. jWT ;\TiVil.!jrjJ:riir<<. '. 'i. 1. 0F. IiS'»5tH7»-<i "A *''.£.+ «V l. -.tt.,. Priesthood Today. and the Jesuit Vocation. William Harmless,. Donald. S.J.. L. Gelpi, S.J.. w.

(4) THE SEMINAR ON JESUIT SPIRITUALITY A. group of Jesuits appointed from. The Seminar. their provinces in the. United. States.. studies topics pertaining to the spiritual doctrine and. American. and communicates the results to the members of the provinces. This is done in the spirit of Vatican IPs recommendation to religious institutes to recapture the original inspiration of their founders and to adapt it to the circumstances of modern times. The Seminar welcomes reactions or comments in regan to the material which it publishes. practice of Jesuits, especially. The Seminar Jesuits of the. focuses. United. its. States.. direct. The. Jesuits,. attention. the Studies, while. not exclusively for them. Others. welcome. life. and work of. the. may be common also religious, laity, men and/or. Jesuits of other regions, to other priests,. women. Hence. on the. issues treated. meant. especially for. who may. find. them. American. to. Jesuits,. a. helpful are cordially. to read them.. CURRENT MEMBERS OF THE SEMINAR Philip C. Fischer, Institute. Donald. L.. SJ.. is. secretary of the Seminar and an editor at th. of Jesuit Sources.. Gelpi,. SJ.. teaches systematic theology at the Jesuit School of. Theology at Berkeley. Roger D. Haight, SJ. teaches systematic theology. at. Regis College, the. Jesuit school of theology in Toronto.. Arthur F. McGovern, SJ. teaches philosophy and. is. director of the Honor.. Program at the University of Detroit. John J. Mueller, SJ. teaches systematic theology at Saint Louis University. John W. Padberg, SJ. is chairman of the Seminar, editor of Studies, and director and editor at the Institute of Jesuit Sources. G. John Renard, SJ. teaches the history of religion, with special emphasis on Islam, at Saint Louis University. Paul A. Soukup, SJ. teaches communications at Santa Clara University an director of studies for juniorate scholastics in the California Province.. Robert. J.. Starratt,. SJ.. directs the. Fordham University. John M. Staudenmaier, SJ.. Center for Non-Public Education. at. teaches the history of technology at Detroii. University.. L.. John Topel, SJ.. is. Vice-President for Academic Affairs at Seattle. University.. ©Copyright, 1987 and published by The Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality, 63108 (Tel. 314-652-5737) 3700 West Pine Blvd., St. Louis,. MO.

(5) PRIESTHOOD TODAY. AND THE. J.. JESUIT VOCATION. William Harmless, Jesuits as Priests:. Donald. L.. Gelpi,. S.J.. Crisis. and Charism. SJ.. Theological Reflections. Character of Our Jesuit. on the. Vocation. Studies in. the. Spirituality. 19/3. May. 1987. Priestly. of Jesuits.

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(7) For your information. . .. Serendipity and summertime, surveys of readership and the Spiritual Exercises all enter into. The. my remarks here.. nearly simultaneous submission to the Seminar of two. essays on priesthood and the Jesuits, the one complementing the. and the other theological, the one from outside the Seminar, the other from a member, was agreeable, valuable and unexpected, and that all adds up to something being serendipitous. Equally so is the opportunity, after the usual Seminar process of discussion and approval, to publish them together. The two essays make for this unusually large May issue of Studies and that is where summertime enters in; it will provide the opportunity to read and ponder them in a leisurely way. What does our readership think of Studies? The Seminar has asked the questions of itself before. Soon it will ask that and other other, the. one. basically historical. Why are we doing this survey?. questions in a survey of readership. Briefly put, to serve. you. as best. we. can.. We want to know some-. thing of what our readers are like, what you have found helpful and interesting in Studies, in the future.. what subjects you would. like to see treated. We know that there are differences of opinion.. (What group of Jesuits especially, who make up our primary audience, would be without them?) The survey has been professionally prepared at the Department of Communications at Santa Clara University. It is being sent to a randomly selected sample of recipients of Studies. Their responses will be kept completely confidential. The completed surveys will be professionally scored and the aggregate data will be prepared for us. We shall report the results of that data in a future issue of Studies. If you receive one of our questionnaires in the mail,. we. ask you, please, to respond to. it. fully. and. quickly. Lastly,. our next issue of Studies. will. be an essay. in interpre-. tation. It seeks to inculturate certain Ignatian principles. and axioms,. especially as they appear in the Spiritual Exercises, into a current. modern philosophical and theological framework. The essay is by Roger Haight, S.J., and is entitled "Foundational Issues Jesuit Spirituality." Look for it in the September issue of Studies. or at least. John W. Padberg, S J. Editor Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits. in.

(8) AND CHARISM. JESUITS AS PRIESTS: CRISIS by. PART. I.. J.. William Harmless,. INTRODUCTION: THE EXPERIENCE OF CRISIS. PART. II.. The. S.J.. 1. ELEMENTS OF THE. CRISIS. collapse of the received view. 6. 6. The received view and the experience of priests Liturgy. and. 13. 14. Factors in the collapse failure of. 9. systematic theology. Jesuit experience. The. Vatican. The renewal of Renewal of the. 6. the renewal of the priesthood. II in. the episcopacy laity. 19. 20. Inadequacy of the attempted renewal of the priesthood. PART. III.. THE PLACE OF PRIESTHOOD JESUIT CHARISM 28. IN. The. heart of the Jesuit charism. The. ministry of the. 29. 31. 32. Ministries of reconciliation and service. 37. Other traditional elements: mobility and collaboration. The modern element:. PART. IV.. 22. THE. Priesthood in the early documents of the Society. word. 18. the promotion of justice. 40. 42. CONCLUSION: A SOCIETY OF APOSTLES. 44.

(9) THEOLOGICAL REFLECTIONS ON THE PRIESTLY CHARACTER OF OUR JESUIT VOCATION by Donald L. Gelpi,. PART. I.. The. S.J.. THE SHIFTING THEOLOGICAL PERCEPTIONS OF PRIESTHOOD 50 from the Old Testament. first shift:. New. New. 51. 51. Priestly ministry in Israel. Priesthood in the. to the. Testament. 53. The second shift: from the New Testament to sacerdotalism The third shift: from sacerdotalism to hierarchicalism 59 The fourth shift: from a medieval theology of priesthood to the polemics of the Reformation. 61. Luther and Calvin on ordained ministry Tridentine reforms. fifth shift:. 63. from a polemic to an ecumenical understanding. of priesthood. 64. The council and the Protestants. Beyond. hierarchicalism. The pastoral. PART. 64. 65 of priests. 66. Sacerdotalist influences in Vatican II. 67. II.. responsiblities. Levitical priests. Priesthood of. and Christian. all. believers. priests. 70. 72. and ordained. priestly ministry. Jesus alone the model for priestly ministry. III.. ,. CATHOLIC PRIESTLY MINISTRY AND A NEW TESTAMENT THEOLOGY 69. Jesus alone enjoys the fullness of priesthood. PART. 62. 63. Jesuit priests. The. 56. 80. RELIGIOUS PRIESTS: COMMUNITY, SPIRITUALITY, MINISTRY 81. 76.

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(11) AND CHARISM. JESUITS AS PRIESTS: CRISIS. William Harmless, SJ.. J.. :. PART I. INTRODUCTION: THE EXPERIENCE OF CRISIS. On the eve. of Vatican Council. II,. Fulton Sheen extolled the high. dignity of the priesthood:. Every. priest. between. knows. himself,. God and man,. by Divine. God. bringing. election, to. to. be mediator. man and man to God. As. such the priest continues the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. Who. was both God and Man. 1 Such sentiments were instance, Pius office lofty. *. is. XI. not for. common in the. decades before the council. For. in a 1935 encyclical proclaimed that "[the priest's]. human. things,. and things. and valuable these may seem; but. Author's address: 5. Avon. Street,. that pass away,. for things divine. Cambridge,. however. and endur-. MA 02138.. This paper was originally written for a seminar on "Mission, Ministry, and 1 Priesthood in the Society of Jesus" led by Fr. John O'Malley, S.J., at Weston School of Theology in the spring, 1986. The seminar focused on a critical reading of the foundational documents of the early Society as well as the documents of Vatican II and General Congregations 31 and 32 to see what these had to say about Jesuit priesthood. I am indebted to John and the members of the seminar for a number of the perspectives argued for here. The original paper has been thoroughly revised with the aid of the suggestions, challenges, and provocative thinking of the members of the American Assistancy Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality. The passage quoted here appears in Fulton J. Sheen, The Priest is Not His Own (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1963), p. 23..

