Human Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses

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The Human Body: An

The Human Body: An Or

Orientation.

ientation.

1

1..11 DDeeffinine te thhe fe foolllolowwiinng tg teerrmms:s:

Anatomy: Anatomy:

Anatomy is the study if the structure

Anatomy is the study if the structure of the bodof the body, the partsy, the parts inside and the relationships

inside and the relationships betwbetween een themthem..

Ross & Wil

Ross & Wilson (2001) pson (2001) pg 4,g 4, Mar

Marieb (2003) pg ieb (2003) pg 2.2.

Physiology: Physiology:

Physiol

Physiology is the study oogy is the study of how the body parts workf how the body parts work; ; how theyhow they work together and ensure life and health of the body.

work together and ensure life and health of the body.

Ross

Ross & Wils& Wilson on (2001) pg 4,(2001) pg 4, Marieb (2003) pg 2.

Marieb (2003) pg 2.

1.2 discuss the relationship between anatomy and physiology: 1.2 discuss the relationship between anatomy and physiology:

The body and all of the parts inside makes a good mechanism, every body part inside The body and all of the parts inside makes a good mechanism, every body part inside the body have their own job to do to ensure that the body function as one

the body have their own job to do to ensure that the body function as one mechanised thing, the structure determines what does what, how and when. mechanised thing, the structure determines what does what, how and when.

Marieb (2003) Marieb (2003) pg 2

pg 2

1.3

1.3 WhWhich ich of tof the fhe folloollowinwing is thg is the coe corrrrect seqect sequeuencnce, goe, going ing fofor thr the simpe simplest lest to to ththe moe mostst complex in the levels of structural organisation of the human body:

complex in the levels of structural organisation of the human body:

Chemical level, cellula

Chemical level, cellular level, tr level, tisissue level, organ level, osue level, organ level, organ sysrgan sys tem level, ortem level, organisganis mal level.mal level. a. a. A cell. A cell. E) E) 1.5

1.5 We We havhave 11 e 11 ororgan systegan systemms in s in ththe he humuman an bobodydy. Nam. Name te thehem anm and state d state onone fue funcnctiotion of n of  each one:

each one:

Integu

Integumenmentary systemtary system CoverCovers ths the extee exterior orior of thf the boe body and prdy and protect totect the dhe deeper teeper tississ ues.ues. Sk

Skeleeletatal l systsystemem PrPrototecects ts anand d supsuppporort tt thhe e ororgangans as s as wwell ell as as pprrovovidide fre framame e fofor mr muusclescles.s. N

Nerervvoouus syss systtemem ReRespspoonndds ts to co chhanangeges ins insidside ae annd d oouuttsidside of te of thhe be booddyy.. M

Muuscscuulalar r sysyststemem AAlllloowws ms moovvememenent ant and d pprroovvidides hes heeatat.. En

Enddoocrcrinine syste systemem ReRegugulatlates pes prroocecesses isses in tn thhe be booddy.y., , egeg.: .: grgroowwtthh.. Cardio

Cardiovascular vascular systemsystem TranTransporsports blots bloodod, , oxyoxygen and carbgen and carbon moon mononoxide.xide. Ly

Lymmpphhatatic syic syststemem CoCollellectcts fs fluluidids les left ft bby y tthhe be bloloood ved vesselssels.s. Resp

Respirairatotory ry systesystemm SuSupppply tly the bhe bloolood witd with the oh the oxygxygen anen and exd expepel carbl carbon mon mononoxoxideide.. 1.

1.44 ThThe sme smalallelest st lilivvining ug unnit it oof all f all lilivvining tg thhinings igs is:s: Section 1

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D

Diig eg es ts tiivve e s ys ys ts teemm BBrreeaakks s ddoowwn n ffoooodd.. U

Urriinnaarry sy syysstteemm EElliimmiinnaattees ws waassttee.. Rep

Reproroduductiction on systesystemm PrPrododucuce e ofoffsprfspringing..

1.

1.66 WhWhich ich oof tf thhe foe follollowwining is Ng is NOT OT a na nececessaressary y liflife e fufuncncttioion:n:

Nutrients. Nutrients. D)

D) 1.

