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The greens at Woodlands were first constructed early in the Clubs history using the “natural” soil/sand located on the site. Given little documented evidence it is assumed the greens were “pushed up” from the sites in which they are now located.

Early 1980’s – The 11thgreen was reconstructed because of extreme contamination of Common

Couch Grass in the turfgrass putting sward.

1987 – The 8th green was reconstructed when the hole was changed from a Par 4 to its current

status as a Par 3 and sodded with Penncross bent grass.

1989 – The 3rd green was fully reconstructed using free draining grey sand and also sodded with

Penncross bent grass.

Late 1980’s – Penncross was established into the greens from seed, apart from the 3rd and 8th.

The Penncross Bent grass was seeded into the accumulated thatch matter.

1990-2005 – The herbicide Endothal and the growth regulator Paclobutrazole (Cultar) were used in an effort to manage and suppress Winter grass –Poa annua with varied results and a notable increase in the percentage of Poa annua within the greens being evident as the years went by.


1999-2000- The then Course Manager, strongly recommended to the Board that the greens

required reconstruction to dramatically approve the playing surface. Couch encroachment, thatch build up and Poa annua control were the main reasons, however above all his recommendation was to improve the surface quality by updating to a new and better variety of bent grass.

2005- During mid 2005 there was a significant change in the management of the greens at Woodlands, with the resources and focus shifting to Poa annua eradication.

The applications rates and frequency of Endothal was increased.

The growth regulator Paclobutrazol was also used on a regular bases in conjunction with Endothal.

Excessive amounts of Nitrogen were applied to the greens in an effort to quickly “grow in” and recover the density of the Penncross bent grass.

Organic matter (thatch) accumulation was exacerbated during this period and years to follow as organic matter removal wasn’t an integral part of this program.

The playing surfaces were severely compromised during this period.



2005 – 2009- Due to the use of Paclobutrazol the greens required more water including extensive hand watering during summer and consequently they became softer and slower.

The amount of Poa annua had been reduced significantly, but at what cost?

2009 - The then Course Manager, had for some years been alerting the Board to his concern about the condition of the greens and in particular the high levels of thatch that had

accumulated, the existence of Black Layer and the general health of the bentgrass.

As the Board was very concerned, John Neylan was commissioned to report on the condition of the greens. In summary, the findings were that:

• The greens were in poor condition with a very poor and unhealthy root development

• John Sloan was asked to consult on course issues including the greens

• The recommendations of John Neylan and John Sloan were noted and it was resolved that the Management of the greens under the care of the new Course Manager needed to address the issues and recommendations received from the consultants.



Short Bio of John Neylan

John Neylan is regarded as one of the worlds leading golf course agronomists

Throughout his career, he has been at the forefront of turf research and development and has consulted and advised Clubs throughout Australia and internationally. His CV is so extensive that we would not have time to listen to his presentation tonight if we went through it in detail.

TURFGRASS CONSULTING & RESEARCH NEYTURF PTY LTD A.B.N. 37 060 849 130 6 Glenbrook Close Frankston Sth, VIC 3199 Phone: 0413620256 Email: john.neylan@bigpond.com



JOHN NEYLAN (Bachelor Agricultural Science Hons.) RESUME


John Neylan has a degree in Agricultural Science from the University of Melbourne (graduated in 1977) and has worked in the turf industry for over 29 years.

Prior to starting with the Turf Research and Advisory Institute (Vic) in 1983, John was undertaking research into the effects of effluent water on soils, crops and pastures and this lead to a career in turfgrass research and extension. Leaving the Turf Research and Advisory Institute in 1993, John was a partner in a consultancy company for 6 years before joining the Australian Golf Course Superintendents Association (AGCSA) in 2000 as a research and consulting turf agronomist. In his role at the AGCSA he established AGCSATech, the consulting and research unit of the AGCSA that now employs three agronomists working across the turf industry. In March 2009 John was

appointed as General Manager of the AGCSA.

John has extensive experience in undertaking research and consultancy with a wide range of clients including golf, sportsfields, racetracks and local government and has expertise in soils, drainage, water management and turfgrass selection and evaluation.

Through the AGCSA he has worked with the Australian Golf Union as an advisory agronomist for the Australian Open.



