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Prepared by: Laura Skilton and Peter McCombs Traffic Design Group

Lower Hutt

Produced in collaboration with staff of the Roading Division of the City Networks Unit, and the City Future Unit of Palmerston North City Council.

Approved for Issue by: Palmerston North City Council Resolution




The Palmerston North City Council formally adopted the Transportation Management Plan in December 2002. The plan was the end result of an extensive information gathering and consultation exercise that is outlined throughout the report.

The conclusions and findings made in this plan have been based on inferences drawn from a range of existing and new data, and from the submissions from individuals, organisations and the public who had input to the review process. In addition, predictions of the effects of population and traffic growth were modelled to gauge the likely impacts throughout the study area.

The information gathered has been used as a basis for further refinement of strategic planning initiatives, processes and plans subsequently adopted by Council. In particular, the report has assisted finalisation of the Council’s Asset Management Plans, the Urban Growth Strategy and development of the draft Long Term Council Community Plan. Since the adoption of the Transportation Management Plan the following major developments have been noted.

• Estimated population growth by New Zealand Department of Statistics in the study area since early 2002 has been at a higher rate than was experienced in the years preceding the study. Estimated population growth is showing consistency with the high growth rate scenario used in the modelling of the Transport Management Plan;

• In December 2003 Council endorsed a strategy supporting development of an Eastern Growth Corridor. (Refer Planning and Environment Committee Recommendations, 17th November 2003, Report on Eastern Growth Corridor.) The strategy identifies a preference for a new bridge to be developed upstream of the existing Fitzherbert Avenue bridge to coincide with urban development in the Napier Road/Te Matai Road area. These proposals are included in the draft Long Term Council Community Plan 2004/05 - 2013/14;

• The Eastern Growth Corridor proposal supersedes Council’s previous decision of a preferred new bridge crossing at Maxwells Line.

Ray Swadel




3 STUDY AREA 11 4 ECONOMIC GROWTH 13 5 GROWTH STATISTICS 15 5.1 Population Trends 15 5.2 Employment Trends 16 5.3 Linton Growth 16

5.4 Tertiary Education Trends 17

5.5 Freight Movement Trends 19

5.6 Airport Growth 19 6 LANDUSE FORECASTS 21 6.1 Population Growth 21 6.2 Older Population 22 6.3 Total Forecasts 22 6.4 Household Distributions 23 6.5 Employment Distributions 25 6.6 Modelled Scenarios 26 7 GROWTH SUMMARY 27 8 LEVELS OF SERVICE 29 9 NETWORK DESCRIPTORS 31 9.1 Roading Hierarchy 31 9.2 Road Classifications 31

9.3 Proposed Roading Hierarchy 33

9.4 Recommended Design Capacity 35



12 ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT 41 12.1 Public Transport 41 12.2 Cycling 42 12.3 Walking 44 13 REGIONAL LINKS 45 14 ARTERIAL STREETS 47




15.1 Residential Streets 49

15.2 Living Streets 49

15.3 Schools 50

15.4 Land Use Zoning 50



17.1 Visitor Parking in the CBD 55

17.2 Commuter Parking in the CBD 56

17.3 Parking Dispensations 58

17.4 Cycle Racks 58




20.1 Priority Controlled Intersections 63

20.2 Roundabout Controlled Intersections 63

20.3 Signalised Intersections 64

20.4 Accident Rates 64

20.5 Intersection Delay 65

20.6 Palmerston North Intersections 65




23.1 Base Network 71

23.2 Do Minimum Network 73

23.3 Bridge Network 75





This Transportation Management Plan describes the policies and provisions needed in meeting the present and expected traffic, road and transportation needs of Palmerston North through the course of the coming two decades in an efficient and sustainable manner. Its preparation has involved detailed technical investigations and assessment of options together with an extensive public consultation programme. This report provides a summary of the findings and recommendations.


This updated plan incorporates new trends and focuses on future growth with the prime goal of moving easily in and around the region. This Plan looks at transport issues over the coming 25 years.

The roading network is one of Council’s biggest assets, and includes: • 449 km of road

• 2,790m of off-road cycle paths • 84 bridges

• 465 km of footpath • 7,370 street lights • 3,160 parking spaces • 10,600 street trees

We are living in a rapidly changing world, and travelling more. The increased use of the private motorcars has increased congestion and delays faced by motorists.

This Plan is a guide for Council officers to assist in making transport decisions, providing for and encouraging ongoing and sustainable city development and growth.

To ensure Palmerston North’s vitality into the future, it is necessary to plan for and provide for corresponding improvements to the city’s infrastructure in an efficient and sustainable manner. This includes having appropriate land and opportunities for development and an effective and convenient transportation system.

Positive planning achieves positive outcomes. Amongst other reasons, surveys show people and businesses are attracted to Palmerston North because it is easy to get around. To maintain this perceived value, we need to be able to keep MOVING EASILY.

Economic growth and transportation also involves planning and providing for the efficient haulage of goods. The countries with the highest GDP also have the highest number of trucks per capita. To maintain and promote standards of living in Palmerston North, it is necessary to enable and provide access for trucks both in and out of the city; around the city; and to major destinations within the city. However, trucks need to be kept off residential streets, and a well designed and managed roading network will do this. An extensive community consultation programme was undertaken via a Community Liaison Group, and also including an interactive Website, public kiosks, ward committee meetings, newspaper and radio advertising, and stakeholder forums.



The input that the Community Liaison Group has made to this project is acknowledged with appreciation. Their role in discussing and identifying community issues and priorities has been important to the overall project and its findings.

The inputs of the stakeholders who made presentations to the Design Team have also been a valuable component of the overall project. Their plans and aspirations are vital to Palmerston North’s ongoing investment and growth.



The overall study purpose is to plan and prepare an overall transportation management plan for Palmerston North which makes best use of the city’s road resources and establish policies and plans that enable present and future transportation needs to be anticipated and met in an efficient and sustainable manner.



The following particular objectives were established by the Community Liaison Group, in pursuing the overall goal:

• To have the best practical process for the future planning of transport needs for Palmerston North and its catchment area over the next 25 years and beyond • Effective use of resources achieving effective, long term outcomes

• Enhance the viability of integrated planning of assets • Support community aspirations

• Provide for pedestrians, cyclists, recreation and vehicle users alike • Contributes to an ecologically and environmentally sustainable community • Allow people to move easily and safely through and around the city • Accommodate the differing characteristics of neighbourhoods • Protect places of cultural heritage value identified by Tangata Whenua • Allow for a wide range of funding options at a strategic level.

Other considerations throughout the study included the issues of public transport, the airport passenger hub, parking, cycling, landscaping, amenity, the Central Business District, Massey, extra bridges and student buses.

