Blood Antiquities: Preserving Syria’s Heritage

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7-26-2017

Blood Antiquities: Preserving Syria’s Heritage

Claire Stephens

IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law

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Recommended Citation

Claire Stephens,Blood Antiquities: Preserving Syria’s Heritage, 92 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 353 (2017). Available at:https://scholarship.kentlaw.iit.edu/cklawreview/vol92/iss1/13

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 184 Side A 03/01/2017 10:44:39 ͵ͷ͵ ǣǯ ȗ  ʹͲͳͲǡ –Š‡ ”ƒ„ ’”‹‰ •™‡’– ƒ ™ƒ˜‡ ‘ˆ ˜‹‘Ž‡…‡ ƒ…”‘•• ‘”–Š ˆ”‹…ƒƒ†–Š‡‹††Ž‡ƒ•–ǡƒ†‹–Š‡‡•—‹‰›‡ƒ”•ǡ–Š‡”‡‰‹‘„‡…ƒ‡ ‡‰—Žˆ‡†‹–Š‡™‘”•–Š—ƒ‹–ƒ”‹ƒ…”‹•‹••‹…‡‘”Ž†ƒ”Ǥ›”‹ƒ ƒŽ‘‡ǡ ‡‹‰Š– ‹ŽŽ‹‘ ’‡‘’Ž‡ Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ †‹•’Žƒ…‡†ǡ ʹͷͲǡͲͲͲ Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ ‹ŽŽ‡†ǡͳ ƒ† –Š‡ Š—ƒ •—ˆˆ‡”‹‰ Šƒ• „‡‡ ‹‡ƒ•—”ƒ„Ž‡Ǥ Š‡•‡ ƒ•Ǧ •ƒ—Ž–•‘Š—ƒŽ‹ˆ‡Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ƒ……‘’ƒ‹‡†„›–Š‡–”ƒ‰‹…†‡•–”—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›ƒ†–Š‡Ž‘‘–‹‰‘ˆƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ•‹–‡•ǡ™Š‹…ŠŠƒ• ‡”ƒ•‡† –Š‘—•ƒ†• ‘ˆ ›‡ƒ”• ‘ˆ Š‹•–‘”› ƒ† Š‡”‹–ƒ‰‡Ǥ Š‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ’”‡•‡”˜‹‰ ›”‹ƒǯ• …—Ž–—”ƒŽ Š‡”‹–ƒ‰‡ …ƒ‘– „‡ —†‡”•–ƒ–‡†ǡ ‡˜‡ ‹ Ž‹‰Š– ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‘—–”›ǯ• Š—ƒ‹–ƒ”‹ƒ ‡‡†•Ǥ Š‡ †‡•–”—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘—Ǧ ‡–• ‹• „‡‹‰ —•‡† ƒ• ’”‘’ƒ‰ƒ†ƒ ˆ‘” –Š‡ •Žƒ‹… –ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ ”ƒ“ ƒ† ›”‹ƒǯ• ȋȌ ‡š–”‡‹•– ‹†‡‘Ž‘‰› ƒ† –Š‡ Ž‘‘–‹‰ ‘ˆ Š‡”‹–ƒ‰‡ •‹–‡• Šƒ• „‡…‘‡ƒˆ—†”ƒ‹•‹‰–‘‘Žˆ‘”–Š‡‰”‘—’ǯ•˜‹‘Ž‡–jihadǤ Š‡Žƒ”‰‡Ǧ•…ƒŽ‡Ž‘‘–‹‰‘ˆƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ•‹–‡•‹›”‹ƒŠƒ•„”‘—‰Š– –Š‡†‡˜ƒ•–ƒ–‹‰‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆ–Š‡‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽƒ”‡–‹Ž‘‘–‡†ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• ‹–‘•–ƒ””‡Ž‹‡ˆǤŠ‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•Šƒ•„‡‰—–‘ƒ††”‡••–Š‹•‹••—‡„› ’ƒ••‹‰ –Š‡”‘–‡…– ƒ† ”‡•‡”˜‡ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ —Ž–—”ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–› …–ǡ Ž‡‰‹•Žƒ–‹‘–Šƒ–”‡•–”‹…–•–Š‡‹’‘”–‘ˆ›”‹ƒ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›‹–‘–Š‡ ‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•ǤŠ‹Ž‡†‘‡•–‹…Žƒ™Šƒ•…‘–‹—‡†–‘‡˜‘Ž˜‡‹ƒ‡ˆˆ‘”– –‘’”‘–‡…–…—Ž–—”ƒŽŠ‡”‹–ƒ‰‡ǡ•‡˜‡”ƒŽ‘„•–ƒ…Ž‡•–‘‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ –Š‡ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•ƒ”‡–’‡”•‹•–Ǥ Š‹•‘–‡™‹ŽŽˆ‹”•–‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡…‹”…—•–ƒ…‡•ƒ†…‘•‡“—‡…‡•‘ˆ –Š‡‘‰‘‹‰…‘ˆŽ‹…–‹›”‹ƒƒ†Š‘™‹•‡š’Ž‘‹–‹‰›”‹ƒǯ•…—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–›–‘ˆ—†–Š‡‹”jihadǤ––Š‡Š‘Ž†•ƒ”‡–…‘—–”‹‡•ǡ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”Ǧ Ž› –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡•ǡ ƒ……‘—–ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ”‡†—…‡ Ž‘‘–‹‰ „› †‡…”‡ƒ•‹‰ †‡Ǧ ƒ† ˆ‘” ›”‹ƒ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•Ǥ ƒ”– ƒ† ‡šƒ‹‡ –Š‡ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ††‘‡•–‹…Žƒ™•–Šƒ–”‡‰—Žƒ–‡‘˜ƒ„Ž‡…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›ǡƒ†‹†‡–‹Ǧ ȗ ǤǤ ƒ†‹†ƒ–‡ǡ Š‹…ƒ‰‘Ǧ‡– ‘ŽŽ‡‰‡ ‘ˆ ƒ™ǡ ‡…‡„‡” ʹͲͳ͸Ǥ Š‡ ƒ—–Š‘” ™‘—Ž† Ž‹‡ –‘ –Šƒ ”‘ˆ‡••‘”ƒ”ƒŠƒ”†‹‰ˆ‘”Š‡”‹˜ƒŽ—ƒ„Ž‡…‘‡–•ƒ†‹•‹‰Š–•Ǥ ͳǤ Syria Crisisǡ ǯ ǡ Š––’•ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ‹…”…Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ‡Ȁ™Š‡”‡Ǧ™‡Ǧ ™‘”Ȁ‹††Ž‡Ǧ‡ƒ•–Ȁ•›”‹ƒȋŽƒ•–˜‹•‹–‡†‡’–‡„‡”͹ǡʹͲͳ͸ȌǤ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 184 Side B 03/01/2017 10:44:39

͵ͷͶ CHICAGO-KENT LAW REVIEW ȏ‘Žͻʹǣͳ ˆ‹‡•–Š‡…ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡•‹ƒ’’Ž›‹‰–Š‡•‡Žƒ™•–‘–Š‡…—””‡–…‘ˆŽ‹…–‹›”Ǧ ‹ƒǤ ‹ƒŽŽ›ǡƒ”–ƒ••‡”–•–Šƒ–†‘‡•–‹…Žƒ™‹•‹‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡Ž›‹’Ž‡‡–Ǧ ‡†ǡ ƒ† ’”‘’‘•‡• –Šƒ– –‡…Š‘Ž‘‰› •—…Š ƒ• •‘‹Ž ƒƒŽ›•‹• ™‹ŽŽ Š‡Ž’ –‘ •—……‡••ˆ—ŽŽ›‹†‡–‹ˆ›‹ŽŽ‹…‹–…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›ƒ––Š‡ǤǤ„‘”†‡”ǡ’”‡˜‡–Ǧ ‹‰‹–•‹’‘”–Ǥ —”–Š‡”ǡƒ‡†‹‰–Š‡ƒ…‡–‡‡”‹‰ˆŽ—‡…‡†ƒ†‘”Ǧ ”—’– ”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‹‘• …– ȋDzdzȌ –‘ ‹…Ž—†‡ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–› …”‹‡• ™‹ŽŽˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‡–Š‡•—……‡••ˆ—Ž’”‘•‡…—–‹‘‘ˆ‡–‹”‡–”ƒˆˆ‹…‹‰‡–™‘”• ƒ††‡–‡”’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–‹‘‹–Š‡ƒ”‡–Ǥ Ǥ

A. Syria and the Rise of the Islamic State

Š‡ ’”‡•‡– †ƒ› ›”‹ƒ ”ƒ„ ‡’—„Ž‹… ‹• Ž‘…ƒ–‡† ‹ ™Šƒ– ™ƒ• ‘™‹ƒ…‹‡––‹‡•ƒ•”‡ƒ–‡”›”‹ƒǤʹ›‹‰‹ƒˆ‡”–‹Ž‡‘ƒ•‹•ǡ”‡ƒ–Ǧ ‡”›”‹ƒƒ––”ƒ…–‡†ƒ†‹˜‡”•‡”ƒ‰‡‘ˆ’‡‘’Ž‡•‘˜‡”–Š‡…‡–—”‹‡•ǡ’”‘˜‹†Ǧ ‹‰ƒŠ‘‡–‘•‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡™‘”Ž†ǯ•‘Ž†‡•–ǡ…‘–‹—‘—•Ž›‹Šƒ„‹–‡†…‹–‹‡• ‹ –Š‡ ™‘”Ž†Ǥ͵ ‘†‡” ›”‹ƒ „‡…ƒ‡ ƒ ‹†‡’‡†‡– –ƒ–‡ ‹ ͳͻͶ͸ǡͶ ƒ†Šƒ••‹…‡„‡‡Žƒ”‰‡Ž›ƒ””‡†„›’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ‹•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›Ǥͷ ʹͲͳͲǡ–Š‡”ƒ„’”‹‰‡”—’–‡†‹—‹•‹ƒǡ‡˜‡–—ƒŽŽ›•’”‡ƒ†‹‰ –‘‰›’–ǡƒ†„›ƒ”…ŠʹͲͳͳǡ‹–”‡ƒ…Š‡†›”‹ƒǤŠ‡†‡‘…”ƒ–‹…’”‘Ǧ –‡•–• ƒ‰ƒ‹•– ”‡•‹†‡– ƒ•Šƒ” ƒŽǦ••ƒ† •’”‡ƒ† ƒ…”‘•• ›”‹ƒǡ –Š‡ ‰‘˜Ǧ ‡”‡–”‡•’‘†‡†™‹–Šˆ‘”…‡ǡŽ‡ƒ†‹‰–‘ƒˆ—ŽŽǦ„Ž‘™…‹˜‹Ž™ƒ”Ǥ͸ ‡š’Ž‘‹–‡†–Š‹•’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ—”‡•–ƒ•ƒ‘’’‘”–—‹–›–‘‡š‡”–‹–•‘™’‘™‡” ‹–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ǡƒ†•™‹ˆ–Ž›–‘‘…‘–”‘Ž‘ˆ•‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ–’ƒ”–•‘ˆ›”‹ƒǤ͹Š‡ ‹–‡† ƒ–‹‘• ȋȌ ƒ† ƒ Šƒ†ˆ—Ž ‘ˆ …‘—–”‹‡•ǡ ‹…Ž—†‹‰ –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡•ǡŠƒ˜‡…Žƒ••‹ˆ‹‡†ƒ•ƒ–‡””‘”‹•–‘”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‹‘Ǥͺ ƒŒ‘” ˆƒ…–‘” …‘–”‹„—–‹‰ –‘ ǯ •™‹ˆ– ”‹•‡ –‘ ’‘™‡” ™ƒ• ‹–• ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–‘‘”‰ƒ‹œ‡Ǥ…‡Šƒ•…‘“—‡”‡†ƒ–‡””‹–‘”›ǡ–Š‡‰”‘—’‹•–‹Ǧ –—–‡• ƒ ‰‘˜‡”‹‰ •–”—…–—”‡ –‘ ”—Ž‡ǡ ƒ‹‰ ‹– ‡š–”‡‡Ž› ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ ƒ– ʹǤ ǡ ǡǣͳ͸ȋ͵”†‡†ǤͳͻͺͺȌǤ ͵Ǥ Id. ͶǤ ǡǤǡʹʹͷȋ͹–Š‡†ǤͳͻͻͲȌǤ

ͷǤ See generally Syria Timeline: A Chronology of Key Eventsǡ ȋƒ› ͸ǡ ʹͲͳ͸Ȍǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ„„…Ǥ…‘Ȁ‡™•Ȁ™‘”Ž†Ǧ‹††Ž‡Ǧ‡ƒ•–ǦͳͶ͹Ͳ͵ͻͻͷǤ

͸Ǥ Syria: The Story of the Conflictǡȋƒ”ǤͳͳǡʹͲͳ͸ȌǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ„„…Ǥ…‘Ȁ‡™•Ȁ™‘”Ž†Ǧ ‹††Ž‡Ǧ‡ƒ•–Ǧʹ͸ͳͳ͸ͺ͸ͺǤ

͹Ǥ Id. ‘”ƒƒ……‘—–‘ˆǯ”‹•‡–‘’‘™‡”ǡseeIslamic State: A Chronology of Key Develop-mentsǡ ȋ‡’–ǤͳͶǡ ʹͲͳͶȌǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ†™Ǥ…‘Ȁ‡Ȁ‹•Žƒ‹…Ǧ•–ƒ–‡ǦƒǦ…Š”‘‘Ž‘‰›Ǧ‘ˆǦ ‡›Ǧ†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–•ȀƒǦͳ͹ͻʹͲͳͷͻǤ

ͺǤ Foreign Terrorist OrganizationsǡǤǤǯ ǡ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 185 Side A 03/01/2017 10:44:39 ʹͲͳ͹Ȑ BLOOD ANTIQUITIES ͵ͷͷ …‘–”‘ŽŽ‹‰ •‡‹œ‡† –‡””‹–‘”›Ǥͻ •—’’‘”–• ‹–• ‰”‘™‹‰ ‹ˆ”ƒ•–”—…–—”‡ –Š”‘—‰Š‹†‡’‡†‡–ˆ‹ƒ…‹‰Ǥ‘–”‘Ž‘ˆ‘‹Ž”‡•‘—”…‡•‹•–Š‡‰”‘—’ǯ• ƒ‹•‘—”…‡‘ˆ‹…‘‡ǤͳͲ‘™‡˜‡”ǡƒ‹”•–”‹‡•‘‘‹ŽǦ”‡Žƒ–‡†‹ˆ”ƒ•–”—…Ǧ –—”‡ƒ”‡„‡Ž‹‡˜‡†–‘Šƒ˜‡†‹‹‹•Š‡†–Š‹•”‡˜‡—‡Ǥͳͳ‡†—…‡†‘‹Ž”‡˜‡Ǧ —‡•ǡ ƒŽ‘‰ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ˆ”‡‡œ‡ ‘ ǤǤ „ƒ ƒ……‘—–• ƒ† ˆƒŽ•‡ …Šƒ”‹–‹‡• –Šƒ–ˆ—†ǡŠƒ•‹…”‡ƒ•‡†ǯ†‡’‡†‡…‡‘‘–Š‡”•‘—”…‡•‘ˆ‹Ǧ …‘‡Ǥͳʹ•ƒ”‡•—Ž–ǡ–Š‡‰”‘—’Šƒ•‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž›–—”‡†–‘–Š‡‹ŽŽ‹…‹–•ƒŽ‡ ‘ˆ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›–‘ˆ—†‹–•™ƒ”ƒ…Š‹‡Ǥͳ͵

B. Trafficking Cultural Property in Syria

Š‹Ž‡ǯ—•‡‘ˆƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•–‘ˆ—†–Š‡‹”‹Ž‹–‹ƒƒ›Šƒ˜‡„‡‰— ƒ• ‘’’‘”–—‹•–‹… –Š‡ˆ–ǡ ‹– Šƒ• ‡˜‘Ž˜‡† ‹–‘ ƒ ‘”‰ƒ‹œ‡†ǡ –”ƒ•ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ „—•‹‡•• –Šƒ– ‹• ˆ‹ƒ…‹‰ –‡””‘”‹•ǤͳͶ • ’ƒ”– ‘ˆ ‹–• ‰‘˜‡”‹‰ „‘†›ǡ ‹•–‹–—–‡†–Š‡Dz‹™ƒƒŽǦ‹ƒœdz–‘‘˜‡”•‡‡‹–•”‡•‘—”…‡•Ǥͳͷ‹–Š‹ –Š‡‹™ƒƒŽǦ‹ƒœǡƒ†‹•–‹…–†‡’ƒ”–‡–™ƒ•‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡†–‘•—’‡”˜‹•‡ –Š‡‡š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘ǡ–Š‡ˆ–ǡƒ†•ƒŽ‡‘ˆƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•Ǥͳ͸Š‹•‡ƒ„Ž‡•–‘•›•Ǧ

ͻǤ ‹…Š‘’•‘ǡ‹…Šƒ”†”‡‡‡Ƭƒ”ƒŠǦ”ƒ…‡ƒƒ”‹‘—•ǡISIS: Everything You Need to Know about the Rise of the Militant Grpǡ ȋ ‡„Ǥ ͳͲǡ ʹͲͳͷȌǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ…Ǥ…‘ȀʹͲͳͷȀͲͳȀͳͶȀ™‘”Ž†Ȁ‹•‹•Ǧ‡˜‡”›–Š‹‰Ǧ›‘—Ǧ‡‡†Ǧ–‘Ǧ‘™ȀǤ

ͳͲǤ ʹͲͳͶǡ–Š‡ǤǤ”‡ƒ•—”›‡•–‹ƒ–‡†–Šƒ––Š‡•ƒŽ‡‘ˆ…”—†‡‘‹Ž›‹‡Ž†‡†•‡˜‡”ƒŽ‹ŽŽ‹‘ †‘ŽŽƒ”•’‡”™‡‡.