John lectures in soils, drainage, irrigation management, project management, environmental management and construction at several campuses. In addition he has presented papers at numerous turf conferences and seminars. He has also presented and had published research papers at the 1993, 1997 and 2005 International Turfgrass Research Society conferences.

John and the AGCSA have developed a major focus in environmental management through the Environmental and Water Initiatives which is encouraging all turf operations in Australia to develop an integrated approach to environmental, water and turf management.

John has been involved with several major construction projects including sportsfields, golf courses and racetracks.

John was a Board member of the International Turfgrass Society from 2001 – 2005 and was on the Turf Industry Advisory Committee with Horticulture Australia Ltd from 2005 - 2009.

John has extensive experience in the turf industry across a wide range of portfolios. He has had experience in research, consultancy, project design, project management and staff management.




In the work that John has undertaken he has been involved with many of Australia’s major turf construction projects including;

Golf Courses:

• Moonah (at The National GC) , VIC

• Legends Course – Moonah Links, VIC

• The Sands Torquay, VIC

• Kooindah GC (Wyong), NSW

• Magenta Shores – The Entrance North, NSW

• Pacific Harbour, QLD

• St. Andrews Beach GC, VIC

• Black Mountain GC, Thailand



• Waverley Park Football Ground

• Etihad Stadium

• Bob Jane Stadium

• Woolongabba Ground, Brisbane

• Aquilina Reserve, Olympic venue for softball and baseball

• Sydney Showgrounds – assessment and regular monitoring of the main arena which was used for the finals of the 2000 Olympic baseball

• Sydney Cricket Ground

• Sydney Football Stadium

• Telstra Stadium, Sydney

• Marrara Stadium (Darwin)

• Metricon Stadium, Gold Coast

• AAMI Park

• Skilled Stadium

• Skilled Park



• Moonee Valley

• Randwick (Kensington Track and Course Proper)

• Mornington (grass training track)

• Thoroughbred Park (Canberra)




In the work that John has undertaken he has been involved with many of Australia’s major turf facilities including;

Golf Courses:

• Avondale Golf Club, NSW

• Sanctuary Cove, Gold Coast

• Glenelg Golf Club, SA

• Kingston Heath Golf Club, VIC

• Grange Golf Club, SA

• The Australian Golf Club, NSW

• Royal Sydney Golf Club, NSW

• Royal Melbourne Golf Club, VIC

• Kingston Links Golf Club, VIC

• Peninsula Golf Club, VIC

• Barwon Heads Golf Club, VIC

• Hope Island Golf Club, Gold Coast

• The Open Course - Moonah Links, VIC

• The National GC, VIC

• Sorrento GC

• Southern GC

• Eastern GC


• Etihad Stadium

• Sydney Cricket Ground

• Sydney Football Stadium

• Telstra Stadium, Sydney

• Marrara Stadium (Darwin)

• AAMI Park

• Skilled Stadium

• Skilled Park

In addition John has been the principal turf consultant to the Australian Football League (since 1993) and was involved with all the major turf venues (including baseball, softball and soccer) for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.




• John has been responsible for obtaining funding and undertaking a number of research projects.

• Survey of the effects of reclaimed water use

• Monitoring irrigation control using soil moisture sensors

• Effects of various herbicides on couchgrass quality

• Assessment and monitoring of various race track profiles including Moonee Valley Racetrack

• Sward dynamics of mixed cool-season turfs

• Selection and evaluation of local couchgrass varieties (“Legend” and “Boska” were the two commercial releases)

• Control of Poa annua in couchgrass

• Sod strength comparison of washed turf sod versus sod with a soil layer



• National couchgrass and bentgrass evaluation trials

• Use of growth retardants for the control of Poa annua in bentgrass turf

• Use of various herbicides for the control of Poa annua in bentgrass turf

• Identification of different Poa annua types in a bentgrass putting green

• Evaluation of wetting agents for the control of dry patch

• Assessment of different sand types and soil amendments for construction

• Putting green maintenance trials

• Use of controlled release fertilisers for the establishment and maintenance of bentgrass turf

• Use of soil moisture sensors for irrigation control

• Monitoring water use on golf courses




John has lectured in soils, drainage, construction and environmental management at Chisholm TAFE, Rosebud (VIC) in the Diploma program since 2001; in the Certificate of Recreational Turf Management at Burnley College (University of Melbourne) from 1988 – 1997.