The community’s concerns and values were sought to determine their preferences and priorities for roading matters, and which projects were more important to them. The main issues arising from the consultations were:

• Improve road safety and driver education

• Ensure a robust State Highway network, including bypass routes • Ensure ample road widths, road reserves and better design standards

• Establish a high standard of cross city routes in the city hierarchy, including a possible inner suburban ring road

• Provide for pedestrian and cyclists safety and convenience

• Improve the living qualities of residential streets and neighbourhood precincts • Improve the safety of access to schools.

• Additional river crossings, including possible toll facilities • Better integration of road user needs

• Provision of heavy vehicle bypasses and extension of passing lanes • Encourage alternative transport methods

• Improve suburban links


• Minimise use of traffic signals

• Keep CBD as heart of city and reduce ribbon development • Develop the “living streets” concept


Careful consideration has been given to the required extent of the study area. The study area needs to suitably coincide with statistical and administration boundaries, while also encompassing the full extent of land use activities and associated travel demands that are likely to have an effect on Palmerston North’s transport needs over the next 20 to 25 years.

Figure 1 : Study Area

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The study area has accordingly been extended beyond the existing built-up urban boundaries of Palmerston North city. The study area also encompasses part of the Manawatu District, since there is a noticeable proportion of travel between these two areas, particularly between Fielding and Palmerston North. The study area, together with the associated territorial local authority (TLA) boundaries is shown in Figure 1.


Local businesses and Government agencies contacted as part of this project are all optimistic about Palmerston North’s future. They all consider Palmerston North to be especially well placed strategically within the North Island, able to pull on resources from far afield. Where Auckland and Wellington have topographical restraints on their catchment size and transportation linkages, Palmerston North is well suited as a distribution centre. Palmerston North also has access to a large area of rural activity and production.

The Manawatu Regional Strategic Economic Development Plan shows that there is potential for up to 3,000 more jobs to be created in the region over the next five years.

Economic growth will involve an increase in traffic movements by both cars and trucks. The Transportation Management Plan is part of the forward planning needed to ensure that the needs of growth are not in conflict with the requirements of suburban residents.




As noted, the study area for the Transportation Management Plan is larger than the Palmerston North City boundary and encompasses the area to and including Fielding. Data has been provided separately for both the Palmerston North City Council boundary and the study area.



The most reliable population data base is from the five-yearly Census survey undertaken by Statistics New Zealand. The main areas of interest are summarised below. More detailed information is available in the supporting information document.

Table 1: Population Trends




Palmerston North City

1981 65,559 20,958 - 3.13 -1986 66,828 22,206 1.2 3.01 1.32 1991 70,320 23,949 1.6 2.94 1.41 1996 73,080 25,362 1.2 2.88 1.45 2001 72,471 26,271 0.7 2.76 1.55* Study Area 1986 85,350 28,280 - 3.02 -1991 89,058 30,594 1.6 2.91 1.44 1996 93,279 32,433 1.2 2.88 1.47 2001 92,001 33,666 0.8 2.73 1.55* *estimated

Although the population has reduced between the last two Census years, the total number of households continued to rise, as the average household occupancy is reducing. The average number of cars per household is also increasing. These trends are likely to continue for some time.

During the last 20 years, there has been an average of 265 new households being built each year within Palmerston North City and 360 within the study area. The average growth in the number of households is 1.2% pa over the study area.








The employment data for Palmerston North City is shown below: Table 2: Employment Trends




Palmerston North City

1986 25,590 - 4,710 - 30,300 -1991 23,500 -1.6% 5,360 2.8% 28,860 -1.0% 1996 25,430 1.6% 8,250 10.8% 33,680 3.3% 2001 25,407 0.0% 8,391 0.3% 33,798 0.1% Study Area 1986 32,420 - 6,000 - 38,420 -1991 30,120 -1.4% 6,920 3.1% 37,040 -0.7% 1996 28,050 -1.4% 9,840 8.4% 37,890 0.5% 2001 29,625 1.1% 9,870 0.1% 39,495 0.8%

In 2001, there was an average of 0.32 full-time and 0.11 part-time jobs per person across the study area.

The growth in employment between 1991 and 1996 has come mainly from part-time employment. Between 1996 and 2001, total employment growth has been similar to population growth. Travel patterns for part-time employees differ from those of full-time employees, in that most trips are done outside the typical peak commuter hours.



The New Zealand Defence Force is consolidating its resources, and intends to have Linton as its main base. Many of the army personnel currently in Waiouru will be relocated to Linton over the next four years. Linton is now the largest military base in New Zealand, and it is intended that this should continue.

Waiouru will remain the main training camp, and there will be regular staff and machinery movements between the two military camps. As part of the military’s housing requirements, many of the additional recruitments will be housed within the surrounding areas, rather than within Linton. This will increase travel demand across the Manawatu River.


The existing and future facilities are shown in Table 3: Table 3: Projected Linton Growth (NZ Defence Force)


Staff Regular 1,700 2,400

Territorial 1,700 2,000

Civilians 100 100

On-site Housing Houses 380 380

Barracks 1,180 1,180

However this future growth can only occur if there continues to be a noise buffer zone between the military camp and residential properties. Similar provisions have already been established for the Massey research farms.

In this regard, it is considered any future new bridge crossing south of Maxwells Line would inevitably have the effect of bringing residential subdivisions close to Linton. This is regarded as undesirable because of the prospect of increasing military operations in this area.



Palmerston North is known as the knowledge city reflecting its many training institutes, including Massey University, the Universal College of Learning (UCOL) and the International Pacific College (IPC).

Universal College of Learning

UCOL is situated in the heart of the city, adjacent to Princess Street, between Queen and King Streets.

UCOL has around 7,500 students enrolled every year, including full-time, part-time and short term courses. They employ around 220 full time and 150 part time staff. At any one time, there can be up to 2,000 people on their central city campus. The College is also open longer than most tertiary level education institutes, as there is only a two week break during Christmas, and courses run throughout all remaining months.

The College has had significant growth over the last several years at around 10% per annum. It is expected that the College will continue to grow albeit at a lower rate. The College has no intention of dividing into two campuses and travel demands here will continue to increase accordingly.


Massey University

Massey University now has four campuses in New Zealand, being the original site at Turitea, south of the Manawatu River, the Hokowhitu campus adjacent to the Hokowhitu Lagoon, Albany and Wellington.

Massey University provides part-time and full-time study on campus and extramural study off campus.

