CHALLENGES OF THE BOARD OF MANAGEMENT IN
MANAGEMENT OF STAFF AND STUDENTS PERSONNEL IN
SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN GATUNDU SOUTH DISTRICT, KENYA
LENI ELIZABETH NYAMBURA
A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF
EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT, POLICY AND CURRICULUM
STUDIES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF A
MASTER OF EDUCATION DEGREE, KENYATTA UNIVERSITY
I declare that this research project is my original work and has not been presented in any other university for consideration of any certification. This research project has been complemented by referenced sources duly acknowledged.
Leni Elizabeth Nyambura Date
This research project has been submitted with our approval as the university supervisor.
Dr. Florence M. Itegi Date
Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies
Dr. Kithinji Florence Date
I wish to thank the Almighty God for his grace upon me as I wrote this project. Without him everything would have been in vain.
I sincerely thank my supervisors Dr. Florence Itegi and Dr. Florence Kithinji for guiding me throughout the process of writing this project.
I also wish to thank Cate and Triza for typing and editing my work.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... v
LIST OF TABLES ... viii
LIST OF FIGURES ... ix
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ... x
ABSTRACT ... xi
CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ... 1
1.0 Introduction ... 1
1.1 Background of the Study ... 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ... 10
1.3 Purpose of the Study ... 11
1.4 Objectives of the Study ... 11
1.5 Research Questions ... 11
1.6 Significance of the Study ... 12
1.7 Assumptions of the Study ... 12
1.8 Theoretical Framework ... 13
1.9 Conceptual Framework ... 15
1.10 Limitation of the study ... 16
1.11 Delimitations of the Study ... 16
1.12 Operational Definition of terms ... 17
CHAPTER TWO:REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ... 18
2.1 Introduction ... 18
2.2 The concept of Management and its Importance ... 18
2.3 Staff Personnel Management in public Secondary Schools ... 22
2.4 Student Personnel Management in Public Secondary Schools ... 32
2.5 Effects of BOM Personnel Management on Performance ... 35
2.6 Constraints of BOM in Management of Staff and Student Personnel ... 41
CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 44
3.1 Introduction ... 44
3.2 Research Design... 44
3.3 Locale of Study ... 44
3.4 The Target Population... 45
3.5 Sample and sampling procedures ... 45
3.6 Research Instruments ... 47
3.7 Piloting ... 47
3.8 Instrument validity and reliability ... 47
3.9 Data Collection Procedures ... 49
3.10 Methods of Data Analysis ... 49
3.11 Logistical and Ethical Considerations ... 50
CHAPTER FOUR:DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS... 51
4.1 Introduction ... 51
4.1.1 Questionnaire Return Rate ... 51
4.2 Demographic Information of Respondents ... 52
4.2.1 Demographic Information of Principals ... 52
4.2.2 Demographic information of BOM ... 54
4.2.3 BOMs Work Experience in Current School ...56
4.2.4 Experience of BOMs in Other Schools ... 57
4.3 Conversancy and Understanding of Roles by BOM ... 58
4.3.1 Conversancy of Roles ... 59
4.4 BOM Academic Qualification and their influence in Management of Personnel ... 60
4.5 Schools‟ Mean Scores and BOM Academic Qualifications ... 61
4.5.1 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the schools‟ mean grades and BOM academic qualifications. ...62
4.5.2 Chi-Square test on Mean grade and Academic qualification of BOM63 4.6 Participation of BOM in Staff and Students Management ... 65
4.6.1 Level of Participation of BOM in Staff and Students Management .. 65
4.6.3 Distribution of BOM members undergoing training or short courses at
KEMI ... 73
4.6.4 Examining documents read by BOM members since appointment ... 74
CHAPTER FIVE:SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 80
5.1 Introduction ... 80
5.2 Summary Findings of the Study ... 80
5.3 Conclusion ... 84
5.4 Recommendations ... 85
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research ... 86
REFERENCES ... 87
APPENDICES ... 91
APPENDIX I: PRINCIPAL‟S QUESTIONNAIRE ... 91
APPENDIX II: BOM QUESTIONNAIRE ... 96
APPENDIX III: RESEARCH BUDGET ... 100
APPENDIX IV: LETTER OF INTRODUCTION ... 101
APPENDIX V: LETTER OF AUTHORIZATION ... 102
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: Schools Constituting the Sample ...46
Table 3.2: Total Sample in all Categories ...46
Table 3.3: Reliability Test ...48
Table 4.1: Demographic Information of the Principal ...52
Table 4.2: Principal‟s Level of Education ...53
Table 4.3: Principal‟s Age...53
Table 4.4: BOM Members gender ...56
Table 4.5: BOM Members Age ...55
Table 4.6: BOM conversancy and understanding of roles ...59
Table 4.7: Schools Mean Scores and Grades in K.C.S.E ...61
Table 4.8: Mean Grade Vs. Academic Qualification ...64
Table 4.9: Mean Grade Vs academic qualification Cross tabulation ...63
Table 4.10: Chi-square Tests on mean grade relationship with academic qualification ...64
Table 4.11: Participation of BOM in Staff and Student Management ...65
Table 4.12: Response on level of participation of BOM in various roles ...70
Table 4.13: Frequency and percentage of BOM undergoing training ...73
Table 4.14: Members of BOM having read Code of Management and Education Act ...75
Table 4.15: Response on principal‟s relationship with BOM ...75
Table 4.16: Response on how long BOM take to respond to discipline issues ...76
Table 4.18: Response on constraints in dealing with teachers disciplinary cases ..78
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: The Conceptual Framework ...15
Figure 4.1: BOMs experience in current school ...56
Figure 4.2: Experience of BOM serving in other schools ...57
Figure 4.3: Conversancy of Roles ...58
Figure 4.4: Academic Qualification ...60
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS BOM Board of Management
GOK Government of Kenya
KCSE Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
KEMI Kenya Educational Management Institute
KNUT Kenya National Union of Teachers LEA Local Education Authorities
MOEST Ministry Of Education Science and Technology PTA Parents Teachers Association
ROK Republic of Kenya
TIQET Totally Integrated Quality Education & Training
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1.0 Introduction
The chapter gives an outline of the following subtitles; background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, and significance of the study, assumption of the study, limitation and delimitation of the study, scope of the study, theoretical framework, conceptual framework and definition of operational terms.