1.77 ThThe e sursurvivvival al neneed ted thahat is rt is reqequiuirred to ed to rreleelease ase enenerergy frgy from foom food od is:is:

Oxygen. Oxygen. D) D) 1 1..88 DDees cs crriibbe e HHoommeeoos ts taas is is :s : Homeo

Homeostasstasis is is is basicbasically about ally about the the bodbody's y's ability to maintain sability to maintain s tability with thtability with thee intern

internal condition while other circumstances al condition while other circumstances outoutsiside the bodde the body y is alis al waysways changing.

changing.

Mar

Mareib (2001) pg eib (2001) pg 99

1.9

1.9 WhWhen ten the lanhe languagguage oe of f anatanatomomy is beiny is being discug discussed, ssed, it it is alwis always assuays assummed ed ththat at ththe bode bodyy is in

is in a standard a standard position caposition called thlled the anatome anatomical ical position. Described position. Described the anatomthe anatomicalical position.

position.

Anatomical position is a position where the body is s

Anatomical position is a position where the body is s tanding uptanding upright faright fa cing forwardcing forward, pal, pal msms facing forward with arms by the side and feet are placed together.

facing forward with arms by the side and feet are placed together. Ross Ross & Wilson (2001)& Wilson (2001)

1.1

1.100 The The huhumman bodan body has may has many reny regiongional tal tererms, visible ms, visible landlandmarmarks on tks on the surhe surface oface of thf thee body.

body.

Wh

Where is there is the occipite occipital regioal region?n? PoPostersterior surior surface oface of the hef the head.ad. Wh

Wherere is e is ththe te tararsal sal rregiegionon?? ArArouounnd thd the ane anklkle are area.ea. Mar

Mareib (2001) pg eib (2001) pg 1313

1.1

1.111 DirectDirectionional tal termerms are us are used wsed when hen descrdescribing ibing ththe re relationelationships ships betbetweeween n onone be bododyy structure in relation to another. Describe proximal:

structure in relation to another. Describe proximal:

Proximal is the closest point of attachment or origin. Proximal is the closest point of attachment or origin.

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1

1.1.122 lalabbeel l tthhe fe foolllloowwining dg diaiagrgramam..

1.

1.33 We We hahave ve 4 4 ququadadrranantts s anand 9 d 9 rregiegionons . s . DrDraw aw twtwo dio diagragramams ans and lad labebel.l. Mar

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1

1.1.144 IdIdeennttifify 6 y 6 cacauuseses os of f ddiseiseasease::

Generic a

Generic a bnobnormrmalitiealitiess

○ ○

Infection

Infection by microbes or parasiby microbes or parasi testes

○ ○ Chemicals Chemicals ○ ○ Ionising radiation Ionising radiation ○ ○ Physical

Physical trautraumama

○ ○

Degeneration Degeneration

○ Ross Ross & Wils& Wils on (20on (2001) pg 15.01) pg 15.

The (4) Four

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2.1

2.1 MaMatttter er existexists in s in solidsolid, l, liquiquid aid and nd gaseogaseous us statstates. es. ExpExplain lain ththese ese ththreree gases.e gases.

Solids have a definite shape and volume, liquid has a volume but it can take shape of a Solids have a definite shape and volume, liquid has a volume but it can take shape of a container and gas has no shape or volume.

container and gas has no shape or volume. Marieb (2001) pg 23.

Marieb (2001) pg 23.

2.

2.22 FiFill ll in in ththe foe follollowwining elg elememenent syt symmbbools:ls:

C Caallcciiuum m CCa a CCaarrbboon n CCoo2 2 CChhlloorriinne e CCII H Hyyddrrooggeen n H H IIooddiinne e I I IIrroon n FFee M Maaggnneessiiuum m MMg g NNiittrrooggeen n N N OOxxyyggeen n OO P Phhoosspphhoorruus s P P SSooddiiuum m NNa a SSuullpphhuur r SS 2.3

2.3 ComCompopoununds thds that at makmake ue up livinp living g matmatter ter bubut do t do nonot cont contain tain carbcarbon aron are callede called??

Inorganic c

Inorganic compoompounds.unds.

○ ○

2

2..44 DDrraw aw anand ld lababeel l a ba basasic ic cecellll::

2.

2.55 BrBrieieflfly y exexpplalain in ththe ste stageages os of f mmititoosis:sis:

Mitosis is a s

Mitosis is a s equenequence of evence of events its i n a seln a sel l division which prol division which produces duces two daughter celltwo daughter cell s from as from a

Section 2 & 3

Section 2 & 3

Bas

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Anaphase:

Anaphase: The centrThe centromeres omeres begin to divide and thbegin to divide and the sise sis ter ter chromatids schromatids s plit up plit up and moveand move towards the corresponding poles.

towards the corresponding poles.