(12) HARMLESS. 2 ing.". 2. priest. One is. popular spiritual writer put. it. the most perfect image of Jesus. From our. even more bluntly: "The. upon the. earth.". 3. postconciliar perspective, passages such as these. seem. embarrassing. Their exaggerated claims for the priesthood seem to run. Our discomfort with views once so commonplace reveals how profoundly we have absorbed the change in sensibility wrought by Vatican II. The council unintenroughshod over the. rightful dignity of the laity.. tionally but effectively shattered an earlier sense of Catholic identity, 4 of self-definition. Its aim, of course, had been renewal, a fresh. appropriation of the past and an aggiomamento. In pursuing this renewal, the council legislated, or simply created the context. number. for,. a. of striking changes. These generally excellent and even. necessary changes had, however, an unusual side to disconnect us. Over the. from our immediate. last. effect:. they tended. past.. ten years, different groups within the Church. have begun to shore up a new Catholic. identity.. For instance,. after. a decade of experiment and study, Jesuits began in the mid-seventies to arrive at a. new consensus on. new self-understanding was 2. the. mission and char ism. Symbolic of that. document. Jesuits. Today passed by. Pius XI, "Ad Catholici Sacerdotii: December 20, 1935," in Official Catholic & Laity (Wilmington, NC: McGrath Publishing Co, 1978), p. 36.. Teachings: Clergy. To. see how this passage influenced the view of popular spirituality, see the work of Wilhelm Stockums, Spirituality in the Priesthood (London: Herder Book Co.,. Stockums, after quoting Pius, goes on to note that "in the economy of God has devised, He needs the cooperation of His priests to mediate to men the graces of the redemption. And mankind needs this priestly mediation if it desires to attain the proper relationship toward God. The priest as mediator between God and man lives and breathes, toils and labors, in an atmosphere far removed from that of every-day earthly life" (pp. 40-41). 1943).. salvation which almighty. .. 3. Quoted. in. Bede. Frost, Priesthood. .. and Prayer (London: A. R. Mowbray,. .. 1933),. p. 29.. 4. John O'Malley, "On Continuity and Change:. A. Symposium,". in. George E. Ganss. Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits, vol. 4, no. 4 (Oct. 1972), p. 134: "Sudden and frequent changes in form, no matter how convincingly justified. et. al.,. on a be destructive for the organization because they break the sense of continuity within it. They break the sense of identity and self-definition. Ignatius' instinct for this psychological truth emerges simply from the fact that he imposed on the Society a constitutional form. Nevertheless, at times external forms must be changed unless the organization is to suffer great harm or even rational basis, can. die.".

(13) BUSTON. COLLEGE. SEPi. ™ raA,BU *»»»(ni'. .... the 32nd General Congregation. In recent years a host of Cation*? institutions— parishes set. and dioceses,. universities. and hospitals— have. about the hard process of writing mission statements. Also,. because of the bishops' recent. letters. on nuclear war and the econ-. omy, American Catholics have begun to discover anew the public. meaning and. While many aspects of Catholic. cost of faith.. have come together, there are turmoil.. States is. One. still. of those elements. and worldwide, both. some elements very much. still. in crisis,. both. and. in the Society. the priesthood. Symptomatic of this crisis. is. in the. comes. Church,. the continuing decline. number of candidates for the priesthood and departures among those already ordained. Jesuits, the felt sense of crisis. in. United. in the larger. in the. For. identity. the continuing. concerning priesthood. surprisingly late in the course of one's formation. After. several hectic years as a regent, the average Jesuit scholastic. smoothly into the familiar routine of. to theology expecting to settle. school. Often without. comes. much warning, he can. find himself in a crisis. of identity, one which revolves around the meaning of priesthood.. This might seem odd.. would have come. One would. think that the issue of priesthood. to the fore earlier. After. all,. ordination tends to. serve as the real climax of formation, and the majority of Jesuits. are obviously priests. Yet the focus through most of formation. elsewhere: on community. life. is. and the vows, on prayer and the. experience of the Exercises, on the Society's mission and apostolic works.. Still,. there. is. something peculiar about the. Jesuits wait so long to face the. we As we shall. fact that. meaning of priesthood.. see later in the essay, the peculiarity of this says something,. I. believe, about the unusual place that priesthood exercises in the. Jesuit char ism.. In any case,. comes face. when. a Jesuit scholastic comes to theology, he. to face with his. own imminent. the crisis that swirls around the. Church.. And. one. That. ordination and thus faces. meaning of priesthood. in the larger. that larger crisis of identity often creates a personal. crisis, at least. as. I. experienced. vague sense that things were out of. it,. came,. sorts, that I. first. of. all,. was under. as a. fire,. /.

(14) HARMLESS. 4. had hard questions about. that I. this or that aspect of life in the. Church, that earlier ministerial hopes and dreams were suddenly cloudy or strangely problematic. Only after a did the focus of that. crisis. become. an identity rendered. identity,. all. clear: the. the. fair. amount of reflection. ambiguity of priestly. more problematic by tensions. within the contemporary Church.. What do I mean by ambiguity? one. Certainly, priesthood. means. that. ordained to preside over the Church's sacramental worship.. is. But that. is. who. not particularly helpful to the majority of Jesuits. work primarily. in high schools. and. universities. and. retreat houses.. Sacramental ministry has generally not held the same prominence for the Jesuit that. it. has for the diocesan priest. But priesthood, whether. Jesuit or diocesan,. is. and always has been much more than. Sacramental leadership. what. is. simply the. tip. under the surface—the daily. lies. this.. And it is. of the iceberg.. lived reality of priesthood— that. has shifted so greatly. In other words, while ordination clearly involves a public change of status. what one that. one. is. is. and. is. in. some way irrevocable,. being ordained for seems anything but. making a. life. One. clear.. decision for something that. is. the. feels. generally. muddled, possibly unimportant, and certainly unpopular.. But the problem goes beyond an ambiguous job description. As priest,. one serves as a public and permanent representative of the. Church.. And. ambivalence for. our Church has a most ambivalent character. Such is. many who. certainly nothing new, but. it. increases the tensions. face the decision for priesthood. First of. all,. Church on the one hand puts forward very prophetic and. our. forcefully. argued positions on social justice and on the other hand disallows. any critique concerning the justice of its own leadership structure. Its. a priori exclusion of women and married. men from. eucharistic. leadership seems, in the eyes of many, to be unjust and hypocritical.. Second, the Church seems unable to find a place for the American tradition of loyal dissent. and of due process. Moreover,. which accords reason great weight. in a. Church. in shaping the life of faith,. one. hears inordinate appeals to authority. In a Church which claims to affirm the dignity of. human. sexuality,. one encounters an. official.

(15) JESUITS AS PRIESTS sexual ethic framed. all. too often in hard and fast negatives. These. Church come very much. tensions within the larger, public. when one. is. immersed. the rewards of serving. 5. and no longer enjoys. in the study of theology. some. into view. local parish or school. community on a. daily basis.. What brought me through It. the crisis was grace and discernment.. came from beyond me. And. involved a response to a call that. response was ultimately a matter of love, of choosing love. It. meant saying yes. Jesus, saying yes to. and. sinfulness,. its. to. my love. of Christ and of the Society of. wisdom and. painful shortsightedness. But critical. me through the. analysis I sought to situate the priesthood in. its. cultural forces within the. larger historical historical. an attempt to name the problem,. One. crisis as crisis.. of the difficulties was simply. finding a language or perspective to. name what. going on. So. is. often those elements which are in fact clear. seemed. or inadequate. Despite this sense, however,. I. Two. seem. in particular. uted to the current sense of. crisis: (1). renewal of priestly ministry.. either irrelevant. sifted out. some elements. to have significantly contrib-. the collapse of the received. view on priesthood and (2) the failure of Vatican. some. and. Church which helped shape the current. state of affairs. It was, in essence,. of the problem.. In that. crisis.. development and to uncover the more immediate. examine the. to. my love for the Church in all its messy goodness. theological analysis, too, helped. to. how best. that. II to. catalyze a. We will look at these two elements in. detail in the next section.. But. it. was not enough. to. name. the problem.. understanding of Jesuit priesthood that would personal response to the question. of the Society, observing the. hood day implicit. in,. day out.. wisdom. proceeding than. I. I. I. sought some. at least serve as. a. meditated on the lived tradition. way Jesuits have. lived out their priest-. realized that that lived reality might hold an. far richer. and more adequate to the Jesuit way of. many theologies. of priesthood. This led. me. to. reexamine the foundational documents of the Society and to see. what place priesthood played charism.. in Ignatius's fashioning of the Jesuit.