1.1 Background of the Study
School Boards of Management is the collective name given to the people who oversee the operation of an education institution directly serving the public interest (Basic Education Act 2013).
In South Africa and Malawi, the school governing body is selected from prominent members of the society who have excelled in their areas and considered as role models in their area of specialization Dawson, (2008). In Zimbabwe, the government has laid down rules and regulations regarding recruitment and roles of school board of management in primary school. The minimal level of education for qualification is a secondary school certificate Aduda (2001).
The management and administration of secondary schools in Kenya like other learning institution is vested in school Board of Management. The Ministry of Education Science and Technology MOEST, (2005) states that, it is the duty of the BOMs to effectively manage the human personnel and physical and material resources for smooth running of institutions and for good results. Personnel management in education institutions affects the standard level of knowledge and skills that the learner achieves at a given level of learning. Teachers are probably the most important human resource that a country has. This is because an efficient human capital depends on the quality of teachers. Human resource makes or breaks an organization (Okumbe, 2009).
recruitment, selection, supervision, motivation and retention in the service (Gathiira, 2008).
The government of Kenya in 2000 made a proposal to decentralize some functions to Teachers Service Commission (TSC). Decentralization was to reduce the workload at the TSC headquarters while also satisfying the staffing needs of the schools. The proposal was implemented and the TSC delegated some functions to the Board of management and the District Education Boards. This liberated TSC from task of conducting interviews and employing from headquarters. Of critical importance was to ensure fair distribution of teachers by ensuring that high teacher turnover was contained in those areas with perennial staff shortages. The recruitment was to be based on the needs of the schools and district leading to proper utilization of teachers (Daily Nation Correspondent, August 29th 2002, P11 Col.1-2).
According to the Basic Education Act (2013) the BOM is appointed by the County Education Board consist of 13 members who include: six persons representing parents or local community, a nominee of the County Education Board, one representative of teaching staff, three representatives of sponsors, one representative of special interest group and a representative of persons with special needs. The BOMs are supposed to work together to manage the school without any bias either to their own interest or to the interest of the people who appointed them to the post in order to realize development and good results in the institution. The question is whether the BOM has been able to carry out their roles without constraints. Based on this the research aimed to establish the constraints of BOM in management of staff and student personnel in public schools in Gatundu South District.
The BOM contributes a lot toward improvement and achievement of educational goals in their various institutions in various ways: monitoring curriculum delivery, develop institutional policies, making decisions, supervising infrastructural development, financial matters as well as overseeing the delivery of educational programs and monitoring educational standards. Others are the recruitment and selection of employees both teaching and support staff MOEST (2005). The Kenya Educational Management Institute (KEMI) has been instrumental in offering in-service training courses for the BOMs and Principals to enhance their management skills. Hussein (2011) observed that BOM members do not have commitment to undergo training on management.
from persons of integrity with a minimum qualification of form four levels of education ROK (2001). Further the task force suggested need for induction of BOMs on code of management and policy to be implemented on their training to enlighten on responsibilities of BOM. Magaju (2005) in his study indicated that BOM members are not selected on merit and most of them have no proven track record and therefore do not carry out the recruitment exercise efficiently and effectively. Most of these BOM members do not understand the professional and topical, socio-economic and political issues which are a pre-requisite during the recruitment process.
The BOM also has the role of teacher management and staff and student‟s discipline which would be achieved if BOM members are conversant and well educated on educational programs and management roles as pointed out by Koech Commission ROK (1999). The working relationship of the BOM and teachers in Gatundu was examined since efficient implementation of the curriculum depended on the teachers to a larger extent, any BOM infringement on the teachers would create conflict and thus negatively affect a smooth running of educational programs and also a student performance. However, when there is frequent consultation among the teachers and BOM academic performance is improved and the BOM can carry out duties efficiently (Munyiri 2011).
most of them were not appointed on merit and that their appointment had political influence. Munyiri (2011) observed that on appointment to the board, most members are not inducted on their expected roles. Besides, there is not set criteria enumerating the competence a person should have to qualify for appointment into a board. As a result most public schools are managed by old and unenergetic retirees, semi-illiterate business people or semi-skilled unprofessional people who have little or no passion for education.
The BOM contributes to educational development in that they ensure that learning takes place by tackling issues like lack of teaching and non-teaching staff, supervision of teacher duties, inadequate classrooms, lack of motivation among teachers and students and handling discipline cases among teachers and students Basic Education Act (2013). Simatwa (2012) observes that anticipated performance can be achieved if members understand their role in improving teaching and learning outcomes. Most institutions In Gatundu are faced with a number of educational issues. This includes poor examination performance, lack of structured in-service training programs for teachers and shortage of educational facilities such as classrooms and laboratories. All these challenges fall within the domain of school governing bodies.
institution‟s governing body decides to rate gender, nepotism, ethnicity or religious devotion higher than pure professionalism when recommending a teacher to TSC for employment, then nothing in the current TSC guidelines can stop them.
Since 2001, when the first recruitment and selection of teachers through BOMs started most Kenyans have expressed discontentment with the way the teacher recruitment exercise is conducted. There have been indications of lack of competence among school boards. Most BOM members are not able to interpret the TSC recruitment guidelines and implement it (Gathiira, 2008). In addition, local conspiracies and biases have also come into play to affect the outcome of the recruitment process. The recruitment exercise requires people with thorough understanding of professional and topical, socio-economic and political issues. Board members in most cases are not selected on merit and have no proven record making the teacher recruitment process inefficient and ineffective.