○ ○

Telophas

Telophase: e: When tWhen the daughter chromhe daughter chromosomes osomes arrives at the arrives at the poles the microtupoles the microtublesbles disa

disappear. ppear. The condThe condensed censed chromhromatin exatin expands, the nuclear envelope shows up and thepands, the nuclear envelope shows up and the cytoplasm divides them and

cytoplasm divides them and the celthe cell ml membrane pinches inward tilembrane pinches inward til l finally prodl finally producing ucing twotwo daught

daughter cellser cells ..

○ ○

("mito

("mitosissis ," n.d.," n.d., ¶ , ¶ 3)3) 2

2..66 TThhe e pprroocceesss s oof f ffaacciilliittaatteed d ddiiffffuussiioon n rreeqquuiirrees s eenneerrggyy.. FFaallssee 2.7

2.7 The The greatgreater er ththe osme osmototic pressuric pressure the the gree greater ater the tthe tendendency oency of thf the wate water to er to momove in tve in thathat area.

area.

True True

2.8

2.8 The The momovemvement of suent of substanbstances fces frorom an m an area area of hof higher igher hydhydrorostatic prstatic pressure essure to to and and area area of of  lower hydr

lower hydrostatic ostatic pressure is capressure is ca lled diffusion.lled diffusion.

False False

2

2..99 WWhheen n a a cceelll l iis s ppllaacceed d iin n a a hhyyppoottoonniic sc soolluuttiioon n iit t wwiilll l sswweelll l aannd d rruuppttuurree.. TTrruuee

2.10

2.10 GroGroupups of cell fs of cell frorom differm different ent tissue tissue typtypes in thes in the boe bodydy, explain , explain ththe followine following wg with anith an example of where you would find this tissue.

example of where you would find this tissue.

Epithelial Epithelial Tissue Tissue

Epithelial tissue cells are packed closely to

Epithelial tissue cells are packed closely together and can have several layers. gether and can have several layers. TheThe epithelial tissue is committed to form the covering or lining of the internal and the epithelial tissue is committed to form the covering or lining of the internal and the extern

external body sal body s urfaces, epithelial cells urfaces, epithelial cells are verare very closy clos e together and there ie together and there i s almost nos almost no intercellular space w

intercellular space with very liith very li ttle interttle intercellular scellular s ubstance. ubstance. Regardless of the type of Regardless of the type of  epithelial tissue it is

epithelial tissue it is usually separated frousually separated from the m the undunderlying erlying tissue with a thintissue with a thin connective tissue called basement membrane which support the epithelium. connective tissue called basement membrane which support the epithelium. Epitheli

Epitheli al tissal tiss ue ue can be can be found in the kidney's where they excrete wasfound in the kidney's where they excrete was te te from thefrom the body and reabsorb minerals from the urine.

body and reabsorb minerals from the urine.

Ross & Wil

Ross & Wil son (2001) pg 35,son (2001) pg 35, Marieb (2001) pg 78. Marieb (2001) pg 78. Connective Connective Tissue Tissue Unlike th

Unlike the epithelial tisse epithelial tiss ue thue the main characteristics is e main characteristics is that the tissue has a largethat the tissue has a large amou

amounts of intercellular substance. nts of intercellular substance. The conThe connective tissnective tiss ue hue has a relatively few cellsas a relatively few cells which ar

which are se s parsely separated froparsely separated from each otherm each other, , the living cells the living cells within within the tisthe tis sue cansue can secrete large amou

secrete large amounts of nts of intercellular grounintercellular ground d substance which is non-living materialsubstance which is non-living material that can be liquid ( eg; bloo

that can be liquid ( eg; blood), d), semi ssemi s olid (eg; conolid (eg; connective tisnective tis sue) or solid (eg; bonsue) or solid (eg; bone).e).