What is the Islamic State?ǡ ȋ‡…Ǥ ʹǡ ʹͲͳͷȌǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ„„…Ǥ…‘Ȁ‡™•Ȁ™‘”Ž†Ǧ‹††Ž‡Ǧ‡ƒ•–Ǧ ʹͻͲͷʹͳͶͶǤ

ͳͳǤ ”‹‰ƒ†‹‡”‡Ǥ—••‡ŽŽ‘™ƒ”†ǡ‘ƒ–Šƒ”‘Š‘˜Ƭƒ”…ŽŽ‹‘––ǡDigging in & Trafficking Outǡ ǡ ‡„Ǥ ʹͲͳͷǡ ƒ– ͳͶǡ ͳ͸ǡ Š––’•ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ…–…Ǥ—•ƒǤ‡†—Ȁ˜ʹȀ™’Ǧ …‘–‡–Ȁ—’Ž‘ƒ†•ȀʹͲͳͷȀͲʹȀ‡–‹‡ŽǦ‘Žͺ••—‡ʹͳǤ’†ˆǤ

ͳʹǤ ‡ƒ–Š‡” ”‹‰Ž‡ǡISIS Cashing in on Looted Antiquities to Fuel Iraq Insurgencyǡ ǯ

ȋ—‡ ʹ͹ǡ ʹͲͳͶȌǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ‡™•Ǥƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‰‡‘‰”ƒ’Š‹…Ǥ…‘Ȁ‡™•ȀʹͲͳͶȀͲ͸ȀͳͶͲ͸ʹ͸Ǧ‹•‹•Ǧ ‹•—”‰‡–•Ǧ•›”‹ƒǦ‹”ƒ“ǦŽ‘‘–‹‰Ǧƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•Ǧƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰›ȀǤ

ͳ͵Ǥ ‘™ƒ”†ǡsupra ‘–‡ ͳͳǡ ƒ– ͳͶǤ ‡’‘”–• •—‰‰‡•– ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• ƒ› „‡ ǯ •‡…‘† Žƒ”‰‡•– …‘‡”…‹ƒŽ ƒ…–‹˜‹–› ƒˆ–‡” ‘‹ŽǤ —…ƒ ƒ˜‹ǡCalculating the Revenue from Antiquities to Islamic Stateǡ ǤǤȋ ‡„Ǥ ͳͳǡ ʹͲͳͷȌǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ™•ŒǤ…‘Ȁƒ”–‹…Ž‡•Ȁ…ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‰Ǧ–Š‡Ǧ”‡˜‡—‡Ǧˆ”‘Ǧ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•Ǧ–‘Ǧ‹•Žƒ‹…Ǧ•–ƒ–‡ǦͳͶʹ͵͸ͷ͹ͷ͹ͺǤ

ͳͶǤ ‘‡ƒ”‹•‘ǡ›Žƒ„ƒ›”ƒƬ—…ƒƒ˜‹ǡSyrian ‘Monuments Men’ Race to Protect Antiquities as Looting Bankrolls TerrorǡǤǤǡ ‡„ǤͳͲǡʹͲͳͷǡ

Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ™•ŒǤ…‘Ȁƒ”–‹…Ž‡•Ȁ•›”‹ƒǦ‘—‡–•Ǧ‡Ǧ”ƒ…‡Ǧ–‘Ǧ’”‘–‡…–Ǧƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•Ǧƒ•ǦŽ‘‘–‹‰Ǧ „ƒ”‘ŽŽ•Ǧ–‡””‘”ǦͳͶʹ͵͸ͳͷʹͶͳǤ See ǡ ͓ǣ ǤǤǯͳͲȋ’”ǤʹͲͳ͸Ȍǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ–ƒ•ˆ‘”…‡Ǥ–Š‡ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•…‘ƒŽ‹–‹‘Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ™’Ǧ…‘–‡–Ȁ—’Ž‘ƒ†•ȀʹͲͳͷȀͲͳȀƒ•Ǧ ‘”…‡Ǧ‡’‘”–Ǧ ’”‹ŽǦʹͲͳ͸Ǧ‘’Ž‡–‡Ǧ‡’‘”–Ǥ’†ˆǤ ƒ–‡ŽŽ‹–‡ ‹ƒ‰‡”› •Š‘™• ‘…‡ ’”‹•–‹‡ ƒ”‡ƒ• ‘ˆ ›”‹ƒ ƒ”‡ƒ• ”‹††Ž‡†™‹–Š Ž‘‘–‡”’‹–•Ǥ ‘”–›Ǧ–™‘’‡”…‡–‘ˆ–Š‡͵ǡͲͲͲŽ‘‘–‡†•‹–‡•ƒ”‡Š‡ƒ˜‹Ž›’‹ŽŽƒ‰‡†‹Ǧ …‘–”‘ŽŽ‡†ƒ”‡ƒ•ǡ•—‰‰‡•–‹‰Dz•–ƒ–‡dz•ƒ…–‹‘‡†‘’‡”ƒ–‹‘•ǤId.

ͳͷǤ ‘˜‡†ƒ› ‘””‹•ǡIslamic State Isn’t Just Destroying Ancient Artifacts – it’s Selling Themǡ Ǥȋ—‡ ͺǡ ʹͲͳͷȌǡ Š––’•ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ™ƒ•Š‹‰–‘’‘•–Ǥ…‘Ȁ™‘”Ž†Ȁ‹††Ž‡̴‡ƒ•–Ȁ‹•Žƒ‹…Ǧ•–ƒ–‡Ǧ ‹•–ǦŒ—•–Ǧ†‡•–”‘›‹‰Ǧƒ…‹‡–Ǧƒ”–‹ˆƒ…–•Ȅ‹–•Ǧ•‡ŽŽ‹‰Ǧ–Š‡ȀʹͲͳͷȀͲ͸ȀͲͺȀ…ƒͷ‡ƒͻ͸ͶǦͲͺƒʹǦͳͳ‡ͷǦ ͻͷͳ‡Ǧͺ‡ͳͷͲͻͲ†͸Ͷƒ‡̴•–‘”›ǤŠ–ŽǤ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 185 Side B 03/01/2017 10:44:39

͵ͷ͸ CHICAGO-KENT LAW REVIEW ȏ‘Žͻʹǣͳ –‡ƒ–‹…ƒŽŽ›‡‰ƒ‰‡‹–Š‡ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•–”ƒ†‡ǡ‘–‘Ž›„›’ƒ••‹˜‡Ž›–ƒš‹‰ –Š‡ •ƒŽ‡ ‘ˆ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• ƒ† –Š‡ –”ƒˆˆ‹…‡”• ™Š‘ ‘˜‡ Ž‘‘–‡† ƒ”–‹ˆƒ…–• –Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡‹”–‡””‹–‘”›ǡ„—–ƒŽ•‘„›ƒ…–‹˜‡Ž›ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‹‰Ž‘‘–‹‰ƒ††‹Ǧ ”‡…–Ž› •‡ŽŽ‹‰ ƒ”–‹ˆƒ…–•Ǥͳ͹ †‹˜‹†—ƒŽ• •‡‡‹‰ –‘ ‡ƒ” ƒ Ž‹˜‹‰ –Š”‘—‰Š Ž‘‘–‹‰ —•– ‘„–ƒ‹ ƒ Ž‹…‡•‡ ˆ‘” ‡š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘ ˆ”‘ –Š‡Diwan al-Rikaz ƒ†”‡…‡‹˜‡’‡”‹••‹‘ˆ”‘‹•’‡…–‘”•™Š‘‘‹–‘”–Š‡ƒ”–‹ˆƒ…–• –Šƒ–ƒ”‡ˆ‘—†ǡ…‘ŽŽ‡…–‹‰ƒ–™‡–›’‡”…‡––ƒš‘–Š‡’”‘…‡‡†•‘ˆ–Š‡ Ž‘‘–‹‰Ǥͳͺ–Š‡””‡’‘”–•”‡˜‡ƒŽ–Šƒ–‹ƒ„‹Œǡƒ›”‹ƒ–‘™‡ƒ”Ž‡’Ǧ ’‘ǡ ‘’‡‡† ƒ ‘ˆˆ‹…‡ –‘ ‡š…Ž—•‹˜‡Ž› ‘‹–‘” Ž‘‘–‹‰ ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡• ƒ† ’”‘˜‹†‡ ƒ ƒ”‡– ˆ‘” •Š‘˜‡Ž•ǡ ‡–ƒŽ †‡–‡…–‘”•ǡ ƒ† ‘–Š‡” ‡“—‹’‡– —•‡†ˆ‘”†‹‰‰‹‰ǤͳͻŠ‡Ž‘…ƒŽ emir ‡’Ž‘›•…‹˜‹Ž‹ƒŽ‘‘–‡”•ˆ‘”͹ͲͲ›”‹Ǧ ƒ’‘—†•’‡”†ƒ›ƒ†–Š‡…‘ŽŽ‡…–•–Š‡—‡ƒ”–Š‡†ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•–‘•‡ŽŽ–‘ •—‰‰Ž‡”•ǤʹͲ…‡–Š‡•ƒŽ‡•ƒ”‡…‘’Ž‡–‡†ǡ†‡ƒŽ‡”•ƒ”‡‰‹˜‡•ƒˆ‡’ƒ•Ǧ •ƒ‰‡ –‘ ‘˜‡ –Š‡ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• –Š”‘—‰Š Ǧ…‘–”‘ŽŽ‡† –‡””‹–‘”›Ǥʹͳ Š‡ ‹–‡• ƒ”‡ –Š‡ –”ƒˆˆ‹…‡† –Š”‘—‰Š ™‡ŽŽǦ‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡† ƒ† …‡–—”‹‡•Ǧ‘Ž† •—‰‰Ž‹‰”‘—–‡•ƒ‹Ž›ƒ…”‘••‘”†ƒǡ—”‡›ǡƒ†‡„ƒ‘Ǥʹʹ Š‘—‰Š ‹– ‹• ‰‡‡”ƒŽŽ› ƒ‰”‡‡† –Šƒ– ’”‘ˆ‹–• ˆ”‘ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•ǡ –Š‡”‡‹•—…Š†‹•’—–‡‘˜‡”Š‘™—…Š–Š‡‰”‘—’‹•’‘…‡–‹‰Ǥʹ͵‹• ‹˜‘Ž˜‡†‘Ž›‹–Š‡‡ƒ”Ž›•–ƒ‰‡•‘ˆ–Š‡–”ƒ†‡Ǥ–•’”‘ˆ‹–•ƒ”‡Ž‹‹–‡†–‘ –Š‡ ‹‹–‹ƒŽ •ƒŽ‡ǡʹͶ ƒ† –Š‡ ’”‹…‡ ’ƒ‹† ˆ‘” ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• ƒ– –Š‡‹” •‘—”…‡ ‹• —…ŠŽ‡••…‘’ƒ”‡†–‘–Š‡‹”˜ƒŽ—‡‹–”ƒ•‹–ƒ†—’‘”‡ƒ…Š‹‰†‡•–‹Ǧ ƒ–‹‘ ƒ”‡–•Ǥʹͷ • ƒ ”‡•—Ž–ǡ ǯ ’”‘ˆ‹–• ƒ”‡ •—„•–ƒ–‹ƒŽŽ› Ž‡•• –Šƒ –Š‡‹–‡ǯ••ƒŽ‡’”‹…‡‹™‡•–‡”ƒ”‡–•ǡ„—––Š‡‰”‘—’’”‘ˆ‹–•”‡‰ƒ”†Ǧ Ž‡••‘ˆ™Šƒ–Šƒ’’‡•–‘–Š‡‹–‡•†—”‹‰–”ƒ•‹–ƒ†—’‘”‡ƒ…Š‹‰–Š‡ ƒ”‡–Ǥ ͳ͹Ǥ †”‡™ ‡ŽŽ‡”ǡ ‡’—–› ••‹•–ƒ– ‡…ǯ› ˆ‘” ‘—–‡” Š”‡ƒ– ‹Ǥ Ƭ ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ —”‡ƒ— ‘ˆ …‘Ǥ Ƭ —•Ǥ ˆˆǤǡ ‡ƒ”• ƒ– ‡–”‘Ǥ —•‡— ‘ˆ ”– ȋ‡’–Ǥ ʹͻǡ ʹͲͳͷȌǡ available at Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ•–ƒ–‡Ǥ‰‘˜Ȁ‡Ȁ‡„Ȁ”Ž•Ȁ”ȀʹͲͳͷȀʹͶ͹͸ͳͲǤŠ–Ǥ ͳͺǤ Id.Ǣ‘””‹•ǡsupra ‘–‡ͳͷǤ ͳͻǤ ‘™ƒ”†ǡsupra‘–‡ͳͳǡƒ–ͳͷǡͳ͹Ǥ ʹͲǤ Id.ƒ–ʹͲǤ ʹͳǤ Id.ƒ–ͳͷǢƒ˜‹ǡsupra‘–‡ͳ͵Ǥ

ʹʹǤ ‘™ƒ”†ǡsupra‘–‡ͳͳǡƒ–ͳͷǤ‹‘‘šǡThe Men Who Smuggle the Loot that Funds IS,

ȋ ‡„Ǥͳ͹ǡʹͲͳͷȌǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ„„…Ǥ…‘Ȁ‡™•Ȁƒ‰ƒœ‹‡Ǧ͵ͳͶͺͷͶ͵ͻǤ

ʹ͵Ǥ ‹‘ƒ‘•‡Ǧ”‡‡Žƒ†ǡInside ISIS’ Looted Antiquities Tradeǡȋƒ›͵Ͳǡ ʹͲͳ͸ȌǡŠ––’•ǣȀȀ–Š‡…‘˜‡”•ƒ–‹‘Ǥ…‘Ȁ‹•‹†‡Ǧ‹•‹•ǦŽ‘‘–‡†Ǧƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•Ǧ–”ƒ†‡Ǧͷͻʹͺ͹Ǥ

ʹͶǤ ƒ”‹•‘ǡsupra‘–‡ͳͶǤ

ʹͷǤ ‡‹Ž”‘†‹‡ǡSyria & its Regional Neighbors: A Case of Cultural Prop. Prot. Failure?ǡʹʹǯ