In addition Simatwa (2009) attributes poor performance and low motivation on the part of staff to BOM members who do not understand their role in improving teaching and learning outcomes. Gituma (2007) also indicates that the Boards are not carrying out their roles as they should. The report also observed that boards were not autonomous and did not have full responsibility for the appointment, promotion and discipline of teachers. It was also pointed out that most boards found it difficult to discipline teachers because they owed allegiance to the TSC and that this arrangement affected discipline in Schools.
According to the Basic Education Act (2013) guidelines, members of the school board must have a minimum of a secondary school certificate. The chairman of the Board should be preferably a university graduate or a professional of high integrity. Members should not have vested interest. The guidelines put emphasis on teamwork. The spirit of collective responsibility must be seen to prevail where all members are expected to abide by decision reached at board meetings (Omondi 2007). Hussein (2011) argues that although BOM members have a role in managing students‟ discipline, most members were not committed to attending crucial meetings intended to resolve students‟ disciplinary cases. This led to students having their justice delayed and this had a negative impact on their academic performance. Munyiri (2011) observes that most BOM members were not conversant with the teachers Code of Ethics and found it difficult to handle teachers‟ disciplinary cases whenever they arose.
in areas of decision making, recruitment of teachers, disciplining of teachers and students and motivation of both students and staff and lack of quorums of scheduled meetings. The report of the task force on student discipline and unrest in secondary schools, Republic of Kenya (1999) also indicated that BOM is constrained because they lacked quality management capabilities. Appointment of Board of management sometimes is not done under stipulated government policy where competence, 11commitment and experience of the person being appointed should be considered so as to enhance management of secondary schools (Magaju 2005).
The problem of proper school personnel management in Gatundu South District has not been addressed. The Task Force on Students Discipline and Unrest in Secondary School, (2001) indicates that Boards of Governors experience many constraints in management of schools. There has been a continued out-cry by stakeholders about the way recruitment and selection of teachers in public secondary schools conducted by BOMs. There have been alleged malpractices like discrimination based on nepotism, ethnicity, locality, gender, regionalism, corruption political influence and organizational politics (Gathiira (2008). The BOMs have been accused of misappropriation and mismanagement of funds. Other constraints regarding human resource and students discipline has resulted to poor performance in KCSE, deterioration in morals, strikes, students‟ unrests and disasters such as destruction of property and loss of lives all of which have been attributed to poor management (Magaju, 2007).
with the new constitution of Kenya (2010) and the Basic Education Act (2013). In this new devolved dispensation, therefore, is need to conduct a study to establish the constraints of BOM in management of staff and student personnel in Gatundu South District. These constraints are a contributing factor to low performance and poor results in Gatundu South public secondary schools. Poor academic performance leads to high wastage rate due to the finances invested in education. This is despite the fact that every public secondary school has a BOM which is mandated to oversee its development and studies have been done on effectiveness of BOM in management of public secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
11 1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the constraints of BOMs in management of staff and students personnel in public secondary schools in Gatundu South District. This will help in finding solutions to effective and efficient management of staff and students personnel by BOM and improve academic outcomes
1.4 Objectives of the Study
i) To determine the role of BOM members in management of staff and student personnel.
ii) To assess the influence of BOMs level of education and professional qualifications in handling personnel matters.
iii) To establish the influence of BOM competence on academic performance (KCSE) in secondary schools in Gatundu District.
iv) To find out the constraints of BOM in management of staff and student personnel in secondary schools in Gatundu South District
v) To examine ways of solving constraints faced by BOMs in secondary schools in Gatundu South District.
1.5 Research Questions
The following questions were generated to guide the study.
i) To what extent are BOM members conversant with their expected roles?
ii) What is the effect of BOM academic and professional qualifications on their ability to handle personnel matters?
iv) What are the constraints of BOM in management of staff and student personnel management?
v) How can constraints faced by BOM members be dealt with to improve their performances?
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study is anticipated to assist the BOM members to understand their roles and constraints that may confront them and come up with solutions.
The study will also help the school administration and staff to identify ways of improving performance in an institution. The study will help learners identify the best ways of improving and realizing positive academic outcomes
The study will also help education planners and policy makers understand existing constraints of BOM and help them come up with strategies to address the challenges faced by the BOMs in management of schools.
The study is expected to assist the Kenya Educational Management Institute (KEMI) to appraise their training curriculum especially on roles and constraints of BOMs in management. The study will eventually form a base on which other researchers can develop their studies.
1.7 Assumptions of the Study
The study will help in alleviating school personnel management problems of BOMs. The researcher will be able to visit all the sampled schools within stipulated times.
1.8 Theoretical Framework
The study aimed at investigating constraints of BOM in management of staff and students personnel in public secondary schools in Gatundu South District, Kiambu County. The theoretical framework for the proposed study was the Scientific Management Theory by Fredrick Winslow Taylor (1856 – 1915). The theory focuses on the relationship between labor and management especially with a point of view of what could be done to increase efficiency and productivity. Taylor argues that managers should concentrate on planning and giving direction while non-managers should focus on carrying out plans and directives.
Taylor argues that every work activity should have certain process and time to be taken. In addition workers need to be motivated through awards of certificates, increased wages and favorable working conditions. He also argues that members should be selected scientifically and trained to increase efficiency and productivity in an organization.
15 1.9 Conceptual Framework
According to Orodho (2004) a conceptual framework is a model of presentation where a researcher conceptualizes or represents the relationship between variables in the study and show the relationship diagrammatically. In this context, the conceptual framework is a hypothesized model identifying variables that affect the performance management of BOMs. The purpose of this conceptual framework is to graphically depict the proposed relationships.