Ross& & Wil

Ross& & Wil son (2001) pg 37,son (2001) pg 37, Marieb (2001) pg 82. Marieb (2001) pg 82. Muscle Muscle Tissue Tissue The m

The muscle tissuscle tiss ue is a type of tissue is a type of tiss ue thue that is at is designed to contdesigned to contract aract a nd relax thusnd relax thus resulti

resulting ng in in movemmovement. ent. There are thThere are three types of mree types of muscluscle tisse tiss ue, ue, smooth smooth muscle,muscle, skeletal muscle, and card

skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle tisiac muscle tis sue.sue. All three types of muscle tiss

All three types of muscle tiss ues use mues use movement to acovement to act agait agai nst the nst the myosin to createmyosin to create contr

contraction, the action, the skeletal muscle tissskeletal muscle tiss ue uses contrue uses contraction that action that is sis s timutimulated bylated by electri

electrical impulses whiccal impulses whic h h is trans mitted is trans mitted by the nerves ( the moby the nerves ( the motor nerves tor nerves and motoand motorr neur

neurons especialons especial ly). ly). Cardiac and smoCardiac and smooth muscle utilise contractiooth muscle utilise contractions ns that arethat are stimulated by internal pacemaker cell which regularly contract, and propagate stimulated by internal pacemaker cell which regularly contract, and propagate contraction to other muscle cells they are in contact with, much of the skeletal and contraction to other muscle cells they are in contact with, much of the skeletal and many of the smooth muscle contractions are facilitated by the neurotransmitter many of the smooth muscle contractions are facilitated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. acetylcholine. Marieb (2001) pg 85. Marieb (2001) pg 85. Nervous Nervous Tissue Tissue Nervo

Nervous tissus tiss ue is mue is made up of living cells with the ability to react to stimuli. ade up of living cells with the ability to react to stimuli. TheThe nerv

nervous tissous tiss ue is made ue is made up of nerve up of nerve cells ccells c alled neuralled neurons, neuons, neuronrons s transmtransmit it messagesmessages rapidly and are easily stimulated, these are present in the brain, spinal cord and the rapidly and are easily stimulated, these are present in the brain, spinal cord and the pe3ripheral nerves the branch throughout

pe3ripheral nerves the branch throughout the body.the body.

Marieb (2001) pg 86. Marieb (2001) pg 86.

2.11

2.11 WheWhen inn injurjury oy occurccurs, it stims, it stimulateulated td the bhe bodody's inflamy's inflammatmatorory respony response so se so ththat theat the healing process begins. Desc

healing process begins. Desc ribe thribe this process.is process.

When the cells are injured this leads to inflammation which could result in either resolution and When the cells are injured this leads to inflammation which could result in either resolution and

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Skin and Body Membranes Skin and Body Membranes

4

4..11 LaLabbel el tthhe fe foolllloowwining dg diaiagrgramam::

Hair shaft Hair shaft Sebuceous gland Sebuceous gland Sweat gland Sweat gland Epidermis Epidermis Dermal papillae Dermal papillae Reticular layer of d Reticular layer of d ermisermis Arrector pili

Arrector pili musclemuscle Hair follicle Hair follicle Hair root Hair root Section 4 Section 4

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4.

4.44 List List ththe e fufuncnctitionons os of tf the he inintetegugummenentatarry systey systemm:: Waterproof the body.

Waterproof the body.

○ ○

Cushion and protect the deeper tissue from injury. Cushion and protect the deeper tissue from injury.

○ ○

Regulate body temperature. Regulate body temperature.

○ ○

Egests

Egests salt and urea in perspiratiosalt and urea in perspiration.n.

○ ○

Synt

Synthesize vitamin hesize vitamin D.D.

○ ○

4.

4.55 DiscDiscuss uss whwhat at mmakeakes os our ur skin skin cocololour dur diffiffererenent to ot to oththerers:s: The skin colour is determ

The skin colour is determined by ined by the amounthe amount t and type iand type i d md melanin which elanin which is a pigment in the skin,is a pigment in the skin, there

there two types two types of mof melaelanin; pheomelaninin; pheomelani n and n and eumelanieumelani n. n. How How much pheomelanin andmuch pheomelanin and eumelanin

eumelanin someone may have in their ssomeone may have in their s kin is deterkin is determined by their mined by their genes, a copy of each gene isgenes, a copy of each gene is inherited from the parents and each gene comes as alleles.

inherited from the parents and each gene comes as alleles. 4.6

4.6 The The "t"tannanning" efing" effect fect (da(darkrkeniening ong of thf the skin) e skin) ththat oat occurccurs whes when a pen a persorson is expn is exposed osed toto the sun is somewhat pro

the sun is somewhat protective tective due to:due to: Increased pr

Increased production of melanin the oduction of melanin the helps to block the ultraviolet light.helps to block the ultraviolet light. A)