John has regularly presented at the Australian Turfgrass Conference since 1988 as well as numerous other international conferences including; CUGE turf seminar, Singapore; Thai

Superintendents inaugural conference, Thailand; World Golf Course Architects Forum (2010), St. Andrews Scotland; Asia-Pacific Golf Summit (2007 – Singapore and 2009 – Kuala Lumper) and the Indian Golf Course Superintendents and Managers Association conference, Delhi 2007.




1978 - 79 Universal Soils Laboratory, Glen Waverley, VIC

Soil Technician 1979 - 82 Latrobe Valley Water and Sewerage

Board, Traralgon, VIC

Research Officer

1982 - 84 Department of Agriculture, Victoria Reclaimed Water Extension Officer 1983 - 90 Department of Agriculture, Turf

Research and Advisory Institute, Victoria

Turf Research Officer/Reclaimed Water Extension Officer

1990 - 93 Turfgrass Technology, Daratech Pty Ltd (commercial arm of the Department of Agriculture)

Turf Consultant

1993 - Feb 00 In 1993 Turfgrass Technology became a private company.

Director/Turf Consultant

Mar 00 -2006 Australian Golf Course Superintendent’s Association

Technical Services Manager/Senior Agronomist

Nov 2006 – 2009 Australian Golf Course

Superintendent’s Association.

General Manager (AGCSATech, Environment and Education) – co-manager of the AGCSA

Jan 2009 – July 2011 Australian Golf Course Superintendent’s Association.

General Manager (took over the sole management responsibility)

August 2011 - present Turfgrass Consulting & Research Established consulting and research company





Turfgrass Research & Consulting August 2011 - present

Following the move from the AGCSA John has established his own turfgrass consulting a research company where he is providing advice and expertise on soils, drainage, construction, turfgrasses and turf management for golf courses, sportsfields and


Australian Golf Course Superintendent’s Association January 2009 – July 2011

General Manager Responsibilities:

• To oversee the administration and operation of the AGCSA.

• Establish and maintain standard operating procedures for the AGCSA under the broad policy directions of the AGCSA Board.

• To prepare quarterly financial statements for the Board of Directors and to provide recommendations on short and long term financial management of the organisation.

• To embrace the AGCSA's broad aims, objectives and mission statements.

• To bring to the attention of the AGCSA Board any matters that may represent a potential source of conflict either internally or externally.



• Build or establish key association relationships of the AGCSA for the benefit of the growth for the association.

• To manage the AGCSA’s physical resources inclusive of planning, reporting and budgeting for future physical resource needs.

• To adequately provide information to AGCSA administration staff to allow accurate reporting on the financial status of the AGCSA. To represent the AGCSA as a professional organisation representing a highly skilled and competent membership.

• To provide advisory services to the turf industry under the broad policy directions of the Board.

• To provide guidance to the AGCSA and Board on technical issues confronting the turf industry.

• To be involved in the delivery of AGCSA's educational programs, management and promotion of the Environmental Initiative and provision of AGCSA's technical publications.

• To be responsible for and ensure that the AGCSA operates in accordance with all relevant Occupational Health and Safety Acts, and all other legislative requirements.

• During this period of running the AGCSA John has managed 11 staff members and successfully managed the establishment of the AGCSA as a financially strong and internationally recognized association.



Australian Golf Course Superintendent’s Association Nov 2006 – January 2009

General Manager (AGCSATech, Environment and Education) Responsibilities:

In addition to sharing the above responsibilities with the General Manager (Business Development) other duties were as follows;

• Maintained standard operating procedures for AGCSATech, the Environmental Initiative and Education Programs under the broad policy directions of the AGCSA Board

• Managed the administration and operation of AGCSATech, the Environmental Initiative and Educational activities, including the annual conference.