ǤǤ͵ͳ͹ǡ͵ʹͷȋʹͲͳͷȌǤ‡‡š’‡”–‡•–‹ƒ–‡•–Šƒ–Dzȏ‘Ȑ–Š‡†‘ŽŽƒ”ǡ–Š‡Ž‘…ƒŽ’‡”•‘‰‡–• ͷͲ …‡–•ǡ –Š‡ ”—‡” ‰‡–• ͹Ͷ …‡–•ǡ –Š‡ ˆ‹”•– ‹’‘”–‡” ‰‡–• ̈́ͳǤͷͲǡ ‡š– ‰‡–• ̈́ʹǤͷͲǡ –Š‡ǤǤǤ –Š‡ †‡ƒŽ‡”‹–Š‡ǤǤǤǤǤ•‡ŽŽȏ•Ȑȏ‹–Ȑˆ‘”̈́ͳͲͲǤdz„„›‡‹ˆˆǡLooted Beauty Bolstered by A Growing Body of Int’l & Domestic Law, More Countries Are Successfully Gaining the Return of Looted Cultural Treas-uresǡǤǡ—Ž›ʹͲͳͶǡƒ–͵ʹǡͶǤ ‘”ƒ†‡–ƒ‹Ž‡†‡š’Žƒƒ–‹‘ǡseeƒ––›‡”•–‡„Ž‹–ŠǡControlling the Int’l Market in Antiquities: Reducing the Harm, Preserving the Pastǡ ͺǤǤǯǤ ͳ͸ͻǡ ͳͺͲȂͺͳ ȋʹͲͲ͹ȌǤ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 186 Side A 03/01/2017 10:44:39 ʹͲͳ͹Ȑ BLOOD ANTIQUITIES ͵ͷ͹ •–‹ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ ǯ ’”‘ˆ‹–• Šƒ˜‡ ”ƒ‰‡† ˆ”‘ ˆ‘—” ‹ŽŽ‹‘ –‘ •‡˜‡ „‹ŽŽ‹‘†‘ŽŽƒ”•ǡŠ‘™‡˜‡””‡…‡–”‡’‘”–•Šƒ˜‡…”‹–‹…‹œ‡†Š‹‰Š‡”‡•–‹ƒ–‡• ƒ•‹ˆŽƒ–‡†Ǥʹ͸Š‡ˆ‹”•–†‹”‡…–‡˜‹†‡…‡‘ˆǯ‹˜‘Ž˜‡‡–‹–Š‡–”ƒ†‡ ™ƒ•†‹•…‘˜‡”‡†‹—‡ʹͲͳͶ™Š‡”ƒ“‹‹–‡ŽŽ‹‰‡…‡‘ˆˆ‹…‡”•”ƒ‹†‡†–Š‡ •ƒˆ‡Š‘—•‡‘ˆƒ…‘ƒ†‡”ƒ†•‡‹œ‡†‘˜‡”ͳ͸Ͳ…‘’—–‡”ˆŽƒ•Š †”‹˜‡• …‘–ƒ‹‹‰ ˆ‹ƒ…‹ƒŽ ”‡…‘”†• †‡–ƒ‹Ž‹‰ ‹ŽŽ‹…‹– ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• –”ƒˆˆ‹…Ǧ ‹‰ ƒ‘‰ ǯ ‡› ˆ‹ƒ…‹ƒŽ –”ƒ•ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥʹ͹ ‘”‡ †‹”‡…– ‡˜‹†‡…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‹•”‡˜‡—‡•‘—”…‡™ƒ•ƒ…“—‹”‡†‹ƒ›ʹͲͳͷǡ™Š‡ǤǤ’‡…‹ƒŽ ‘”…Ǧ ‡•”ƒ‹†‡†–Š‡…‘’‘—†‘ˆ„—ƒ››ƒˆǡǯŠ‹‡ˆ ‹ƒ…‹ƒŽˆˆ‹…‡”ǡƒ† ˆ‘—† ƒ††‹–‹‘ƒŽ ˆ‹ƒ…‹ƒŽ †‘…—‡–• ƒŽ‘‰•‹†‡ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•Ǥʹͺ ˆ‘”Ǧ ƒ–‹‘”‡…‘˜‡”‡†‹–Š‡„—ƒ››ƒˆ”ƒ‹†’—–•‡•–‹ƒ–‡•‘ˆǯƒ—ƒŽ ‡ƒ”‹‰• ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• –”ƒ†‡ ƒ– ̈́ͷ ‹ŽŽ‹‘ ƒ—ƒŽŽ›Ǥʹͻ Š‹• ‹• ƒ Š—‰‡†‹˜‡”‰‡…‡ˆ”‘‡•–‹ƒ–‡•‘ˆ•‡˜‡”ƒŽ„‹ŽŽ‹‘†‘ŽŽƒ”•ǡ„—–‹•‡˜‡”Ǧ –Š‡Ž‡•• ƒ •—„•–ƒ–‹ƒŽ ƒ‘—– ‘ˆ ‘‡›ǡ …‘•‹†‡”‹‰ –Šƒ– ‹– ‘Ž› –‘‘ ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡Ž›̈́ͳͲǡͲͲͲ–‘Ž‡ƒ˜‡ͳ͵Ͳ†‡ƒ†‹–Š‡‘˜‡„‡”ʹͲͳͷƒ”‹• ƒ––ƒ…•Ǥ͵Ͳ —”…Šƒ•‡”•‘ˆ›”‹ƒƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•”ƒ‰‡ˆ”‘Ž‘…ƒŽ•‹—”‹•Šƒ† ‡„ƒ‡•‡ ƒ”‡–• –‘ ‹˜‡•–‘”• ƒ† …‘ŽŽ‡…–‘”• ‹ –Š‡ ‡•–ǡ Š‹ƒǡ ƒ† –Š‡‡”•‹ƒ —ŽˆǤ͵ͳŠ‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•‹•–Š‡™‘”Ž†ǯ•Žƒ”‰‡•–ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• ƒ”‡–ǡ ƒ……‘—–‹‰ ˆ‘” ˆ‘”–›Ǧ–Š”‡‡ ’‡”…‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ –”ƒ†‡Ǥ͵ʹ —”Ǧ –Š‡”ǡ–Š‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•‡š’‡”‹‡…‡†ƒ‹…”‡ƒ•‡‹–Š‡—„‡”ƒ†˜ƒŽǦ —‡ ‘ˆ ‹’‘”–‡† ›”‹ƒ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• –Šƒ– †‹”‡…–Ž› …‘””‡Žƒ–‡• ™‹–Š –Š‡ „”‡ƒ†‘™‹›”‹ƒŽƒ™Ǥ͵͵ǤǤ‰‘˜‡”‡–†ƒ–ƒ•Š‘™•–Šƒ––Š‡˜ƒŽ—‡

ʹ͸Ǥ Owning Global Heritage: A Look into the Antiquities Marketǡ ͻͳǤͷǤ ȋƒ› ͳ͹ǡ ʹͲͳ͸Ȍǡ Š––’•ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ™„‡œǤ‘”‰Ȁ•Š‘™•Ȁ™‘”Ž†˜‹‡™Ȁ‘™‹‰Ǧ‰Ž‘„ƒŽǦŠ‡”‹–ƒ‰‡ǦƒǦŽ‘‘Ǧ‹–‘Ǧ–Š‡Ǧ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•Ǧƒ”‡–Ȁ͵ʹ…†ˆͷͺ͸ǦͲ͵͸ƒǦͶͻͶͳǦ„ͷʹ‡Ǧͳ͸ͶͶʹͲͲ͸ƒͻƒ†Ǥ

ʹ͹Ǥ ƒ”–‹Š—Ž‘˜ǡHow an Arrest in Iraq Revealed ISIS’s $2bn Jihadist Networkǡ ȋ—‡ ͳͷǡ ʹͲͳͶȌǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ–Š‡‰—ƒ”†‹ƒǤ…‘Ȁ™‘”Ž†ȀʹͲͳͶȀŒ—ȀͳͷȀ‹”ƒ“Ǧ‹•‹•Ǧƒ””‡•–ǦŒ‹Šƒ†‹•–•Ǧ ™‡ƒŽ–ŠǦ’‘™‡”Ǥ

ʹͺǤ ISIL Leader’s Lootǡ ǤǤ ǯ ǡ Š––’•ǣȀȀ‡…ƒǤ•–ƒ–‡Ǥ‰‘˜Ȁ…—Ž–—”ƒŽǦŠ‡”‹–ƒ‰‡Ǧ …‡–‡”Ȁ‹”ƒ“Ǧ…—Ž–—”ƒŽǦŠ‡”‹–ƒ‰‡Ǧ‹‹–‹ƒ–‹˜‡Ȁ‹•‹ŽǦŽ‡ƒ†‡”•ǦŽ‘‘–ȋŽƒ•–˜‹•‹–‡†‡’–‡„‡”ͺǡʹͲͳ͸ȌǤ ʹͻǤ Following the Money: Examining Current Terrorist Financing Trends and the Treat to the Homelandǡ ǡŠ––’•ǣȀȀ–Š‡ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•…‘ƒŽ‹–‹‘Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ„Ž‘‰Ǧ’‘•–•Ȁˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰Ǧ–Š‡Ǧ ‘‡›Ǧ‡šƒ‹‹‰Ǧ…—””‡–Ǧ–‡””‘”‹•–Ǧˆ‹ƒ…‹‰Ǧ–”‡†•Ǧƒ†Ǧ–Š‡Ǧ–Š”‡ƒ–Ǧ–‘Ǧ–Š‡ǦŠ‘‡Žƒ†Ȁ ȋŽƒ•– ˜‹•‹–‡†—‡ͳ͹ǡʹͲͳ͸ȌǤŠ‹•‡˜‹†‡…‡‹•…‘””‘„‘”ƒ–‡†„›ȋ‘†‡Ž‹‰–Š‡–‹“—‹–‹‡•”ƒ†‡ ‹ ”ƒ“ ƒ† ›”‹ƒȌǡ ƒ ‹˜‡”•‹–› ‘ˆ Š‹…ƒ‰‘ ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š –‡ƒǤ Inside ISIS’ Looted Antiquities Tradeǡ

supra‘–‡ʹ͵Ǥ

͵ͲǤ Inside ISIS’ Looted Antiquities Tradeǡsupra‘–‡ʹ͵Ǥ ͵ͳǤ Id.

͵ʹǤ ͓ǡsupra ‘–‡ ͳͶǡ ƒ– ʹǢTestimony before the Counterterrorism & Intelligence Subcomm. of the H. Comm. on Homeland Sec.: Following the Money: Examining Current Terrorist

Financing Trends and the Threat to the Homelandǡ ͳͳͶ–Š ‘‰Ǥ ȋʹͲͳ͸Ȍ ȋ–‡•–‹‘› ‘ˆ ‡„‘”ƒŠ ‡Š”ǡ ‘—†‡”ƬŠƒ‹”ƒǡ–Š‡–‹“—‹–‹‡•‘ƒŽ‹–‹‘ȌǤ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 186 Side B 03/01/2017 10:44:39

͵ͷͺ CHICAGO-KENT LAW REVIEW ȏ‘Žͻʹǣͳ ‘ˆ †‡…Žƒ”‡† ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• ‹’‘”–‡† ˆ”‘ ›”‹ƒ ‹–‘ –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡• Œ—’‡†ˆ”‘̈́ʹǤʹ‹ŽŽ‹‘‹ʹͲͲͻ–‘̈́ͳͳ‹ŽŽ‹‘‹ʹͲͳ͵ǡ–Š‘—‰Š‹–‹• –Š‘—‰Š––Šƒ––Š‡˜ƒŽ—‡‘ˆ—†‡…Žƒ”‡†’‹‡…‡••‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ–Ž›‹…”‡ƒ•‡•–Š‹• —„‡”Ǥ͵ͶŠ‡•‡ˆ‹‰—”‡•Ž‡ƒ˜‡Ž‹––Ž‡†‘—„––Šƒ–ǤǤ„—›‡”•ƒ”‡’—”…Šƒ•Ǧ ‹‰ •—‰‰Ž‡† ›”‹ƒ ƒ”–‹ˆƒ…–•ǡ Ž‹‡Ž› Ž‘‘–‡† „› ‘” ™‹–Š –Š‡ •—’’‘”– ‘ˆ Ǥ

C. The Antiquities Trade

Š‡ ƒ”– ƒ† ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• –”ƒ†‡ ‹• „‡Ž‹‡˜‡† –‘ „‡ –Š‡ ™‘”Ž†ǯ• –Š‹”† Žƒ”‰‡•–‹ŽŽ‹…‹–ƒ”‡–ǡ”‡ƒ…Š‹‰ƒ‡•–‹ƒ–‡†˜ƒŽ—‡‘ˆ•‹š„‹ŽŽ‹‘†‘ŽŽƒ”• ’‡”›‡ƒ”Ǥ͵ͷ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ…‘–”‘ŽŽ‹‰–Š‡‹ŽŽ‹…‹––”ƒ†‡‘ˆƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•‹•‘ˆ–‡ ‘”‡†‹ˆˆ‹…—Ž––Šƒ‹–‹•ˆ‘”‘–Š‡”„Žƒ…ƒ”‡–•ǤŽ‹‡‰‘‘†•–Šƒ–ƒ”‡ prima facie‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽǡ•—…Šƒ•†”—‰•‘”‡†ƒ‰‡”‡†•’‡…‹‡•‘”‘–Š‡”‰‘‘†• ‡ƒ•‹Ž› ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹ƒ„Ž‡ ƒ• —Žƒ™ˆ—Žǡ ”‡…‘‰‹œ‹‰ ƒ ƒ–‹“—‹–› ƒ• •–‘Ž‡ ‹• …‘’Ž‡š ƒ† †‹ˆˆ‹…—Ž– ‡˜‡ ˆ‘” ƒ”– ‡š’‡”–• ƒ† ƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹•–•Ǥ͵͸ ƒ™• –Šƒ–”‡‰—Žƒ–‡–Š‡–”ƒ†‡‘ˆƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•Žƒ„‡Žƒƒ–‹“—‹–›ƒ•‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽ„ƒ•‡† ‘‹–•’”‘˜‡ƒ…‡ȋ–Š‡Š‹•–‘”›‘ˆ‘™‡”•Š‹’‘ˆƒ‘„Œ‡…–Ȍƒ†’”‘˜‡‹Ǧ ‡…‡ȋ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ƒ„‘—––Š‡…‹”…—•–ƒ…‡•‹™Š‹…Šƒƒ–‹“—‹–›™ƒ• ‡š…ƒ˜ƒ–‡† ‹…Ž—†‹‰ ‹–• …‘—–”› ‘ˆ ‘”‹‰‹ ƒ† –Š‡ †ƒ–‡ –Šƒ– ‹– ™ƒ• ˆ‘—†ȌǤ͵͹ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ™Š‡ ƒ ƒ–‹“—‹–› ‹• ‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽŽ› ‘„–ƒ‹‡†ǡ ‹– ‘ˆ–‡ ‘˜‡• ‹–‘ ƒ DzŽ‡‰ƒŽdz ƒ”‡– „› ”‡…‡‹˜‹‰ ƒ ˆƒŽ•‡ ’”‘˜‡ƒ…‡ ƒ† ’”‘Ǧ ˜‡‹‡…‡Ǥ͵ͺ – ‹• ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡Ž› ‡ƒ•› ˆ‘” Ž‘‘–‡”•ǡ –”ƒˆˆ‹…‡”•ǡ ƒ† „—›‡”• ‹ „ƒ† ˆƒ‹–Š –‘ ‡˜ƒ†‡ †‡–‡…–‹‘ ƒ† ’—‹•Š‡– „› ˆƒŽ•‹ˆ›‹‰ ƒ ‘„Œ‡…–ǯ• Š‹•–‘”›Ǥ͵ͻ‡ƒ™Š‹Ž‡ǡ‹–‹•˜‡”›†‹ˆˆ‹…—Ž–ˆ‘”‰‡—‹‡‰‘‘† ˆƒ‹–Š „—›‡”•

͵ͶǤ ƒ”‹•‘ǡsupra ‘–‡ ͳͶǤ ƒ —”ƒ›ǡUS Senate Blocks the Import of Art and Artefacts from Syriaǡ ȋ’”Ǥ ͳͶǡ ʹͲͳ͸Ȍǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ–Š‡ƒ”–‡™•’ƒ’‡”Ǥ…‘Ȁ‡™•Ȁ—•Ǧ•‡ƒ–‡Ǧ „Ž‘…•Ǧ–Š‡Ǧ‹’‘”–Ǧ‘ˆǦƒ”–Ǧƒ†Ǧƒ”–‡ˆƒ…–•Ǧˆ”‘Ǧ•›”‹ƒȀǤ

͵ͷǤ ‘™ƒ”†ǡsupra‘–‡ͳͳǡƒ–ͳͶǤ‘’ƒ”ƒ–‹˜‡Ž›ǡ–Š‡ –”ƒ†‡‘ˆ‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽƒ”•‹•˜ƒŽ—‡†ƒ–̈́͸Ͳ

„‹ŽŽ‹‘’‡”›‡ƒ”ƒ†–Š‡‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽ–”ƒ†‡‘ˆ†”—‰•ƒ–̈́͵ʹͲ„‹ŽŽ‹‘’‡”›‡ƒ”Ǥ

ǡǣǡͷǢ—’ŠƒŠǡArms Trade – A Major Cause of

Suffering, ȋ—‡ ͵Ͳǡ ʹͲͳ͵Ȍǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ‹••—‡•Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ‹••—‡Ȁ͹͵Ȁƒ”•Ǧ–”ƒ†‡ǦƒǦ ƒŒ‘”Ǧ…ƒ—•‡Ǧ‘ˆǦ•—ˆˆ‡”‹‰Ǥ