(16) HARMLESS. 6. In that investigation, one which section of this essay,. came. I. I will. to see that priesthood. constitutive of the Society's charism as. charism.. The. charism. is its. and. is. central, the constitutive. mission,. its. apostolic. subservient to that larger. mission. Admittedly, for. retrace in the third. it is. not so. is. much. instrumental to that. element of the Society's. And priesthood flows from. life.. commitment and. availability for. some Jesuits priesthood— at. least as. it is. conventionally understood-plays a major role in their apostolic. life;. many others it may be rather secondary or privatized, even peripheral. What shapes its prominence, whether that be great or. but for. small,. is. the mission or series of missions that one receives over the. course of one's. And this. life.. instrumental character of Jesuit priesthood. is. rooted. in the pattern of life that Ignatius set forth for the Society. Ignatius. shaped. his vision of the Society not. by the sixteenth-century. understanding of priesthood, but by his and the early companions'. experiments in preaching, teaching, and spiritual direction. These experiments attempted to respond to the needs of the sixteeenthcentury Church, but they also flowed from Ignatius's and the early. companions' meditation on particular. New Testament. images of. discipleship: for example, Luke's description of the apostles going in. pairs to proclaim the. Kingdom, Paul's. the earth to announce the. thirst to. Good News.. that fired Ignatius's imagination. was. It. go to the ends of. that vita apostolica. and led him to reconfigure the. praxis of priesthood. In this sense, priesthood. became. for Ignatius. simply the best at-hand vehicle for implementing his vision of the apostolic. life,. a. life in. which mission was. central.. PART II. ELEMENTS OF THE CRISIS The collapse of the received view The received view and the immigrant. Church. in. the experience ofpriests.. -. In the 1950s,. America came of age. Catholics began. to. enjoy a greater integration into American culture during the postwar.

(17) JESUITS AS PRIESTS. 7. economic boom. Nevertheless, they maintained a distinctive religious identity.. 5. They did so. clear sense of their. in a variety of ways:. supporting Catholic institutions such as the vast network of schools. and. hospitals; keeping. up such. distinctive practices as faithfully. Mass on Sundays and holy days and. attending. meat on Fridays; engaging. abstaining from eating. in the vast array of pious practices such. and parish missions;. as lighting devotional candles, attending novenas. employing such. distinctively Catholic paraphernalia as rosaries. holycards. Despite their integration into. work and language, Catholics. American. were able. still. and. culture in terms of. to hold onto their. ethnic identity and culture-often because of the structure of neigh-. borhoods. In this era priests were held in high regard. People esteemed. them. as. models of good education and. for their selfless devotion to. holiness,. God and to the. and admired them. community. Their. self-. esteem was further enhanced by an understanding of priesthood which, as. we saw in. proclaimed. its. high dignity. This exaggerated view of priesthood and. of priestly powers. theology. tenets. have labeled the "received view.". I. commonly held by priests and. promoted its. the opening quotations from Sheen and Pius XI,. in official. and. unofficial. laity alike.. documents. were reinforced by a complex. was a. It. One. finds. it. in varying degrees,. set of social patterns. and. which. included dress, architecture, outward demeanor, sacramental rituals as well as everyday social ones. dress, priests. and. For example, because of. clerical. religious maintained a high visibility in the larger. community, yet because of rules of cloister and the general influence of monasticism, they often lived lives quite removed from the people. they served. Books on priestly spirituality supported such separation. by stressing values such as otherworldliness and. had a decidedly monastic. rhetoric of these books. Bede Frost in the. 5 the. in his 1936. day [of the. manual on. priest] stand the. See Philip Murnion,. American. Past," in. self-denial.. Mark. The. priestly life. For example,. claimed that "foremost. Divine Office, Mass, and Mental. Parish That Shaped Us," and Jay Dolan, "Parish in. Searle, Parish:. Minn: The Liturgical Press, 1981).. cast.. The. A. Place for Worship (Collegeville,.

(18) HARMLESS. 8 Prayer." 6. Such manuals gave the day-to-day ministry of priests,. whether counseling or. visiting the sick or fundraising for the parish. school, short shrift.. The. received view of priesthood found in such manuals only. partially, or. were. even dimly, reflected the lived experience of men. priests in the period. whom I have. from the 1930s. who. Many to. to the 1950s.. spoken point to the rich experience of guiding the. immigrant communities into the mainstream of American. life.. men spent. difficult. themselves serving communities faced with the. These. process of Americanization, a process which often included learning a. new language and. culture, fending off poverty, enduring harsh. working conditions. In. this era priests often. their struggling communities.. as advocates of the labor. served as spokesmen for. For example, some figured prominently. movement. In. munity undertook enormous building. addition, the Catholic. efforts creating a. com-. huge network. of churches, schools, and hospitals; priests played critical roles as fundraisers and administrators. Yet this rich experience of priests as. community builders and. as. community spokesmen did not enter. the spirituality and self-description of priests.. our rhetoric. is. sociologists note,. frequently inadequate to cope with the complexity. and richness of our in the. As. into. lived experience,. and one. finds such inadequacy. language used to describe priesthood during the period. 7. the high view of priesthood. came under. fire in. When. the years after the. Council, priests and laity alike often lacked a language and. self-. understanding that would have enabled them to delineate the proper role of the priest in the. life. of the community.. The. received view. simply did not give people the resources to cope with the changes that swept through the. 6. Frost, p. 90.. 7. I. am. Church. in the. wake of Vatican. II.. indebted to Robert Bellah and his colleagues for this notion of the. disjunction between the richness of our lived experience and the languages that. we inadequately apply. to that experience.. Bellah applies this distinction to. understand the nature of American individualism and the way that language hinders Americans from articulating questions of commitment and public values. See Robert Bellah et al., Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life (New York: Harper & Row, 1985)..

(19) JESUITS AS PRIESTS Liturgy. and systematic. theology.. -. The. 9 received view of. priesthood focused on the priest as a sacramental minister.. emphasis on. liturgy. and on separation from. lay life. Its. tended to surround. the priest with an air of mystery. This air was further enhanced by the popular spirituality regarding Christ's presence in the eucharist.. The. eucharist. was seen as a. rite. of epiphany, one in which. God made. himself quite suddenly present in the consecrated bread (interestingly, the wine—despite. its. centrality in the Last. part in popular devotion). it. was a. rite. Not only was. of "sacrifice" as well. In. it. Supper story— played no a. rite. many ways,. of "epiphany," but. moment moment. the central. of the Tridentine mass was the elevation of the host, a. accented by the ringing of bells. The elevation was at once an. announcement of Christ's presence and a. sacrificial. gesture of. up, of offering. This gesture. was the culmination of a. sacrifice of offered gifts that. began. the. in the offertory. Roman canon in its many prayers. Moreover the eucharist was. in Latin. priest off. on the. and ran through. to "accept this offering.". and was accompanied by a. panoply of ancient gestures and costumes. All. and the. stress. lifting. this. served to set. from the immediate circumstance of the. laity.. it. The. neo-Gothic church architecture of the period only further enhanced that separation. It. as. 8. would be incorrect. to describe the post-Tridentine eucharist. noncommunitarian. Clearly a public event,. ficial. it. was seen. as a sacri-. action and prayer enacted by the priest in the presence of the. congregation and on the behalf of the whole world. However, lack. one community dimension which we expect:. interplay. Vatican. between the. II eucharist,. priest. the. it. ritual dialogue. did. and. and the people gathered. In the pre-. community followed a. different dynamic,. one involving two simultaneous and sometimes overlapping. liturgies:. the highly structured official liturgy of the priest and the servers. held in the sanctuary and the less structured liturgy of the people in the pews. In this latter "liturgy,". people either followed the. For an excellent comparison of the pre-Vatican II liturgy with the postII one, see Ralph Keifer, Blessed and Broken: An Exploration of the Contemporary Experience of God in Eucharistic Celebration (Wilmington, Del: 8. Vatican. Michael Glazier, 1982), pp. 9-23..