Factors influencing BOM management
Figure 1.1: The Conceptual Framework
Source: Researcher 2018
Independent Variables Dependent Variables
Management skills &training
Professional skills and competence Commitment Selection criteria Ethnicity Finances Local support Politics
The conceptual framework of the study was based on the fact that the performance of BOM in management of secondary schools is influenced by factors such as academic and professional qualifications, management skills and competencies, level of commitment and their selection criteria. These pre-requisite skills are the independent variables that are important and will enable prudent, effective and efficient personnel management by BOM. In the process of undertaking their task there are intervening variables which include ethnicity, finances, local support, political interference, period of tenure and sense of ownership. Prudent management of staff and students is assumed to facilitate positive outcomes. These are the dependent variables which include high levels of motivation among staff and students, enhanced discipline among students and members of staff, team spirit, conducive learning atmosphere and improved performance in KCSE.
1.10 Limitation of the study
i) Due to limitation of time and resources, the study covered Gatundu South District only.
ii) The BOM who were target respondents in the study are not always in school a condition that made their availability to respond to the research difficult. The researcher mitigated this by making prior booking with the Principal on the date the BOM members would be present in school.
1.11 Delimitations of the Study
17 1.12 Operational Definition of terms
For purpose of the study, the following terms will be used as elaborated below:
Academic performance – Means performance in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary
Efficiency: Means achieving your objectives with the limited resources.
Roles: Are duties assigned to BOMs
Public school: Refers to any secondary school started by the government or the local
community management in such schools is under the government and the community. School management: Is the process concerned with identifying, maintaining,
controlling and unifying formally and informally organized human and material energies within integrated system designed to accomplish pre-determined objectives. Board of management: Is a body consisting of a number of persons appointed to
manage affairs of secondary school on behalf of the Ministry of Education.
Recruitment: The process of seeking, attracting and identifying a group of qualified candidates in sufficient numbers to fill current and future workforce needs.
Constraints – Obstacles to effective management of secondary schools by board members.
Decentralization – Refers to the transfer or devolution of the TSC functions to the
PDE, MEO, DEO and BOM.
Girl’s boarding school - A school where female students can live during the school
Boy’s boarding school - A school where male students can live during the school
Mixed boarding and day – A school for both male and female students who live in school and others who live at home and only go to school during the day.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Introduction
This chapter examines literature related to the study. The literature review will highlight the concept of management and its importance, the role of BOM in management of staff and student‟s personnel, challenges of BOM and the effects of BOM on academic performance. Relevant information from commissions of inquiry education act and reports on management will be examined. A summary of literature review will then be made.
2.2 The concept of Management and its Importance
Okumbe (2009) defines management as the process of acquiring and allocating jobs for the achievement of predetermined educational goals. He goes on to say that educational managers are policy-makers. Organizations can only attain goals and objectives by the coordinated efforts of their members. It is the role of management to get tasks done through other people. Ozigi (1994) defines management as the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the activities of employees in combination with other resources to accomplish the organizational objectives.
methods and talent management processes that ensure attraction and retention of the right quality people by the organization (Desseler 2003).
Most schools in different countries are managed by school boards. School managing bodies are known by different phrases or names in various countries, for instance, in Kenya they are known as Board of Management (BOM); in South Africa they are called school governing bodies (SGB), in Nigeria they are known as school boards and in UK and elsewhere they are simply known as school management Kingi (2010). Regardless what they are called, their roles are more or less similar and that is contributing to the child‟s education.
In USA, the provision of school boards become a requirement in Massachusetts in the Laws of 1989 and 1827 and were empowered to exercise general supervision over schools and before the middle of the nineteenth century, the idea of a separate board for each public school management had become generally accepted. Most school boards were responsible for management of funds, certification of teachers, recommendation of curricular and supervision of building and maintenance of school. In England and Wales, there are various types of maintained schools – Voluntary aided, voluntary controlled and county schools have as a rule their own boards of governors which operate under articles of government or instruments of management and charged with financial issues, appointment of heads and teaching and non-teaching staff, school organization and curriculum and pupil admission (Smolley 1999).
industrialists, medics and solicitors and business people. It was observed that there was deep interest shown in the school board elections and high class of men who have become candidates and elected. The citizens have elected men who put education first and politics second (Dessler 2003).
In Northern Ireland and Britain, school board membership comprises the following categories: parents, religious institutions, and trustees, teachers, representation of NEELB (North Eastern Education and Library Board), Department of Education and the school head. Fellow parents and teachers elect the parents and teachers respectively, British Education Act revised the composition of the school governing bodies, standardizing their size according to the number of pupils enrolled. The Act increases representation of parents and co-opted members and reduced the number of representation appointed by local authorities (Dessler 2003)
In South Africa the secondary school governing boards comprises: Elected parent Representative, Elected learners, elected members of non-teaching staff, the Principal, and co-opted members (chosen by the school) on the basis of their experience and skills. The board members serve for a period of up to three years after which they are eligible for re-election or co-option. The learner (student) can only serve for one year. The constituted board then elects the executive committee comprising the chairperson secretary and treasurer. The chairperson has to be a parent not employed by the institution (Maitland 2009).
approval of academic policies, determining levels of staff and maintenance of buildings and grounds (Van, 2001).
In Kenya the establishment of BOMS is provided for in the Basic Education Act (2013) According to the Act, the BOM is appointed by the County Education Board. The board consists of 13 members who include 6 persons representing parents or local community, a nominee of the County Education Board, one representative of teaching staff, 3 representatives of sponsors, one representative of social interest group and one representative persons with special needs. After selection to the board an inauguration meeting is held under the chairmanship of the Ministry representative. In this meeting the secretary, chairman and executive committee are elected and in most cases the principal of the institution is elected as the secretary to the board being the officer in charge of the running of the school on a daily basis MOEST (2005).
The Basic Education Act (2013) gives guidelines on the competence of BOM in their selection and appointment into their roles and responsibility. Board members must have a secondary school certificate. The management of educational institutions in Kenya by BOM is therefore critical since they play an important role in attainment of institutional goals and objectives.