The student numbers in Palmerston North over the past few years have been fairly static, with around 8,250 internal students, 19,100 extramural students, and 1,180 students on block courses. It is estimated that around 1,100 of the internal students are at the Hokowhitu campus, with the majority of attendance being at Turitea. The split between full-time and part-time students is not known, nor have future projections been made. Given that in the previous few years student numbers have been static, it is not likely that there will be significant growth in travel demands associated with the Massey campuses. Massey provides a free bus service between the campuses for students needing to travel between the two. Some students take advantage of this by parking at the Hokowhitu campus and using the bus to access the Turitea campus.

International Pacific College

IPC is situated in Aokautere, south of the Manawatu River.

Since opening in 1989, IPC has had a steady growth of around 2% per annum, with existing enrolments being around 420 full time students. By 2003 this is expected to be 480. IPC has around 90 full time staff and 35 part time staff.

All the students at IPC are full-time and most of them live on campus, with only around 100 students living elsewhere in the city.




Freight transportation is considered to be vital for both the regional and national economy, and consideration needs to be given to truck routes both within the city and across the region.

The percentage of trucks amongst present traffic flows is shown in Table 4: Table 4: Truck Percentages

% HEAVY VEHICLES Rangitikei Street 5.8% Pioneer Highway 6.4 - 11.5% Fitzherbert Avenue 3.2% Main Street 3.5 - 9.1% Tremaine Avenue 10.0% Ruahine Street 2.7% JFK Drive 5.8% Albert Street 2.2% Princess Street 2.5% Ferguson Street 1.8% Pitt Street 1.9% Grey Street 2.6% Botanical Road 3.8% Broadway Avenue 1.3%

Te Awe Awe Street 3.5%

These truck percentages have generally remained stable over the past few years, with truck growth generally in line with general traffic growth. The growth rate of trucks may lessen slightly with the proposed change in trucking regulations.



Palmerston North airport is unique in New Zealand in that it is accessible not only by road but also adjacent to the main North Island trunk railway line. With Palmerston North airport now being an international airport, and with the probability of a longer runway, traffic movements in and out of the city are likely to increase. An associated increase in truck movements will also occur, as more freight is airlifted.




Various population forecasts are available for the Palmerston North area.

Statistics New Zealand has high and low population forecasts for Palmerston North City. The low forecast is for an overall population increase of 7% over the next 20 years, whereas the high forecast is an increase of 30%. There is clearly considerable variation.

Vision Manawatu predicts a high growth for the region, with a target of increasing the population by 25% over the next 20 years.

The Palmerston North Industrial Land Use Study predicts the employment for Palmerston North City for the year 2021. The study predicts an increase of 26.3% above the 2001 figures.

Within this study, the Community Liaison Group also considered that Palmerston North should be prepared for a high growth rate, and a growth of 25% over the next 25 years was agreed as a target for forward planning. It was also agreed that the employment rate should be at the same rate as it is today, i.e. the proportion of employed should remain constant, but take into account an aging population.

The Palmerston North City Future Unit consider a more conservative population increase, in line with the previous five years, better reflects what is likely to happen, and agreed to using two growth scenarios, a high growth scenario of an increase of population at 1.0%pa and a low growth scenario of an increase at 0.5%pa.





Statistics New Zealand projections shows that the number of elderly in the region will increase, while the number of younger people (<25 years) will remain fairly static, and decrease in percentage terms, as shown in Table 5.

Table 5: Population Projections by Age - Palmerston North City

AGE GROUP 2001 2021


0 - 4 4,974 6.9% 4,600 5.4% 5 - 14 10,299 14.3% 9,060 10.6% 15 - 24 13,758 19.1% 16,020 18.7% 25 - 49 25,212 35.0% 28,630 33.4% 50 - 65 9,675 13.4% 15,410 18.0% 65+ 8,109 11.3% 12,110 14.1%

*Source: Statistics New Zealand

The percent of the population in the workforce age bracket (15-65) is shown as 67.5% in 1996 and 70.1% in 2021. So, although there will be more retired people, the proportion of the population of working age is greater in 2021 than 2001. It can therefore be expected that the employment rates per total population will be similar to current levels.



The average household occupancy is declining at a rate of around 0.6 percent per annum. At this rate, the household occupancy rate will reduce from 2.73 to 2.32 persons per household by 2025. As this rate it is unlikely to be maintained over the longer term, it has been assumed that the household occupancy in 2025 will be 2.57, being the household occupancy levels in 2011 if the existing trend was to continue.

Two growth scenarios are used, being a low growth scenario where the total population will increase by 12.5%, and a high growth scenario where the total population will increase by 25%. For both scenarios it has been assumed that the growth in employment will be at the same rate as the growth in population, with employment rates in the city slightly higher than in the surrounding urban areas. Tables 6 and 7 summarise the resulting overall future land use projections.


Table 6: Population Projection



Palmerston North City

2001 72,030 26,424 72,030 26,424 Additional 9,004 5,107 18,008 8,610 2025 81,034 31,531 90,038 35,034 Study Area 2001 92,001 33,666 92,001 33,666 Additional 11,500 6,607 23,000 11,082 2025 103,501 40,273 115,001 44,748

Table 7: Employment Projection



Palmerston North City

2001 30,617 8,161 30,617 8,161 Additional 3,953 1,055 7,907 2,111 2025 34,570 9,216 38,524 10,272 Study Area 2001 36,320 9,346 36,320 9,346 Additional 4,524 1,173 9,047 2,348 2025 40,844 10,519 45,367 11,694

Under the low growth rate scenario, an additional 6,607 households occur within the study area with 4,524 jobs. These numbers increase to 11,082 and 9,047 for the high growth rate scenario.

The distribution of the additional population and employment is discussed in the next chapters.



The City Future Unit at Palmerston North City Council estimate that within Palmerston North, there is currently land available for around 1,850 new households within the existing undeveloped residential zoned land. They also estimate that there is potential for up to 1,400 infill sites to become available through subdividing properties and building apartments, and up to 700 households could foreseeably be built in the existing rural-residential zoned land. Together, these 3,950 building sites are insufficient to accommodate the future growth projections.