(20) HARMLESS. 10. priest with a bilingual missal or listened to the. music or said the. rosary.. This experience of the eucharist as "epiphany" and "sacrifice". was accompanied by a theological understanding of priesthood framed primarily in terms of sacramental "powers." In. its. definition of. priesthood, the manualist theology of the period cited that given by. Thomas Aquinas (who, power of orders .. .. .. [and]. is. was. citing Peter. Damian): 9 "Now the. established for the dispensation of the sacraments. principally ordered to consecrating the. and dispensing their sin.". is. in turn,. 10. it. to the faithful,. body of Christ. and to cleansing the. faithful. Thomas's explanation of Christian priesthood. enced the doctrinal formulations of Florence and Trent. because of. this official. 11. from. influ-. And. endorsement, the principal post-Tridentine. manualists based their treatments of priesthood largely on a point-. 9 Nathan Mitchell, Mission and Ministry: History and Theology ment of Order (Wilmington, Del: Michael Glazier, 1982), p. 245. 10 O'Neil. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra (New York: Image, 1957), pp. 287,. of order, like. all. in the Sacra-. Gentiles, Bk. 4, chap. 74, 75, trans. Charles. 289.. Thomas. actually sees the sacrament. the sacraments, as oriented to the eucharist: "But. among. the. sacraments that which is most noble and tends to complete the others is the Therefore, the power of orders must be weighed sacrament of the Eucharist. chiefly by reference to this sacrament, for [quoting Aristotle] 'everything is But a believer is made ready for the reception of dominated from its end.' this sacrament and in harmony with it by his freedom from sin; Therefore, the power of orders must extend itself to the remission of sins by the dispensation of those sacraments which are ordered to the remission of sins; baptism and penance are of this kind" (p. 288). .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 11 The Council of Florence (1439), "Decree for the Armenians": "The sixth sacrament is that of Order. Its matter is that by the handing over (traditio) of which the Order is conferred: thus the presbyterate is conferred by handing over the chalice with wine and the paten with the bread. The form of the pres.. .. .. "Receive the power of offering the Sacrifice in the Church for the living and the dead, in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. The effect is an increase of grace so that one may be a suitable minister of Christ," in J. Neuner and J. Dupuis, eds., The Christian Faith in the Doctrinal Documents of the Catholic Church (New York: Alba House, 1982), pp. byterate. is this:. .. .. .. 494-495.. The Council of Trent (1563), "Doctrine on the Sacrament of Order": "The Sacred Scriptures make it clear and the Tradition of the Catholic Church has always taught that this priesthood was instituted by the same Lord our Savior, and that the power of consecrating, offering, and administering His body and blood, and likewise of remitting and retaining sins, was given to the apostles and to their successors in the priesthood," in Neuner, The Christian Faith, p. 496..

(21) JESUITS AS PRIESTS. 11. by-point exposition of Thomas's understanding. Such discussions. focused primarily on the meaning of ordination and on the kind of. by the minister. causality exercised. in. sacramental actions. In these. discussions the manualists sought to establish an ontological under-. standing of the grace of orders in order to ground the priest's special relationship to Christ. and. to the acts of Christian cult.. Such a focus obviously ignores other. crucial aspects of priestly. ministry such as formation of the Christian Interestingly,. confessions,. Thomas. Thomas,. community and preaching.. discusses the ministries of preaching, hearing. and study not. relation to religious. 12. in association with priesthood, but in. UfeP As. a result the manualists, following. failed to include such activities within ordained ministry.. Moreover, Thomas's overall analysis of the sacraments, for brilliance,. focused. all. all its. subsequent discussion on them simply as a. complex system of causality through which. God bestows. his grace.. 14. Such a system misses some important elements: the dialogue between presider and congregation, the role of the proclaimed word, the variety of roles in any liturgical action, the rich ambiguity of symbolic. objects. and gestures. Because of the bias inherited from Thomas, the. manualists emphasized a few discreet. moments. ones seen as exercises of priestly power: the the. J.. moment. of ordination, the. moment. within the sacraments,. moment. of consecration,. of absolution.. 12 For a summary of the post-Tridentine manualists, especially of the work of Franzelin who set the direction of many of the 20th-century textbooks, see. Bernard Cooke, Ministry. to. Word and Sacraments:. phia: Fortress Press, 1976), pp. 611-613. History. and Theology. (Philadel-. and 627-632.. Thomas treats the ministries of preaching and hearing confession and of 13 study in consecutive articles in his analysis of religious life, Summa Theologica, 188, 4 and 5. In this he is, of course, defending the practice of the mendicant orders, both their practice of the ministry of preaching and their work in the universities. He makes no mention of preaching in his scanty treatment of orders in the Summa. In III, 65, 2, he mentions in passing that "it is through the sacrament of order that an individual receives power to perform sacramental actions"; trans. David Bourke, vol. 56, "The Sacraments" (London: II-II,. Blackfriars, 1975), p. 175.. 14 For a good summary discussion of Thomas's analysis of the sacraments, see Alexandre Ganoczy, An Introduction to Catholic Sacramental Theology (New York: Paulist Press, 1984), pp. 25-29..

(22) HARMLESS. 12. The emphases. of systematic theology found their. way. into the. popular priestly spirituality of the decades preceding the Council. This spirituality strongly identified the priesthood of Christ with that of the presbyterate.. For example, Ernest Graf says the following. and devotional explanation of the Mass":. in his "historical, liturgical,. There. is. a wondrous identity between the priesthood of the. we. Catholic Church and the priesthood of our Lord. Since the. same. sacrifice that Christ offered,. offer. though the manner of. oblation be different, there must needs be identity of power in. Him and in us.. ... In the discharge of his sacerdotal function,. the priest, so to speak, sinks his personality in that of our Lord: Christ speaks and acts through him, and the priest speaks and acts as. he and the divine High-priestwere but one person. 15. if. In this popular priestly spirituality, the identification of the priest as another Christ (alter Christus) shifted. cation to a psychological one.. recommends. Thus Van. from an ontological. identifi-. Zeller, writing in 1956,. the view of the Oratorian scholar Bourgoing: "In virtue. of the priesthood of Christ,. person of Christ: we speak,. were His very. self.". we we. priests are clothed with the very act,. we. consecrate as though. we. 16. The widespread use whole view of priestly. of the private mass subtly reinforced this. identity.. By its. very nature the private mass. highlighted a view of priesthood defined in terms of sacramental. powers and promoted a view of eucharist focused on Priests often experienced their private. prayer enacted on behalf of the world.. Dom. 15. mass 18. 17. as an act of ministry, a. Thus. Ernest Graf, The Priest at the Altar. sacrifice.. it is. not surprising. (New York: Joseph. F.. Wagner,. 1926), p. 38.. Quoted by. 16. &. Ward,. 1956), p.. Dom. Hubert van. Zeller,. The Gospel Priesthood (New York: Sheed. 9.. 17 On the private mass, see Johannes Emminghaus, The Eucharist: Essence, Form, Celebration (Collegeville, The Liturgical Press, 1978), pp. 74-77. 18. For a sample of the sentiments associated with such. spirituality, see. Courtois, Before His Face: Meditations for Priests and Religious (New York: Herder Herder, 1962), pp. 48-58: "The Mass is not only an act of devotion,. &. Gaston it.