The BOM in Gatundu South District are the policy implementers. They also hire the sub-ordinate staff and assist in recruitment of teachers, manage students and staff discipline, support developments, monitoring school programs and services Munyiri (2011). Gathira (2008) observed that although BOM members have an important role to play in the improvement of performance and achievement of institutional goals they were not quite involved in planning and decision making in meaningful ways. Management of education was weak because most BOM lack management capabilities.
The Basic Education Act (2013) recommends that members of BOM and school committee be appointed from among the persons who are dedicated, skilled and experienced to improve management and development of educational institutions. There is no proof that this recommendation has been implemented. As concerns Gatundu South District the qualification of BOM which affects their proficiencies is not known necessitating this study to be carried out.
2.3 Staff Personnel Management in public Secondary Schools
In any country, the major portion of the national budget allocated to education is spent paying human personnel. The success of any school depends on how effectively the school can deploy human personnel resource for the best use of it. Ozigi (1994) views staff personnel management as the process of attracting, selecting, retaining and developing the personnel required in the organization for it to meet the stated goals and objectives effectively.
The TSC has devolved the responsibility of teacher recruitment and selection to the Boards of Management. The advertisement of vacancies for teachers is made by the TSC in the National Newspapers. The BOMs receive and record applications from interested potential teachers and short-lists them according to the issued guidelines. Interviews are then carried out by BOMs and the best candidate selected and recommended to the TSC for employment (Gathiira, 2008). The exercise has continued to date, despite the public outcry on how the exercise is conducted.The question therefore remarks on the challenges of BOM in conducting recruitment and selection of teachers in public secondary schools of Kenya. The question is how competent is the recruitment panel to follow the issued TSC guidelines strictly and whether there are certain factors that influence the outcome of the teacher recruitment and selection.
educational matters was inadequate and that they lacked managerial abilities. The government annual progress report of 2004-2005 indicated that BOM lack the capacity to employ new teachers professionally due to limited training.
Decentralization of teacher recruitment has caused a lot of controversy. Reports show that some schools fail to shortlist qualified applicants who pose a threat to „identified‟ candidates, while other institutions keep their interview dates a secret so as to achieve their sinister motives. Schools recruit candidates who do not meet the qualifications as long as they have a degree certificate with no relevant teaching subjects on their transcripts. For example, a Bachelor of Education technology degree has no relevant content and methodology required to teach Physics in secondary schools.
The process is rife with irregularities; field officers doubt the competence of school boards. Most BOM members may not be able to interpret and implement education guidelines (Koskei, 2004).
In spite of the efforts of delegate some of the TSC teacher management functions, notes TSC Mwalimu Welfare Association, concerns for improved efficiency of the systems have been raised. Some of the issues include the inefficient recruitment and deployment system of teachers and lack of the regulations on roles of BOMs, PTAs and school committees in monitoring teacher performance. The study will examine the constraints of board members in recruitment and selection of teachers in public secondary schools.
they have a reasonable level of education, high degree of commitment and dedication, training in management and cooperation with all stakeholders. The BOM should provide active leadership in the school they manage by getting involved in planning and setting policies for the schools.
The school comprises different people with varying interests, religious and cultural background. All these people relate well to one another but at times they disagree resulting in violent anti-social behavior. This people expect the boards to fulfill their needs and also look to the world around them for help. The BOMs have the responsibility of working for the best interest of each individual (Kingi, 2010). This suggests that the board should possess knowledge and skills focused on the good of the school and the public they serve.
In his study, Simatwa (2012) observed that most BOM members had not undergone management training. Very few were aware of the existence of KEMI. Those who knew about KEMI were reluctant to train because they were busy with other issues or did not see the need at all. Training of administrators is paramount as the administrative quality, to a large extent, determines the failure or success of the organization. BOMs should, therefore, be properly trained for efficiency and productivity to avoid overburdening the heads with their roles. Lack of training on the part of BOMs adversely affects management of an educational institution.
minister appoint the members practically? What qualifications (educational and professional) should one possess to be a board member? In addition the secondary schools Boards of Management in most secondary schools in Kenya have not been exposed to adequate management training. Also majority of them lack adequate supervisory competencies. It will be important to examine how BOM are appointed and how the education level affects their management as stakeholders in secondary schools.
From 2001 when recruitment and selection of teachers was devolved to the BOMs to date there have been allegations of numerous malpractices in the way the exercise was conducted. According to Daily Nation briefs (July 30th 2006 P5 Col5) notes DEO Anthony Kenyakisa, “Ministry of Education ordered a repeat of the recruitment of secondary school teachers in Kitui district due to irregularities in interviews, where university graduates were unfairly locked out in favor of Diploma holders”. This reveals that there are inherent problems and challenges faced by BOMs during the exercise.
The involvement of BOMs in recruitment of teachers has left many questions unanswered as to whether BOMs are adequately prepared to handle the TSC function within the decentralized framework upholding and maintaining the TSC professional integrity. For proper selection and recruitment to take place the selection panel needs interviewing skills. Many complaints of the malpractices in the recruitment process have been received by the TSC. Among them are the ones included in a letter to the editor in Daily Nation September 3, 2002 which advised the government to consider changing the current decentralized system of recruiting teachers since the whole process was unfair (Gituma, 2007).
Several challenges have been cited to influence the outcome of the recruitment and selection of teachers by BOMs in various parts of the country. This includes; corruption and nepotism (Daily Nation, correspondent, May 12th 2001 p14 Co.1-2); December 10th 2001, p8 Col 1-2), politicians and powerful individuals influence (Daily Nation, August 29th 2002, p11 Col 1-2), favoritism (Daily Nation September 2nd 2003, p10, Col.1) tribalism and BOMs semi-illiteracy (Njuguna, Daily nation, September 9th 2004 p10 Col.3) and fake documents (Siringi, Daily Nation September 21st 2005 p5 Col.2).