From this position, the City Future Unit commissioned a study on the Future Urban Growth Fronts to determine the availability of future greenfield areas and to examine each of them in terms of urban form, physical location, ecological impact and associated infrastructure costs and ranked them accordingly. The report outcomes are shown in Table 8:


Table 8: Urban Growth Fronts Study Findings


Staces Road 650 First Level Option*

Napier Road 750 First Level Option

Cloverlea 980 First Level Option

Ashhurst 233 First Level Option

Pacific Drive 464 Second Level Option

Keebles 1,100 Third Level Option

James Line 525 Third Level Option

Bunnythorpe 3,400 Fourth Level Option

Hendersons 1,000 Not to be Considered

Linton 1,100 Not to be Considered

*with the inclusion of another bridge crossing

The resulting total number of potential sites exceeds projected requirements, so alternative distributions have been assessed in order to ensure greater robustness of the transport model findings. The resulting alternative household distributions are shown in Table 9. Table 9: Alternative Household Distributions



Existing 33,666 33,666 33,666 33,666

Palmerston North City Sites

Infill - Urban 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 Infill - Rural 700 700 700 1,705 Existing Greenfield 1,850 1,850 1,850 1,850 Cloverlea 980 980 833 Napier Road 150 375 750 682 Ashhurst 27 117 235 200 Pacific Drive 665 665 665 James Line 525 525 Bunnythorpe 755 Hendersons 750 Staces 750

Remaining Study Area Sites

Fielding 1,200 1,200 1,800 1,800

Infill - Rural 300 300 672 672

TOTAL 40,273 40,273 44,748 44,748

All of the growth scenarios assume that all the available sites within Palmerston North City are used. The first level options have then been used in the low growth distributions, (excluding Staces Road as this would require an alternative bridge crossing), with an emphasis on households being either north of the river or south of the river. In the high growth scenario, the first level options were used in both distributions. The ‘north’ distribution includes households in the third level options of James Line, Bunnythorpe and Hendersons, while the ‘south’ distribution assumes the Staces development will go ahead and there will be a significant increase in the development of rural-residential land.




The City Future Unit agreed that the employment growth would be at the same rate as the population growth. The Unit considers that the employment distribution will become increasingly influenced by the Manawatu Economic Development Strategy. This will mean that the job areas that are most likely to be developed are industrial/distribution and research/educational.

The City Future Unit has recently undertaken an Industrial Land Use study, which looked at the amount of available undeveloped Industrial Land, future demands and potential sites. The potential sites were then ranked, from which it was recommended that the Council rezone the area identified as NE Airport as industrial land, and that Longburn and Linton be incorporated as industrial expansion areas in future integrated long term urban growth plans. While included within this study, Longburn is outside the Palmerston North City boundary. Cloverlea was also shown to have potential as an industrial land zone, however it was felt that this land would be more useful if it was kept for residential purposes. In April 2002, the Palmerston North City Council accepted the recommendation to proceed with re-zoning the NE Airport area as industrial, but also decided to undertake further investigation of the Longburn area for future industry.

Two employment distributions were developed for each of the growth rates, as summarised in Table 10.

Table 10: Employment Distributions



Existing 36,320 36,320 36,320 36,320

Palmerston North City Sites

CBD 1,241 1,412 2,482 2,925 Linton 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 NE Airport 1,027 2,655 Longburn 685 1,770 Massey 856 2,212 Hokowhitu Campus 171 442 CRI 342 885 PCI 171 442

Remaining Study Area Sites

Fielding 306 306 612 612

Other Rural 265 265 529 529

TOTAL 40,844 40,844 45,367 45,367

In all the distributions, it was assumed that the proportion of employment within the CBD in general business and retail would remain the same as in 2001, and that Linton would have an additional 1,000 jobs as confirmed by the NZ Army. The industrial distributions assumed that 60% of the remaining jobs would be in the NE Airport site and the remaining 40% at Longburn. The educational/research distribution assumed that 50% of the remaining employment would be at Massey, 20% at CRI and 10% at the various other tertiary units, including UCOL in the CBD.


While it is likely that there will be a combination of both industrial and education growth, the corresponding ranges within each category have been used in order to ensure a robust and versatile outcome from the study as a whole.



The two growth rates, with two household distributions and two employment distributions provide a total of eight alternative land-use scenarios that have been evaluated in the transport model. The results from each scenario are summarised and reported with an expectation that Council officers will actively monitor actual growth rates, and the location of new housing and employment to determine which scenarios should be continued and extended in future updates of the Transportation Management Plan.


The total existing and future population, households and trips used in this study is shown in Table 11.

Table 11: Growth Summary



Population 92,001 103,501 115,002 12.5% 25.0%

Households 33,666 40,273 44,748 19.6% 32.9%

Vehicle Trips Per Hour 29,495 37,299 41,310 26.5% 40.1%

As expected, the percent increase in households is greater than population and the percent increase in trips in the network is greater than the increase in households.

The study has focussed on ensuring that the recommendations made should be capable of supporting the projected transportation needs of each of these possible scenarios.





The capacity of a roadway varies according to a wide range of influences including the road type, location in the network and the nature of adjoining land uses. Urban roads are limited by the capacity of downstream intersections, whereas the capacity of rural roads is principally determined by alignment and geometric characteristics.

The term Level of Service is provided to characterise operational conditions within a traffic stream and their perception by motorists and passengers. Six Levels of Service (LOS) are defined with A representing the highest level, and F the worst. For most design or planning purposes, service flow rates D or C are usually used. The following general statements describe the various Levels of Service.

1 LOS A describes primarily free-flow operations. Vehicles are seldom impeded in their ability to manoeuvre in the traffic stream. Delay at intersections is minimal.

2 LOS B represents reasonably unimpeded operations at average travel speeds. The ability to manoeuvre in the traffic stream is only slightly restricted and delays are not bothersome.

3 LOS C represents stable operations; however, ability to manoeuvre and change lanes in midblock locations may be more restricted than in LOS B, and longer queues, adverse signal coordination, or both may contribute to lower average travel speeds.

4 LOS D borders on a range in which small increases in flow may cause substantial increases in approach delay and hence decreases in arterial speed. LOS D may be due to adverse signal progression, inappropriate signal timing, high volumes, or some combination of these.

5 LOS E is characterised by significant delays and average travel speeds of one-third the free-flow speed or less. Such operations are caused by some combination of adverse progression, high signal density, high volumes, extensive delays at critical intersections, and inappropriate signal timing.

6 LOS F characterises arterial flow at extremely low speeds, from less than one-third to one-quarter of the free-flow speed. Intersection congestion is likely at critical signalised locations, with long delays and extensive queuing.

As traffic volumes increase, the Level of Service decreases, i.e. traffic volumes are highest in LOS F.





A roading hierarchy defines certain streets for different functions. Understanding the needs and characteristics of these different functions make it easier to establish appropriate policies and guidelines for each of the classes or types of street throughout the network, and helps to direct traffic onto routes that are more suitable for their needs, for example, to minimise heavy vehicles on residential streets. By concentrating resources on particular streets rather than dispersed amongst many, conflicts can be reduced. The seven levels of the road hierarchy for Palmerston North can be described as follows: • Arterial Roads - designed to carry long distance through traffic and form part of

the regional strategic network

• Principal Roads - providing access between suburbs and the arterial roads • Collector Roads - distributing traffic and cyclists between and within local areas • Local Roads - slow environments providing direct access to property

• Parking Streets - primarily for central area parking, all parking streets are within the ring road

• Pedestrian Streets - to facilitate a high standard of pedestrian amenity. All pedestrian streets are within the ring road

• Cycle Paths - off-road facilities.