• Manage the AGCSATech analytical services inclusive of agreements with external providers

• To provide advisory services to the turf industry under the broad policy directions of the Board

• Managed the undertakingof contract and industry research

• Prepared research proposals and the establishment and maintenance of research trial sites

• Provided guidance to the AGCSA and other General Manager and Board on technical issues confronting the turf industry

• Involved in the delivery of AGCSA's educational programs, management and promotion of the Environmental Initiative and provision of AGCSA's technical publications



Australian Golf Course Superintendent’s Association March 2000 – November 2007

Technical Services Manager (Senior Agronomist) Responsibilities:

• Established AGCSATech as an independent advisory service to the turf industry

• Established the soil testing and reporting processes for AGCSATech

• Established the AGCSA’s research program (initiated and sourced funding for 20 research projects)

• Developed the consultancy business and undertook numerous consultancy jobs across a broad sector of the turf industry

• Responsible for writing AGCSATech Update in the Australian Turfgrass Management magazine (over 60 editions) and other technical articles

• Developed and managed the Environmental Initiative including:

The EI is a program where golf clubs throughout Australia are encouraged to develop an EMS. The AGCSA has worked closely with Terry Muir and the e-par EMS as part of this project.

Production of an Eco-efficiency Manual for Queensland Golf Courses, in co-operation with the Sustainable Industries Unit of the Queensland EPA

Production of a Manual and the development of a training course for the Improvement of Environmental Management of NSW Golf Courses, in co-operation with the Sustainable Industries Unit of the NSW EPA



Turfgrass Technology, Daratech P/L (commercial arm of the Department of Agriculture) 1990 – 93

In 1993 Turfgrass Technology became a private company of which I was a director 1993 - Feb 00. Responsibilities:

• Provided turf advice to a wide range of clients including golf, racing, bowls, sportsfields and local government.

• Initiated and developed new soil testing procedures for soil physical analysis

• Lectured in soils, drainage, irrigation management, project management, environmental management and construction at the University of Melbourne, Burnley Campus

• Responsible for project managing sportsfield construction projects

Department of Agriculture, Victoria 1983-90

Turf Research and Advisory Institute Responsibilities:

• Promoted the use of reclaimed wastewater in Victoria

• Investigated the use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigating turf

• Provided advice on wastewater quality for various applications (turf was the main use)

• Undertook turf research trials

• Provided consultancy to golf courses, bowling clubs and racing



• The quality of turf playing surfaces is

dependent on the quality of its foundation (the soil conditions) and how it is managed from year to year.

• Turfgrasses by their nature produce

organic matter through the production and die back of stems and leaves.

• Large amounts of organic matter can be produced in a growing season which has a profound effect on the characteristics of the playing surface.



• Thatch development is a natural process.

• Some thatch is desirable.

• Thatch provides surface resilience.

• A thatch layer begins to become undesirable when it exceeds a depth of 12 - 20mm.



Greens situation at Woodlands GC;

• “Push-up” greens of varying soil quality.

• Age of turf (biggest factor).

• Turfgrass variety/cultivar (old Penncross bentgrass).

• Minimal renovation/cultivation practices to minimise surface disturbance.

• Tournament course.



Excessive thatch accumulation can cause the following problems;

• Restricts water and air movement into the soil.

• Reduced heat tolerance and greater dry patch.

• Ideal environment for turf insects and disease organisms.

• Soft spongy surface.

• More pitch marks.

• Slower green speeds.



What is the solution at Woodlands GC.

Ideal: Rebuild greens with a consistent sand profile.

• Provides a consistent and more predictable profile to manage.

• Introduce a new bentgrass type.



Option 2: Resurface greens.

• Short to medium term success.

• Removes organic matter.

• Does not alter soil conditions (still a limiting factor).

• Introduce a new bentgrass type.

• Organic matter management can be started from the start.

Option 3: Intensive renovation program.

• Removes organic matter.



Poa annua is the most difficult weed species that we have to deal with in golf course management.

• The most common theme from a research and practical maintenance perspective is that it is not possible to achieve 100 percent control.

Poa annua is a very adaptable and successful weed species and hence the challenge of keeping it at manageable levels.



Poa annua has a sophisticated biology.

• Poa annua is the most widespread turfgrass species occurring in intensively cultured turf.

• It is adapted to a broad array of climatic conditions.

• Poa annua is one of five of the most widely distributed plant species in the world.



Conditions that influence the type of Poa annua;

• Local microclimate

• Chemical usage

• Cultural practices

Will stimulate the development of new biotypes that are better adapted to those conditions.

E.g. the frequent use of the same herbicide will select out biotypes that are more resistant to that herbicide.



