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Effect of Packaging Materials on Storability of Different Genotypes of Paddy ( Oryza sativa(L.)

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 6, Issue 7, July 2016)

120

Effect of Packaging Materials on Storability of Different

Genotypes of Paddy (

Oryza sativa

L.)

Mohammad Sakhi Pameri

1

, A. K. Chaurasia

2

, Ahmad Jawid Pouyesh

3

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Allahabad School of Agriculture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, (U. P.) India.

Abstract-- A storage experiment was conducted to understand the effect of packaging materials on seed storage of three genotypes of paddy; NDR-359 (V1), Vishnobhog (V2)

and Sahbhagi (V3) at Seed Testing Laboratory, SHIATS

Allahabad for 18 months during 2012-15. The three genotypes was taken from the Directorate of seed and farm, SHIATS, Allahabad and were stored in Polythene bags (700 gauge) (P1)

and jute bags (P2) for 18 months. The data were recorded on

characters Viz: germination percentage, root length, shoot length, dry weight of seedlings and electrical conductivity of seed leachete after 3 months of duration for 18 months of storage. The effect of packaging materials on genotypes was significant on all characters after 18 months of storage. Mean comparison showed that the genotype NDR -359 (V1) packed

in polythene bags recorded significantly higher germination percentage (66.81%), root length (8.98 cm), shoot length (5.83 cm), dry weight of seedlings (0.0132gm) and lower electrical conductivity of seed leachete (0.232 ds/m-1) fallowed by jute

bags after 18 months of storage. The result indicates that the genotype NDR -359 (V1) packed in polythene bags were good

in all seed quality characters.

Keywords- Gunny and polythene bag, storage, seed quality parameters, paddy.

I. INTRODUCTION

Rice ((Oryza sativa L.) is the premier food crop in the world. The genetic classification of rice plant belongs to genus Oryza of family Graminae (Poaceae). The basic number of chromosomes of genus Oryza sativa L. is 12 (2n=24). Rice (oryza sativa L.) is the important major exportable food commodities with 9 per cent share in total agriculture in 1994-95 and raising to 22 per cent in recent years. Basmati like other rice varieties are gaining prime importance in export turnover more than 1000 million rupees. (Chakravarthi and Naravaneni, 2006). The availability of quality seeds decide the productivity and production and quality of the crop variety. Further, the seed quality it depends on the source and seed production pest management like organic and integrated practices comprising organic and inorganic practices.

The germination of paddy varieties in storage does not suffer much as compared to other cereals (Paderes, et al., 1997).

However, paddy seed stored for long- term is invariably exposed to climatic adversities e.g. extreme summer, winter and monsoons and requires a great deal of effort to safeguard it. There is hardly any recommendation available to maintain seed quality during storage.

Postharvest operation methods have strong effects on seed quality. The main purpose of seed storage is to secure the supply of good quality seed for planting program whenever needed. Hence, seeds must often be stored during the period from harvest to sowing. The storage time could be short-term (less than a year) or long- term (more than a year) (Perry, 1978).

Seed deterioration during storage is a gradual and inevitable process causing considerable losses. Seeds tend to lose viability and vigour during storage and information on storability of seed lots from harvest until the next planting season and also for carry over purposes is of immense importance in any seed production programme. Seed mycoflora has been recognized as an important factor responsible for deterioration in quality of seeds during storage (Gupta and Aneja 2001). Seed storage is an essential segment of seed industry. In storage, viability and vigour of the seeds is regulated by many physico-chemical factors like moisture content of the seed atmospheric humidity, temperature, and initial seed quality, physical and chemical composition of seed, gaseous exchange, storage structure and packaging materials. As the seed is hygroscopic in nature, seed quality is affected by variation in moisture content, relative humidity and temperature. (Joao Abba and Lovato 1999). Hence, the present study was taken up to seed packaging materials with poly bags and jute bags on storability of rice genotypes

II. MATERIALS AND METHODS

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 6, Issue 7, July 2016)

121

The data were recorded on characters Viz: germination percentage, root length, shoot length, dry weight of seedlings and electrical conductivity of seed leachete after 3 months of duration for 18 months of storage.

Germination percentage

One hundred seeds in four replications were taken from each treatment and the germination test was conducted using between paper methods as per ISTA Rules. The rolled paper towels were placed in the germinator in slanting position at a constant temperature of 25+10C and 95+1 per cent relative humidity. The number of normal seedlings was counted at the end of 14th day of the test; the count of germination was expressed in percentage.

Root length

Final count was observed on 14th day after every storage interval (3 months upto 18 months) and 5 normal seedlings were selected randomly and measured the root length of them. The root length was measured from the tip of primary root to base of the hypocotyle and the mean root length was expressed in centimeters.

Shoot length (cm)

The same five normal seedlings selected randomly for measurement of root length were used to record the shoot length. The shoot length was measured from the base of primary leaf to the base of hypocotyle and the mean shoot length was expressed in centimeters.