͵͸Ǥ SeeǤǤ ˜Ǥ ƒ• ‘ˆ ƒ ‡ˆ‡”Ǧ‡ˆ‡”ǡ ‘Ǥ ͶǣͳͳǦǦͷͲͶǦǡ ʹͲͳʹ ͳͲͻͶ͸ͷʹ ȋǤǤ ‘Ǥ ʹͲͳʹȌ ȋ‡š’Žƒ‹‹‰ –Šƒ– ƒ ƒ–‹“—‹–› ‹• ‘– …‘–”ƒ„ƒ† ’‡” •‡ —Ž‹‡ ‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽ †”—‰• Dzƒ• ȏƒ”–‹ˆƒ…–•Ȑ ƒ›„‡Žƒ™ˆ—ŽŽ›‘™‡†ƒ†„‡…‘‡…‘–”ƒ„ƒ†‘Ž›„ƒ•‡†‘ƒ…‘‡…–‹‘™‹–Šƒ…”‹‹ƒŽƒ…–ǤdzȌǤ ͵͹Ǥ ‡‹Žƒ‹‡††‘Ž‡ŠǡProtecting Cultural Heritage by Strictly Scrutinizing Museum Acquisi-tionsǡʹͶ ǯǤƬǤǤǤ͹ʹͻǡ͹Ͷ͸ȋʹͲͳͶȌǤ ͵ͺǤ Ǥ Ƭǡ ǡ ǤͳȀʹͲͲͻȀǤͳȋʹͲͲͻȌǤ ͵ͻǤ SeeǤǤ ˜Ǥ  –‹“—‡ Žƒ––‡” ‘ˆ ‘Ž†ǡ ͻͻͳ Ǥ —’’Ǥ ʹʹʹ ȋǤǤǤǤ ͳͻͻ͹Ȍ ȋ„—›‡”ǯ• ƒ‰‡– •—……‡••ˆ—ŽŽ› ‹’‘”–‡† ƒ •–‘Ž‡ –ƒŽ‹ƒ ‰‘Ž† Š‹ƒŽ‡ ˆ”‘ ™‹–œ‡”Žƒ† „› ‹†‡–‹ˆ›‹‰ –Š‡ ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘”‹‰‹ ƒ• ™‹–œ‡”Žƒ†ǡ ‘– –ƒŽ›ǡ –‘ ’”‡˜‡– •—•’‹…‹‘ǡ ƒ† —†‡””‡’‘”–‡† –Š‡ ‹–‡ǯ• ˜ƒŽ—‡ „› ̈́ͳ ‹ŽŽ‹‘Ǥ—•–‘•ƒ‰‡–•†‹†‘–†‹•…‘˜‡”˜‹‘Žƒ–‹‘ǡ–ƒŽ‹ƒ‘ˆˆ‹…‹ƒŽ•Ž‡ƒ”‡†‘ˆ–Š‡’Š‹ƒŽ‡™Š‡–Š‡ …‘ŽŽ‡…–‘”†‹•’Žƒ›‡†‹–ȌǤ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 187 Side A 03/01/2017 10:44:39 ʹͲͳ͹Ȑ BLOOD ANTIQUITIES ͵ͷͻ –‘ ƒ…“—‹”‡ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ„‘—– –Š‡ ’”‘˜‡ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ƒ ‘„Œ‡…–ǡ ƒ† ‘ˆ–‡ ‹’‘••‹„Ž‡–‘”‡…‡‹˜‡”‡Ž‹ƒ„Ž‡‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ƒ„‘—–’”‘˜‡‹‡…‡ǤͶͲ Š‡‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽ–”ƒ†‡‘ˆƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•…”‡ƒ–‡•‡†—”‹‰ǡ‹””‡˜‡”•‹„Ž‡Šƒ” ‹–™‘’”‹ƒ”›™ƒ›•Ǥ ‹”•–ǡ–Š‡‹ŽŽ‹…‹–ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•–”ƒ†‡‡…‘—”ƒ‰‡•–Š‡ Ž‘‘–‹‰‘ˆ—‡š…ƒ˜ƒ–‡†ƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ•‹–‡•ǡ™Š‹…Š†‡•–”‘›•–Š‡‘’’‘”Ǧ –—‹–›–‘Ž‡ƒ”ˆ”‘ƒ•‹–‡ƒ†‹–•„—”‹‡†”‡ƒ‹•Ǥƒ”‡ˆ—Žƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹Ǧ …ƒŽ‡š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘ƒ†”‡…‘”†‡‡’‹‰’”‘˜‹†‡•ƒ…‘–‡š–Ȅƒƒ••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘ „‡–™‡‡–Š‡‘„Œ‡…–•ƒ†–Š‡ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•‘ˆ–Š‡•—””‘—†‹‰ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽȄ–‘ –Š‡‹–‡•ˆ‘—†ƒ––Š‡•‹–‡Ǥ ”‘–Š‹•…‘–‡š–ǡ–Š‡ƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ”‡…‘”† ‘ˆƒ•‹–‡ǡƒ†‡˜‡–—ƒŽŽ›Š—ƒŠ‹•–‘”›ǡƒ›„‡”‡…‘•–”—…–‡†ǤͶͳ‘‘–Ǧ ‹‰†‡•–”‘›•–Š‹•…‘–‡š–—ƒŽ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‹””‡’ƒ”ƒ„Ž›†ƒƒ‰‡•–Š‡ ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–‘—†‡”•–ƒ†Š—ƒ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ǤͶʹ–”ƒ–‹‰”ƒ’Š‹…‡š…ƒ˜ƒǦ –‹‘ ‹• ‡› –‘ —†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰ –Š‡ ’ƒ•–ǡ ƒ† ‹• †‡•–”‘›‹‰ –Šƒ– „› –ƒ‹‰’ƒ”–‹ƒ†ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‹‰Ž‘‘–‹‰Ǥ ‡…‘†ǡ–Š‡‹ŽŽ‹…‹–ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•–”ƒ†‡ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‡•ƒ†ˆ‹ƒ…‡•–‡””‘”Ǧ ‹•ǤŠ‡Ž‹„‡–™‡‡–‡””‘”‹•ƒ†ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡••—‰‰Ž‹‰‹•—†‡‹ƒǦ „Ž‡ǤͶ͵‡š’Ž‘‹–•–Š‡˜ƒ•–“—ƒ–‹–‹‡• ‘ˆƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•„—”‹‡†‹›”‹ƒ–‘ ˆ‹ƒ…‡ ‹–•jihadǤ –‹“—‹–‹‡• Ž‘‘–‡† ˆ”‘ …‘ˆŽ‹…– œ‘‡• Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ †—„„‡† Dz„Ž‘‘† ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•ǡdz ƒ‡† ˆ‘” –Š‡‹” ”‘Ž‡ ‹ ˆ‹ƒ…‹‰ –Š‡ †‹•Ǧ ’Žƒ…‡‡–ǡ „”—–ƒŽ ƒ„—•‡ǡ ƒ† —”†‡” ‘ˆ –Š‘—•ƒ†• ‘ˆ …‹˜‹Ž‹ƒ•ǤͶͶ Š‹• ƒŽ‘‡ ƒ‡• ‹– ‹’‡”ƒ–‹˜‡ –Šƒ– –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡• ’”‡˜‡–• ˆ”‘ ’”‘ˆ‹–‹‰ˆ”‘–Š‡†‘‡•–‹…‹’‘”–‘ˆ›”‹ƒƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•Ǥ Š‡‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽ–”ƒ†‡‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ‘„Œ‡…–•‹•ƒ’‡”•‹•–‡–‰Ž‘„ƒŽ’”‘„Ž‡ –Šƒ–‹•‘–‹˜ƒ–‡†„›’”‘ˆ‹–Ǥ……‘”†‹‰Ž›ǡ‹–ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™•–Š‡„ƒ•‹… ‡…‘‘‹… Žƒ™•‘ˆ•—’’Ž›ƒ††‡ƒ†Ǥ‡ƒ†ˆ‘”ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•†”‹˜‡•–Š‡•‡ƒ”…Š ˆ‘”•—’’Ž›–‘•ƒ–‹•ˆ›–Š‡ƒ”‡–ƒ†‹•–Š‡”‡„›”‡•’‘•‹„Ž‡ˆ‘”–Š‡Ž‘‘–Ǧ ͶͲǤ –‹“—‹–‹‡•ƒ”‡‘ˆ–‡‰‹˜‡‡„—Ž‘—•’”‘˜‡ƒ…‡••—…Šƒ•Dzˆ”‘ƒ’”‹˜ƒ–‡™‹••…‘ŽŽ‡…Ǧ –‹‘dz ‘” Dz„› ‹Š‡”‹–ƒ…‡Ǥdz ‘ —‡ŽŽ‡”ǡHow Tomb Raiders Are Stealing Our Historyǡ ǯ

ȋ—‡ ʹͲͳ͸Ȍǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‰‡‘‰”ƒ’Š‹…Ǥ…‘Ȁƒ‰ƒœ‹‡ȀʹͲͳ͸ȀͲ͸ȀŽ‘‘–‹‰Ǧ ƒ…‹‡–Ǧ„Ž‘‘†Ǧƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•ȀǤ •–‹ƒ–‡• ‘ˆ ‘Ž› –‡ –‘ –™‡–› ’‡”…‡– ‘ˆ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• ‘ –Š‡ ƒ”‡– Šƒ˜‡•—ˆˆ‹…‹‡–’”‘˜‡ƒ…‡–‘‘–”ƒ‹•‡Ž‡‰ƒŽ‹••—‡•ǢControlling the International Market in Antiq-uitiesǡsupra‘–‡ʹͷǡƒ–ͳ͹ͺǤ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ’”—†‡–„—›‡”•…ƒ–ƒ‡•–‡’••—…Šƒ••‡ƒ”…Š–Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‘—†ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘””–‡•‡ƒ”…Šȋ Ȍ–‘‹†‡–‹ˆ›™Š‡–Š‡”–Š‡‹–‡‹•Ž‹•–‡†ƒ••–‘Ž‡Ǥ

See—–‘…‡’ŠƒŽ‘—•”‡‡Ǧ”–Š‘†‘šŠ—”…Š‘ˆ›’”—•˜Ǥ‘Ž†„‡”‰Ƭ ‡Ž†ƒ ‹‡”–•ǡ…Ǥǡͻͳ͹ Ǥʹ†ʹ͹ͺǡʹͺ͵ȋ͹–Š‹”ǤͳͻͻͲȌǤ

ͶͳǤ Controlling the Int’l Market in Antiquitiesǡsupra‘–‡ʹͷƒ–ͳ͹ͶǤ

ͶʹǤ See id. ˆ‘” ƒ …‘’Ž‡–‡ †‹•…—••‹‘ ‘ Š‘™ Ž‘‘–‹‰ ‹’ƒ‹”• –Š‡ ƒ„‹Ž‹–› –‘ —†‡”•–ƒ† ƒ ƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ•‹–‡Ǥ

Ͷ͵. ‹„‡”Ž›ǤŽ†‡”ƒǡHonor Amongst Thieves: Organized Crime & the Illicit Antiquities TradeǡͶͷǤǤǤ͸Ͳͳǡ͸ͲͻȂͳͳȋʹͲͳʹȌǤ

ͶͶǤ ƒ”Žƒ•‹…ǡIslamic State Sells ‘Blood Antiquities’ from Iraq & Syria to Raise MoneyǡǤ

ȋ‡’–Ǥ ͳͶǡ ʹͲͳͶȌǡ Š––’•ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ™ƒ•Š‹‰–‘’‘•–Ǥ…‘Ȁ‘’‹‹‘•Ȁ‹•Žƒ‹…Ǧ•–ƒ–‡Ǧ•‡ŽŽ•Ǧ„Ž‘‘†Ǧ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•Ǧˆ”‘Ǧ‹”ƒ“Ǧƒ†Ǧ•›”‹ƒǦ–‘Ǧ”ƒ‹•‡Ǧ‘‡›ȀʹͲͳͶȀͲͻȀͳͶȀͶͻ͸͸͵…ͻͺǦ͵ƒ͹‡Ǧͳͳ‡ͶǦͻ…ͻˆǦ ‡„„Ͷ͹ʹ͹ʹ‡ͶͲ‡̴•–‘”›ǤŠ–ŽǤ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 187 Side B 03/01/2017 10:44:39

͵͸Ͳ CHICAGO-KENT LAW REVIEW ȏ‘Žͻʹǣͳ ‹‰‘ˆƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ•‹–‡•ǡ–Š‡‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽ‡š’‘”–‘ˆƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•ǡ–Š‡‹””‡’ƒǦ ”ƒ„Ž‡ †‡•–”—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ”‡…‘”†ǡ ƒ† ǯ ˆ‹ƒ…‹ƒŽ ‰”‘™–ŠǤ”‘Š‹„‹–‹‰Ž‘‘–‹‰ƒ–•‹–‡•‹•ƒ‹’‘”–ƒ–‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡ǡ„—–‡ˆˆ‡…Ǧ –‹˜‡ ”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘ —•– ˆ‘…—• ‘ ‹’‘•‹‰ ’‡ƒŽ–‹‡• ‘ •‡ŽŽ‡”• ƒ† ’—”Ǧ …Šƒ•‡”• ‹ ƒ”‡– …‘—–”‹‡• –‘ ”‡†—…‡ †‡ƒ†ǤͶͷ ’‘•‹‰ •–”‹…–‡” ƒ”‡–”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘•‹…”‡ƒ•‡•–Š‡”‹••‹˜‘Ž˜‡†ˆ‘”ƒŽŽ’ƒ”–‹‡•‡‰ƒ‰‡† ‹‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽ–”ƒ†‹‰ǡƒ†–Š‡”‡„›”‡†—…‡•–Š‡†‡ƒ†ˆ‘”Ž‘‘–‡†ƒ–‹“—‹Ǧ –‹‡•ǡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡Ž› ”‡†—…‹‰ –Š‡ Ž‘‘–‹‰ ‹–•‡ŽˆǤͶ͸ • –Š‡ ™‘”Ž†ǯ• Ž‡ƒ†‡” ‹ †‡ƒ†ˆ‘”ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•ǡ–Š‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•Šƒ•–Š‡‘’’‘”–—‹–›ƒ†–Š‡ ”‡•’‘•‹„‹Ž‹–› –‘ Ž‡ƒ† –Š‡ ˆ‹‰Š– ƒ‰ƒ‹•– –Š‡ ‹ŽŽ‹…‹– ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• –”ƒ†‡ ƒ† ”‡†—…‡–Š‡ƒ”‡–ˆ‘”‹ŽŽ‹…‹–ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•„›†‹•‹…‡–‹˜‹œ‹‰†‡ƒ†Ǥ Ǥ  ƒ–‹“—‹–›ǡ –Š‡ ’‹ŽŽƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–› ™‡– Šƒ†Ǧ‹ǦŠƒ† ™‹–Š–Š‡…‘“—‡•–‘ˆ‡™–‡””‹–‘”›Ǥ’‹”‡•Ž‹‡‘‡ƒ…“—‹”‡†Š—‰‡ –”‘˜‡• ‘ˆ ƒ”– ˆ”‘ †‡ˆ‡ƒ–‡† ’‡‘’Ž‡•ǡ ƒ† ˜‹‡™‡† •—…Š „‘—–‹‡• ƒ• ƒ Ž‡‰‹–‹ƒ–‡ƒ•’‡…–‘ˆ™ƒ”ǤͶ͹Š‹•’”ƒ…–‹…‡…‘–‹—‡† —ƒ„ƒ–‡†—–‹Ž–Š‡ ‡†‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ’‘Ž‡‘‹…ƒ”•ǡ™Š‡–Š‡ˆ‹”•–…‘•‹†‡”ƒ„Ž‡”‡’ƒ–”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ ƒ”–™‘”• ‘……—””‡† ƒˆ–‡” –Š‡ —‡ ‘ˆ ‡ŽŽ‹‰–‘ ”‡“—‹”‡† ”ƒ…‡ –‘ ”‡–—”—…Š‘ˆ‹–•’Ž—†‡”‡†ƒ”–ǡ…Ž‡ƒ”Ž›†‡‘—…‹‰–Š‡’”‹…‹’Ž‡Dz–‘ –Š‡˜‹…–‘”‰‘–Š‡•’‘‹Ž•ǤdzͶͺ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ‹–™ƒ•‘–—–‹Ž–Š‡–™‡–‹‡–Š…‡Ǧ –—”›–Šƒ––Š‡‹†‡ƒ‘ˆ’”‘–‡…–‹‰…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›ˆ‘”ƒŽŽ›ƒ”‘•‡™Š‡ ‡™Ž› ‹†‡’‡†‡– •–ƒ–‡• „‡‰ƒ –‘ •‡‡ –Š‡ ”‡–—” ‘ˆ –Š‡‹” …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–› –Šƒ– ™ƒ• •–‘Ž‡ „› ˆ‘”‡” …‘Ž‘‹œ‹‰ •–ƒ–‡•ǤͶͻ  ͳͻͲ͹ǡ Š‡ ƒ‰—‡ ‘˜‡–‹‘ ‘ ‡•’‡…–‹‰ –Š‡ ƒ™• ƒ† —•–‘• ‘ˆ ƒ” ‘ ƒ†ȋͳͻͲ͹ƒ‰—‡Ȍ„‡…ƒ‡–Š‡ˆ‹”•–Žƒ”‰‡‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ–”‡ƒ–›ƒ††”‡••Ǧ ‹‰ –Š‡•‡ …‘…‡”•Ǥ Ž–Š‘—‰Š ‡‹–Š‡” –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡• ‘” ›”‹ƒ ”ƒ–‹Ǧ ˆ‹‡† –Š‡ ͳͻͲ͹ ƒ‰—‡ǡ „‘–Š …‘—–”‹‡• •‹‰‡† ‘–‘ •—„•‡“—‡– ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ–”‡ƒ–‹‡•ǤŠ”‡‡•‡–•‘ˆ”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘•‰‘˜‡”›”‹ƒǯ•…—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–›—†‡”‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽƒ™ǣ–Š‡ͳͻͷͶƒ‰—‡‘˜‡–‹‘ˆ‘”–Š‡ ”‘–‡…–‹‘ ‘ˆ —Ž–—”ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–› ‹ –Š‡ ˜‡– ‘ˆ ”‡† ‘ˆŽ‹…–ǡ –Š‡ ͶͷǤ †˜‘…ƒ–‡•ˆ‘”ˆ”‡‡‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ–”ƒ†‡‘ˆƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•†‹•’—–‡–Š‹•Ǥƒ‡•—‘ǡ’”‡•‹†‡– ƒ†‘ˆ–Š‡Ǥƒ—Ž‡––›”—•–ǡ’‘•‡†–Š‡“—‡•–‹‘ǣDzȏ™Ȑ‘—Ž†›‘—ƒ‰”‡‡‡˜‡”–‘‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‡™‹–Š –‡””‘”‹•–•ǡ‡˜‡‹ˆ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‰‹‰Š–•ƒ˜‡Š‘•–ƒ‰‡•ǫdz††‹‰ǡDzȏ•Ȑ‹’Ž›‘––ƒ‹‰’ƒ”–‹ƒƒ”‡– †‘‡•ǯ–ƒ‡–Š‡ƒ”‡–‰‘ƒ™ƒ›Ǥdz—‡ŽŽ‡”ǡsupra‘–‡ͶͲǤ