By clearly defining the role and function of each road, community values can be provided for in an effective and cost-efficient manner. The roading hierarchy provides a tool for determining appropriate traffic management measures and provides a basis for design standards on individual components of the network.

Council resources are minimised if an appropriate, well-defined and effective roading hierarchy is achieved.



The levels of the road hierarchy can be described as follows:

Arterial Roads

High standard, limited access roads, designed to carry long distance through traffic and form part of the regional and local strategic network. These roads will have priority at all intersections along them, and intersections with principal roads will be controlled in the form of a graded intersection, traffic signals or roundabout. Many of these streets will






have four lanes. Four laning can be provided during peak periods by the introduction of clearways between 7:30 - 9:00 and 4:00 - 6:00pm. The road design will ensure minimum delays along the route. Cyclists will be encouraged not to use these roads but to use collector or local roads, where the design speed is lower and risk of conflict is reduced. Cycle lanes will only be provided on arterials that form part of the cycle network.

Principal Roads

Principal roads provide access between suburbs and the arterial roads and between different land use activities providing property access mainly to non-residential land-uses. Intersections have their priority on the principal road, except where they intersect with an arterial road. Road design will ensure minimal delay along the route. Principal roads will carry the major public transport routes.

Collector Roads

Collector roads distribute traffic between and within local areas and form the main link between principal and local roads.

Traffic movement and property access is of equal importance.

Cyclists are recommended to use collector roads and local roads to travel around the city. Kerbside parking may need to be removed to allow for separate cycle lanes.

Local Roads

Local roads provide direct access to properties. They are slow environments. Except for vehicles servicing individual properties, there will be no heavy vehicles on local roads. Cross-sections are to be kept to a minimum to ensure the environment does not attract through traffic. Local roads include cul-de-sacs and private accessways, and separate design guides are laid out for these streets. A high level of pedestrian facilities are to be provided.

Existing local roads that exceed the maximum recommended carriageway widths will use roadmarking techniques to make them appear narrower, thus reducing vehicle speeds.

Parking and Pedestrian

Parking and pedestrian streets are all located within the central business district where their significant function is either to provide parking for adjacent businesses or easy pedestrian linkages. Vehicle access to individual properties is not permitted on a pedestrian street. Traffic speeds in these streets are low.


Cycle Paths

Off-road cycle paths are accessible only for cyclists and pedestrians. Cycle paths may be exclusive for cyclists, or in a shared environment with pedestrians. Cycle paths can also include cycle lanes on roads that have a physical means of separating cyclists from motorised vehicles, eg a solid median. Effectively such a path is similar to a footpath. A summary of the characteristics of each road classification is shown in Table 12. Table 12 : Road Classifications Characteristics






Arterial >20,000 4 Uninterrupted 50-70 None 400 Controlled No Principal 8,000-20,000 2 - 4 Uninterrupted 50-60 None 300 Controlled No Collector 2,500-8,000 2 Interrupted 40-50 Permitted 200 Equal Yes Local 200-2,500 2 Interrupted 35-45 Preferred 100 Primary Yes Accessway <200 1-2 Interrupted 25-35 Preferred 50 Primary No Park & Ped. <6,000 2 Interrupted 30-35 Permitted 150 Controlled No Cycle Path - 2 Uninterrupted 10-20 Controlled 300 Controlled Yes

Separate design specifications are provided in the next section of this report.



The proposed roading hierarchy for Palmerston North is shown in Figure 2 and has been developed based on the existing road arrangements, future traffic flow patterns and strategic development.

While it is appreciated that some of the proposed arterial roads have residential housing, the proposed network best utilises the existing streets and will reduce conflict for the majority of residents in Palmerston North.


Figure 2 : Proposed Urban Road Hierarchy

Arterial roads are best utilised if they travel between major destinations on opposite sides of the city.

Care was taken to minimise the number of schools on arterial roads, however all of the long through roads have schools on them, partially due to the easy access these sites had,making them suitable for school sites.

The proposed roading network includes a new road connecting the Airport to Railway Avenue to reduce the impacts on McGregor Street.

It is recommended that cycle facilities be provided on all the roads shown. Introduction of the cycle network should be staged over five years. Only the arterial and principal roads shown in Figure 2 that are marked as part of the cycle network will have cycle facilities marked. Additional cycle facilities may be introduced on other collector and local roads as required.

In deriving the principal cycle network, the “Principal Network Rules” used by Christchurch City Council have been used, namely:

• all elements and links in the principal cycle network shall connect to other links or recognised major cycle destinations

• no domestic residence in the urban concentration areas of the city shall be more than 1.5 km from an element of the principal cycle Network.

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It is recommended that a minimum Level of Service C be used in design criteria. In rural areas, where speed limits are greater than 80 kph, this corresponds to a maximum flow rate of approximately 600 vehicles per hour per lane in each direction. Should the flow conditions be higher than this for more than five hours of the day, improvements in the form of road widening should be considered.

In urban areas, where travel speeds are influenced by intersection capacity, intersection delays should not exceed an average of 25 seconds per vehicle for more than two hours every day on arterial roads. Should delays exceed these conditions, intersection improvements need to be considered. Recommended maximum delays for other road types are shown in the later Section “Intersection Delay”.


It is important that traffic lanes are wide enough to allow free-flow conditions, but are not so wide that there is no control over vehicle paths. Individual roads can have slightly different lane configurations by adjusting the widths of painted flush medians, or increasing the width of cycle lanes in accordance with the overall carriageway width. If needed, parking lanes can be removed on narrow streets where there are low parking demands, in order to assist vehicle flow.

The recommended minimum and maximum design standards are set out in Table 13. Table 13 : Minimum Design Standards





(KERB TO (INC (M) (M) (M) (M)


MIN PERMITTED Urban Roads Arterial 18.0 2 x 4.5 2 x 1.5 - 3.5 4.2 2.0 Principal 14.2 2 x 4.5 2 x 1.5 2 x 2.2 3.5 4.0 1.5 Collector 15.4 2 x 3.0 2 x 1.5 2 x 2.2 3.2 3.75 1.0 Local - Residential 8.0 2 x 2.0 2 x 1.5 1 x 2.0 2.8 3.2 1.2 -Local - Industrial 12.0 2 x 2.0 2 x 2.0 1 x 2.0 3.5 4.0 1.5 -Accessways 5.6 1 x 1.5 1 x 1.5 - 2.8 3.2 -

-Parking & Pedestrian 10.0 2 x 2.5 2 x 3.5 2 x 2.2 2.8 3.2 -

-Rural Roads

Arterial 13.0 2 x 5.6 - 3.5 4.2 2.5

Principal 11.0 2 x 5.6 - 3.5 4.0 2.0

Collector 9.0 2 x 3.0 - 3.75 4.0 1.5

Local 6.0 2 x 2.0 - 3.0 3.5

-The above design standards should be incorporated into all new subdivisions. Existing roads should be slowly upgraded to meet these standards. Parking and cycle lanes should be incorporated onto Local Roads as part of routine pavement re-marking to reduce the overall lane widths.