A) 4.7

4.7 DistinDistinguish guish betbetweeween tn the aphe appeapearanrances of thces of the pare partialtial-th-thicknickness aness and fud full-tll-thickhickness bness bururns:ns: Partial-thickness is a burn t

Partial-thickness is a burn that has affected the epidermis lhat has affected the epidermis l ayer oayer of skin and can be descf skin and can be desc ribed asribed as superficial. When th

superficial. When the burn e burn had affected not just the epidermis had affected not just the epidermis layer of skin but alslayer of skin but als o a deepo a deeperer layer of skin called the derm

layer of skin called the dermis, is, the damage to the sthe damage to the s kin is called full thickness burn as ikin is called full thickness burn as i t hast has affected the full thickness of the skin.

affected the full thickness of the skin.

Ross & Wils

Ross & Wils on (2001) pon (2001) pg 370.g 370.

4.8

4.8 WhWhat at is tis the he firfirst st ththrereat to lifat to life e frfrom om a ma massive assive ththirdird-de-degregree bure burn:n: Dehydration.

Dehydration. B

B)) RRoosss s & & WWiillssoon n ((22000011) ) ppg g 337700

4.9

4.9 A A phphysician ysician estimestimates ates ththe voe volumlume of flue of fluid loid lost st in a in a severseverely bely bururned pned patieatient bnt by:y: Using the "

Using the "rule of ninesrule of nines ."." D

D)) RRoosss s & & WWiillssoon n ((22000011) ) ppg g 337700..

4.1

4.100 The The ABCD ABCD rurule descrle describes ibes ththe appe appearearance oance of thf the most foe most formrms s of skin of skin canccancer aner andd melanom

melanoma. a. Describe this rule:Describe this rule: The ABCD stands for Asym

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Marieb (2001) pg 111. Marieb (2001) pg 111. 4.1

4.122 DescrDescribe ibe 6 a6 arereas oas of qf questuestionioning wing when then takinaking a hg a healtealth hh histoistoryry::

Health habit

Health habits -s - A brief overA brief overview of view of chronchronicled varied habits which have a impact on health,icled varied habits which have a impact on health, such as tobacco

such as tobacco use, aluse, al cohol cohol intake, exercise and diet. intake, exercise and diet. This section may also includeThis section may also include intimate d

intimate details setails s uch as sexual habits and such as sexual habits and s exual orientatioexual orientation.n.

○ ○

History o

History of medication -f medication - This section covers the patient's currenThis section covers the patient's current t and prevand previous medications.ious medications.

○ ○

Hospitalization and o

Hospitalization and or operr operations ations -- This section is chroThis section is chronicle of operations perfornicle of operations performed med forfor the p

the patient aatient a nd time spent in hospital. It may have dates of the operations, nd time spent in hospital. It may have dates of the operations, operativeoperative repor

reports ats and details of what the nd details of what the surgeon did.surgeon did.

○ ○

Allergies to m

Allergies to medications -edications - Brief overBrief overview view of any medical allergies of thof any medical allergies of the patient.e patient.

○ ○

Family

Family health history -health history - This section contThis section contains a lisains a lis t ot of health status of immedf health status of immediate iate familyfamily mem

members as well as their causes of death (if knowbers as well as their causes of death (if known). n). It may also contain diseases that areIt may also contain diseases that are comm

common within the faon within the fa mily or only in one smily or only in one s ex of a side of the family.ex of a side of the family.

○ ○

Review of

Review of systems -systems - This section coverThis section covers a review of function, exposure and history ins a review of function, exposure and history in respect to th

respect to the e body's system such as skin, blood, cardiovascbody's system such as skin, blood, cardiovasc ular, psychological, andular, psychological, and gender specific questions.

gender specific questions.

○ ○

The six areas of questioning in a health history a The six areas of questioning in a health history a re:re:

Sor

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The Skeleta

The Skeletal

l System.

System.

5.