Ͷ͸Ǥ ‘”ƒˆ—ŽŽ†‹•…—••‹‘ǡsee‹‘ƒ…‡œ‹‡ǡDig a Bit Deeper: Law, Regulation & the Illicit Antiquities MarketǡͶͷǤǤʹͶͻǡʹͷͳȋʹͲͲͷȌǤ

Ͷ͹Ǥ ƒ––› ‡”•–‡„Ž‹–ŠǡFrom Bamiyan to Baghdad: Warfare & the Preservation of Cultural Heritage at the Beginning of the 21st Centuryǡ͵͹ǤǤǯǤʹͶͷǡʹͷͲȋʹͲͲ͸ȌǤ

ͶͺǤ Id.ƒ–ʹͷ͵Ǥ ͶͻǤ Id.ƒ–ʹͷʹȂͷ͵Ǥ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 188 Side A 03/01/2017 10:44:39

ʹͲͳ͹Ȑ BLOOD ANTIQUITIES ͵͸ͳ

ͳͻ͹Ͳ‘˜‡–‹‘‘–Š‡‡ƒ•‘ˆ”‘Š‹„‹–‹‰ƒ†”‡˜‡–‹‰

–Š‡ŽŽ‹…‹–’‘”–ǡš’‘”–ǡƒ†”ƒ•ˆ‡”‘ˆ™‡”•Š‹’‘ˆ—Ž–—”ƒŽ”‘’Ǧ

‡”–›ǡƒ†–Š‡‡…—”‹–›‘—…‹Ž‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ʹͳͻͻǤ

A. 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict

Š‡ͳͻͷͶƒ‰—‡‘˜‡–‹‘ˆ‘”–Š‡”‘–‡…–‹‘‘ˆ—Ž–—”ƒŽ”‘’‡”Ǧ –›‹–Š‡˜‡–‘ˆ”‡†‘ˆŽ‹…–ȋ–Š‡ƒ‰—‡Ȍ™ƒ•–Š‡ˆ‹”•–‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘Ǧ ƒŽ–”‡ƒ–›–‘ˆ‘…—•†‹”‡…–Ž›‘–Š‡’”‘–‡…–‹‘‘ˆ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›ǤͷͲŠ‡ ƒ‰—‡„‡‰‹•„›‘–‹‰–Šƒ–Dz–Š‡’”‡•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡…—Ž–—”ƒŽŠ‡”‹–ƒ‰‡ ‹• ‘ˆ ‰”‡ƒ– ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ˆ‘” ƒŽŽ ’‡‘’Ž‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ™‘”Ž† ƒ†ǤǤǤ•Š‘—Ž† ”‡Ǧ …‡‹˜‡ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ’”‘–‡…–‹‘ǤǤǤǤdzͷͳ–ƒ–‡ ƒ”–‹‡• ƒ”‡ ‘„Ž‹‰ƒ–‡† –‘ Dz•ƒˆ‡‰—ƒ”†ǤǤǤƒ† ”‡•’‡…–dz …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–›ͷʹ†—”‹‰ –‹‡• ‘ˆ ’‡ƒ…‡ ƒ† ‹ –Š‡ ‡˜‡– ‘ˆ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† ‘Ǧ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ”‡† …‘Ǧ ˆŽ‹…–•Ǥͷ͵ ”–‹…Ž‡Ͷ•‡–•‘—––ƒ–‡ƒ”–‹‡•ǯ…‘”‡”‡•’‘•‹„‹Ž‹–‹‡•–‘”‡•’‡…–…—ŽǦ –—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–› †—”‹‰ ƒ”‡† …‘ˆŽ‹…–ǤͷͶ ‘–ƒ„Ž›ǡ”–‹…Ž‡ Ͷȋ͵Ȍ ”‡“—‹”‡• –ƒ–‡•Dz–‘’”‘Š‹„‹–ǡ’”‡˜‡–ƒ†ǡ‹ˆ‡…‡••ƒ”›ǡ’—–ƒ•–‘’–‘ƒ›ˆ‘”‘ˆ –Š‡ˆ–ǡ’‹ŽŽƒ‰‡‘”ǤǤǤƒ…–•‘ˆ˜ƒ†ƒŽ‹•†‹”‡…–‡†ƒ‰ƒ‹•–ǡ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”Ǧ –›ǡdz ƒ† –‘ Dz”‡ˆ”ƒ‹ ˆ”‘ ”‡“—‹•‹–‹‘‹‰ ‘˜‡ƒ„Ž‡ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–› •‹–—ƒ–‡† ‹ –Š‡ –‡””‹–‘”› ‘ˆ ƒ‘–Š‡” ‹‰Š ‘–”ƒ…–‹‰ ƒ”–›Ǥdzͷͷ Š‹Ž‡ –Š‹•’”‘˜‹•‹‘…Ž‡ƒ”Ž›”‡“—‹”‡•–Š‡›”‹ƒ‹Ž‹–ƒ”›–‘”‡ˆ”ƒ‹ˆ”‘Ž‘‘–Ǧ ‹‰ǡ ‹– ‹• †‹•’—–‡† ™Š‡–Š‡” ‹– ”‡“—‹”‡• –ƒ–‡ ƒ”–‹‡• –‘ ’”‡˜‡– ‘–Š‡”•ǡ •—…Š ƒ• ”‡„‡Ž ˆ‘”…‡•ǡ ǡ ‘” …‹˜‹Ž‹ƒ Ž‘‘–‡”•ǡ ˆ”‘ …‘‹––‹‰ ”–‹…Ž‡ Ͷȋ͵Ȍ˜‹‘Žƒ–‹‘•Ǥͷ͸Š‡ˆ‹”•–•‡–‡…‡‘ˆ”–‹…Ž‡Ͷȋ͵Ȍƒ’’‡ƒ”•—“—ƒŽ‹ˆ‹‡† ͷͲǤ ‘˜‡–‹‘‘–Š‡”‘–‡…–‹‘‘ˆ —Ž–—”ƒŽ”‘’‡”–›‹–Š‡˜‡–‘ˆ ”‡†‘ˆŽ‹…–,ƒ› ͳͶǡ ͳͻͷͶǡ ʹͶͻ ǤǤǤǤ ʹͶͲǤ ȏŠ‡”‡‹ƒˆ–‡” Š‡ ƒ‰—‡Ȑǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ’‘”–ƒŽǤ—‡•…‘Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ‡Ȁ‡˜Ǥ’Š’Ǧ ̴αͳ͵͸͵͹Ƭ̴α̴Ƭ̴αʹͲͳǤŠ–ŽǤ ͷͳǤ Id.ƒ”–ǤʹǤ ͷʹǤ Š‡ ƒ‰—‡ †‡ˆ‹‡• Dz…—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–›dz ƒ•ǣ Dz‘˜ƒ„Ž‡ ‘” ‹‘˜ƒ„Ž‡ ’”‘’‡”–› ‘ˆ ‰”‡ƒ– ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡–‘–Š‡…—Ž–—”ƒŽŠ‡”‹–ƒ‰‡‘ˆ‡˜‡”›’‡‘’Ž‡ǡ•—…Šƒ•ǤǤǤ‘—‡–•Ǣƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ•‹–‡•Ǣ ‰”‘—’• ‘ˆ „—‹Ž†‹‰• ™Š‹…Šǡ ƒ• ƒ ™Š‘Ž‡ǡ ƒ”‡ ‘ˆ Š‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ ‘” ƒ”–‹•–‹… ‹–‡”‡•–Ǣ ™‘”• ‘ˆ ƒ”–Ǣ ƒ—Ǧ •…”‹’–•ǡ„‘‘•ƒ†‘–Š‡”‘„Œ‡…–•‘ˆƒ”–‹•–‹…ǡŠ‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ‘”ƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ‹–‡”‡•–Ǣƒ•™‡ŽŽƒ••…‹‡Ǧ –‹ˆ‹……‘ŽŽ‡…–‹‘•ƒ†‹’‘”–ƒ–…‘ŽŽ‡…–‹‘•‘ˆ„‘‘•‘”ƒ”…Š‹˜‡•ǤǤǤǤdzId.ƒ”–ǤͳȋƒȌǤ ͷ͵Ǥ Id. ƒ”–Ǥ ͳͺǡ ͳͻǤ •–ƒ–‡ —•– •ƒˆ‡‰—ƒ”† ‹–• ‘™ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–› †—”‹‰ ’‡ƒ…‡–‹‡ „› ’”‘–‡…–‹‰‹–ˆ”‘Dz–Š‡ˆ‘”‡•‡‡ƒ„Ž‡‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆƒƒ”‡†…‘ˆŽ‹…–ǡdzƒ††—”‹‰…‘ˆŽ‹…–ǡ—•–”‡•’‡…– ‹–•‘™…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›ƒ†–Šƒ–‘ˆ‘–Š‡”ƒ–‹‘•ǤId.ƒ”–Ǥ͵ȂͷǤ ͷͶǤ ”–ǤͶȋͳȌȂȋ͵Ȍ‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‰—‡ƒ”‡”‡…‘‰‹œ‡†ƒ•…—•–‘ƒ”›‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽƒ™ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ„Ž‡–‘ ‘Ǧ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽƒ”‡†…‘ˆŽ‹…–Ǥ”‘•‡…—–‘”˜Ǥƒ†‹©Ǣƒ•‡‘ǤǦͻͶǦͳǦǡ‡…‹•‹‘‘ ‡ˆ‡”‡…‡ ‘–‹‘ˆ‘”–‡”Ž‘…—–‘”›’’‡ƒŽ‘—”‹•†‹…–‹‘ǡțͻͺȋ–ǯŽ”‹Ǥ”‹„Ǥˆ‘”–Š‡ ‘”‡”—‰‘•Žƒ˜‹ƒ …–ǤʹǡͳͻͻͷȌǤ ͷͷǤ Š‡ƒ‰—‡ǡsupra ‘–‡ͷͲǡƒ”–ǤͶȋ͵ȌǤ

ͷ͸Ǥ See‘‰‡”ǯ‡‡ˆ‡ǡProtection of Cultural Propertyǡ ǯ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 188 Side B 03/01/2017 10:44:39

͵͸ʹ CHICAGO-KENT LAW REVIEW ȏ‘Žͻʹǣͳ „› ”‡“—‹”‹‰ ƒ”–‹‡• –‘ •–‘’ Dzƒ› ˆ‘” ‘ˆ –Š‡ˆ–ǡdz ƒ”‰—ƒ„Ž› ƒ’’Ž›‹‰ –‘ ›”‹ƒ‹Ž‹–ƒ”›ˆ‘”…‡•ƒ†ƒ•™‡ŽŽƒ•„‡ŽŽ‹‰‡”‡–ƒ†…‹˜‹Ž‹ƒŽ‘‘–‡”•Ǥͷ͹ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ–Š‡•‡…‘†•‡–‡…‡‘ˆ”–‹…Ž‡Ͷȋ͵Ȍǡ‹ƒ††‹–‹‘–‘–Š‡‘–Š‡” ’”‘˜‹•‹‘•‘ˆ”–‹…Ž‡Ͷǡ”‡“—‹”‡’ƒ”–‹‡•–‘Dz”‡ˆ”ƒ‹dzˆ”‘Ž‘‘–‹‰ǡ…Ž‡ƒ”Ž› …‘•–”ƒ‹‹‰ –Š‡ –ƒ–‡ ƒ”–›ǯ• ‹Ž‹–ƒ”› …‘†—…–Ǥͷͺ ‡”•–‡„Ž‹–Š ƒ”‰—‡• –Šƒ– –Š‹• Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡ǡ ‹ …‘„‹ƒ–‹‘ ™‹–Š –Š‡ …‘–‡š– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ‰—‡ǯ• †”ƒˆ–‹‰ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰‘”Ž†ƒ”ǡ™Š‡…—Ž–—”ƒŽŽ‘‘–‹‰™ƒ•…ƒ””‹‡†‘—– „›–Š‡‹Ž‹–ƒ”›ƒ†‘–„›Ž‘…ƒŽ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘•ǡͷͻ‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡•–Šƒ–”–‹…Ž‡Ͷ ”‡“—‹”‡• ƒ–‹‘• –‘ ”‡•–”ƒ‹ ‘Ž› –Š‡‹” ‘™ ‹Ž‹–ƒ”› ˆ‘”…‡• ˆ”‘ Ž‘‘–Ǧ ‹‰Ǥ͸Ͳ˜‡•‘ǡ–Š‡‡š–‡•‹˜‡Ž‘‘–‹‰‘……—””‹‰‹›”‹ƒǡ‹…Ž—†‹‰ƒ––Š‡ Šƒ†• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ›”‹ƒ ‹Ž‹–ƒ”›ǡ ƒ‡• ”–‹…Ž‡ Ͷ ’”‘Š‹„‹–‹‘• ”‡Ž‡˜ƒ– –‘ –Š‡…—””‡–›”‹ƒ…‘ˆŽ‹…–Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ›”‡Ž‡˜ƒ–ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•–‘–Š‡›”‹ƒ…‘ˆŽ‹…– ‹••‡˜‡”‡Ž›Ž‹‹–‡†ǡƒ•–Š‡ƒ‰—‡†‘‡•‘–’”‘˜‹†‡ƒ‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–‡…ŠƒǦ ‹•–‘Š‘Ž†‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ•ƒ……‘—–ƒ„Ž‡ˆ‘”˜‹‘Žƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡–”‡ƒ–›Ǥ”–‹…Ž‡ ʹͺ ‹•–”—…–• •–ƒ–‡• –‘ Dz–ƒ‡ǡ ™‹–Š‹ –Š‡ ˆ”ƒ‡™‘” ‘ˆ –Š‡‹” ‘”†‹ƒ”› …”‹‹ƒŽ Œ—”‹•†‹…–‹‘ǡ ƒŽŽ ‡…‡••ƒ”› •–‡’• –‘ ’”‘•‡…—–‡ ƒ† ‹Ǧ ’‘•‡ǤǤǤ•ƒ…–‹‘• —’‘ –Š‘•‡ ’‡”•‘•ǤǤǤ ™Š‘ …‘‹– ‘” ‘”†‡” –‘ „‡ …‘‹––‡† ƒ „”‡ƒ…Šdz ‘ˆ –Š‡ –”‡ƒ–›ǡ͸ͳ –Š‡”‡„› ƒ••‹‰‹‰ •–ƒ–‡• –Š‡ ”‡Ǧ •’‘•‹„‹Ž‹–› –‘ ”‡‰—Žƒ–‡ –Š‡ ’”‘–‡…–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡‹” ‘™ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–› ™‹–Š‹–Š‡‹”†‘‡•–‹…Žƒ™Ǥ͸ʹ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ–Š‡ƒ‰—‡†‘‡•‘–•‡–ˆ‘”–Šƒ› ’”‡…‹•‡…”‹‹ƒŽ‘ˆˆ‡•‡•–Šƒ–…‘•–‹–—–‡ƒ„”‡ƒ…Š‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‰—‡ǡ™Š‹…Š Š‡Ž’•‡š’Žƒ‹™Š›”–‹…Ž‡ʹͺŠƒ•‡˜‡”•‡”˜‡†ƒ•ƒ„ƒ•‹•ˆ‘”’”‘•‡…—Ǧ –‹‘Ǥ͸͵›”‹ƒ‹•—Ž‹‡Ž›–‘„‡–Š‡ˆ‹”•––‘’”‘•‡…—–‡Ž‘‘–‹‰’—”•—ƒ––‘ –Š‡ ƒ‰—‡ǡ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”Ž› …‘•‹†‡”‹‰ –Š‡ •–ƒ–‡ǯ• ‘™ ‹˜‘Ž˜‡‡– ‹ Ž‘‘–‹‰Ǥ Ž–Š‘—‰Š ›”‹ƒ ”ƒ–‹ˆ‹‡† –Š‡ ƒ‰—‡ ‹ ͳͻͷͺ ƒ† –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡• ”ƒ–‹ˆ‹‡†‹–‹ʹͲͲͻǡ‹–‹•—Ž‹‡Ž›–‘’”‘˜‹†‡ƒ›Ž‡‰ƒŽˆ‘”…‡‹–Š‡›”‹ƒ ƒ”‡† ˆ‘”…‡• ƒ† Ž‘…ƒŽ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ȌǤ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ‡”•–‡„Ž‹–Š †‹•ƒ‰”‡‡•ǣ DzŠ‡ ‹˜ƒ†‹‰ ‹Ž‹–ƒ”› …Ž‡ƒ”Ž›Šƒ•ƒ‘„Ž‹‰ƒ–‹‘–‘’”‡˜‡–•—…Šƒ…–‹‘•„›‹–•‘™ˆ‘”…‡•ǡ„—––Š‡…‘˜‡–‹‘†‘‡•‘– ‹’‘•‡ ƒ ƒ„•‘Ž—–‡ ‘„Ž‹‰ƒ–‹‘ –‘ …‘–”‘Ž –Š‡ ƒ…–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‘…ƒŽ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ǤǤǤǤdzƒ––› ‡”Ǧ

•–‡„Ž‹–ŠǡProtecting Cultural Heritage in Armed Conflict: Looking Back, Looking Forwardǡ ͹

ǤǤǯƬǤ͸͹͹ǡ͸ͻ͵ȋʹͲͲͻȌǤ ͷ͹Ǥ Š‡ƒ‰—‡ǡsupra‘–‡Ͷͺǡƒ”–ǤͶȋ͵ȌǤ

ͷͺǤ From Bamiyan to Baghdadǡsupra ‘–‡Ͷ͹ǡƒ–͵ͲͻǤ ͷͻǤ Id.