(23) JESUITS AS PRIESTS that. played a. it. critical role in priestly piety. among Jesuits and. 13 of the time, particularly. who had no. other religious. charge over some. regular congregation. But from our perspective. mask. its. prominence helped. the communitarian and analogical character of eucharistic. action. It also subtly but powerfully. obscured the role of priest as. presider and covered over the plurality of roles inherent in liturgical action.. In this. same. period, richer sacramental theologies. began. to gain. a hearing, and these were popularized here in the United States in. such journals as Orate, Fratres (which later became Worship). There were, for example, the pioneering efforts of. on the. patristic. Odo. Casel,. whose work. period helped him to break out of the scholastic. focus on ontological causality. Focusing on the practical conduct of liturgy,. he did not. stress only a. few moments, as the manualists. did,. but tried to show the complex flow and dynamics of the whole action. In his view, the eucharist. knowledge of God that. offered. "ritual mystery,". came only through. and so the. active participa-. Currents such as these were often regarded with suspicion and. tion.. said. it. was a. by conservatives to be tainted with modernism. 19 As a. when Vatican. II. result,. canonized the developments of Casel and others in. the liturgical movement, there was no well-developed priestly spirituality. accommodated. Jesuit experience.. esteem accorded other. -. to this. renewed. vision of the liturgy.. Priests in the Society enjoyed the. same high. priests during this era. In addition, Jesuits. found their priesthood highlighted by the structuring of the Society's. internal. life. according to grades. This structuring according to. grades often meant a form of segregation affecting. whom. one ate. with or recreated with or prayed with. Such segregation did. much. to. reinforce an implicit sense of the dignity and distinctiveness of. is also an act of oblation, in which we must become one with the host which offered by our hands. We will also reach a better understanding of our .. .. .. role as priest and victim. The priest acts in the name of the whole Church. The victim, uniting himself with the supreme Victim, must have in his heart same disposition as the Sacred Heart" (pp. 49-50).. 19. Cooke,. p. 632,. and Ganoczy, pp.. 34-35.. .. is. own .. .. the.

(24) HARMLESS. 14. priesthood. Yet most Jesuits, then as now, were not engaged full-time in parish ministry,. sacramental.. As. and so. a result,. their. primary work was not. many Jesuits had. explicitly. a hard time locating their. priesthood beyond the explicit actions of saying their daily mass and. reading the Office. This often. men who worked primarily in the. left. schools with the sense that their priesthood was rather privatized, for the received view. had. in large. measure defined what actions did. or did not constitute priesthood. This perception was particularly. same men. ironic since these. led very public lives— teaching classes,. administrating schools, meeting with extracurricular groups such as athletic this. teams or. sodalities.. A number of men who were active in me that. period have remarked to. were somehow. that these activities. quite. how to else). priestly,. but just did not. know. express that priestly character. Such an inability to. define themselves did not. much. they always had the sense. came under. become acute. fire in. Factors in the collapse.. until priesthood (along with. the 1960s.. With Vatican. -. II,. the received view. of the priesthood collapsed. Creating the conditions for such a collapse was, of course, the furthest thing from the minds of the. make some critical of contemporary needs and of new historical. council fathers. Their concern. changes in the. light. was simply. to. and theological understandings, particularly ones. In the remainder of this section,. and context of this specific. biblical. we will. liturgical. look at the shape. collapse; in the next section,. ways that the council. and. we will look. at the. dealt, or rather failed to deal, with. the renewal of priestly ministry.. One. of the crucial causes of the collapse of the received view. was changes. in the liturgy.. As we have. seen, the received view. placed undue focus on the liturgical function of priests, often ignoring other critical elements in their in the liturgy did. life. experience.. more than reshape. And. so the changes. the liturgical role of the priest;. they challenged deeper aspects of priestly self-understanding as well.. These changes, while long prepared liturgical. for. by the experiments of the. movement, had an immediate and powerful. at the grass roots.. The most prominent. of. them were. effect. on people. (1) the.

(25) JESUITS AS PRIESTS. 15. translation of the liturgy into the vernacular, (2) the repositioning. of the altar, (3) the separation of the liturgy of the. and. altar, first. our. priests.. own. As Ralph. on people's unconscious. effect. Keifer has noted, "for the priest to pray. It. makes him a partner. in dialogue with us. That position also imaginatively locates. and therefore. God is,. The. language, facing us, radically changes his relationship to. the people.. place,. the. use of lay readers and eucharistic ministers.. two of these had a powerful. image of in. (4) the. word from. but also of. communicated. .. .. who. .. God. before God.. in a very different. who God, and how God is. rearranges people's vision not only of they are in relation to. to them.". 20. In the old. rite,. the priest had stood at. the far end of the sanctuary with his back to the people and had. spoken. in a. low voice. in a. language especially reserved for worship.. All of this had strongly contributed to the image of the priest as the. God and his people. In the new rite the priest was such way that God was imaged as being in the. mediator between positioned in a. people's midst. Because of this the sense of the priest as exclusive. mediator seemed to vanish. With the presence of lay readers and eucharistic ministers, the priest. and so. his exclusive position. Many other. became one. among many,. minister. was further undermined.. changes, too, shook the. life. patterns of the. parish: the decline in the use of confession, the collapse of. many. popular devotions, the decline of such parish organizations as the. Holy. Name. Society and the Legion of Mary.. ment of distinctive. priestly. between clergy and. garb by. laity; clergy,. play.. Even. if. Vatican. II. many helped blur. and. With the impetus of Vatican. religious too,. because of larger cultural. the distinction. had. less visibility.. other cultural forces. II,. had not taken. would have been some major. The gradual abandon-. place,. I. think there. came. still. shifts in the self- understanding. shifts. both. in the. into. of priests. United States and. around the world. For instance, the early 1960s saw the end of colonialism, an event which by itself. would have reshaped Catholic. missiology. Moreover, such tumultuous events as the civil-rights. 20. Keifer, Blessed. and Broken,. p. 15..

(26) HARMLESS. 16. movement, women's shaken and shaped. liberation,. life in. and the Vietnam. War. the U.S. Also, the 1960s. still. would have. marked the end. of the "immigrant" church in the U.S. (or at least a phase of it—with recent Vietnamese and Hispanic immigrations, a. seems to be underway). The end came with the Catholics into. of John F.. American. life,. Kennedy to the. full. integration of. an integration symbolized by the election. presidency.. less to their religious leaders for a. and more to various. new phase now. Now Catholics tended to look. sense of identity and orientation,. "professionals." Catholic institutions. lose their distinctive character. and became. in large. began to. measure. indistin-. guishable from their public counterparts; their administration fre-. quently passed from priests and religious. With the. women to laypeople. 21. collapse of the received view of priesthood. sudden widespread. crisis in vocations.. came. the. Between 1966 and 1974 the. 22 Society of Jesus lost 1500 ordained men.. The reasons. for this. collapse are complex, and the explanations varied. According to. who headed. Andrew Greeley and Richard. Schoenherr,. on the question,. marry [was] the main (though not. "the desire to. a major study. 23 the only) explanation of the inclination to leave the priesthood.". They noted ity. that,. contrary to their expectation, problems with author-. were not a determining factor. in the decision to resign; as. Greeley notes, "whatever frustration and the decision to leave, for most resignees. emotional relationship with a direction of resignation." desire for marriage. ^. difficulties it. woman that. may have preceded. was the experience of an tipped the scales in the. In his claim that loneliness and the. were the most. significant reasons for. men leaving,. Greeley seems to be giving an accurate report of responses that he. Joseph A. Tetlow, "The Jesuits' Mission to Higher Education: Perspectives 21 and Contexts," Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits, vols. 15 and 16, nos. 5 and 1. (Nov. 1983, Jan. 1984), pp. 4-5.. 22. D. J. O'Brien, "The Jesuits and Catholic Higher Education," Studies of Jesuits, vol. 13, no. 5 (Nov. 1981), p. 8.. in the. Spirituality. Quoted. in Joseph M. Becker et al., "Changes in U.S. Jesuit Membership, Symposium," Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits, vol. 9, nos. 1 and 2 (Jan. and Mar. 1977), p. 65.. 23. 1958-1975:. 24. A. Quoted. in. Becker, p. 64..