Dry weight of Seedlings

Ten normal seedlings used for measuring the seedling length were put in the butter paper bag and dried in a hot air oven, maintained at 50±10C temperature for 24 hours. Then the seedlings were removed and allowed to cool in a desiccators for 30 minutes, the weighing was done in an electronic balance. The weight of dried samples was recorded and average of ten seedling dry weight in grams was recorded.

Electrical conductivity of seed leached (dSm-1)

Five grams of seeds from each treatment in four replications were taken and soaked in acetone for half a minute and thoroughly washed in distilled water for five times. Then the seeds were soaked in 25 ml distilled water and kept in an incubator maintained at 25+10C for 12 hours. The seed leachate was collected and volume was made up to 25 ml by adding distilled water. The electrical conductivity of the seed leachate was measured in the digital conductivity bridge with a cell constant of 1.0 and the mean values were expressed in desi Simons per meter (dSm-1).

Statistical analysis

The analysis of variance was worked out to test the significant differences among genotypes by F- test and critical difference between treatments and genotypes. Fisher and Yates (1936).

III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

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122

Table1.

Effect of different genotypes and packaging materials on germination percentage of Paddy seeds at different periods of storage

Factors Germination (%)

Genotypes (V) 3months 6 months 9 months 12months 15 months 18months

NDR-359 V1 91.53 89.94 87.03 85.22 80.41 66.03

Vishnobhog V2 90.88 88.88 86.25 84.50 79.56 63.75

Sahbhagi V3 90.53 88.59 85.69 83.72 78.84 61.66

F test S S S S S S

SEd. (±) 0.26 0.29 0.29 0.34 0.30 0.41

CD 5% 0.53 0.57 0.57 0.67 0.60 0.82

Packaging material (C)

Polythene bag C1 91.33 90.02 87.21 85.33 81.25 66.81

Jute bag C2 90.63 88.25 85.44 83.63 77.96 60.81

F- test S S S S S S

S.Ed. (±) 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.28 0.25 0.34

C.D. at 5% 0.43 0.47 0.47 0.55 0.49 0.67

Table2.

Effect of different genotypes and packaging materials on root length (cm) of Paddy seeds at different periods of storage

Factors Root length (cm)

Genotypes (V) 3months 6months 9months 12months 15months 18months

NDR-359 V1 18.68 17.48 16.13 14.32 11.11 8.51

Vishnobhog V2 18.86 17.43 15.37 13.62 10.49 7.95

Sahbhagi V3 18.40 17.13 14.78 13.20 10.17 7.63

F- test S NS S S S S

S.Ed. (±) 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.17 0.19 0.15

C.D. at 5% 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.35 0.38 0.30

Packaging material (C)

Polythene bag C1 18.86 17.69 15.44 13.97 11.44 8.98

Jute bag C2 18.43 17.01 15.41 13.45 9.73 7.09

F- test S S S S S S

S.Ed. (±) 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.14 0.15 0.12

C.D. at 5% 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.28 0.31 0.25

The polythene bag played significant role in preventing vapour entry from the surrounding air. This becomes effective strategy in regulating lower moisture content in the seeds using vapour impervious containers.

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123

Table3.

Effect of different genotypes and packaging materials on shoot length (cm) of Paddy seeds at different periods of storage

Factors Shoot length (cm)

Genotypes (V) 3months 6 months 9 months 12months 15months 18months

NDR-359 V1 12.39 11.50 8.71 7.65 6.82 5.69

Vishnobhog V2 11.99 11.03 8.22 7.23 6.37 5.25

Sahbhagi V3 11.44 10.61 7.86 6.91 6.12 5.08

F- test S S S S S S

S.Ed. (±) 0.20 0.19 0.15 0.12 0.13 0.12

C.D. at 5% 0.40 0.39 0.29 0.24 0.25 0.24

Packaging material (C)

Polythene bag C1 12.22 11.38 8.74 7.78 6.91 5.83

Jute bag C2 11.66 10.72 7.78 6.75 5.97 4.85

F- test S S S S S S

S.Ed. (±) 0.16 0.16 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.10

C.D. at 5% 0.32 0.32 0.24 0.20 0.21 0.19

Table4.

Effect of different genotypes and packaging materials on dry weight of seedling of Paddy seeds at different periods of storage

Factors Dry weight of seedling (gm)

Genotypes (V) 3months 6 months 9 months 12months 15months 18months

NDR-359 V1 0.0231 0.0212 0.0185 0.0154 0.0143 0.0128

Vishnobhog V2 0.0201 0.0180 0.0162 0.0137 0.0127 0.0112

Sahbhagi V3 0.0166 0.0151 0.0132 0.0112 0.0104 0.0093

F- test S S S S S S

S.Ed. (±) 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 C.D. at 5% 0.0009 0.0009 0.0008 0.0007 0.0006 0.0005 Packaging material (C)

Polythene bag C1 0.0210 0.0194 0.0178 0.0156 0.0146 0.0132

Jute bag C2 0.0188 0.0168 0.0141 0.0113 0.0103 0.0090

F- test S S S S S S

S.Ed. (±) 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0002 C.D. at 5% 0.0007 0.0007 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0004

The seeds packed in polythene bags (P1) exhibited higher germination, seedling length, seedling dry weight, and lower electrical conductivity as reported by Doijode (1995). Similar observations have been reported by Padma and Reddy (2002) in maize and green gram. Seeds packed in polythene bag and acted as vapour proof barrier in regulating lower moisture content in the seeds.