͸ͲǤ Id.ƒ–͵ͳͲǤ

͸ͳǤ Š‡ƒ‰—‡ǡsupra‘–‡Ͷͺǡƒ”–ǤʹͺǤ ͸ʹǤ See id.

͸͵Ǥ ‘—‹•‡”‹ƒ–•—Ƭ‘Š„—„ƒŠ‘—†Š—”›ǡProtecting Cultural Property in Non-Int’l Armed Conflicts: Syria & IraqǡͻͳǯǤǤ͸Ͷͳǡ͸ͺͷȋʹͲͳͷȌǤ See Š‡ƒ‰—‡ǡsupra ‘–‡Ͷͺǡƒ”–ǤʹͺǤ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 189 Side A 03/01/2017 10:44:39 ʹͲͳ͹Ȑ BLOOD ANTIQUITIES ͵͸͵ …‘ˆŽ‹…–Ǥ͸Ͷ”–‹…Ž‡Ͷȋ͵Ȍ‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‰—‡ ‡š’Ž‹…‹–Ž›’”‘Š‹„‹–•–Š‡‹†—•–”‹ƒŽǦ •…ƒŽ‡’‹ŽŽƒ‰‹‰‘ˆ›”‹ƒƒ”…Š‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ•‹–‡•ƒ†—•‡—•–Šƒ–‹•‘……—”Ǧ ”‹‰ƒ––Š‡Šƒ†•‘ˆǡ–Š‡”‡„‡Ž•ȋ–Š‡ ”‡‡›”‹ƒ”›Ȍǡƒ†••ƒ†ǯ• ˆ‘”…‡•Ǣ͸ͷ‹–ˆ—”–Š‡””‡“—‹”‡•–Š‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•–‘”‡ˆ”ƒ‹ˆ”‘ƒ…“—‹”‹‰ ›”‹ƒ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›™Š‡‹–‹•Dz•‹–—ƒ–‡†‹–Š‡–‡””‹–‘”›‘ˆƒ‘–Š‡”dz –ƒ–‡ƒ”–›ǤŠ—•ǡ‘…‡ƒ‹–‡Šƒ•„‡‡‡š’‘”–‡†ˆ”‘›”‹ƒǡ–Š‹•’”‘Ǧ ˜‹•‹‘ ƒ”‰—ƒ„Ž› †‘‡• ‘– ’”‘Š‹„‹– –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡• ˆ”‘ ƒ…“—‹”‹‰ ›”‹ƒ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–›Ǥ —”–Š‡”ǡ ™Š‹Ž‡ ›”‹ƒ ‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡† †‘‡•–‹… …”‹‹ƒŽ ’‡ƒŽ–‹‡• ’—”•—ƒ– –‘ ”–‹…Ž‡ ʹͺ ˆ‘” –Š‘•‡ ™Š‘ •—‰‰Ž‡ǡ ‹ŽŽ‡Ǧ ‰ƒŽŽ›‡š…ƒ˜ƒ–‡ǡ‘”–”ƒ†‡‹ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•ǡ͸͸›”‹ƒ‘ˆˆ‹…‹ƒŽ•ƒ”‡—Ž‹‡Ž›–‘ ’”‘•‡…—–‡•—…Š˜‹‘Žƒ–‹‘•ǤŽ‹‰Š–‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‰—‡ǯ•Žƒ…‘ˆ’”‡…‹•‡…”‹‹Ǧ ƒŽ‘ˆˆ‡•‡•ǡ–Š‡ƒ‰—‡ǯ•Š‹•–‘”›‘ˆ‡˜‡”•‡”˜‹‰ƒ•ƒ„ƒ•‹•ˆ‘”’”‘•‡Ǧ …—–‹‘ǡ–Š‡…‹˜‹Ž—”‡•–‘……—””‹‰‹›”‹ƒǡƒ†–Š‡ˆƒ…––Šƒ–ƒŽŽ’ƒ”–‹‡•–‘ –Š‡ …‘ˆŽ‹…–ǡ ‹…Ž—†‹‰ –Š‡ ›”‹ƒ ‹Ž‹–ƒ”›ǡ Šƒ˜‡ ˜‹‘Žƒ–‡† ”–‹…Ž‡ Ͷȋ͵Ȍǡ ˜‹‘Žƒ–‹‘• ƒ”‡ Ž‹‡Ž› –‘ ‰‘ —’—‹•Š‡†Ǥ ‹–Š‘—– ƒ –Š”‡ƒ– ‘ˆ …”‹‹ƒŽ Ž‹ƒ„‹Ž‹–›ǡ ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ• ”‡ƒ‹ —†‡–‡””‡† ˆ”‘ Ž‘‘–‹‰ ƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ •‹–‡•ƒ…”‘••›”‹ƒƒ†’—”…Šƒ•‹‰Ž‘‘–‡†‹–‡•Ǥ•ƒ”‡•—Ž–ǡ–Š‡ƒ‰—‡ ˆƒ‹Ž•–‘’”‘˜‹†‡ƒ›•—ˆˆ‹…‹‡–”‡‡†›ˆ‘”–Š‡†‡•–”—…–‹‘‘ˆ›”‹ƒǯ•…—ŽǦ –—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›Ǥ Š‡ ‹”•–”‘–‘…‘Žȋ”‘–‘…‘ŽȌ‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‰—‡™ƒ•†”ƒˆ–‡†ƒŽ‘‰•‹†‡ –Š‡ ƒ‰—‡ ‘˜‡–‹‘ ƒ† ‡š…Ž—•‹˜‡Ž› ”‡‰—Žƒ–‡• –Š‡ ‘˜‡‡– ƒ† –”‡ƒ–‡–‘ˆ‘˜ƒ„Ž‡…—Ž–—”ƒŽ‘„Œ‡…–•†—”‹‰ƒ”‡†…‘ˆŽ‹…–Ǥ͸͹‘–ƒ„Ž›ǡ ‹–”‡“—‹”‡•–Š‡‘……—’‹‡”–‘Dz—†‡”–ƒ‡–‘’”‡˜‡––Š‡‡š’‘”–ƒ–‹‘ǡˆ”‘ ƒ–‡””‹–‘”›‘……—’‹‡†„›‹–†—”‹‰ƒƒ”‡†…‘ˆŽ‹…–ǡ‘ˆ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”Ǧ –›Ǥdz͸ͺ–ˆ—”–Š‡”†‹…–ƒ–‡•–Šƒ–ƒ›…—Ž–—”ƒŽ‘„Œ‡…–•”‡‘˜‡††—”‹‰‘……—Ǧ ’ƒ–‹‘—•–„‡”‡–—”‡†ƒ––Š‡‡†‘ˆ‘……—’ƒ–‹‘Ǥ͸ͻ”‘–‘…‘Ž„‡…ƒ‡ „‹†‹‰ Žƒ™ ‘ ›”‹ƒ ™Š‡ ›”‹ƒ ”ƒ–‹ˆ‹‡† ‹– ‹ͳͻͷͺǡ „—– –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡•‡˜‡”•‹‰‡†‹–Ǥ͹Ͳ

͸ͶǤ See Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict with Regulations for the Execution of the Conventionǡ Ǥǡ Ǥǡ Ƭ Ǥǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ—‡•…‘Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ‡”‹ȀŽƒȀ…‘˜‡–‹‘Ǥƒ•’ǫαͳ͵͸͵͹ƬŽƒ‰—ƒ‰‡αƬ‘”†‡”αƒŽ’Šƒ ȋŽƒ•– ˜‹•‹–‡†—‡ʹͲǡʹͲͳ͸ȌǤ ͸ͷǤ Š‡ƒ‰—‡ǡsupra‘–‡Ͷͺǡƒ”–ǤͶȋ͵ȌǤ ͸͸Ǥ –‹“—‹–‹‡•ƒ™ǡ‡‰Ǥ‡…”‡‡Ǥʹʹʹǡƒ”–Ǥͷȋͳͻ͸͵Ȍȋ›”‹ƒȌǤ ͸͹Ǥ ”‘–‘…‘Žˆ‘”–Š‡ ”‘–‡…–‹‘‘ˆ—Ž–—”ƒŽ”‘’‡”–›‹ –Š‡˜‡–‘ˆ ”‡†‘ˆŽ‹…–ǡțȂǡ ƒ› ͳͶǡ ͳͻͷͶǡ ʹͶͻ ǤǤǤǤ ʹͶͲǡ available at Š––’ǣȀȀ’‘”–ƒŽǤ—‡•…‘Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ‡Ȁ‡˜Ǥ’Š’Ǧ ̴αͳͷ͵ͻͳƬ̴α̴Ƭ̴αʹͲͳǤŠ–ŽȏŠ‡”‡‹ƒˆ–‡””‘–‘…‘ŽȐǤ ͸ͺǤ Id.ƒ–țȋͳȌǤ ͸ͻǤ Id. ƒ– țȋ͵ȌǤ ͹ͲǤ See”‘–‘…‘Ž –‘ –Š‡ ‘˜‡–‹‘ ˆ‘” –Š‡ ”‘–‡…–‹‘ ‘ˆ —Ž–—”ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–› ‹ –Š‡ ˜‡– ‘ˆ ”‡†‘ˆŽ‹…–ǡƒ›ͳͶǡͳͻͷͶǡǤǡǤƬǤǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ—‡•…‘Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ‡”‹ȀŽƒȀ…‘˜‡–‹‘Ǥƒ•’ǫαͳͷ͵ͻͳƬŽƒ‰—ƒ‰‡αƬ‘”†‡”αƒŽ’Šƒ ȋŽƒ•– ˜‹•‹–‡†—‡ͳ͹ǡʹͲͳ͸ȌǤ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 189 Side B 03/01/2017 10:44:39

͵͸Ͷ CHICAGO-KENT LAW REVIEW ȏ‘Žͻʹǣͳ Š‡ ‡…‘† ”‘–‘…‘Ž ȋ”‘–‘…‘Ž Ȍ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ‰—‡ ™ƒ• ˆ‹ƒŽ‹œ‡† ‹ ͳͻͻͻ ƒ† ‡–‡”‡† ‹–‘ ˆ‘”…‡ ‹ ƒ”…Š ʹͲͲͶǤ͹ͳ – ‹• ‹–‡†‡† –‘ •–”‡‰–Š‡ƒ†…Žƒ”‹ˆ›–Š‡’”‘˜‹•‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‰—‡‹Ž‹‰Š–‘ˆ–Š‡—•—…Ǧ …‡••ˆ—Ž ƒ––‡’–• –‘ ’”‘–‡…– …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ‘—‡–• †—”‹‰ –Š‡ ƒŽƒ ƒ”•Ǥ͹ʹ”‘–‘…‘Ž‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡•ƒˆƒ”‘”‡†‡–ƒ‹Ž‡†ˆ”ƒ‡™‘”ƒ†ƒ†Ǧ †”‡••‡†–Š‡•Š‘”–…‘‹‰•‹”–‹…Ž‡ʹͺ‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‰—‡„›•‡––‹‰ˆ‘”–Šƒ Ž‹•–‘ˆ•’‡…‹ˆ‹……”‹‹ƒŽ˜‹‘Žƒ–‹‘•–Šƒ–ƒ›•‡”˜‡ƒ•ƒ„ƒ•‹•ˆ‘”’”‘•‡…—Ǧ –‹‘Ǥ͹͵‘–ƒ„Ž›ǡ‹–ƒ‡•Dz–Š‡ˆ–ǡ’‹ŽŽƒ‰‡‘”‹•ƒ’’”‘’”‹ƒ–‹‘dz‘ˆ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–›ƒDz•‡”‹‘—•˜‹‘Žƒ–‹‘dz͹Ͷƒ†‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡•…”‹‹ƒŽ”‡•’‘•‹„‹Ž‹–› ˆ‘” •—…Š •‡”‹‘—• ˜‹‘Žƒ–‹‘• „› ”‡“—‹”‹‰ ‡ƒ…Š –ƒ–‡ ƒ”–› –‘ ‡ƒ…– †‘Ǧ ‡•–‹… Žƒ™ …”‹‹ƒŽ‹œ‹‰ •‡”‹‘—• „”‡ƒ…Š‡•Ǥ͹ͷ —”–Š‡”ǡ –Š‡ ƒ‰—‡ †‘‡• ‘–”‡‰—Žƒ–‡–Š‡‡š’‘”–‘ˆ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›ǡ„—–”‘–‘…‘Ž’Ž—‰•–Šƒ– Ž‘‘’Š‘Ž‡ „› ”‡“—‹”‹‰ •–ƒ–‡• –‘ ƒ†‘’– †‘‡•–‹… ‡ƒ•—”‡• –‘ •—’’”‡•• Dzƒ› ‹ŽŽ‹…‹– ‡š’‘”–ǤǤǤ‘ˆ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–› ˆ”‘ ‘……—’‹‡† –‡””‹–‘”› ‹ ˜‹‘Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ȏƒ‰—‡ȐǤdz͹͸ Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡• ‡˜‡” •‹‰‡† ”‘–‘…‘Ž ǡ ƒ† ›”‹ƒ •‹‰‡† „—– ‡˜‡” ”ƒ–‹ˆ‹‡† ‹–Ǥ͹͹ ……‘”†‹‰Ž›ǡ ’—”•—ƒ– –‘ ”‘–‘…‘Ž ǡ ›”‹ƒ ‹• ”‡Ǧ “—‹”‡†ǡ –Š‘—‰Š ‘– „‘—†ǡ –‘ ’”‡˜‡– …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–› ˆ”‘ „‡‹‰ ‡š’‘”–‡† ˆ”‘ ‹–• –‡””‹–‘”› †—”‹‰ –Š‡ ’”‡•‡– ƒ”‡† …‘ˆŽ‹…–Ǥ͹ͺ ‘™Ǧ ‡˜‡”ǡ „‡…ƒ—•‡ –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡• ‡˜‡” •‹‰‡† ”‘–‘…‘Ž ǡ ‹– ‹• ‘– ”‡Ǧ “—‹”‡†–‘”‡–—”…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›–Šƒ–‹•‡š’‘”–‡†ˆ”‘›”‹ƒǤ ͹ͳǤ ‡…‘†”‘–‘…‘Ž–‘–Š‡ƒ‰—‡‘˜‡–‹‘‘ˆͳͻͷͶˆ‘”–Š‡”‘–‡…–‹‘‘ˆ—Ž–—”ƒŽ”‘’‡”–› ‹–Š‡˜‡–‘ˆ”‡†‘ˆŽ‹…–ǡƒ”Ǥʹ͸ǡͳͻͻͻǡ͵ͺǤǤǤ͹͸ͻǡ ™™™Ǥ—‡•…‘Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ…—–—”‡ȀŽƒ™•ȀŠƒ‰—‡ȀŠ–Ž̴‡‰Ȁ’”‘–‘…‘ŽʹǤ•Š–ŽȏŠ‡”‡‹ƒˆ–‡””‘–‘…‘ŽȐǤ ͹ʹǤ SeeƒŽƒ†‹ǡDiplomatic Conference on the Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, The Hague, Netherlands (March 15–26, 1999)ǡ ͺǯǤǤͷʹ͸ȋͳͻͻͻȌǤ ͹͵Ǥ ”‘–‘…‘Žǡsupra‘–‡͸ͻǡƒ”–ǤͳͷȋͳȌǤ ͹ͶǤ Id.ƒ”–ǤͳͷȋͳȌȋ‡ȌǤ ͹ͷǤ Id.ƒ”–ǤͳͷȋʹȌǢ”‹ƒ–•—ǡsupra‘–‡͸ͳǡƒ–͸ͺͷǤ ͹͸Ǥ ”‘–‘…‘Ž,supra ‘–‡͸ͻǡƒ”–ǤʹͳǤ ͹͹Ǥ ‡…‘†”‘–‘…‘Ž–‘–Š‡ƒ‰—‡‘˜‡–‹‘‘ˆͳͻͷͶˆ‘”–Š‡”‘–Ǥ‘ˆ—Ž–—”ƒŽ”‘’Ǥ ‹–Š‡ ˜‡– ‘ˆ ”‡† ‘ˆŽ‹…–ǡ ƒ”…Š ʹ͸ǡ ͳͻͻͻǡ Ǥǡ Ǥ Ƭ Ǥǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ—‡•…‘Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ‡”‹ȀŽƒȀ…‘˜‡–‹‘Ǥƒ•’ǫαͳͷʹͲ͹ƬŽƒ‰—ƒ‰‡αƬ‘”†‡”αƒŽ’ŠƒǤ ‘” ƒ”‰—Ǧ ‡–•‹ˆƒ˜‘”‘ˆǤǤ”ƒ–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ”‘–‘…‘ŽseeProt. Cultural Heritage in Armed ‘ˆŽ‹…–ǡsupra ‘–‡ͺ͸ǡƒ–͹Ͳ͸ȂͲ͹Ǥ