Gituma (2007) in her study observes that BOMs have ignored their role in identifying staff professional needs, planning and organizing school based in service courses for them so as to develop and motivate them. She noted that although there have been changes in the education trends, for example the introduction of life skills in schools, most teachers were not conversant with what is expected of them regarding the concept because no in-service training has been attended. Teachers need to keep abreast with changes in curriculum, methods of teaching and subject content to motivate them and equip them with necessary skills to improve performance.
According to the study by Munyiri (2011), most BOM members are not inducted on their expected roles after appointment. Besides, there is no set criteria enumerating the skills a person should possess to qualify for appointment into a board. He also observed that although KEMI was established was established to offer management to educational managers, majorities were not aware of such an institution and had not been through any training on management skills.
In his study, Ochiel (2005) observes that Board members in some schools have not been dedicated and committed. Some BOM members only attend meetings for their own selfish desires, like allowances and do not participate in reasonable decision making in the meetings. Some of them become ineffective due to chronic absenteeism causing lack of quorums of scheduled meetings.
economic and political issues. Board members in some schools are not selected on merit and have no proven track record making the teacher recruitment exercise as inefficient and ineffective.
Omondi (2007) observes that the BOMs have relegated their responsibility of ensuring that there are sufficient physical and instructional resources which are equally important since they enable the human resource to produce the desired goals and services.
The BOMs should ensure that they recruit required personnel and allocate duties appropriately to ensure high standards of performance. They should create an enabling environment and provide incentives to both teachers and students, so as to motivate and influence them to achieve high performance. The staff personnel are a crucial area of school management as they require being motivated and also be informed about changes in the curriculum and the entire education system.
Hussein (2011) observes that due to the education level of some BOMs, handling of disciplinary cases of teachers has been difficult. Few members are conversant with the teachers code of ethics and as such, not aware of the teachers disciplinary rules and procedures. Such cases have been left to the head teacher to make decisions which sometimes are biased. In addition, when members are called upon to attend meetings to determine certain cases, most of them don‟t take them seriously, show no commitment and absent themselves.
point out that their relationship with BOM is not co-operative during recruitment. This shows the existence of misunderstanding of views between the two parties during teacher selection. Principals have accused some BOM of over-domineering in decision making and management with little recourse to head teacher‟s advice. School heads also cite difficulties emanating from board members‟ illiteracy and lack of dedication as sources of conflicts in school management. The political interference in their appointment also brings into office people who are ignorant of schooling and indifferent to professional values. Board members are ignorant and lacking in knowledge on professional matters related to education (Omondi, 2007). This study will assess the academic and professional qualifications of BOMs in public secondary schools in Gatundu District.
Magaju (2005) in his study observed that the relationship between the BOMs and head teacher in some schools lacked partnership and had little or no mutual understanding of each other‟s roles and responsibilities. The head teacher who is the chief executive of the school and the link between the school, board and ministry of education authorities does not give any advice to the BOMs on matters relating to management of schools. Some head teachers do not even provide relevant facts and figures to guide BOMs in their deliberations and help them make policy decisions for the school. BOMs are then left out on important matters concerning the school.
Ochiel (2002) in his study observed that certain schools where BOMs show understanding and care about the staff, the productivity of the staff is high. BOMs in such cases have used motivators such as staff needs for achievement, recognition, responsibility, and personal growth and development potential.
In New York, education is managed by community school Boards. The responsibilities of the governing bodies include staffing as an integral part of local management. The responsibility for disciplinary and grievance procedures rests with the governing body which is required to establish disciplinary roles and procedures enabling staff to seek redress of grievances relating to employment. Such disciplinary rules and procedures must be sufficiently clear, specific and thorough as to what conduct or behavior is permitted and what is prescribed. The rules and regulations regarding discipline and grievances must be issued to all staff by the governing body (Dessler, 2003).
In Britain, the management of education is shared between the Central Government and Local Education Authorities (LEA). In county and most controlled schools, admission arrangements are the responsibility of the LEA. The LEA decides the admission policy, which determines how places are to be allocated if the school is oversubscribed, but it must consult governors about it annually. The head deals with the routine organization of admitting pupils. In all maintained schools, the head is statutorily responsible for ensuring that the behavior of students is satisfactory and this will include the drawing up and the enforcement of school rules.
Governors can also choose to advice the head on particular disciplinary matters and the head must take note of this advice (Dessler, 2003). The head teacher has to give the Governors reports about the following: Information about the staff, non-teaching staff, staff professional development, welfare, finance and areas where the governors have to make decisions.
2.4 Student Personnel Management in Public Secondary Schools
The main task in student management is to develop them to become acceptable members of society. Onyango (2001) reports that students are the raw materials that are processed through schooling to produce useful citizens rich in desirable values, abilities and knowledge. They have values and interests which differ from those of the staff. There are influences working on students such as parents, modern technology like the internet and media and other pressures inside the school which may be more influential than the staff. It is the duty of the school managers to treat them in a manner that may not cause conflict. The expression of students anger can result to unrest such as strikes, destruction of property and life and therefore, the board should handle students‟ grievances before they get out of hand.
Gituma (2007) also observed that while BOMs were expected to ensure that instructional materials and facilities were available to enhance performance, in most schools, this was left to the head teacher. Some members were also found to have misappropriated and mismanaged school funds due to embezzlement.
Magaju (2005) observed that although the issue of student‟s enrolment and admission is a responsibility of the BOM, it has been left solely to the head teacher. After students have reported, nothing much is done to establish if the facilities available are sufficient. Lack of physical and instructional materials directly affects performance. In some instances BOMs have been accused of embezzlement of school funds. In addition the BOMs have not developed a fair and equitable system of students discipline and this remains the single most common and serious problem that educators face in schools. Some discipline cases take too long to be determined and some students use this as an excuse to drop out of schools.