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 6, Issue 7, July 2016)

124

Table5.

Effect of different genotypes and packaging materials on electivity conductivity of Paddy seeds at different periods of storage

Factors Electivity conductivity test (ds/m-1)

Genotypes (V) 3months 6 months 9 months 12months 15months 18months

NDR-359 V1 0.986 0.821 0.626 0.532 0.423 0.285

Vishnobhog V2 0.988 0.822 0.630 0.531 0.425 0.286

Sahbhagi V3 0.979 0.821 0.634 0.533 0.423 0.276

F- test S NS S NS NS S

S.Ed. (±) 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 C.D. at 5% 0.005 0.002 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.006 Packaging material (C)

Polythene bag C1 0.978 0.807 0.612 0.521 0.413 0.232

Jute bag C2 0.990 0.835 0.648 0.544 0.435 0.332

F- test S S S S S S

S.Ed. (±) 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.002 C.D. at 5% 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.004

Table6.

Interaction effect of genotypes and packaging materials on storability of paddy (18 months of storage)

Treatments Combination Germination (%)

Root length

(cm)

Shoot length (cm)

Dry weight of seedlings

(gm)

Electrical conductivity

(dSm-1)

T1 V1 C1 61.25 8.28 5.73 0.0115 0.264

T2 V2 C1 56.50 8.00 4.78 0.0098 0.259

T3 V3 C1 55.75 7.25 5.05 0.0096 0.205

T4 V1 C2 53.50 5.95 3.95 0.0074 0.364

T5 V2 C2 51.25 5.83 4.15 0.0062 0.368

T6 V3 C2 50.25 5.40 3.65 0.0051 0.308

Grand M 54.75 6.785 4.551667 0.008267 0.294667

SE+- 1.05 0.61 0.47 0.0011 0.0121

CV 1.16 7.61 8.84 9.4652 4.2731

Range Max 61.25 8.28 5.73 0.0115 0.368

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125

Fig: Interaction effect of genotypes and packaging materials on storability of paddy (18 months of storage)

IV. CONCLUSION

The present study reiterated the importance of proper storage techniques and their impact on seed quality parameters of paddy seeds. Apart from correct storage, the original condition of the seeds needs to be taken into account before they are stored as insect damage could aggravate the problem. The genotypes V1 (NDR-359) showed better quality parameters even after 18 months of storage period packed in polythene bags than other genotypes. Polythene bag 700 guage was proved to be better packaging material in preserving the seed quality of paddy seeds. The interaction effect of seeds packed in vapour proof container (polythene bag 700 guage) and stored under ambient conditions is proved to be better in maintaining the seed quality of paddy for longer periods of storage.

REFERENCES

[1] Azad A. W., Jaya Joshi, Anurag T. and Tomar D. S. (2014). Effect of Seed Treatments and Packing Materials on Seed Quality Parameters of Maize (Zea mays L.) during Storage. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 4: 40-44

[2] Chakravarthi, K. and Naravaneni, R. (2006). SSR marker based DNA fingerprinting and diversity study in rice. Africa Journal of Biotechnology 5(9): 684-688.

[3] Doijode, S.D., (1995). Effect of silica gel and storage containers on viability and vigour in onion. Seed Research, 18: 163-165. [4] Fisher, R.A. (1936). The correlation between relatives on the

supposition of Mendelian inheritance Tans. Royal Sco. Edinturgh, 52: 399-432.

[5] Gupta, A. and Aneja, K. R. (2001). Mycoflora spectrum during storage and its effect on seed viability of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seeds under ambient conditions. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, India 71 B III & IV. pp. 245-253.

[6] Joao Abba and Lovato (1999). Effect of seed storage temperature and relative humidity on maize (Zea mays L.) seed viability and vigour. Seed Sci. and Tech. 27(1999), pp. 101-114.

[7] Muangkaeo, R., Srichuwong, S. and Vearasilp, S. (2005). Influence of packaging materials and storage time on seed viability and chemical component of rice seed. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, Stuttgart- Hohenheim, October 11-13, 2005.

[8] Paderes, D. E., Mew, T. W. and Ilag, L. L. (1997). Influence of moisture content and length of storage on fungal invasion of paddy rice. Biotropia, 10: 1-13.

[9] Padma, V., and Reddy, M. B. (2002). Storage of brinjal seed under ambient conditions at two moisture levels. Journal of Research. ANGRAU, 30 (2): 6-10.

[10] Perry, D.A. (1978). Report of the vigour test committee. Seed Science and Technology 6: 159-181

[11] Saxena, O. P., Singh, G., Pakeeraiah, H. and Pandey, N. (1987). Seed deterioration studies in some vegetable seeds. Acta Horticulture, 215: 39-44.

References

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