• High surface moisture

• High organic matter

• Compacted soils

• Shade

• Old greens

• High traffic

• Low cutting heights

• Old bentgrass types

• Flowers and fruits throughout the year

• Germinates rapidly

• Seeds are readily dispersed

• Rapid life-cycle ensure that a single plant is enough to build up a large population within a year or two



• High organic matter

• Shade

• Old greens

• High traffic

• Old bentgrass types

• Intensive herbicide programs



Poa annua has numerous forms and it is common to find many

different ecotypes of Poa annua on a golf course ranging from;

• the open “weedy” annual types

• to the very dense perennial types.

The annual types have a single year life cycle and a profusion of flower heads in spring.

As a consequence the annual types produce large quantities of seed and can produce up to 200,000 seeds per square metre (in a pure Poa annua sward).











Poa annua

at Woodlands GC.

Herbicide programs


• Adverse effects of long term use has to be considered

• It is a suppressant only


• Increasing rates and frequency

• Tends to develop resistant types

• Severe surface disturbance

Resurface/re-profile greens


Vegetation Management reports

commissioned by Woodlands Golf Club

• ArborCo – Tree Inventory & Management Program June 1998

• Biosis - Woodlands Golf Course Ecological Values and Management (Draft) December 1998

• Practical Ecology report 2004 – Woodlands Golf Course Indigenous Flora and Fauna Management Plan

• Tree Logic – Vegetation Management Plan September 2005

• Tree Logic – Updated Tree Work Permit Survey & Management Plan 2010

• Practical Ecology Updated report 2011 –Woodlands Golf Course Flora and Fauna Management Plan


Glenn Waters

Director/Consulting Arborist Tree Logic Pty. Ltd.

Woodlands Golf Club

Trees Issues













Glenn Waters – Director/Principal Consulting Arborist

Tree Logic Pty. Ltd.

(Applied Science Degree – Horticulture; University of Melbourne; 30 years industry experience)

Current and Past Golf Course Works:

Royal Melbourne Golf Club: Victoria Golf Club: Huntingdale Golf Club: Waverley Golf Club: Rosanna Golf Club: Green Acres Golf Club: Riversdale Golf Club: Albert Park Golf Course: Kingston Heath Golf Club: Ivanhoe Golf Club: Yarra Yarra Golf Club: Long Island Golf & Country Club: Peninsula Golf & Country Club: Torquay Golf Club: Portsea Golf Club:

The National Golf Club: The Capital Golf Club: Wattle Park Golf Course: Spring Valley Golf Club: Brighton Golf Course: Amstel Golf Club:

Burnley Golf Club: Freeway Golf Course: Cranbourne Golf Club: Northern Golf Club: Southern Golf Club: Keysborough Golf Club: Metropolitan Golf Club: Commonwealth Golf Club: Eastwood Golf Club:

There works include completer tree surveys and management plans, pest and disease identification and treatment; planting designs and plans; water treatment plant issues; boundary tree management and replacement issues and day-to-day tree information and management.

Woodlands Golf Club Experience:

2001 Individual tree issues

2004 Full course tree survey and management plan 2007 Clubhouse redevelopment Issues

2010 Survey & Plan update 2012 19th Hole issues


TREES: Introduction

Glenn Waters is the Director/Principal Consulting Arborist at Tree

Logic Pty. Ltd.

Tree Logic Pty Ltd offers works including tree surveys and management plans, pest and disease identification and treatment and boundary tree management

Current and past golf works include the following clubs

• Royal Melbourne

• Kingston Heath

• Victoria

• Metropolitan

• Commonwealth

Glen has extensive knowledge of Woodlands and has completed works here in 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010 and 2012



Tree Health versus Structure:

When assessing trees, Arborists often use 2 terms to describe the status of the tree;

Health: This is a measure of the vigor or vitality of the tree and is based upon observation of issues such as leaf density, leaf colour, live canopy percentage, length of new extension

growth, presences of pest or diseases and epicormic growth.

Structure: This is the measure of how the tree is put together mechanically and is

determined on issues such as root plate stability, trunk buttress, internal rot and decay, how limbs and branches are attached and the presence of decay causing fungi.

It is possible to have a tree with good health but have a significant structural fault that may necessitate its removal, where to an untrained eye, the tree may actually appear to be fine. Conversely it is possible to have a well structured tree in very poor health.

It is the Health and the Structure of a tree that Arborists use to determine ratings, overall conditions and works or removal priorities.


TREES: Past Management Plan Issues

2004 Management Plan Issues

• Boundary Tree Issues (2nd, 4th, etc.)