There has been laxity and lack of commitment by BOMs to monitor students‟ progress and provide special assistance to ensure the achievement of institutional goals. The current HIV/AIDS is a point in hand to show the emergency involved. Most BOM members have not adapted any elaborate procedures of handling such cases as well as ensuring guidance and counseling programs for students infected or affected by HIV/AIDS. Most BOMs fail to finance counseling sessions and strengthening of counseling units.
incidences of rape, violence, disobedience to school authority, drug addiction and damage of school property. The BOM have not given enough support especially now that schools were left to look at alternative ways of punishments after the government stamped a ban on corporal punishments. Some BOMs fail to finance counseling sessions and strengthen counseling units.
According to Onyango (2001), school discipline is a system of organizing conditions of efficient learning and living and that it is the role of teachers to maintain discipline in their schools by helping their staff and pupils develop good and individual personalities with a cultural background and group consciousness. The institutional administration entails students making choices in life reasonably and independently through guidance and counseling.
A study by Hussein (2011) indicated that although BOMs have a responsibility in managing the students‟ discipline, a lot of discipline cases were left unresolved because members failed to attend meetings scheduled to make decisions regarding the cases. After suspension period was over, some students would remain away from school until the BOMs had a convenient day to hold meetings for disciplinary action to be taken against the affected students.
2.5 Effects of BOM Personnel Management on Performance
In as much as the role of the BOMs is spelt out in the Education Act, a lot has been said that tends to indicate that the boards are not carrying out their roles as they should. This has had an impact on performance and achievement of institutional anticipated goals and objectives.
Munyiri (2011) pointed out that management of educational institutions in most schools was found to be weak because most of the boards of governors lacked quality management capabilities. These challenges sometimes lead to poor performance in national Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). Poor examination performance leads to high wastage rate due to finances invested in education.
A study by Magaju (2005) indicated that although all secondary schools comply with government requirement of putting governing bodies, there is evidence of ineffectiveness due to bad governance perpetuated by authoritarian, draconian and undemocratic leadership. In schools where leadership is democratic, teacher‟s level of motivation is enhanced and this is reflected in the discipline and performance of both students and teachers unlike institutions where autocratic leadership style is applied.
Nsubuga (2008) in his study observed that improved students‟ learning and achievement is strongly related to the way in which schools are managed. In schools where the BOM functions well, the school is well supervised and performs well. The BOM is important in the governance and management of the school for several reasons which include, but are not limited to, the following; liaising with the head teachers in upholding the culture of the school, maintaining school ethics and discipline and management of school funds, management of the general welfare of the school‟s staff and learners, soliciting support from the school community and developing the quality and levels of education.
Though some aspects of management like instructional, administrative, democratic and bureaucratic leadership and management styles are always good, coercive and authoritative administrative styles are always not conducive (Simatwa2012). This study looks at the challenges of BOM in the management of secondary schools and their impact on KCSE performance in Gatundu South District in view of different leadership styles and abilities of the BOM.
further argues that it is the duty of school managers to ensure a good organizational atmosphere which is open and relevant to job distribution to encourage high productivity.
The board members in most schools do not have knowledge and dynamics of managing human personnel such as motivation of employees, leadership styles, delegation of duties and responsibilities and styles of communication. Lack of motivation on part of staff affects performance. Productivity is seen to be high where staffs are highly motivated. The BOMs should be able to control, guide and motivate teachers and support staff so as to realize institutional goals.
In a study by Simatwa (2010) Education standards are extremely low in some schools. Poor school management/governance, poor performance in national examinations and high drop-out rates have been cited as the major contributing factors to low academic standards in some schools. The status of school governance and management of education affairs has a direct effect on quality of education. Most schools have weak management and governance structures not optimally equipped to address education affairs. Gituma (2007) indicated that the BOM and PTA both contribute to educational development in various ways and because of their nature and status; they are meant to perform different but complementary roles in the life of the school. However in a number of cases, evidence suggests that their roles occasionally overlap resulting in tensions and conflicts. Tensions and conflicts undermined the Board‟s effectiveness.
teachers, lack of priorities for relevant continuing professional development programmes for teachers, shortage of qualified teachers and shortage of educational facilities such as classrooms and laboratories. All these challenges fall within the domain of school governing bodies. The main role of the governing bodies is to improve teaching and learning outcomes (Wasike, 2009).
Hussein (2011) observes that most BOMs have not been committed in handling discipline issues. The BOMs have a responsibility in managing discipline of students and staff. The main goals of school discipline are to ensure safety of staff and students and also to create an environment conducive to learning. Where a student is suspended from the school by the head teacher a board meeting should be convened within 14 days of suspension. The student should appear before the board for hearing and if the board recommends for expulsion of such a student, the recommendation supported by two thirds 2/3 of the full board should be forwarded to the Provincial Director of Education Disciplinary Committee. In most institutions, the issue of discipline has been left to the principal alone.
Dublin (1989) found that teachers‟ satisfaction with school discipline policy was related to their relationship with the school management. Good communication and shared values are important elements in the relationship. Ideally the management should be able to create consensus among staff on rules and their enforcement.
and hardworking teachers are transferred to be replaced by teachers who are non-performers.
A study by Ochiel 2005 indicated that in schools where channels of communication among staff, students and management were active performance was high. Students‟ achievement is likely to be greatest where teachers and administrators work together because BOMs had knowledge and understanding of effective communication strategies. Creating a collaborative environment and open communication has been described as the single most important factor for successful school improvement initiatives. Non-conducive School climate affects effectiveness and interferes with outcomes for teachers and students. Improvement in school climate enhances the principal‟s effectiveness, teacher‟s performance and student‟s achievement and behavior. This improvement however only occurs if the administrators, teachers and students are empowered.
There have been changes in education trends within the education system in Kenya. It is the role of BOM to identify staff professional needs, plan and organize school based in-service courses for them through speakers, invited guests or in-service courses in order to develop and motivate them. This enables teachers to acquire new knowledge and hence improve performance in the institution. Staff development lacks in most schools (Gituma, 2008).