͹ͺǤ ‹‰‹‰”‘–‘…‘Ž…”‡ƒ–‡•ƒ”‡“—‹”‡‡–ǡ„—–‹‘”†‡”–‘„‡„‘—†„›”‘–‘…‘Žǡ›”‹ƒ —•–”ƒ–‹ˆ›–Š‡”‘–‘…‘ŽǤ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 190 Side A 03/01/2017 10:44:39

ʹͲͳ͹Ȑ BLOOD ANTIQUITIES ͵͸ͷ

B. 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Pre-venting the Illicit Import, Export, and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural

Property ƒ‡ˆˆ‘”––‘…—”„–Š‡‹ŽŽ‹…‹––”ƒ†‡‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›ǡ–Š‡ͳͻ͹Ͳ ‘˜‡–‹‘ ‘ –Š‡ ‡ƒ• ‘ˆ ”‘Š‹„‹–‹‰ ƒ† ”‡˜‡–‹‰ –Š‡ ŽŽ‹…‹– ’‘”–ǡ š’‘”–ǡ ƒ† ”ƒ•ˆ‡” ‘ˆ ™‡”•Š‹’ ‘ˆ —Ž–—”ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–› ȋDzͳͻ͹Ͳ ‘˜‡–‹‘dzȌ͹ͻ ‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡† ƒ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ Ž‡‰ƒŽ •…Š‡‡ –Šƒ– ‰”ƒ–•”‡…‘˜‡”›”‹‰Š–•ˆ‘”•—‰‰Ž‡†ƒ†•–‘Ž‡…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›ǤͺͲ–‹• –Š‡’”‹ƒ”›Ž‡‰ƒŽ‹•–”—‡–—•‡†–‘ƒ††”‡••–Š‡’‹ŽŽƒ‰‹‰‘ˆƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ǧ Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ•‹–‡•ƒ†–Š‡‹ŽŽ‹…‹–…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›–”ƒ†‡Ǥ Š‡ ͳͻ͹Ͳ ‘˜‡–‹‘ ƒ…–• ‘Ž› ƒ• ƒ •‡– ‘ˆ ‰—‹†‡Ž‹‡•ǡ Š‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ƒ† ‹• ‘– •‡ŽˆǦ‡š‡…—–‹‰Ǥ Š—•ǡ ‹– †‘‡• ‘– ‡š‡”– ƒ› Ž‡‰ƒŽ ƒ—–Š‘”‹–› ‘˜‡”–Š‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•‘”›”‹ƒǡ„—–”‡“—‹”‡•‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ–ƒ–‡ƒ”–‹‡•–‘ ‹’Ž‡‡– …‘’Ž›‹‰ †‘‡•–‹… Žƒ™•Ǥͺͳ ›”‹ƒ ƒ……‡’–‡† –Š‡ ͳͻ͹Ͳ ‘Ǧ ˜‡–‹‘ǡ „—– ‡˜‡” ”ƒ–‹ˆ‹‡† ‹–Ǥͺʹ Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡• ”ƒ–‹ˆ‹‡† –Š‡ ͳͻ͹Ͳ ‘˜‡–‹‘‹ͳͻ͹ʹǡƒ†‹ͳͻͺ͵ǡ‘‰”‡••‡ƒ…–‡†‹’Ž‡‡–‹‰Ž‡‰Ǧ ‹•Žƒ–‹‘Ǥͺ͵Š‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•ƒ†‘’–‡†‘Ž›–™‘’”‘˜‹•‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡ͳͻ͹Ͳ ‘˜‡–‹‘ǣ ”–‹…Ž‡ ͹ȋ„Ȍȋ‹Ȍ ƒ† ”–‹…Ž‡ ͻǤͺͶ Š‡ ˆ‘”‡” ’”‘Š‹„‹–• –Š‡ ‹’‘”–‘ˆ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›•–‘Ž‡ˆ”‘ƒ—•‡—‘”’—„Ž‹…‹•–‹–—–‹‘ǡ ™Š‹Ž‡ ”–‹…Ž‡ ͻ ’”‘˜‹†‡• ƒ ‡…Šƒ‹• ˆ‘” –ƒ–‡ ƒ”–‹‡• –‘ ƒ••‹•– ‡ƒ…Š ‘–Š‡”‹…ƒ•‡•‘ˆƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽƒ†‡–Š‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ’‹ŽŽƒ‰‡ǤͺͷŠ‡‹–‡† –ƒ–‡ǯ• ‹’Ž‡‡–‹‰ Ž‡‰‹•Žƒ–‹‘ǡ –Š‡ ‘˜‡–‹‘ ‘ —Ž–—”ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–› ’Ž‡‡–ƒ–‹‘…–ǡ‹•†‹•…—••‡†„‡Ž‘™Ǥ ͹ͻǤ ‘˜‡–‹‘‘–Š‡‡ƒ•‘ˆ”‘Š‹„‹–‹‰Ƭ”‡˜‡–‹‰–Š‡ŽŽ‹…‹–’‘”–ǡš’‘”–ǡƬ”ƒ•Ǧ ˆ‡” ‘ˆ ™‡”•Š‹’ ‘ˆ —Ž–—”ƒŽ ”‘’.ǡ ‘˜Ǥ ͳͶǡ ͳͻ͹Ͳǡ ͺʹ͵ ǤǤǤǤ ʹ͵ͳǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ—‡•…‘Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ‡™Ȁ‡Ȁ…—Ž–—”‡Ȁ–Š‡‡•Ȁ‹ŽŽ‹…‹–Ǧ–”ƒˆˆ‹…‹‰Ǧ‘ˆǦ…—Ž–—”ƒŽǦ’”‘’‡”–›Ȁͳͻ͹ͲǦ …‘˜‡–‹‘Ȁ–‡š–Ǧ‘ˆǦ–Š‡Ǧ…‘˜‡–‹‘ȀȏŠ‡”‡‹ƒˆ–‡”ͳͻ͹Ͳ‘˜‡–‹‘ȐǤ ͺͲǤ —Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–› ‹• †‡ˆ‹‡† ƒ•ǣ Dz’”‘’‡”–› ™Š‹…ŠǤǤǤ ‹• •’‡…‹ˆ‹…ƒŽŽ› †‡•‹‰ƒ–‡† „› ‡ƒ…Š –ƒ–‡ƒ•„‡‹‰‘ˆ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ˆ‘”ƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰›ǡ’”‡Š‹•–‘”›ǡŠ‹•–‘”›ǡŽ‹–‡”ƒ–—”‡ǡƒ”–‘”•…‹‡…‡dzId.ƒ”–Ǥ ͳǤ ͺͳǤ Š‡ ǤǤ ”‡“—‹”‡† ‘‰”‡•• –‘ ‡ƒ…– Ž‡‰‹•Žƒ–‹‘ „› ™Š‹…Š –Š‡ …‘˜‡–‹‘ ™‘—Ž† „‡ ‹Ǧ ’Ž‡‡–‡† ‹–‘ †‘‡•–‹… Žƒ™ ‹ ‘”†‡” –‘ Šƒ˜‡ †‘‡•–‹… Ž‡‰ƒŽ ‡ˆˆ‡…–Ǥ ǡǡ ǡǣƬ͸ʹʹȂʹ͵ȋ͵”†‡†ǤʹͲͳʹȌǤ

ͺʹǤ Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export & Trans-fer of Ownership of Cultural Propertyǡ Ǥǡ Ǥ Ƭ Ǥǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ—‡•…‘Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ‡”‹ȀŽƒȀ…‘˜‡–‹‘Ǥƒ•’ǫαͳ͵Ͳ͵ͻƬŽƒ‰—ƒ‰‡αƬ‘”†‡”αƒŽ’Šƒ ȋŽƒ•– ˜‹•‹–‡†—‡ͳ͹ǡʹͲͳ͸ȌǤ

ͺ͵. Id. SeeͳͻǤǤǤȚȚʹ͸ͲͳȂͳ͵ȋʹͲͳʹȌǤ

ͺͶǤ From Bamiyan to Baghdadǡ supra ‘–‡Ͷͺǡƒ–͵ͳͻǤ SeeͳͻǤǤǤȚȚʹ͸ͲͳȂͳ͵ȋʹͲͳʹȌǤ ͺͷǤ ͳͻ͹Ͳ‘˜‡–‹‘ǡsupra ‘–‡͹ͻǡƒ”–Ǥ͹ȋ„Ȍȋ‹ȌǡͻǤ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 190 Side B 03/01/2017 10:44:39

͵͸͸ CHICAGO-KENT LAW REVIEW ȏ‘Žͻʹǣͳ

C. UN Security Council Resolution 2199

 ‡„”—ƒ”› ʹͲͳͷǡ –Š‡ ‡…—”‹–› ‘—…‹Ž ƒ†‘’–‡† ‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ ʹͳͻͻǡ ƒ „‹†‹‰ ”‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ –Šƒ– –Š”‡ƒ–‡• •ƒ…–‹‘• ƒ‰ƒ‹•– …‘—–”‹‡• ƒ† ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ• –Šƒ– Š‡Ž’ ’”‘ˆ‹– ˆ”‘ –”ƒ†‹‰ ‘‹Žǡ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•ǡ ‘” Š‘•–ƒ‰‡•Ǥͺ͸ ‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ ʹͳͻͻ ‘–‡• –Šƒ– ‹• ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‰ ‹…‘‡ „› ‡‰ƒ‰‹‰ǡ™Š‡–Š‡”†‹”‡…–Ž›‘”‹†‹”‡…–Ž›ǡ‹–Š‡Ž‘‘–‹‰ƒ†•—‰‰Ž‹‰ ‘ˆ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ Š‡”‹–ƒ‰‡ ‹ ›”‹ƒǡ ™Š‹…Š ‹• „‡‹‰ —•‡† –‘ •—’’‘”– ǯ ”‡Ǧ …”—‹–‡–‡ˆˆ‘”–•ƒ†•–”‡‰–Š‡–Š‡‹”‘’‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ…ƒ’ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–‘‘”‰ƒǦ ‹œ‡ƒ†…ƒ””›‘—––‡””‘”‹•–ƒ––ƒ…•Ǥͺ͹Š—•ǡ‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ʹͳͻͻ”‡…‘‰‹œ‡• Dz–Š‡‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡”‘Ž‡–Šƒ–ˆ‹ƒ…‹ƒŽ•ƒ…–‹‘•’Žƒ›‹†‹•”—’–‹‰ ȏȐǤdzͺͺ ‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ʹͳͻͻ’”‘Š‹„‹–•…”‘••Ǧ„‘”†‡”–”ƒ†‡‘…—Ž–—”ƒŽƒ–‡”‹Ǧ ƒŽ• ‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽŽ› ”‡‘˜‡† ˆ”‘ ›”‹ƒ ƒˆ–‡” ƒ”…Š ͳͷǡ ʹͲͳͳǡ ƒ† ”‡“—‹”‡• ‡„‡”–ƒ–‡•–‘ƒ†‘’–Žƒ™•ƒ†”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘•–Šƒ–…”‹‹ƒŽ‹œ‡ƒ›’ƒ”Ǧ –‹…‹’ƒ–‹‘‹ˆ‹ƒ…‹‰ǡ’Žƒ‹‰ǡ’”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘”’‡”’‡–”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–‡””‘”Ǧ ‹•– ƒ…–• ‘” ‹ •—’’‘”–‹‰ •—…Š ƒ…–•Ǥͺͻ Š‹Ž‡ ‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ ʹͳͻͻ ”‡“—‹”‡• –Š‡ ‡…—”‹–› ‘—…‹Ž –‘ †‡„ƒ–‡ ™Š‡–Š‡” ƒ› ˜‹‘Žƒ–‹‘• Šƒ˜‡ ‘……—””‡† ƒ†™Šƒ–’—‹–‹˜‡‡ƒ•—”‡•–‘‘”†‡”ǡ‹–†‘‡•‘–•’‡ŽŽ‘—–•’‡…‹ˆ‹…’‡Ǧ ƒŽ–‹‡•ˆ‘”–Š‘•‡ˆ‘—†‰—‹Ž–›‘ˆƒ‹†‹‰ǤͻͲ ‹‹Žƒ”–‘–Š‡ͳͻ͹Ͳ‘˜‡–‹‘ǡ‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ʹͳͻͻ•‡–•ˆ‘”–Š‰—‹†‡Ǧ Ž‹‡• „—– ‹• ‘– •‡ŽˆǦ‡š‡…—–‹‰Ǥͻͳ – ”‡“—‹”‡• ‡„‡” –ƒ–‡• –‘ ‹’Ž‡Ǧ ‡–†‘‡•–‹…Žƒ™–Šƒ––ƒ‡••–‡’•–‘Dz’”‡˜‡––Š‡–”ƒ†‡‹ǤǤǤ›”‹ƒ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–›ǤǤǤ ‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽŽ› ”‡‘˜‡† ˆ”‘ǤǤǤ ›”‹ƒ •‹…‡ ͳͷ ƒ”…Š ʹͲͳͳǡ‹…Ž—†‹‰„›’”‘Š‹„‹–‹‰…”‘••Ǧ„‘”†‡”–”ƒ†‡‹•—…Š‹–‡•ǤdzͻʹŠ‡ ‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•‘‰”‡••’ƒ••‡†–Š‡”‘–‡…–ƒ†”‡•‡”˜‡–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ —Ž–—”ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–› …– ‹ ƒ› ʹͲͳ͸ǡ „”‹‰‹‰ –Š‡ …‘—–”› ‹–‘ …‘’Ž‹Ǧ ƒ…‡™‹–Š‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ʹͳͻͻǤ Š‡ ƒ‰—‡ǡ –Š‡ ͳͻ͹Ͳ ‘˜‡–‹‘ǡ ƒ† ‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ ʹͳͻͻ •‡– ˆ‘”–Š ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‰—‹†‡Ž‹‡•–Šƒ–Š‡Ž’ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‡–Š‡”‡–—”ƒ†–Š‡”‡•–‹–—Ǧ –‹‘‘ˆ›”‹ƒƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•ǤŽ–Š‘—‰Š–Š‹•‹•ƒ˜‡”›‹’‘”–ƒ–‰‘ƒŽȄ–Š‡ ˜ƒŽ—‡‘ˆ™Š‹…Š•Š‘—Ž†‘–„‡—†‡”‹‡†Ȅ–Š‡•‡”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘•†‘Ž‹––Ž‡ –‘ ƒ††”‡•• –Š‡ –™‘ ‘•– †ƒƒ‰‹‰ ƒ•’‡…–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• –”ƒ†‡ǣ –Š‡ †‡•–”—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ …‘–‡š–—ƒŽ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ˆ‹ƒ…‹‰ ‘ˆ –‡”Ǧ ͺ͸Ǥ ǤǤ‡•Ǥʹͳͻͻǡȋ ‡„ǤͳʹǡʹͲͳͷȌǤ ͺ͹Ǥ Id.țͳ͸Ǥ ͺͺǤ Id. ͺͻǤ Id.țͳ͹Ǥ ͻͲǤ See id. ͻͳǤ Seeid. ͻʹǤ Id.țͳ͹Ǥ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 191 Side A 03/01/2017 10:44:39 ʹͲͳ͹Ȑ BLOOD ANTIQUITIES ͵͸͹ ”‘”‹•– ‘”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‹‘•Ǥ —”–Š‡”ǡ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘• †‘ ‘– ’Žƒ…‡ ƒ „—”†‡‘‡•–‡”…‘—–”‹‡•Š‡ƒ˜›‡‘—‰Š–‘’”‡˜‡––Š‡’—”…Šƒ•‡‘ˆ ‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•Ǥ –”‘‰‡” ”‡‰—Žƒ–‹‘• ƒ‹‡† ƒ– ‡Ž‹‹ƒ–‹‰ ‡•–‡” †‡ƒ† ˆ‘” ›”‹ƒ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• ‹• ‡••‡–‹ƒŽ –‘ †‹•”—’– –Š‡ ƒ”‡– ƒ† ’”‡˜‡–‘‰‘‹‰Ž‘‘–‹‰Ǥ Ǥ Š”‡‡„‘†‹‡•‘ˆǤǤ†‘‡•–‹…Žƒ™”‡‰—Žƒ–‡–Š‡‹’‘”–ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‹ŽǦ Ž‡‰ƒŽ’—”…Šƒ•‡‘ˆ›”‹ƒƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡•ǣ–Š‡‘˜‡–‹‘‘—Ž–—”ƒŽ”‘’Ǧ ‡”–› ’Ž‡‡–ƒ–‹‘ …–ǡ –Š‡ ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ –‘Ž‡ ”‘’‡”–› …–ǡ ƒ† –Š‡ ”‘–‡…–ƒ†”‡•‡”˜‡–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ—Ž–—”ƒŽ”‘’‡”–›…–Ǥƒ††‹–‹‘ǡ‹– ƒ› „‡ ’‘••‹„Ž‡ –‘ Š‘Ž† ǤǤ ’—”…Šƒ•‡”• ‘ˆ ‹ŽŽ‡‰ƒŽ ›”‹ƒ ƒ–‹“—‹–‹‡• Ž‹ƒ„Ž‡ —†‡” ͳͺ ǤǤǤ Țʹ͵͵ͻǡ ”‘˜‹†‹‰ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ —’’‘”– –‘ ‡””‘”Ǧ ‹•–•Ǥͻ͵

