TERRITORY TO STATE How a TERRITORY like ARIZONA becomes a STATE

Full text

(1)

TERRITORY TO STATE How a TERRITORY like

ARIZONA becomes a STATE

(2)

THE CONSTITUTION ON STATEHOOD

The Constitution merely declares that new states cannot be created by merging or splitting existing states without the approval of both the U.S.

Congress and the states' legislatures.

Otherwise, Congress is given the authority to determine the conditions for

statehood.

(3)

THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE

The Northwest Ordinance, officially known as the Ordinance of 1787 established the procedures by which territories were admitted as states to the Union.

It was derived from a proposal by Thomas Jefferson concerning the formation of states from the territory acquired as a result of the Revolutionary War.

1. A government composed of a governor, a secretary, and three judges appointed by Congress was established in the region north of the Ohio River.

2. When the population of the territory reached 5,000, the inhabitants were authorized to elect a legislature and to be represented in the House of Representatives by a nonvoting member.

3. When a designated area of the territory had 60,000 residents, that area could seek to become a state by complying with the requirements of the ordinance.

(4)

THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE

❖In 1789, the United States government made a law that explained the way new states could be added to the country.

❖This law told how land that was part of the United States, but not part of a state, would be ruled.

❖It also told how people living in these areas could have their land named from a territory into a state.

❖These rules were used later for territories such as New Mexico and Arizona.

(5)

ENABLING ACT

❖In 1802, the United States Congress passed another law called an Enabling Act.

❖Enabling Act = a legislative act conferring certain specified powers on a person or organization

❖This law set the plan for all the territories in the west to later become states.

❖Arizona also had an Enabling Act.

(6)

TERRITORY VS. STATE

Being part of a territory is not like being part of a state. The people living in a territory do not have as many rights as citizens in a state.

People who are part of a state can vote for a governor to be their leader.

In a territory, the President of the United States chooses the governor, judges and other offices.

The people living in a territory cannot vote for the President of the United States.

They do get to vote for their Territorial Assembly members.

However, any laws the Assembly passes have to be approved by the U.S.

Government.

(7)

ARIZONA’S ENTRANCE TO THE U.S.

Arizona became part of the United States in 1848 after the Mexican American War.

In 1850 Congress created the New Mexico territory which included New Mexico, Arizona, and parts of Colorado, Nevada, Utah.

They soon felt they were too far away from the capital of New Mexico to be rightly governed, and wanted a separate territory.

The demand was opposed by arguing that the area was unimportant.

(8)

ARIZONA AS A TERRITORY

❖In 1863, while the Civil War was still being fought, President Lincoln signed the Organic Act.

❖The Organic Act allowed Arizona to become its own territory.

❖Charles D. Poston is known as the "Father of Arizona" because of his effort to secure Arizona as its own territory.

❖Poston was an explorer, miner, and surveyor who lobbied the bill through Congress establishing the Arizona Territory.

❖President Lincoln hoped that Arizona’s gold and silver discoveries would help pay for the nation’s Civil War debts.

❖Arizona’s first governor, John N. Goodwin, set up his headquarters at Fort Whipple, near Prescott.

(9)

ARIZONA’S GROWTH

❖The territory’s people were just as important as the territory’s progress. Many new people were coming to Arizona.

❖The discovery of gold and silver brought many miners to the territory.

❖Farmers began irrigating their fields with canals dug by the ancient Hohokam peoples.

❖Ranching became important.

❖Arizona’s most important mineral, copper, was discovered. Copper mining became highly developed.

❖Especially important to Arizona was the arrival of the Southern Pacific Railroad from California in 1877.

❖In 1911, the Roosevelt Dam was completed.

❖The Native Americans had been forced to live on reservations and the threat of attacks was getting less and less.

(10)

STEPS FOR A TERRITORY TO BECOME A STATE

1. The people of the territory petition the United States Congress for statehood.

2. If Congress honors the petition, it passes an Enabling Act. The Enabling Act allows the people of the territory to draw up a state constitution. It also tells the people of the territory what they must do to become a state.

3. The state constitution is written and voted on by the people of the territory;

then sent to Congress

4. If Congress finds everything in order, a law giving statehood is passed.

5. If the President agrees, he/she signs the law. A Presidential Proclamation announces the new state.

(11)

ARIZONA PETITIONS TO BE A STATE

❖In 1872 Arizona first voiced the demand to become a state.

❖Stronger movements began in 1891. Arizona wrote a constitution and took the train to Washington to hand-deliver it to Congress.

❖They were denied.

❖Seven years later, they got even more dramatic, demonstrating with their lives just how serious they were about statehood.

❖In what is perhaps the most heroic action to gain statehood in the history of the nation, thousands of Arizona men answered the call for a volunteer army in 1898 to fight in the nation's first overseas war: the Spanish-American War.

❖Still they were denied.

(12)

POSSIBILITY OF STATEHOOD

❖The first time Washington seriously entertained the idea of admitting Arizona was in 1903.

❖The chairman of the Senate Committee on Territories proposed it be combined with New Mexico and admitted as one state. They called it "jointure”.

❖New Mexico liked the idea, Arizona didn't, voting against it in 1906 by 16,265 to 3,141.

❖Finally in 1910, Congress accepted their petition and created an enabling act; which allowed Arizona to create a state constitution.

(13)

ARIZONA CREATES A CONSTITUTION

❖Arizona's Constitutional Convention opened on Oct. 10, 1910, and ran for 60 days.

❖Arizona’s constitution included the initiative, referendum and recall of judges.

❖President Taft did not agree with the initiative, referendum and recall of judges and vetoed the constitution, telling the Arizona Territory it would never be admitted with that provision.

❖Arizona responded and removed the recall of judges.

(14)

ARIZONA BECOMES A STATE

❖President Taft signed the official papers in Washington, D.C., at 10:23 a.m. on Wednesday Feb. 14, 1912.

❖At its first election after statehood in the fall of 1912, Arizona voters reinstated the recall of judges into the state Constitution.

❖And, by a healthy margin, they gave Arizona women the right to vote, eight years before national suffrage.

(15)

ARIZONA’S JOURNEY FROM TERRITORY TO STATE

❖For some territories, these steps happened very quickly. But for Arizona, it took a long time.

❖How many years was Arizona a territory? You do the mathematics. It became a territory in 1863 and a state in 1912?

(16)

ARIZONA’S JOURNEY FROM TERRITORY TO STATE

❖Why did it take so long?

❖At first, not many people lived in Arizona. It took years for population to increase.

❖Many people who lived in the East thought Arizona was a wild and dangerous place.

❖Some people wanted Arizona and New Mexico to be one state instead of two.

Figure

Updating...

References

Updating...

Related subjects :