With the exception of Ashley Street, all the footpaths within the CBD are greater than the recommended 3.5m wide. Footpath widths in the pedestrian areas must be maintained to a high standard. Free-standing advertising signs and/or retail stock must be managed to maintain a high level of convenience, especially for mothers with prams, wheelchair users and the increasingly popular mobility scooters used by the elderly.










Several sources are available to look at existing travel patterns, as described below. The Census surveys undertaken by Statistics New Zealand include data on how people travel to work. The currently available data and trends for Palmerston North City are shown in Table 14:

Table 14: Mode of Travel to Work


1986 1991 1996 2001 Car Driver 66% 69% 68% 72% Car Passenger 6% 7% 6% 5% Public Transport 3% 2% 2% 1% Cycle 13% 11% 10% 7% Walk 9% 8% 8% 8% Work at Home 3% 3% 6% 7%

The reliance on motor travel for the journey to work has increased, with fewer people cycling or walking. In order to stabilise or reverse this trend, significant fresh initiatives are required.

Surveys have been reported from Palmerston North schools in both 1984 and 1997. The results are shown in Table 15:

Table 15 : Mode of Travel to Secondary School


1984 1997

Car 8% 19%

Public Transport 4% 13%

Cycle 72% 45%

Walk 16% 23%

As shown, cycling has seen a significant decline.





The mode of transport chosen for a particular journey is determined by several factors, including: • cost of travel • travel time • distance of journey • convenience of journey • parking availability • terrain and weather.

Hidden or one-off costs such as vehicle insurance are often excluded when determining the preferred mode of travel for any particular journey.


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In 2001 1.3% of residents in Palmerston North took the bus to work compared with up to around 10.1% in Auckland and 19.4% in Wellington. The substantially lower figure for Palmerston North reflects the ease of driving during peak times, the availability of commuter parking and the geographical spread of the workforce.

Public transport is most efficient if the city is reasonably dense. Public transport is usually found to be optimised in cities that have at least 40% of employment and retail activities in the CBD. In Palmerston North this is 28%. It is also best served in cities that have “ribbon development” such that the public transport can follow the lines of development.

Buses are the best means of public transport for Palmerston North as they are able to use any route, can have route changes or extensions at later dates and can utilise the existing infrastructure. The most effective method of increasing public transport is to have a service with high frequency and strategically located stops. A reduction in commuter parking will also increase public transport usage.

The existing bus network is shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 : Existing Bus Network






As will be evident from the plan, the bus network serves most residential areas. Buses generally depart every 70 minutes, with adjacent routes having departures every 35 minutes. This means that a resident situated between two bus routes has a choice of which route to take, if they know the timetable.

All the bus routes lead to and from the CBD, requiring transfers in order to reach other suburban destinations, such as the hospital.

Public transport rates could be increased to levels similar to Wellington and Auckland if the frequency of buses is increased, and that smaller buses are used. The introduction of new routes that travel around and between suburban areas, not just to and from the CBD would be useful in further improving accessibility and convenience, particularly for the hospital and technical training institutions.

Over recent years, the number of bus passengers has increased. Most of this increase has occurred in off-peak times, primarily from students and the elderly. The unlimited access of buses to UCOL students and lecturers has proved to be very successful. One incentive being considered to increase alternative transport is to add cycle racks to buses, so that people can commute by cycle in one direction, and with the option of taking the bus home if it rains, etc.



In 1996 Palmerston North had the highest level of commuting to work by cycling in New Zealand, with 10.5% of commuters cycling. By 2001 this has dropped to 7.5%. Cycling is beneficial to the community in reducing congestion (traffic and parking), for health reasons, and it is cheaper than running a car. It is recommended that cycling be encouraged by the use of on-road cycle lanes. Cycleways can be provided on many of the existing carriageways.

There is a perception that cycling is a potentially hazardous activity. However there are more hospitalisations in Palmerston North from sporting injuries than from cycling. If driving and cycling are compared on the basis of the length of exposure to danger, the risk per hour is about the same. The British Medical Association has compared the “life-years lost due to accidents versus the life-years gained for health reasons” with the conclusion that there is a 20 to 1 ratio in favour of cycling.

It is recommended that Council continue to provide for and pursue achievement of the goals set out in the Bike Plan.

Palmerston North is ideally suited for cycling, due to its flat terrain, compact size and wide residential streets, however fewer than 5% of the community cycle on a regular basis, and this number is decreasing.


Figure 4 : Proposed Principal Cycle Network

Cycling is safer on roads with fewer cars, and it is accordingly sensible to encourage cyclists to use low volume roads such as local and collector streets. With the grid nature of the Palmerston North roading network, this will not require longer journey distances. It is recommended that on-street cycle lanes be marked on all residential and collector streets carrying more than 4,500 vpd that have a carriageway width greater than 12.0m and 15.4m respectively.

Particular off-road cycle facilities should be considered for any corridor that has more than 100 cycles per hour for a minimum of four hours a day.

In 1999 a study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of a cycle/ pedestrian bridge over the Manawatu River. The study showed the economics of such a bridge facility were marginal and with the continuing decline in cycling, a cycle bridge at the present time is not warranted. Similarly, a separate cycle bridge over the railway line is not warranted. However it is highly recommended that any new roading bridges have separate cycle facilities provided at the time of construction.

Road safety for cyclists can be improved by using coloured paving for an area dedicated to cyclists. This practice is to be encouraged as budgets permit.

Cycling can be promoted in the District Plan. For instance, commercial buildings with a floor area greater than 800m2 GFA should be encouraged to have specific cycle parking provisions for the use of cycle commuters. Table 16 sets out suggested cycle parking facilities:

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Table 16 : Recommended Commuter Cycle Parking Requirements


Offices 1 space/200 m2 GFA

Retail 1 space/350 m2 GFA

Manufacturing/Industry 1 space/300 m2 GFA

Dispensations to developers for providing cycle parking in lieu of vehicle parking is discussed in the later Section “Parking Dispensations”.



Walking is a mode that is often shared by other modes, eg walking from a bus stop or car park. City footpaths need to be sufficiently wide to cater for pedestrians. Footpaths in the CBD need to be wider than those in residential areas.

Walking is an ideal alternative transport for short trips, and also forms part of all trips made by a motorised vehicle.