5.11 ExExpplailain n tthhe fe fivive fue funnctctioionns of ts of thhe skee skeleletatal syl syststemem::

S

Suuppppoorrtt ThThe e skskeleletetal al sysyststem em pprroovvidides es inintterernnal fal frramamewewoorrk wk whhicich h susuppppoorrtts ans andd pr

protects alotects al l sl soft ooft organs.rgans. P

Prrootteeccttiioonn TThhe e bboonnees ps prrootteecct st soofft t oorrggaanns .s . M

Moovevemmenentt MMuusclscles es arare e atatttachached ed tto to thhe be boonnes anes and thd the be boonnes ares are ue used sed as as leleveverrage age toto move the body.

move the body. S

Sttoorraagege FFaat t iis ss sttoorreed id innsisidde e tthhe be boonnees as s as wweell ll aas ms minineerralals, cs, caalclciuium m aanndd phosphorous. phosphorous. Blood cell Blood cell formation formation Form

Formation of blood celation of blood cel ls occurs inside the mls occurs inside the marrow caarrow cavities of particulavities of particula rr bones.

bones. Marieb (2001) pg 117. Marieb (2001) pg 117.

5.

5.22 NaNamme e ththe classife classificaticatioion n of of bbonone e anand ad an en examxampple ole of eaf eachch::

Compact bones consist of long bones and flat bones. Compact bones consist of long bones and flat bones.

○ ○

Spongy bones are short bones and irregular bones. Spongy bones are short bones and irregular bones.

○ ○

There are two classifications of bones, Compact and Spongy. There are two classifications of bones, Compact and Spongy.

Marieb (2001) pg, 111. Marieb (2001) pg, 111. 5.

5.33 WhWhen en a fa frractactuurre occue occurrs ts thhey arey are dee descrscribibed ed ininitiitially ally as was whhatat??

Closed, Closed, ○ ○ Open. Open. Section 5 Section 5

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Overtime the callus is remolded in response to undue stresses whilst forming a strong. Overtime the callus is remolded in response to undue stresses whilst forming a strong.

Marieb (2001) pg, 124. Marieb (2001) pg, 124. 5.6

5.6 ThThe e fivfive e reregion gion of of ththe vere vertebtebraral col columlumn fron from supm supererior ior to to infinfererior ior arare:e: Cervical, Thor

Cervical, Thoracic, Lacic, Lumumbar, Sacral, Coccugeabar, Sacral, Coccugea l.l. D

D)) MMaarriieebb((22000011))ppgg,,113311..

5.7

5.7 WhWhich ich is is ththe coe corrrrect oect ordrder oer of rf ribs ibs frfrom om supsupererior ior to into inferferiorior::

Tru

True ribs, Fale ribs, False ribs, Floating ribs.se ribs, Floating ribs. C

C)) MMaarriieebb((22000011))ppgg,,113355..

5

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5.10

5.10 NamName e ththe se six tix typypes oes of synof synovial vial curcurvatuvatureres s and and namname oe one area ne area whwhere yoere you will u will findfind them.

them. Plai

Plain n joint. joint. This joint can be located in This joint can be located in the intermetacarpal the intermetacarpal joints and tjoints and thehe acromioclavicular joint.

acromioclavicular joint.

○ ○

Hinge join.

Hinge join. Can be founCan be found between the d between the atlaatlas and s and the occipitathe occipital bol bone sne such as the uch as the elbow.elbow.

○ ○

Pivot joint.

Pivot joint. This joint caThis joint can n be founbe found in the prd in the proximal oximal and distal radioulnar jointsand distal radioulnar joints

○ ○

Condyloid joint.

Condyloid joint. This joint can This joint can be founbe found in the wrist.d in the wrist.

○ ○

Saddle joint.

Saddle joint. In the hIn the hand there iand there i s a saddle joint os a saddle joint on the thumn the thumb.b.

○ ○

Bal

Ball and l and socket joint. socket joint. Can be fouCan be found in the shoulder and hip.nd in the shoulder and hip.

○ ○

Marieb (2001) pg, 151. Marieb (2001) pg, 151.

5.1

5.111 NamName e ththrree abee abnonorrmmal cual curvrvatuatureres of s of ththe spine spine:e: Scoliosis. Scoliosis. ○ ○ Kyphosis. Kyphosis. ○ ○ Lordosis. Lordosis. ○ ○ 5.

5.1212 NaNamme e ththe moe most cost commmmoon dison disorrdder oer of jof joinints:ts:

Osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis.

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6.