(27) JESUITS AS PRIESTS received.. However, he. fails to. 17. ask the analytic question:. celibacy suddenly. become. so emotionally unbearable?. There seem. to have. been two reasons. the. crisis. First. of. all,. Why did. for the suddenness of. the ideology that had portrayed priesthood as. the ideal of holiness collapsed against the new-found pluralism and egalitarianism implicit in sections of the Vatican II documents. David L.. Fleming. became. in the following. passage notes. how these. latter. themes. part of the atmosphere immediately after the council:. Whereas. privilege. and position had been a usual concomitant of. the priesthood in the Catholic environment 1950s, [in the 1960s] "equality". and "no. the leveling notion of personhood,. greatness of the. identity. difference,". based on. became the bywords. The. more common sacraments. for building. up the. is,. baptism and marriage, received. The sacrament. of orders, which specialized the. Christian community, that. the attention.. up through the. and role of a comparatively small group within the. Church, was deliberately downplayed. This process of democratization within the sacramental system of the. shock to. as a. men in training to be priests— who unconsciously had a common expectation that. many priests. consciously or. Church came. or. priesthood would give them an increased assurance of personal 25 value or a status acknowledged by the Catholic community.. The. crisis in. a general. the dignity and status of the priesthood formed part of. crisis in. authority, a crisis. the dignity and status of. all. forms of institutional. which rocked a number of institutions throughout. the West. Priests, like educators and business leaders and politicians,. were. less. and. less. seen as advocates of the public good and embodi-. ments of the community's most dearly held. virtues.. A second reason was the lifting of penalties— both canonical and. societal. ones— for leaving priesthood. Such a change. in. vocation. ceased to be seen as "disgraceful." According to Joseph M. Becker,. who. did a detailed survey of changes in Jesuit. U.S., the vocations crisis. 25. David Fleming. in. membership. in the. was part of a general "loosening up". Becker. et. al.,. p. 136..

(28) HARMLESS. 18. process, comparable to that which occurs in psychoanalysis; in this. whole generation was. case, "a. overcome. invited, with a. 'pluralistic ignorance'. other alternatives, or, even. more. new. urgency, to. and to recognize the existence of shattering, the possibility that. its. ^ construction of reality was but one of many options." The. failure of Vatican II in the renewal of priesthood. Vatican. renewal that. II. it. was a massive. had. best of. my knowledge,. failure to. The aggiornamento and. fostered have been astonishing. Nonetheless, the. council. its. success.. weaknesses and blindspots, though no one, to the has pointed out one of. renew the priesthood. That. is. its. weakest areas:. not to say that Vatican. did not change the shape and understanding of priesthood. did.. But. it. failed to. renew. it,. at least in the. the ministries of the bishops and of the. Of course, renewal Vatican. II. way. that. it. It. its. II. certainly. renewed. laity.. has been a complex process. First of. did not simply initiate changes;. much. of. its. all,. work was. responding to movements and theologies that had been underway for decades. It. made. It. rejected or ignored certain trends and canonized others.. certain explicit changes (for example, encouraging ecumenism,. resurrecting the diaconate), catalyzed others by the guidelines. it. formulated (allowing the use of the vernacular, multiplying the. number of new dioceses), or simply provided a context for change (formulating a new ecclesiology which implicitly encouraged collaboration with laity in the management of Catholic schools and hospitals).. Earlier. we saw that symptomatic. of the collapse of the received. view was the massive number of departures of priests and priest candidates. to. The. telling sociological indicator of. renew the priesthood. is. Vatican IFs failure. the ongoing decline in the. number. priest candidates. This decline implies that priesthood. no longer. captures the imagination and idealism of youth. Before directly at the. 26. of. we. look. inadequacy of Vatican IFs renewal of priestly ministry,. Becker, p. 28..

(29) JESUITS AS PRIESTS let. us look. and the. 19. the successful renewal of the roles of the bishops. first at. laity.. The renewal of the episcopacy. of the bishop, Vatican. II clearly. pope, "the episcopal order. is. In. -. its. discussion of the role. teaches that, together with the. the subject of the supreme and. power over the universal Church.". 27. It. full. thus draws away from the. excessive concern with the papacy that characterized Vatican. recovers the ancient view of the collegiality of bishops.. No. I. and. longer. is. the bishop described as a sort of local delegate of the pope and his. curia— as earlier drafts of Lumen Gentium had tended to characterize him. 28. The bishops. each diocese Christ. is. is. are "the proper, ordinary and immediate pastors";. "one particular church in which the. truly present. and. active.". episcopal prayer of the Byzantine. 29. .. .. .. Lumen Gentium,. Church of quoting the. describes the bishop as "the. rite,. steward of the grace of the supreme priesthood.". ^. The. fact that. the council would turn here and elsewhere to an Eastern understanding of the bishop flows in part from tive,. but also from. its. renewed ecumenical perspec-. concern to retrieve part of the rich. view of the bishop. That. patristic. interdependence of the bishops. at the council. its. patristic. view emphasized the equality and. And that view provided. progressives. with a theological foundation for counteracting a. Tridentine theology used by curialists since the nineteenth century to justify patristic. Roman centralizing tendencies. The model of the bishop can. also. be seen. importance of the in the Constitution. on. the Sacred Liturgy (Sacrosanctum Concilium) and in the General Instruction of the. new Sacramentary,. in. which the bishop's mass. given as the paradigm of the eucharistic liturgy.. is. 31. 27 Lumen Gentium, Vatican II: The Conciliar and Post-Conciliar Documents, ed. Austin Flannery (Northport, NY: Costello Publishing, 1975), no. 22. 28. Richard. P.. McBrien, Catholicism (Study Edition) (Winston Press, 1981), pp.. 680-681.. Dominus, no.. 29. Christus. 30. Lumen Gentium,. 31. "Every authentic celebration of the eucharist. 11.. no. 26.. either in person or through the presbyters,. who. is. directed by the bishop,. are his helpers," "General Instruc-.

(30) HARMLESS. 20. All of this could have remained at the level of rhetoric had. new (and very. the bishops not institutionalized their role in a fashion, namely, through the use of synods. ferences.. and. old). local bishops' con-. For example, the episcopal synods of Medellin and Puebla. have had tremendous influence not only in Latin America, but throughout the world. Moreover, during the Sandinista revolution in. Nicaragua and. in the recent ouster of. Marcos. in the Philippines,. bishops' conferences played a dramatic role. Similarly, the U.S.. bishops have raised a considerable. stir. war and on the economy. In addition individual bishops have stances:. Oscar Romero. come. over their letters on nuclear. to such collective efforts,. to the fore through their prophetic. El Salvador, Jaime Sin. in. in the Philippines,. One other factor has been the formation an enormous number of new dioceses. As a result, many dioceses. Helder Camara. in Brazil.. have become smaller, thus more manageable and. Renewal of the baptismal. call. of the. laity. -. laity:. Vatican. The. appointed to. less impersonal.. accented the dignity of the. "The apostolate of the. in the salvific mission of the church; tion, all are. II. of. laity is. a sharing. through baptism and confirma-. this apostolate. 32. by the Lord himself.". council emphasized the role of the laity in the transformation. of secular society: It. belongs to the. in. temporal. They. laity to. affairs. live in the. seek the kingdom of. God by engaging. and directing them according. world, that. is,. to. God's. will.. they are engaged in each and. every work and business of the earth and in the ordinary. circumstances of social and family constitute their very existence. that,. being led by the. spirit. life. which, as. it. were,. There they are called by. of the Gospel, they. God. may contribute. Roman Missal," no. 59, in Ralph Keifer, To Give Thanks and Praise (Washington, DC: National Association of Pastoral Musicians, 1980). Also Sacrosanctum Concilium, nos. 26 & 41-42. tion of the. 32. Lumen. Gentium, no. 33..

(31) JESUITS AS PRIESTS to the sanctification of the world, as fulfilling their. own. particular duties.. 21. from within. like leaven,. by. 33. But what has occurred since the council has been a new-found emphasis on lay ministry, a ministry exercised not within secular. had envisioned, but within the Church.. society, as the council this shift. from. lay action in the secular. Church has met with some. the. pointed out,. "in. the. admonition to the. As David Power. has. person, this can sound like an. keep to. laity to. world to lay ministry within. official opposition.. mouth of one. And. their place; in another,. it is. a. ^ cry of anguish, lest Christ be absent from world affairs." Since the council, a. swarm. of. new lay ministries. has arisen:. readers and eucharistic ministers, professional directors of religious. education and of worship, lay catechists (particularly crucial in the. Third World) and hospital chaplains, campus ministers and social activists.. While we currently speak of these as. "lay ministry,". we. we have lumped together an enormous diversity of uninstitutionalized ministries. The current flurry of lay ministry is, on the one hand, full of much excitement and energy and, on the. need. to recognize that. other, fraught with ambiguity regarding proper roles.. people have begun seeking advanced. sensitivity of these ministries, lay. training, including professional theological education. tive. about. Because of the. this in the history of the tradition is that. What. distinc-. such ministers. no process whereby. are tested academically, but undergo. is. their life. and personality may be probed or formed. The education of lay. model of education. ministers has followed the predominant U.S., namely, that of the professional.. expansion, the current. movement. As. in the. in previous cases of rapid. in lay ministry represents a. wide-. spread response to deep-felt pastoral needs. Also as in previous cases, lay ministers,. from the. institutionalized,. have opportunity for. for experimentation.. can. Moreover,. their. has not yet been. flexibility, for mobility,. commitment. and. to such ministries. a brief period or a lifetime. But this lack of institutionaliza-. last. 33. Lumen. 34. David N. Power,. lished. fact that their ministry. Gentium, no. 31.. (New York: Pueblo. Gifts. That. Differ:. Lay. Publishing Co, 1980),. Ministries, Established. p. 54.. and Unestab-.