Areas of high pedestrian usage, such as within the CBD, between commuter parking areas and the city, adjacent to schools and suburban shopping precincts need to include the highest standard of walking facilities. Pedestrian footpaths must be wide enough to cope with the demands, pedestrian crossings must be adequately located, and appropriate lighting is needed in areas where people walk at nighttime and early evenings.

All intersections controlled by traffic signals must have pedestrian facilities on all approaches to the intersection, unless such provisions are inconsistent with the required efficiency and safe operating. Regular assessments of other crossing facilities are to be made, and reference is made to the pedestrian crossing warrant specified in TR11 (National Roads Board Publication : Recommended Practice for Pedestrian Crossings, RCM Dunn & GW Main). TR11 suggests that a pedestrian crossing is warranted if, during a normal weekday both the pedestrian volumes are greater than 300 per hour and the product of pedestrians and vehicles is greater than 45,000 per hour. Should there be an existing pedestrian crossing that does not meet this warrant, the crossing should be removed such that consistency is maintained and vehicle drivers will continue to respect and observe other pedestrian crossings.

Pedestrian crossings that aren’t used very often are potentially dangerous as motorists who regularly drive through these crossings know pedestrians seldom use them. Crossings outside schools fall into this category as they are generally only used immediately before and after school. Kea crossings are part-time crossings that only operate when a school patrol and fluorescent orange flags are present. When there are no school patrols and flags, the crossing point is just like any other section of road.

It is recommended that Kea crossings are considered adjacent to schools that do not meet the full pedestrian warrant and have a half-hour product of pedestrians and vehicles of at least 3,000.


Good regional links are the backbone to a strong economy to bring both goods into and out of the city. Manufacturing, industrial and retail businesses rely on the movement of goods. Delays to vehicles increase transportation costs and reduce competitiveness. Regional links must retain a high level of service and meet minimum design standards. Property access should be developed on side roads to the main links. The effectiveness of these regional links will determine Palmerston North’s further development as the regional focus for industry, retail and recreational activities.

The long-term strategic links are shown in Figure 5. These proposed arterials/state highways would strengthen the links between Palmerston North and its surrounds and make it easier for external traffic to reach the far side of the city. While the ring road is a long-term strategic goal, all roading improvements made in the short term are to be consistent with the strategic network.

The long-term strategic network for the future proposes new bridges that will complete the rural ring road. The proposed network maximises the use of existing roads.

Vehicles from the Manawatu Gorge initially would continue to use SH3 to cross Palmerston North. With the future Ruahine Bridge however, drivers would have an alternative access via SH57, and this alternative is much more suitable for vehicles wishing to access the east or south of the city.

The Ruahine Bridge also strengthens the route between Fielding and Massey.

The western bridge is an alternative for traffic to and from the south, but also a useful link for Linton and its associated heavy vehicles. Linton traffic then would not need to traverse the urban streets to travel to Waiouru.

Consideration should be given to extending Flygers Line to Cloverlea Road if the possible residential development occurs in this area.

Transit New Zealand is also a major contributor to arterial routes in and around the city and any strategic alteration to arterials in the region should only be undertaken following close liaison between Transit and the various TLA’s in the region.



Figure 5 : Proposed Regional Road Hierarchy

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Arterial streets within the city are the roadways connecting major parts of the city. Traffic flow needs to be unimpeded, with priority given to these links. They also provide access from the regional links to the various suburbs.

The four main arterials leading out from the CBD (Main Street, Fitzherbert Avenue, Pioneer Highway and Rangitikei Street) together with the ring road should be progressively upgraded to four lanes, and include space for trees on the berms. It is proposed existing trees in central medians be progressively relocated to the berms, such that a clear distinction between the arterial and CBD streets can be made and street lighting is improved

Other arterials that will also require widening in the near future include Ruahine Street. Presently the three parallel routes of Broadway, Main and Church Streets all carry similar volumes, even though Main Street is an arterial and the other two are local roads. Co-ordination of the signalised intersections along Main Street is necessary to improve the travel time on this arterial and reduce the impacts on each of the parallel roads and adjoining neighbourhoods. Likewise the environment on Broadway Avenue and Church Street should indicate their lesser strategic importance.

Property access restrictions need to be in place to reduce the number of driveways on arterial roads, and to ensure that vehicles, particularly service vehicles are not required to make any reversing manoeuvres either into or out of properties.

Pedestrian generating activities, such as schools and shopping precincts, should be strongly discouraged from establishing themselves directly on defined arterial roads.





To maximise safety and pedestrian amenities, traffic flows on local residential streets need to be kept at acceptable levels, with unrelated and unnecessary through traffic and heavy vehicle movements kept out of local neighbourhoods. Acceptable traffic volumes for local streets, in residential areas are up to 2,500 vpd, with up to around 1 or 2% heavy vehicles. Existing streets with daily traffic volumes (2002) at this level include Amberley Avenue - 2,800 vpd, Centennial Drive - 1,750 vpd, Heretaunga Street - 2,850 vpd, Highbury Avenue - 2,800 vpd, Linton Street -1,200 vpd, North Street -2,350 vpd, and Shelly Street - 2,050 vpd. Local roads with traffic volumes higher than this should be considered for traffic management schemes, such as kerb extensions at the entry points and the use of raised thresholds or similar treatments to reduce the amount of through traffic in the street. On particularly long roads, higher volumes may occur as the street services more houses. The Section “Traffic Management Guidelines”, discusses methods of reducing through traffic from residential streets including detailed design standards for kerb extensions and raised thresholds. The introduction of flush medians, angle parking, edge lines and cycle lanes all reduce the carriageway widths and assist in discouraging unrelated and unnecessary through movements.



A Living Street is a broad term used to describe a wide range of techniques, initiatives and activities that endeavour to instil a sense of collective ownership and pride. An ideal is that streets should be designed with the priority on living and community interaction, where residents, businesses, pedestrians and cyclists, at the very least, have equality with cars. Improving the quality of life by reclaiming the “living” component of our streets is another aim.

Living Streets can be described as a collaborative process where the Council enters into partnership with the public in each aspect of the decision, including the development of alternatives and the identification of the preferred solution. The Council will look to residents for direct advice and innovation in formulating solutions and incorporate the public advice and its recommendations in decisions to the maximum extent possible.





The way children travel to school is changing. More and more children are being dropped off by parents. This not only produces safety and congestion problems around schools, but also reduces the probability that children will use alternative transport as adults. Incentives to change these trends are being trialled at some schools such as introducing walking buses. Individual schools are able to apply to the Ministry of Education for grants to help build specific drop-off areas.