In Kenya, the achievement of both secondary schools and students is mainly gauged by their results in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Exams – KCSE (Sifuna, 2001). Research reveals that learners‟ academic excellence in schools is mainly determined by environmental and personal factors of students. However these factors will be greatly influenced by the principal‟s leadership styles, management and effectiveness (Okumbe, 2001). The student‟s personal factors include their intelligence, decision made, discipline and personal goals. Besides the principals‟ leadership, the other environmental factor that influences academic achievement in KCSE examination includes teachers. Teachers who are academically qualified and professionally trained are assets in the education process. Therefore the teachers must be well qualified and adequate in number to help learners realize high academic achievement. Similarly, there is need for teaching and learning resources. The provision of relevant books and other learning resources is important in helping the teachers to make each subject less abstract and assisting individual learners to learn better (Hussein 2011).
of the bodies mandated to support and govern schools, it will be important to examine how the BOMs undertake these responsibilities and how it overcomes a number of constraints associated with the role of management of secondary schools in Gatundu South District.
2.6 Constraints of BOM in Management of Staff and Student Personnel
The Education Act outlines some of the functions of BOM as development of schools, recruitment of teaching and non-teaching staff and admission of students, discipline of teachers and students and handing the general conduct of the school.
Mwiria Daily Nation, July (2004) attributed crisis in school to poor management by unqualified BOM where majority were illiterate and do not have skills to plan and implement policies in their institutions. A study by Gituma (2007) indicates that entrustment of teacher recruitment to the school board has caused a lot of misunderstanding and dissatisfaction. It is clear that school board members‟ knowledge based on educational matters is wanting. The recruitment process is inefficient and subject to manipulation. The general management of secondary schools is weak due to lack to management capabilities of the school boards. Many complaints of malpractices in the recruitment process have been received by T.S.C. Among them are the ones included in a letter to the editor in Daily Nation September 3, 2002 which advised the government to consider changing the current decentralized system of recruiting teachers since the whole process was unfair.
merit.” Presenters during the hearings of the commission of inquiry into the Education system of Kenya raised concerns over the political interference in their appointment, low level of education and lack of zeal and dedication on the part of most of them. The management of educational institution was, therefore found to be weak because most BOMs lack quality management abilities. Dessler (1995) asserts that the BOMs responsibility in human resource management involves leading and motivating staff, delegating responsibilities effectively, discipline and conflict management.
Ochiel 2002 in his study observed that some BOM members only attend board meetings for their own selfish desires like allowances and do not participate in reasonable decision making in the meetings. Some of them become ineffective due to chronic absenteeism causing lack of quorums of scheduled meeting. Members of the Board are expected to function as a team so as to ensure efficient prudent management of schools. The spirit of collective responsibility must be seen to prevail where all members are expected to abide by decision reached at board meetings (Mutai 2002).
Simatwa (2012) observed that some BOM were not selected according to the criterion provided for by the Basic Education Act (2013). Most boards are therefore made of illiterate and semi-illiterate old members who are not committed in uplifting academic standards and performance. They only appear in school to sign cheques when called upon by the Head teacher.
The review has highlighted the concept of management, the role of BOM in personnel (staff and students) management, challenges and the effects of BOM management on performance. The studies that have been done regarding role performance of BOM have only exemplified the functions of BOM in Kenya and other parts of the world. It is apparent that both globally and nationally, management of human resource has not been effective. In Kenya, recruitment and selection exercise has not been effective. BOMs have also not been able to control, guide and motivate staff and student so as to realize institutional goals. The available literature has not revealed the challenges of BOM in executing their function in management of staff and student personnel in public secondary schools hence the need to fill this gap in order to make BOMs effective in their role performance.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the methodology of study. It outlines the research design, locale, target populations, research instruments, validity, and reliability of instruments, piloting sample and sampling procedures, data collection and data analysis.
3.2 Research Design
The descriptive survey design was used in the study. According to Orodho (2004) this research design is concerned with gathering facts and obtaining pertinent precise information about the current status of a phenomenon and where possible, making conclusion from the facts discovered. The design is also intended to provide statistical information concerning aspects of education that interest policy makers and educators. The descriptive design was thus considered to be appropriate for study because it will help obtain a cross section of information regarding the constraints faced in management of personnel in public secondary schools in Gatundu South District.
3.3 Locale of Study
i) The locale was convenient in terms of time and resources.
ii) Considering the studies that have been carried out in the area, constraints of BOM in management of teachers and student personnel has not been carried out.
3.4 The Target Population
The study targeted all public boarding and boarding/day public secondary schools in Gatundu South District, comprising of BOMs and the Principals. There were a total of 36 secondary schools. 6 out of 36 are private schools. The study targeted 30 public schools which were in three categories namely: Girls boarding, Boys boarding, and Mixed boarding and day. The private secondary schools in the district were not targeted because their structure of management was different and management was solely by the school Directors.
3.5 Sample and sampling procedures
Orodho (2004) observed that a study can be carried out from a carefully selected sample to represent an entire population. A sample of the 20% of the total population is considered a good presentation.
sampling frame and categories with numbers 1 to 6, then randomly rolling the dice and selecting the school with number that shows up on the dice. The mixed boarding and day school was also labeled 1 to 6 repeatedly to achieve the random selection using the same technique.
Table 3.1: Schools Constituting the Sample
Category Number of schools
as per category
Number of schools
constituting the sample
the Sample (%)
Girls boarding 5 1 20
Boys boarding 5 1 20
Mixed day and boarding
20 4 20
Total 30 6 20%
The head teacher of each sampled school was included in the sample. Five (5) out of 13 BOM members were sampled using the lottery method of picking from the targeted population. This was achieved by writing down names of BOM members from each sampled school on a paper, putting them in a box and picking out five. The same was repeated in all the sampled schools.
Table 3.2: Total Sample in all Categories
Category Number of schools
constituting the sample
School sample size
Girls boarding 1 6
Boys boarding 1 6
Mixed boarding and day 4 24