• Coastal Tea-tree management

• Coastal Manna Gum management

• Southern Mahogany Issues


TREES: Tree Issues

Coastal Tea-tree.

There is some confusion over whether this species is indigenous to the area of Woodlands Golf Club and its environs, however it would appear that Kingston City Council considers Coastal Tea-tree to be native to the coastal region but considered an environmental weed in areas further inland such as those on the course.

The plantings of Coastal Tea-tree provide Woodlands with some of its landscape character, however much of the Tea-tree that currently covers areas of the course are not considered indigenous stands.

A large amount of planting and transplanting of Tea-tree has been undertaken on the course in the past with the consequence that this species has become a dominant vegetation type in areas where this would not necessarily have been natural.

Many areas of Tea-tree are problematic with the individual trees spreading and ultimately falling over as they age and decline. This collapse tends to allow invasion of woody weeds and needs to be controlled so that desirable species are promoted in place of woody weed species.


TREES: Tree Issues

Coastal Tea-tree. Cont.

Given the Club’s philosophy and successful efforts to return areas of Woodlands back to a more natural environment, areas of the existing Tea-tree stands are intended to be managed to ensure that they do not expand further. The Tea-tree is generally reduced back wherever possible

within the original design intent. It is a management aim to prune up the Tea-tree along the actual fairways to approximately 1.5m to allow easier ball spotting and retrieval. It is the current management philosophy of the Club to maintain the existing Tea-tree areas but to generally not replace them as they decline unless they are adding to the character and visual strength of a particular area.

The Ecological Reports suggests that with the aim of improving the overall tree health across the course that Coast Tea-tree should be replaced with suitable indigenous understorey that will provide foraging and nesting sites for native fauna species.

Such replacements that could be considered are Prickly Tea-tree, Silky Tea-tree and Hedge

Wattle. However, such replacements will only be considered where suitable and in selected areas possibly away from general course play areas.


TREES: Tree Issues

Southern Mahogany.

There are many existing specimens of Southern Mahogany throughout the Woodlands Golf Club and these specimens constitute a large part of the total tree population. This species is

particularly common throughout sand belt course but tends to be problematic given its size, form and genetic poor structure. This species is also particularly susceptible to pest and disease


They are seasonally attacked by lerps and psyllids which can defoliate a tree. However, the main concern with this species is the poor structure typically displayed by a high percentage of existing specimens. This poor structure is sometimes generated by genetics of the individual tree but often develops from the lack of early formative pruning.

Past survey details show that many of the Southern Mahoganys within Woodlands Golf Club display poor or worse structure with some trees being listed as being hazardous and being

removed in the past. There are still several trees that should be removed and the club is working with the Council to acquire permits for the removal of these trees.

It is predominately for this reason that this species should no longer be used on the course and that this species should be gradually eliminated and replaced with more suitable species over time.


TREES: Tree Issues

White Street Boundary.

The removal/replacement of the boundary screening vegetation (the very poor Southern

Mahoganys) along the White Street frontage. Both low screen and tall screening will need to be addressed in new species selections. There are twenty-five (25) trees situated along the White Street boundary fence line that are of particular concern.

The structure of all of these trees has been rated as hazardous. It would seem that these trees have been ‘lopped’ at some stage in the past with much of the current canopy having been formed from poorly attached regrowth. There are many large dead sections and every tree has some evidence of bifurcated leader structures. The street power lines run just outside the Course boundary with both High and Low voltage services.

There are two issues with the management of this area with the risk to golfers, pedestrians and traffic from the hazard nature of these trees and the issue with ball protection from the 2nd Tee. It has been made clear in the past that the concerns with health and safety of the members and the general public should be a priority and would tend to outweigh the risk from an occasional ball over the fence. However, the consequences of a ball going over the fence and into oncoming traffic could also be potentially disastrous and have significant legal implications for the club, given the current knowledge the club now has!


TREES: Tree Issues

White Street Boundary. Cont.

It is recognised that there is a new planting of young Smooth-barked Apple Myrtles situated along the area in question between the Southern Mahoganys and the fairway. However, while these trees are establishing well they are only proving minimal if any screening and ball protection for White Street and will still require at least and additional 5 years.