6.11 NNamame e tthhe te thhrree ee tytyppes es oof mf muusclscle e titissussue:e: Smooth. Smooth. ○ ○ Skeletal. Skeletal. ○ ○ Cardiac. Cardiac. ○ ○ Marieb (2001) pg, 85Marieb (2001) pg, 85 6.2

6.2 DescDescribribe e ththe e difdifferferenence bce betetweween ven voluoluntntary and ary and invinvoluoluntntary mary muscleuscle::

The voluntary muscle is a muscle that operates consciously like the muscles in the leg, the The voluntary muscle is a muscle that operates consciously like the muscles in the leg, the operate o

operate only when reqnly when required. uired. Involuntary musclInvoluntary muscles is a es is a mumusclscl e e that operates unconsciouslthat operates unconsciously fory for example th

example the cardiae cardiac mc muscluscle is an involuntary muscle is an involuntary muscl e as it is a vital compe as it is a vital component ionent in keeping then keeping the body alive.

body alive.

Ross & Wil

Ross & Wilson (2001) pson (2001) pg 41.g 41.

6.

6.33 BrBrieieflfly y exexpplailain n tthhe me muusclscles es fufunnctctioionn..

Section 6

Section 6

The

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6.6

6.6 NamName e ththe the threree me muscuscles les useused d to to give give an an intintramramuscuuscular inlar injectjectionion:: Deltoid muscle. Deltoid muscle. ○ ○ Gluteus muscle. Gluteus muscle. ○ ○ Vastus lateralis. Vastus lateralis. ○ ○ Marieb Marieb (2001) p(2001) pg, 185 -g, 185 - 188188 6.

6.77 ExExpplain lain ththe e ababddomomininal mal mususclecles as and nd hohow thw they wey woorkrk::

The abdominal muscles are classed into four separate types of muscles located between the The abdominal muscles are classed into four separate types of muscles located between the ribs and the pelvis. These muscles have also the transverse abdominal, the internal obliques, ribs and the pelvis. These muscles have also the transverse abdominal, the internal obliques, the external obliques and the rectus abdominis. These muscle groups have a very important the external obliques and the rectus abdominis. These muscle groups have a very important role to play in the body's health.

role to play in the body's health.

The abdominal muscles are attached to the skeletal structures, within the abdominal muscles The abdominal muscles are attached to the skeletal structures, within the abdominal muscles there are m

there are many fibres. any fibres. These fibres are fiThese fibres are filled with verlled with very sy small prmall proteins caoteins called actin and lled actin and myomyosisin.n. When th

When the electrice electrical impulses are sent throal impulses are sent through ugh a passia passi ve ove of nf nerves to the fierves to the fibres, this actibres, this acti onon caus

causes the es the actiactins and ns and myomyosisin to rub acn to rub across each other making the musclross each other making the muscle to shore to shorten. ten. TheThe shortening of the muscle causes the muscle to contract.

shortening of the muscle causes the muscle to contract.

Ross & Wilson

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7

7..11 LLababeel l tthhe e ffoolllloowwining dg diaiagrgramam::

Axon Axon Dendrites Dendrites Synapse Synapse Nucleus Nucleus Cell body Cell body Section 7 Section 7

Th

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transmitter is then released in the synaptic space and eliminate the polarization of the dendrite transmitter is then released in the synaptic space and eliminate the polarization of the dendrite of t

of the next neuron ahe next neuron a long the pathway.long the pathway.

Huether & McCance (2000) pg 293. Huether & McCance (2000) pg 293. 7.

7.33 NNamame e ththe stre struuctcturural classifal classificaticatioion n of of tthe he nnerervovous systeus systemm::

Pseudounipolar. Pseudounipolar. ○ ○ Multipolar. Multipolar. ○

○ Huether & McCance (2000) pg 293.Huether & McCance (2000) pg 293.

7.4

7.4 FuFuncnctiotional classificatnal classification ion is cois concencernrned ed ononly witly with thh the e PNPNS strS structucturures, briees, briefly exfly explain plain ththisis function.

function.

The peripheral nervous system is composed of the cranial nerves and the spinal nerve, PNS The peripheral nervous system is composed of the cranial nerves and the spinal nerve, PNS structures

structures are comare commonmonly ly found in found in groups cagroups callelled d gangganglilia. a. The The peripheral peripheral nervounervous s syssys temtem conn

connects the centrects the central al nernervous vous syssystem to all of the bodtem to all of the body's y's sense organs, internsense organs, internal al ororgans gans andand muscles

muscles . . Without Without the pthe peripheral nervous seripheral nervous s ystem the ystem the central nervous scentral nervous system ystem would be starvedwould be starved of sensory information and the ability to act.

of sensory information and the ability to act.