A. Cultural Property Implementation Act

ͳͻ͹ʹǡ–Š‡ǤǤ‡ƒ–‡’”‘˜‹†‡†—ƒ‹‘—•…‘•‡––‘”ƒ–‹ˆ›–Š‡ ͳͻ͹Ͳ‘˜‡–‹‘Ǥ–™ƒ•‘–—–‹Žͳͻͺ͵ǡŠ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ–Šƒ–‘‰”‡••‡ƒ…–Ǧ ‡† –Š‡ ‘˜‡–‹‘ ‘ —Ž–—”ƒŽ ”‘’‡”–› ’Ž‡‡–ƒ–‹‘ …– ȋDzdzȌǡ ’—––‹‰ –Š‡ ͳͻ͹Ͳ ‘˜‡–‹‘ ‹–‘ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‹ –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡•ǤͻͶ Š‡ ’”‡˜‡–•–Š‡‹’‘”–‘ˆ•’‡…‹ˆ‹……—Ž–—”ƒŽƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ–Šƒ–‹•‹DzŒ‡‘’Ǧ ƒ”†›ˆ”‘ǤǤǤ’‹ŽŽƒ‰‡dz™Š‡DzŽ‡••†”ƒ•–‹…”‡‡†‹‡•ƒ”‡‘–ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡dz‘” –Š‡’‹ŽŽƒ‰‡‹•‘ˆDz…”‹•‹•’”‘’‘”–‹‘•ǤdzͻͷŠƒ–‡˜‡”˜ƒŽ—‡‘”—•‡–Š‡ ‹‰Š–Šƒ˜‡ǡͻ͸‹–•’”‘–‡…–‹‘•ƒ”‡‘–ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ„Ž‡–‘›”‹ƒ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’Ǧ ‡”–›Ǥ Š‡ ‹’Ž‡‡–‡† ‘Ž› ”–‹…Ž‡ ͹ȋ„Ȍȋ‹Ȍ ƒ† ”–‹…Ž‡ ͻ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ͳͻ͹Ͳ ‘˜‡–‹‘ǡ ƒ‹‰ –Š‡ ǤǤ ‹’Ž‡‡–ƒ–‹‘ —…Š ƒ””‘™‡” –Šƒ–Š‡‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽƒ™Ǥͻ͹”–‹…Ž‡͹ȋ„Ȍȋ‹Ȍ‘ˆ–Š‡ͳͻ͹Ͳ‘˜‡–‹‘‹• ͻ͵Ǥ ͳͺǤǤǤȚʹ͵͵ͻȋʹͲͲͻȌǢ͵ͳǤ ǤǤȚͷ͹͸ǤʹͲͺȋʹͲͳͲȌǤ ͻͶǤ ͳͻǤǤǤȚȚʹ͸ͲͳȂͳ͵ǤŠ‡ǯ• ’—”’‘•‡‹•–‘Dz’”‘‘–ȏ‡ȐǤǤŽ‡ƒ†‡”•Š‹’‹ƒ…Š‹‡˜‹‰ ‰”‡ƒ–‡” ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ …‘‘’‡”ƒ–‹‘ –‘™ƒ”†• ’”‡•‡”˜‹‰ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ –”‡ƒ•—”‡• –Šƒ– ‘– ‘Ž› ƒ”‡ ‘ˆ ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡–‘–Š‡ƒ–‹‘•™Š‡…‡–Š‡›‘”‹‰‹ƒ–‡ǡ„—–ƒŽ•‘–‘‰”‡ƒ–‡”‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ—†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰ ‘ˆ‘—”…‘‘Š‡”‹–ƒ‰‡ǤdzǤ‡’Ǥ‘Ǥͻ͹Ǧͷ͸Ͷǡƒ–ͳȋͳͻͺʹȌǤ ͻͷǤ ͳͻǤǤǤȚʹ͸Ͳʹȋͳͻͺ͵ȌǤ ͻ͸Ǥ See, e.g.,…‹‡–‘‹‘ŽŽ‡…–‘”•—‹Ž†˜ǤǤǤ—•–‘•Ƭ‘”†‡””‘–Ǥǡ‡’ǯ–‘ˆ‘‡Žƒ† ‡…ǤǡͺͲͳ Ǥ—’’Ǥʹ†͵ͺ͵ǡͶͲͻȋǤ†ǤʹͲͳͳȌǡƒˆˆǯ†ǡ͸ͻͺ Ǥ͵†ͳ͹ͳȋͶ–Š‹”ǤʹͲͳʹȌȋŠ‘Ž†‹‰–Šƒ––Š‡ ‘˜‡”‡–†‹†‘–‡š…‡‡†‹–•ƒ—–Š‘”‹–›‹•‡‹œ‹‰ƒ…‹‡–›’”‹‘–ƒ†Š‹‡•‡…‘‹•‹ƒ……‘”†Ǧ ƒ…‡™‹–Š‹’‘”–”‡•–”‹…–‹‘•ȌǢǤǤ˜Ǥ‹‰Š–‡‡–Š‡–—”›‡”—˜‹ƒ‹Ž‘ƒ˜ƒ•ƒ‹–‹‰‘ˆ ‘„Ž‡”‹‹†ƒ†ǡͷͻ͹ Ǥ—’’Ǥʹ†͸ͳͺǡ͸ʹͷȋǤǤƒǤʹͲͲͻȌȋŠ‘Ž†‹‰–Šƒ––Š‡‘˜‡”‡–•Š‘™‡† –Šƒ– ’ƒ‹–‹‰•ǡ ™Š‹…Š …Žƒ‹ƒ– ‹’‘”–‡† –‘ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡• ˆ”‘ ‘Ž‹˜‹ƒǡ ™‡”‡ ’”‘’‡”Ž› •—„Œ‡…– –‘ ˆ‘”ˆ‡‹–—”‡—†‡”–Š‡ȌǤ ͻ͹Ǥ ǡǡǡsupra‘–‡ͺͲǡƒ–͸ʹ͵Ǥ

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38779-ckt_92-1 Sheet No. 191 Side B 03/01/2017 10:44:39

͵͸ͺ CHICAGO-KENT LAW REVIEW ȏ‘Žͻʹǣͳ ‹’Ž‡‡–‡† ‹ ͳͻ ǤǤǤ Ț ʹ͸Ͳ͹ǡͻͺ ’”‘Š‹„‹–‹‰ ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ• –‘ ‹’‘”– ‹–‘–Š‡ǤǤƒ›•–‘Ž‡…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›–Šƒ–Šƒ•„‡‡†‘…—‡–‡†‹ –Š‡‹˜‡–‘”›‘ˆƒ—•‡—‘””‡Ž‹‰‹‘—•‘”•‡…—Žƒ”’—„Ž‹…‹•–‹–—–‹‘‹ ƒ‘–Š‡”–ƒ–‡ƒ”–›Ǥͻͻ”–‹…Ž‡ͻ‘ˆͳͻ͹Ͳ‘˜‡–‹‘™ƒ•‹’Ž‡‡–‡† ‹•‡…–‹‘•ʹ͸Ͳʹƒ†ʹ͸Ͳ͵Ǥ‡…–‹‘ʹ͸Ͳʹ’‡”‹–•–Š‡”‡•‹†‡––‘Dz‡Ǧ –‡”‹–‘ƒ„‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽƒ‰”‡‡‡–™‹–Š–Š‡–ƒ–‡ƒ”–›–‘ƒ’’Ž›ǤǤǤ‹’‘”– ”‡•–”‹…–‹‘•ǤǤǤ –‘ –Š‡ ƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ‘” ‡–Š‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ ‘ˆ –Š‡ –ƒ–‡ ƒ”–›ǤdzͳͲͲ †‡” •‡…–‹‘ ʹ͸Ͳ͵ǡ Dz‹ˆ –Š‡ ”‡•‹†‡– †‡–‡”‹‡• –Šƒ– ƒ‡‡”‰‡…›…‘†‹–‹‘ƒ’’Ž‹‡•™‹–Š”‡•’‡…––‘ƒ›ƒ”…Šƒ‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ‘” ‡–Š‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ ‘ˆ ƒ› –ƒ–‡ ƒ”–›ǡ –Š‡ ”‡•‹†‡– ƒ› ƒ’’Ž›ǤǤǤ ‹’‘”– ”‡•–”‹…–‹‘•ǤǤǤ ™‹–Š ”‡•’‡…– –‘ •—…Š ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽǤdzͳͲͳ  ‘”†‡” –‘ ‹‹–‹ƒ–‡ ƒ „‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽ ƒ‰”‡‡‡– ‘” ƒ ‡‡”‰‡…› ƒ…–‹‘ǡ ƒ –ƒ–‡ ƒ”–› —•–”‡“—‡•–•—…Šƒƒ‰”‡‡‡–™‹–Š–Š‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•ǤͳͲʹ —””‡–Ž›ǡ›”‹ƒ†‘‡•‘–Šƒ˜‡ƒ„‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽƒ‰”‡‡‡–‘”‡‡”‰‡…› ƒ…–‹‘™‹–Š–Š‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•ˆ‘”–Š‡’”‘–‡…–‹‘‘ˆ‹–•…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”Ǧ –›ǤͳͲ͵ Ž–Š‘—‰Š ›”‹ƒ ƒ……‡’–‡† –Š‡ ͳͻ͹Ͳ ‘˜‡–‹‘ ƒ† Šƒ• –Š‡ Ž‡‰ƒŽ ƒ„‹Ž‹–› –‘ ”‡“—‡•– ƒ „‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽ ƒ‰”‡‡‡– ‘” ƒ ‡‡”‰‡…› ƒ…–‹‘ǡ ‹– ‹• —Ž‹‡Ž›–‘†‘•‘ǤŽŽ’ƒ”–‹‡•–‘–Š‡›”‹ƒ…‘ˆŽ‹…–Ȅ‹…Ž—†‹‰–Š‡›”‹Ǧ ƒ ‹Ž‹–ƒ”›Ȅˆ‹ƒ…‹ƒŽŽ› „‡‡ˆ‹– ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ‡š’‘”– ‘ˆ ›”‹ƒǯ• …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–›‹–‘–Š‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•ǤŠ—•ǡ‹–‹•‘–‹›”‹ƒǯ••‡ŽˆǦ‹–‡”‡•––‘ ”‡“—‡•– –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡• –‘ ‹’Ž‡‡– ‹’‘”– ”‡•–”‹…–‹‘• ‘ ›”‹ƒ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›ǡ”‡†‡”‹‰‹–˜‡”›—Ž‹‡Ž›–Šƒ––Š‡›™‹ŽŽǤ ˜‡ ‹ˆ ›”‹ƒ ‹• …ƒ’ƒ„Ž‡ ƒ† ™‹ŽŽ‹‰ –‘ ”‡“—‡•– ƒ „‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽ ƒ‰”‡‡Ǧ ‡– ‘” ‡‡”‰‡…› ƒ…–‹‘ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡•ǡ ‹’‘”– ”‡•–”‹…–‹‘• ™‹ŽŽŽ‹‡Ž›„‡‹•—ˆˆ‹…‹‡––‘’”‘’‡”Ž›”‡‰—Žƒ–‡›”‹ƒ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›Ǥ „‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽƒ‰”‡‡‡–ƒ›–ƒ‡›‡ƒ”•–‘‹’Ž‡‡–ǡƒ†™Š‹Ž‡•—…Šƒ ƒ‰”‡‡‡–‹•„‡‹‰‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‡†ǡ›”‹ƒ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–›ƒ›…‘–‹—‡ ͻͺǤ Id.ƒ–͸ʹͷȂʹ͸Ǥ ͻͻǤ ͳͻǤǤǤȚʹ͸Ͳ͹ǤDz–ƒ–‡ƒ”–›dz‹•†‡ˆ‹‡†ƒ•Dzƒ›ƒ–‹‘™Š‹…ŠŠƒ•”ƒ–‹ˆ‹‡†ǡƒ……‡’–‡†ǡ‘” ƒ……‡†‡†–‘–Š‡ȏͳͻ͹ͲȐ‘˜‡–‹‘ǤdzId.Țʹ͸ͲͳȋͻȌǤ ͳͲͲǤ Id.Țʹ͸ͲʹȋƒȌȋʹȌȋȌǤ ͳͲͳǤ ‡”‰‡…›…‘†‹–‹‘•‡š‹•–•™Š‡ǣȋͳȌƒ‡™ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ‘ˆ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ˆ‘”—†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰ –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ ƒ‹† ‹• ‹ Œ‡‘’ƒ”†› ‘ˆ ’‹ŽŽƒ‰‡Ǣ ȋʹȌ ƒ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽǡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹ƒ„Ž› ˆ”‘ ƒ •‹–‡ ‘ˆ Š‹‰Š …—Ž–—”ƒŽ•‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ…‡ǡ‹•‹Œ‡‘’ƒ”†›‘ˆ’‹ŽŽƒ‰‡™Š‹…Š‹•ǡ‘”–Š”‡ƒ–‡•–‘„‡ǡ‘ˆ…”‹•‹•’”‘’‘”–‹‘•Ǣ‘” ȋ͵Ȍƒƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ‹•’ƒ”–‘ˆ–Š‡”‡ƒ‹•‘ˆƒ…—Ž–—”‡‘”…‹˜‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘ǡ–Š‡”‡…‘”†‘ˆ™Š‹…Š‹•‹Œ‡‘’ƒ”†› ˆ”‘’‹ŽŽƒ‰‡ǤǤǤ‘ˆ…”‹•‹•’”‘’‘”–‹‘•ǤId.Țʹ͸Ͳ͵ȋ„ȌǤ ͳͲʹǤ Id. Ț ʹ͸ͲʹȋƒȌȋͳȌǢId. Ț ʹ͸Ͳ͵ȋ…ȌȋͳȌǤ ‘‡ ƒ”‰—‡ –Šƒ– ”‡“—‡•–‹‰ ƒ „‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽ ƒ‰”‡‡‡– ‹’‘•‡•ƒ„—”†‡‘ƒ•–ƒ–‡’ƒ”–›–‘’”‡’ƒ”‡ƒ”‡“—‡•–•ˆ‘”‹’‘”–”‡•–”‹…–‹‘•ǡ„—–‡”•–‡„Ž‹–Š ‘–‡•–Šƒ–Dz•‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡™‘”Ž†ǯ•’‘‘”‡•–ƒ–‹‘•‹…Ž—†‹‰ƒŽ‹ǡ‘Ž‹˜‹ƒǡŽƒŽ˜ƒ†‘”ǡƒ†—ƒ–‡ƒǦ ŽƒŠƒ˜‡„‡‡•—……‡••ˆ—Ž‹‘„–ƒ‹‹‰„‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽƒ‰”‡‡‡–•™‹–Š–Š‡ǤǤdzǡǡ ǡsupra‘–‡ͺͳǡƒ–͸ͳͻǤ

ͳͲ͵Ǥ Cultural Prop. Prot., Bilateral Agreementsǡ Ǥ Ƭ ǡ Š––’ǣȀȀ‡…ƒǤ•–ƒ–‡Ǥ‰‘˜Ȁ…—Ž–—”ƒŽǦŠ‡”‹–ƒ‰‡Ǧ…‡–‡”Ȁ…—Ž–—”ƒŽǦ’”‘’‡”–›Ǧ’”‘–‡…–‹‘Ȁ„‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽǦƒ‰”‡‡‡–• ȋŽƒ•–˜‹•‹–‡†—‡ʹͲǡʹͲͳ͸ȌǤ

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