It should be clear that the Southern Mahoganys will need to be removed in the short term and there will also be a need to replace a number of these trees to provide ball protection in the future. However, any new planting are unlikely to provide and reasonable protection for many years even if planted at larger sizes (5-6 metres). Given the major concerns with exposing the club to risk and litigation from a known problem, it may be possible to install some type of

artificial ball protection (netting fence, etc.) in the short-medium term while the existing and any new trees mature. However, this is an expensive operation and more investigation may need to be made as to the best option for ball protection along this area.


TREES: Tree Issues

Coastal or Gippsland Manna Gum:

This species is clearly indigenous to the area of the Woodlands Golf Club and its environs, with many fine examples situated in nearby Braeside Park.

This species can attain heights of approximately 15.0 metres with a rounded to widely spreading, often dense crown and typically with a short crooked trunk.

This species is well adapted to this area and this is a huge bonus as it invariably leads to far more successful plantings, quicker initial establishment, more usable habitat and better long-term performance. This ensures that new planting and the maintenance of existing larger trees is not only easier but far more economic given the potential for reduced maintenance costs.

While it is impossible to accurately quantify the benefits in terms of habitat with this species, it is clear that more habitat means increased bird and fauna presence that not only adds to the

ambience and amenity of the course but significantly aids in overall tree health given the impact of native birds and animals feeding on the seasonal insect populations.


TREES: Tree Issues

River Red Gum Decline:

The only real issue of concern with this species is generally known as ‘Red Gum Decline’, however any such decline is not generally linked to any one factor but is often a combination of factors such as root deformities, drought and pest attack with these factors linked to seasonal climatic variations.

The Ecological Report (Practical Ecology 2004) suggest that the Red Gum decline is likely to be due to a number of contributing factors, namely; Altered water tables and flooding regimes; Competition from environmental weeds; Altered nutrient levels and the Unnatural abundance of invertebrate parasites as a result of altered faunal use of the woodland environment.

They further suggest that the large numbers of Noisy Miners are a significant contributor to the overall decline as these birds are often observed excluding all insectivorous birds from modified bushland environments.

This leads to increased numbers of insect parasites as the Noisy Miners do not feed on these insects and with no natural predators the insects populations rapidly expand. Both Ecological Reports suggest the increase use of shrubby understorey habitats will allow the smaller

insectivorous bird population to recover or re-establish territories. This is likely to lead to the increased health and vitality of the River Red Gums.


Thank You


Woodlands Golf Club Vegetation

Management Zones (Practical Ecology 2011)

Practical Ecology have broken up each bushland area at Woodlands Golf Club into Management Zones.

Outlined in each of these zones are management objectives and a list of native indigenous species to be revegetated back into the zones.

A brief description of the EVC (Ecological Vegetation Classes) and Vegetation characteristics is also provided.


Remnant vegetation with a high habitat rating (Understorey present) Remnant vegetation with a low habitat rating (No Understorey) Scattered trees


Area 34 (Lhs 12th fairway)

Area 34 is a highly degraded remnant of Damp Sands Herb-rich Woodland.

A key concern is the lack of canopy trees and the dominance of Coastal Tea-tree, as well as the presence of other high threat weeds such as Mirror Bush, Blackberry, South African Love Grass, Kikuyu and Parramatta grasses.

Management objectives include:

• The control and elimination of high threat weeds

• The rehabilitation of the canopy and understorey species to provided habitat

• The removal of prone and rapidly declining Coastal Tea-tree

• Species that will be revegetated back into the area include;

• Gippsland Manna Gum

• Silky Tea-tree

• Sword-sedge

• Broom Spurge

• Spear grass

• Wallaby grass


Management of fallen Coastal Tea-tree.

LHS 12




Management of fallen Coastal Tea-tree.

LHS 12




RHS 12



Tea-tree fallen encroaching towards



RHS 12



Tea-tree fallen down

encroaching towards fairway


Area 19 (Path from 8-9)

Area 19 is a remnant patch of vegetation, how ever this area is dominated by a variety of non indigenous species. These species include self-sown Southern Mahogany, She-oaks and a number of high threat environmental weeds (eg. Blackberry) .

Management objectives include:

• The rehabilitation of the EVCs canopy and understorey.

• Continued control and elimination of high threat environmental weeds.