While every school is different the following guidelines will help to address situations as they arise:

• Encourage the use of “walking buses” for health reasons as well as a means of reducing traffic congestion

• Wherever possible, parents should drop off/pick up their children on a side road, rather than a main road. If necessary a new gate and drop off area should be built and the gate on the main road should be coned off during pick up/drop off times • A pick up/drop off lane should be developed within school grounds, or a

drop-off lay-by within a widened road reserve. This should be mandatory in all new schools. Although up to 50% of all children now travel to school by private car, the period during which individual cars need to be parked is relatively short. Schools should aim to have a set down lane with parking available for around one car to every nine students

• Staggering school hours for different aged pupils, although it is recognised a parent collecting a six and ten year old would then probably park for longer • Enforcing no parking immediately adjacent to the school gate so that parents and

children have better visibility

• Installing median barriers to prevent U-turns or right turns in and out of the school driveway.

These are guidelines only, and each school needs to be addressed individually.



Presently there are pockets of industrial and commercial land scattered amongst residential land. This leads to the intrusion of commercial vehicles including heavy trucks into neighbourhoods. Future land-use zone changes must consider the roading network and include buffer zones between two areas of conflicting land use.


Figure 6: Local Area Traffic Management �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� ��� ��� ��� ��� ������������� ���� ���� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ���� ��� ���� �� ������� ���� ���� �� �� ��� ���� ���� �� �� �� �� ����������������� ������������������


The Central Business District (CBD) is bounded by the “ring road” formed by Princess Street, Ferguson Street, Pitt Street, Bourke Street, Walding Street and Grey Street. The CBD is losing its attractiveness. Central employment figures are declining, as businesses are moving out. For the city to have a strong heart, the CBD needs to be strong. Unnecessary through traffic needs to be diverted to other routes and conflicts need to be avoided. Through traffic volumes throughout the central area need to be reduced to achieve an emphasis on local access, easy circulation and ample parking within an improved overall quality environment. At present, it is estimated that up to 35% of traffic around the Square is through traffic. The CBD needs a face-lift. To do this, the ring road needs to be strengthened to encourage traffic to use these roads to get around the CBD, and across town, while only those vehicles with a specific destination within the CBD are provided for within the ring road. In order to distinguish between the two street types, it is recommended that streets within the ring road are designed primarily as circulation, parking and pedestrian streets. To encourage the unrelated through traffic to use other peripheral routes, some of the central area traffic signals should be removed. The wider streets within the ring road are to include central parking strips together with central planting, including trees at the end of each parking bay. A parking management study needs to be undertaken to determine the best use of the parking spaces in this area. Desirably, traffic volumes around the Square and surrounding streets should be limited to at most around 600 vph, or 6,500 vehicles per day, noting that present traffic volumes in the area are up to between 11,000 and 22,000 vpd. The southern quadrant is the busiest part of the Square.

Vehicles in the Square have one of three functions: • Local traffic parking

• Circulating traffic looking for a car park

• Through traffic not having an origin or destination in the area.

The latter component needs to be removed, and circulating traffic needs to be minimised, by ensuring that parking management is effective.

Several actions need to occur before the vehicles volumes will reduce:

• The through-traffic capacities of the internal streets and intersections need to be reduced

• The efficiency of the ring road needs to increase

• Alternative arterials for connecting the suburbs within the city need to be reinforced • Consideration needs to be given to the future provision of alternative bridge

crossings so that present vehicles do not need to rely so heavily on Fitzherbert Avenue and be directed towards the Square.



Figure 1 : Study Area

Figure 1 :

Study Area p.11
Table 1: Population Trends

Table 1:

Population Trends p.15
Table 2: Employment Trends

Table 2:

Employment Trends p.16
Table 3: Projected Linton Growth (NZ Defence Force)

Table 3:

Projected Linton Growth (NZ Defence Force) p.17
Table 4: Truck Percentages

Table 4:

Truck Percentages p.19
Table 5: Population Projections by Age - Palmerston North City

Table 5:

Population Projections by Age - Palmerston North City p.22
Table 7: Employment Projection

Table 7:

Employment Projection p.23
Table 6: Population Projection

Table 6:

Population Projection p.23
Table 9: Alternative Household Distributions

Table 9:

Alternative Household Distributions p.24
Table 8: Urban Growth Fronts Study Findings

Table 8:

Urban Growth Fronts Study Findings p.24
Table 10: Employment Distributions

Table 10:

Employment Distributions p.25
Table 11: Growth Summary

Table 11:

Growth Summary p.27
Table 12 : Road Classifications Characteristics

Table 12 :

Road Classifications Characteristics p.33
Figure 2 : Proposed Urban Road Hierarchy

Figure 2 :

Proposed Urban Road Hierarchy p.34
Table 13 : Minimum Design Standards

Table 13 :

Minimum Design Standards p.37
Table 14: Mode of Travel to Work

Table 14:

Mode of Travel to Work p.39
Table 15 : Mode of Travel to Secondary School

Table 15 :

Mode of Travel to Secondary School p.39
Figure 3 : Existing Bus Network

Figure 3 :

Existing Bus Network p.41
Figure 4 : Proposed Principal Cycle Network

Figure 4 :

Proposed Principal Cycle Network p.43
Figure 5 : Proposed Regional Road Hierarchy

Figure 5 :

Proposed Regional Road Hierarchy p.46
Figure 6: Local Area Traffic Management �� ������ �� �� ���� �� ������ ��� ��� ������ ������ ������� ���� ������������� ��������� ���� ������ ��� �������������������������������� �� ���� �����������������������������������

Figure 6:

Local Area Traffic Management �� ������ �� �� ���� �� ������ ��� ��� ������ ������ ������� ���� ������������� ��������� ���� ������ ��� �������������������������������� �� ���� ����������������������������������� p.51
Figure 7: Parking Streets

Figure 7:

Parking Streets p.57
Table 20: Priority Controlled Intersection Capacity

Table 20:

Priority Controlled Intersection Capacity p.63
Table 21: Intersection Accident Rates

Table 21:

Intersection Accident Rates p.64
Table 22 summarises the most critical intersections, where key improvements are necessary.

Table 22

summarises the most critical intersections, where key improvements are necessary. p.71
Table 23: Rangitikei/Tremaine Analysis

Table 23:

Rangitikei/Tremaine Analysis p.72
Table 24: Ruahine/Tremaine Analysis

Table 24:

Ruahine/Tremaine Analysis p.72
Table 25: Vogel/Tremaine Analysis

Table 25:

Vogel/Tremaine Analysis p.73
Table 26: Do-Minimum Network Intersection Delays

Table 26:

Do-Minimum Network Intersection Delays p.74
Table 27 identifies a summary of the delays at the busiest intersections.

Table 27

identifies a summary of the delays at the busiest intersections. p.75



Related subjects : Transportation Management