(32) HARMLESS. 22. tion also entails lack of safeguards for insuring basic justice: reason-. able job descriptions, written contracts, suitable wages, appropriate. care for retirement, and so forth.. movement. This ministry. of lay ministers into full-time professional. especially striking. is. ago, full-time ministry. when viewed. was the nearly. and of religious orders. But with the. full-time ministry without the. Church. for one's. life. A generation. exclusive preserve of priests. rise of lay ministry,. now do. whole. historically.. commitment. one can. to serve the. and without the promise or vow of an unintentional yet. celibacy. In other words, lay ministry poses. very real challenge to permanent commitments embraced by priests. and. religious.. And. that challenge takes place in a culture. whose. ideology of individualism has rendered lifelong commitments problematic.. 35. Inadequacy of the attempted renewal of the priesthood. general, the council gave. than. it. much less. laity.. laity also. In. Lumen Gentium,. some nine paragraphs. for example, the role of the bishop receives. and the role of the. In. attention to the role of priests. did to that of bishops and of the. (nos. 20-28). -. nine (nos. 30-38), the role. of the priest only one (no. 28). Another indication. is. the citations. or sources appealed to in each of the sections. In the section on bishops, there are. many patristic. citations.. This recovery of patristic. sources represents one of the great scholarly advances prior to the council and. had a dramatic. effect. on the understanding of the role. of the bishop and the understanding of the liturgy. In the section. on the. laity,. there are almost. no. citations except of. Leo XIII. to Pius XII; in other words, the material. However,. in the section. exclusively. on priesthood, the. from the Council of Trent;. on priesthood. for the. seems to indicate. popes from. was. citations. all. quite new.. come almost. in other words, the passage. most part repeats the received view. This. that the bishops did not sense that the priesthood. as such required the degree of renewal. needed elsewhere.. It. must. have seemed to them that priesthood was in good condition, and to. 35. Bellah et. al.,. pp. 142-163..

(33) JESUITS AS PRIESTS all. appearances. shifting. some. it. was.. 23. They simply could not have foreseen. things (the role of bishops or. laity,. the liturgy, the relationship of the Church to the. the character of. modern world) and would. in not shifting others (such as the role of priests), they. occasion a massive. that in. crisis.. Towards the end of the. council, the bishops passed the. on the Ministry and Life of Priests (Presbyterorum. Decree. Ordinis). It. make up for the previous neglect and sought to lay the groundwork for a more adequate theology of priesthood. But there was little in it that was truly new. As we shall see below, it broadened to some degree the liturgical view of priesthood and addressed some issues in pastoral care. Moreover, as the document notes in its attempted to. preface,. its. "who are engaged so. meant. directives, while. members. for all priests, concern those. in the care of souls," that. is,. of religious orders have to adapt. diocesan clergy, and its. principles to their. particular circumstances.. Now let us look at Vatican IPs treatment of priesthood and see more. specifically the. the priest. In. ways. failed to develop a. it. Lumen Gentium. renewed image of. the bishops repeat the standard view. of "sacerdotal dignity," that priests are consecrated "after the image of the Christ, the supreme and eternal high priest." their treatment of the matter, they offer a. giving. due care to the uniqueness of. ^. However,. more nuanced. Christ's priesthood. in. view,. and the. uniqueness of his role as mediator. They block out the possibility of the sort of crass identification that literature. In addition, is. Vatican. in the eucharistic cult. .. .. .. II. we saw earlier. in the popular. repeats the standard view that. that [priests] exercise in a. degree their sacred functions.". Once. again, they. "it. supreme. nuance. terms of the renewed understanding of liturgy put forward. this in. in Sacro-. sanctum Concilium.. One important shift is the recovery of the idea that the Church ordains men not simply to administer the sacraments, but also "to 36. Lumen Gentium,. no. 28; see Presbyterorum Ordinis, no. 5.. 37. Lumen Gentium,. no. 28; see Presbyterorum Ordinis, no. 5..

(34) HARMLESS. 24. preach the Gospel." Presbyterorum Ordinis states that. "it is. the. first. task of priests as co-workers of the bishops to preach the Gospel to. men.". all. It. difficult in. in. goes on to note that "the present-day conditions,. priest's preaching, often. if it is. to. become more. very. effective. moving the minds of his hearers, must expound the Word of God. not merely in a general and abstract. way but by an. application of. the eternal truth of the Gospel to the concrete circumstances of life.". ^. While such a ministry of the word had long been part of. the actual. work of priests,. had. it. received, as. we have. seen,. little. emphasis in theological reflection on priesthood. This recovery of the ministry of the word could be a rich area for renewal. it.. But since the council. Admittedly priests preach. little. at least. seems. to have. been made of. on Sundays, but the homilies. are frequently poor: overly abstract, hastily prepared, and blandly delivered. This. while. is. due. in part to inadequate training. It. more and more Catholic. and have Protestant colleagues generally included preaching.. concerning preaching.. dynamic. in their classes, shared study has not. Few Catholic. clergy have explored the. many Protestant. up something. congregations have. Now that Catholics are exposed daily to. TV and radio evangelists. content), the lack of. tragic that,. clergy study under Protestant teachers. rich traditions of Protestant preaching or have picked. of the high expectation that. is. (whatever one thinks of their. good Catholic preaching seems. all. the. more. obvious. Moreover, there seems to be less Catholic preaching than. before the council because preaching has become limited to that. done during the Sunday. eucharist. Before the council, events such as. parish missions or preached retreats served as important occasions for. much. Catholic preaching.. Ironically,. now that. the ministry of the. word has become. and parcel of priestly self-understanding, one of the aspects of Jesuit priesthood has been obscured. that while such ministry has always. standing of priestly ministry,. 38. Presbyterorum Ordinis, no.. its. 4.. part. distinctive. Many fail. been a part of the. to realize. Jesuit under-. appropriation by the rest of the.

(35) JESUITS AS PRIESTS Church. is. quite recent.. 25. As Pedro Arrupe noted. 32nd General Congregation, "Ignatius had a ministry that Trent.". 39. is. in a. speech to the. vision of the priestly. closer to Vatican II than to the Council of. Jesuits have traditionally brought several unique. to their ministry of the word.. ministry of the. While diocesan clergy engage. word generally in some. community, Jesuit missionaries engage. emphases in a. pre-established Christian in. one oriented. to a "first. hearing" of the Gospel and so must cope with the difficult task of inculturation.. Other. because of their professional commitments. Jesuits,. as lawyers or biologists or artists or administrators, bring a ministry. of the. word. to parts of our culture that. is. "sociologically distant". from the Christian message. Vatican. II also. recovered two important patristic views of. priesthood, though neither has effected any real renewal.. was the recovery of the. patristic. close link to the bishop.. II. cooperators of the episcopal college and. or. fifth. describes priests as "prudent its. support and mouthpiece.". fact that the average. and. bishop of the fourth. that the fourth-century presbyterium. resembled the contemporary parish. than the current diocese of several hundred the fact that. it is. Moreover, illuminate the. priests. It also. this. emphasis on the presbyterium does. meaning of Jesuit priesthood. This can be. promise obedience to is. obscures. the ordinary parish priest and not the bishop. during Jesuit ordinations. obedience. more. staff or parish council. maintains sustained and close contact with the Christian. when. his ordinary.. 41. The. The one who. faithful. little. to. vividly. seen. rite. in fact receives that. presupposes, but. peculiarity of this ritual. Pedro Arrupe, "Epilogue,". who. the bishop asks the newly ordained to. not the ordaining bishop, as the. the man's provincial.. 39. its. century generally had a congregation smaller than that of. today's pastor, closely. first. notion of the presbyterium and. Thus Vatican. Such a view obscures the. The. Justice with Faith. Today. moment. (St.. high-. Louis: Institute of. Jesuit Sources, 1980), p. 318.. 40. Lumen Gentium,. no. 28; see Presbyterorum Ordinis, no.. 7.. 41 "Ordination of a Priest," The Rites of the Catholic Church, York: Pueblo, 1980), no. 16.. vol. II. (New. 40.