• Species that should be re-introduced back into this area include;

• Gippsland Manna Gum

• Silky Tea-tree • Sword-sedge • Spike Wattle • Silver Banksia • Spear grass • Weeping grass


Area 19 (path 8






Area 19 (path 8





The area on the left has works planned to remove weeds and non-indigenous species and to rehabilitate the area with native indigenous species.

The area on the right is where we conducted works last May 2011. As you can see there has been a positive effect with the regeneration of many native indigenous species.


Poor Specimens/

in- appropriate planting

• As you can see the right photo shows an example of poor planting.

• A River red-gum has been planted, but in the same pot there must have been

Acacia Blackwoods, by not removing these at an early stage these red gums have now grown deformed and will need to be removed and replaced.

The Red gums in this photo have been planted to close together, there are also several species that are deformed due to lack of pruning maintenance. Some of these trees have been marked for

removal, this will allow the remaining Red gums to grow into significant trees.


Remnant River Red-gums


Management of fallen Coastal Tea-tree


Management of fallen Coastal Tea-tree


Fallen Coastal Tea-tree left unmanaged


Fallen Coastal Tea-tree left unmanaged


Fallen Coastal Tea-tree left unmanaged


Management of Coastal Tea-tree



Fairway looking towards 7





Management of Coastal Tea-tree



Fairway looking towards 7





Noxious weed, Pampas-lily-of-the-valley, left unmanaged can destroy native vegetation. Council By law requires that it be removed. Between Practice Fairway and 12th Tee


Coastal Tea-tree encroaching onto the


Vegetation Management

The landscape of Woodlands Golf Club has changed considerably over time. The

concern being that vegetation management has not been a focus which has allowed a

significant amount of weed to dominate the landscape. Over the last fourteen years

there have been many reports written outlining vegetation management concerns.

Woodlands vision for the future of the vegetation is to restore the native areas, by

following management objectives outlined in the Practical Ecology report, this will also

be incorporated with the Tree Logic management plan. The last few slides show the

native indigenous species that will be revegetated back into the Woodlands Golf Club,

along with many fauna species.

Interesting to note that since the Biosis report in 1998 to the recent report in 2011

there has been a 60% loss of Flora species from within Woodlands Golf Club. This is

predominately the understorey species, their loss could be due to; weed invasion,

drought or non-indigenous species dominating these areas.


Native Indigenous species

used for revegetation


Milk Maids

Sword sedge

Showy Bossiaea

Spear grass


Tiger Orchid

Pale Sundew


Chocolate Lily


Fauna species you may see.

Buff banded-rail

Red rumped-parrot



Have you seen the whereabouts of this bird?

Noisy Minor


Understorey loss




Students of Golf Course Architecture wont need any introduction to Tom Doak.

• Regarded as one of the leading golf course architects in the world, Tom’s company, Renaissance Golf Design ,were commissioned to design and shape our Centenary hole.

• Barnbougle and St. Andrews Beach are just two courses in Australia of the many highly

regarded courses worldwide designed by RGD over the past twenty years a number of which are now rated amongst the 100 best courses in the world.

• In 2011, Royal Melbourne GC commissioned RGD to address a number of design issues on their East course. Brian Swalnik a Design Associate with RGD was responsible for the works at RM as he was at St Andrews and Barnbougle and similarly he is doing the shaping work here.




Some quotes by Tom Doak regarding Woodlands Golf Club

• Following the announcement by Woodlands of his appointment, Doak was quoted as saying “there is not much that needs doing there”

• Had Dr. Alister MacKenzie set foot at Woodlands, I suspect it would outrank Metropolitan and Victoria as the third-best course in the Sandbelt.

• When asked to rate the World’s 18 best par 5’s for a US golfing publication, he included the 15th at Woodlands in this group.

• He recommends that international visitors Melbourne play 3 courses, Royal Melbourne, Kingston Heath and Woodlands.












Ball Damage

History of Golf Ball damage claims 2 claims 2008 6 claims 2009 2 claims 2010 3 claims 2011 9 claims 2012 ? Claims 2013


Course Maintenance

2012/13 Budget $1,454,000

2011/12 Actual $1,450,000


Membership Fees

Annual Entrance

Budget 2012/13 $2,108,000 $225,000

Actual 2011/12 $2,005,000 $273,000


Operating Result



Interest Interest

Budget 2012/13 $387,000


Actual 2011/12 $312,000


Actual 2010/11 $480,000







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