Huether & McCance (2000) pg, 292. Huether & McCance (2000) pg, 292. 7.

7.55 DeDescrscribibe we whhat at hhapapppenens s dduurrining a simg a simpple rle refeflelex arx arcs:cs:

A re

A reflex action is flex action is a fasa fast mt motootor r reaction to a sreaction to a sensory stimulus, the siensory stimulus, the si mpmple reflex arcs involves thele reflex arcs involves the afferent neurons to connect directly to the efferent neurons and only requires one synapse in afferent neurons to connect directly to the efferent neurons and only requires one synapse in the circuit to complete the reflex.

the circuit to complete the reflex.

The p

The patellatellar ar tendon itendon is stretched.s stretched.

○ ○

The afferen

The afferent neurt neur sends a ssends a signal to thignal to th spinal cord.spinal cord. An exam

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Cancel Anytime. Frontal Lobe Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Parietal Lobe O

OcccciippiittaallLLoobbee TTeemmppoorraallLLoobbee

Cerebellum Cerebellum

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the maintenance of balance and posture through panoptic neural connection with the medullar the maintenance of balance and posture through panoptic neural connection with the medullar oblongata and the midbrain.

oblongata and the midbrain.

Huether & McCance (2000) pg 301, 609. Huether & McCance (2000) pg 301, 609.

7.

7.1111 BrBriefiefly ely expxplain lain ththe floe flow of cw of cererebebrroospinspinal flual fluidid..

The cer

The cerebrebrospinal ospinal fluid is fluid is a clear fluid with no ca clear fluid with no c olour similar to blood plasolour similar to blood plas ma and intma and interstitialerstitial fluid.

fluid. The The floatifloating ng propproperties erties of thof the cerebrospinae cerebrospinal fluid helps prl fluid helps prevent event the bthe brain from tuggirain from tugging ng onon the

the meningesmeninges, nerve roo, nerve roots and blood vessts and blood vess elsels. . ApproApproximatelximately thery there ie is about 125 ts about 125 to 150 o 150 ml of ml of  CSF circulating within the ventricles and the subarachnoid space at any given time, about 600ml CSF circulating within the ventricles and the subarachnoid space at any given time, about 600ml of CSF is pr

of CSF is produoduced ced on a daily basion a daily basi s.s.

The cerebrospinal fluid flows through the interventricular foramen into the third ventricle and The cerebrospinal fluid flows through the interventricular foramen into the third ventricle and then continues through the cerebral aqueduct into the paired lateral aperture or the median then continues through the cerebral aqueduct into the paired lateral aperture or the median aperture before communicating with the subarachnoid spaces of the brain and spinal cord. aperture before communicating with the subarachnoid spaces of the brain and spinal cord. The cerebrospinal fluid does not accumulate but instead it is reabsorbed into the venous The cerebrospinal fluid does not accumulate but instead it is reabsorbed into the venous

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Scot,

Scot, E MSE MS, (n.d). , (n.d). Fight or fligFight or flight. ht. Retrieved 27th mRetrieved 27th march 2008, fromarch 2008, from

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Shingles. Shingles. ○ ○ Rabies. Rabies. ○ ○ HIV. HIV. ○ ○

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8.

8.11 ThThe e special special senses senses ariarise fse folloollowinwing stg stimimulatulation ion of of ththe se s pepecialised cialised sensosensory ry rerecepceptotor cer cell,ll, the

the senssenses are to give thes are to give the e bodbody y a general conscious awareness of what a general conscious awareness of what is going onis going on out

outsiside tde the bodhe body's y's surrosurroundundingsings. . ThouThough gh it is perit is perceived that the sceived that the s enses are separateenses are separate and different from each other, they rarely work alone for example; when the smell of  and different from each other, they rarely work alone for example; when the smell of  smoke

smoke is perceived alis perceived al l othl other er senssenses ses start tart to worto work k like silike si ght and soundght and sound, these , these othotherer senses try to help you locate the source of the fire.

senses try to help you locate the source of the fire.

Ross

Ross & Wils& Wilson (20on (2001) pg 10.01) pg 10. Section 8

Section 8

Sp

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Cancel Anytime. the eye. the eye. Ophthalmoscope. Ophthalmoscope. ○ ○ 8.

Figure

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References

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