(36) HARMLESS. 26 lights the. uniqueness of Jesuit priesthood: our commitment to mission. means mobility, and that mobility goes against a Church order built on territorial jurisdiction. Moreover, because of the exempt status of the Society, Jesuit priests tend to move outside the purview of the whole episcopal order. Michael Buckley, thood:. in his article "Jesuit Pries-. Meaning and Commitments," has suggested. Its. Society of Jesus. is. essentially a. new form. that "the. of the ancient presbyterium,. a group of presbyters acting as a community precisely in assisting the bishop; but here, the presbyterium has a function which primarily prophetic and the bishop. While. this. Society. is. whom we. is. assist is the pope.". 42. does help locate the meaning of the fourth vow, the. plainly not the pope's presbyterium.. The. patristic pres-. byterium served as counselors of the bishop, and clearly the Society does not play such a Society with. its. role. It. might be more accurate to say that the. special missions serves in a role closer to that of. the ancient deacon. However, even this view generally tends to operate. own. on. its. own. fails. initiatives. since the Society. and according to. its. lights.. The second change was the sense of the. drew from. that Vatican II. patristic sources. priest as the leader of the local Christian. community. Popular pastoral theology had long spoken of the pastor as the "shepherd" of his. community, but there were, as we saw,. elements in the received view which portrayed the priest as otherworldly and detached from community. Vatican. away from the. ascetical. and towards the. II shifted. the accent. pastoral. In Presbyterorum. Ordinis the bishops stressed the solidarity of the priest with his. community:. "priests. .. .. As community leader, a brotherhood. .. live. with the rest of. the priest. is. men. as brothers.". to "assemble the family of. fired with a single ideal." **. 43. God. as. Vatican IPs emphasis on. the priest as a leader in solidarity with his people was clearly an. advance, but. 42. it. failed to appreciate the full patristic. Michael Buckley, "Jesuit Priesthood:. in the Sprirituality. of Jesuits,. Its. view of the. Meaning and Commitment,". vol. 8, no. 5 (Dec. 1976), pp. 146-147.. 43. Presbyterorum Ordinis, no.. 44. Lumen. Gentium, no.. 3.. 28; see Presbyterorum Ordinis, no. 9.. Studies.

(37) JESUITS AS PRIESTS As Nathan Mitchell. matter.. 27. has pointed out, in the early Church. "anyone competent to serve the church in matters of public responsibility. would ipso facto be competent. eucharist.". 45. to preside at the. Vatican IPs view was exactly the reverse: anyone. designated by the Church as competent to preside at the eucharist. would necessarily be competent to serve the church public responsibility. That. is. plainly not the case:. in matters of. many priests. lack. the gifts for such public leadership. In addition, as Schillebeeckx has. pointed out,. we. currently have a situation that. would have been. impossible in the early Church: Christian communities which possess. designated leaders (such as catechists), yet are unable to celebrate the eucharist.. priesthood. is. 46. of. Furthermore,. this patristic. use to Jesuits since. little. view of leadership and. we. generally. do not serve. as leaders of a stable Christian community.. In the aftermath of Vatican these. II,. priests sought to. new understandings. Often priests came. work out. to define themselves. in terms of their diverse roles: counselor, administrator, teacher, facilitator, social. this. worker, community organizer, social. activist.. way, priesthood ceased to be experienced as a single coherent. state of. life,. differed. Vatican. one marked by some. from the II. laity "in. had claimed.. 47. "indelible" character,. one which. essence and not only in degree," as Rather, priesthood. came. terms of these diverse functions. Jesuits absorbed. to. be viewed. David Fleming has pointed out that. this. in. this functionalist. view and began to speak of themselves as "hyphenated. on. In. priests.". view placed enormous stress. Jesuit self-understanding:. Many Jesuits reached. its. .. .. .. wondered whether the goal of Jesuit. training. culmination in a secular professional degree or in. ordination to the Catholic priesthood. If the secular goal was. why bother with these further studies for the priesthood? Or if priesthood were only an adjunct to one's reached. first,. 45. Mitchell, pp. 168-169.. 46. Mitchell summarizes Schillebeeckx's argument on the right of the Christian. community 47. to the eucharist, pp. 289-295.. Lumen Gentium,. no. 10..

(38) HARMLESS. 28 ordinary professional the .. .. .. way. or drop. made. for. and personal. it if it. life,. why not. cast. it. aside. if it. gets in. adds a burden? These kinds of questions. added anxiety and doubt fulfillment.. in. an age of personalism. 48. Up to now we have focused on priesthood in the larger Church.. We have seen both the demise of the older received view and the inadequacy of the newer view put forward by Vatican II. We have throughout touched on the way both of these have affected the Society. In particular,. we noted. life. in. that the recoveries of Vatican II. help in understanding their priesthood: the. offered Jesuits. little. ministry of the. word had always been. central to the Society's. mission, and the relationship to the bishop and the leadership of a stable Christian. community were both rather unimportant. to the. actual functioning of priesthood in the Society. In the next section,. we will. focus directly on the place of priesthood in the Jesuit. charism and. PART. III.. will explore its rather. unique contours.. THE PLACE OF PRIESTHOOD CHARISM. IN. THE JESUIT. In the course of the 32nd General Congregation, a most pecudispute took place, one which epitomizes the peculiar character. liar. The congregation began to consider extending the brothers. At this point Paul VI intervened,. of Jesuit priesthood. the fourth. and. vow to. in a letter. addressed to Father Arrupe insisted that "no change. can be introduced related to the fourth vow" in that the Society. founded by Ignatius was fundamentally a "Society of priests". The. intervention of the. Jesuits.. While. generally also. 48. 49 the 31st. Fleming. all. pope seemed. startling to the. 49. gathered. the assembled recognized that, yes, being a Jesuit. meant being a. priest,. somehow being. a "society of. in Becker, p. 137.. "Autograph Letter of His Holiness Paul VI to Father General," Documents of Society of Jesus (St. Louis:. and 32nd General Congregations of the. Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1977), pp. 539, 540..

(39) JESUITS AS PRIESTS priests" did not. seem a. 29. particularly apt characterization of the charism. of the Society. In their view, priesthood, while. one element among many. critical,. was simply. in the apostolic life of the average Jesuit.. In this misunderstanding between the general congregation and the pope, the issue, at least in part, was determining the core of. the Jesuit charism. Jesuit. To understand how priesthood works. scheme of things,. in the. us turn to see both the ways in which. let. priesthood was described and the ways in which. it. actually func-. tioned in the early Society.. Priesthood in the early documents of the Society. Vatican. II in its. Decree on the Appropriate Renewal of the M. Religious Life gave two principles for renewal: (1) a constant return to the sources of the. whole of the Christian. life. and. to the primitive. inspiration of the institutes" and (2) "their adaptation to the changed 50 If we follow the advice of the council conditions of our time.". and consult the foundational documents and history of the early Society in order to see. its. "primitive inspiration,". surprisingly— that explicit mention of priesthood. ing. is. a. summary culled from. we is. discover-. The. rare.. follow-. the early documents of the Society:. (1) In his Autobiography Ignatius. makes only one reference. his exercise of priesthood: saying his daily private mass.. seems extraordinary. for a. man whose. orientation. to. That. was so pro-. foundly apostolic. Yet that daily devotion served as an important. time for his discernment over issues regarding the Constitutions, for as. da Camara notes, "the method he followed when. writing the Constitutions. was. to celebrate. present the point under consideration to. Mass every day and. God and. to pray over. 51 it.". (2) In the. Formula of the. Institute, the only. two mentions of. priesthood regard the permission to have the colleges function. 50 51 ton, Del.:. Ecclesiae Sanctae, no. Ignatius of Loyola,. A. 2.. Pilgrim's Journey, trans. Joseph N. Tylenda (Wilming-. Michael Glazier, 1985),. p. 121..

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