Hobbes, metaphor and political thought

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HOBBES, METAPHOR AND POLITICAL THOUGHT

JAM ES WILLSON-QUAYLE

SUBMITTED IN FULFILM ENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE

DEGREE OF P h.D .

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UMI Number: U050225

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FOR GRANDMOTHER WILLSON

A ckno wledge m e n ts

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ABSTR A C T

T he th e s is e x a m in e s t h e r o le o f m e tap h o r i n p o litic a l th o u g h t an d , in p a r tic u la r , i n t h e w ork o f t h e B ritish p h ilo so p h e r T hom as H obbes. . I t i s a rg u e d t h a t , c o n tra r y t o w h a t m any c n h c s n a v e s u g g e s te d , H obbes's u se o f im a g e s, m e ta p h o ric a l an d o th e rw is e , fo rm e d t h e b a sis f o r m uch o f h is p o litic a l philosophy. In d e e d , i t is from a c o r r e c t u n d e rsta n d in g o f t h e u se o f t h e m e ta p h o ric im a g e i n p o litic a l th o u g h t t h a t v a r ie d H obbesian c o n c e rn s su c h a s h is to ry , s c ie n c e , g e o m e try , o p tic s , p o e try , and p o litic a l philosophy c a n be u n ite d .

A p p ro p riate ly , c h a p te r on e n a r r a t e s fo u r d is ti n c t tr a d itio n s o f ap plying t h e s u b je c t o f m e ta p h o r t o philosophy. I t i s a rg u e d t h a t , f a r from being m a rg in a l t o p o litic a l th o u g h t, m e ta p h o r p a r tia lly fo rm s t h e b asis f o r m uch o f t h e a c t iv it y o f p o litic a l th in k in g . T he s e c o n d c h a p te r d ev elo p s a th e o r y o f t h e m eaning o f p o litic a l m e ta p h o rs. I t i s a rg u e d h e re t h a t m any tw e n tie th c e n tu ry a c c o u n ts o f t h e m eaning o f m e ta p h o rs a r e d e f ic ie n t f o r th e y f a i l t o acknow ledge how m e ta p h o ric a l im a g e s a r e u sed i n p o litic a l th o u g h t; n am ely , t o u n ite t h e p o p u la c e i n a com m on p o litic a l jud g m e n t.

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T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S

A ck n o w led g em en ts A b s tr a c t

Table o f C ontents Chapter One:

Two:

T h ree :

F

our

F ive:

Six:

N o tes

Bibliography

F o u r T ra d itio n s o f M etap horic T h o u g h t i M etaphor, P opper a n d S o cia l S cie n ce

E x p lan atio n

di Tne A ris to te lia n - C lassical T ra d itio n idi The P la to n ic -R o m a n tic T ra d itio n i v The D econstructLondst A pproach

W hat P o litic a l M etaphors M ean

i The O n to lo g ical-C o g n itiv e View i i The L ite r a lis t A rg u m en t

idi The Com m on Sensory A cco un t: How P o litic a l M etaphors A re U sed H obbes’s G rounding o f M etap h o r i The S tan d a rd A c c o u n t i i The V alue o f th e Im a g e

i i i H obbes and th e J u d g m e n t o f S ense i v The S overeign, J u d g m e n t an d

P o litic a l Vision

H obbes's V isual Theory o f K now ledge i The R esponse t o t h e S c e p tic s i i H obbes's T heory o f O ptics

i i i N a tu ra l Vision a s t h e K now ledge o f F a c t

iv S c ie n tific K nowledge

v The Knowledge o f G eo m etry The Im ag e s o f L ev iath an

i The B ib lica l Them e o f L e v ia th a n i i The T itle P age

i i i The Soul o f th e Art i f i c i a l Man iv The F u n ctio n s o f t h e Body P o litic v L ib e rty and t h e T ies T h a t Bind v i The Kingdom o f D ark ness

M etap ho r, P o e try , and th e C on sequ en ce o f P o litic a l Im ag in atio n

i T he P ro m e th e a n Im a g in a tio n i i The Im ag e in t h e C o n v e rsa tio n o f

M ankind

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CHAPTER ONE:

FOUR TRADITIONS OF METAPHORIC THOUGHT

I h av e no g r e a t opinion o f d e f in itio n ...f o r w hen we d e fin e , we seem in d a n g e r o f c irc u m v e n tin g n a tu re w ith in t h e bounds o f o u r ow n n o tio n s, w hich we o f te n ta k e up by h a z a rd , o r e m b ra c e on t r u s t , o r fo rm o u t o f lim ite d an d p a r tia l c o n s id e ra tio n o f t h e o b je c t b e fo re us, in s te a d o f ex te n d in g o u r id e a s t o t a k e in a ll t h a t n a tu re co m p re h en d s, a c c o rd in g t o h e r m a n n er o f com bining.

—Edm und B urke

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Like a sun re fu s in g t o s e t, m e tap h o r h o v e rs o v e r us, blinding u s in to f o rg e tf u ln e s s a b o u t i t s u n errin g p re se n c e . We s p e a k i n m etap h o rs. M ore im p o r ta n tly , a s N ie tz sc h e rem in d s us, we th in k m e ta p h o ric a lly , b o rro w in g fro m o u r v o c a b u la ry o f sen se e x p e rie n c e a n d tr a n s la tin g i t in to o u r m e n ta l d isco u rse. O ften our u n d e rsta n d in g o f o u r fello w m an, o u r e n v iro n m e n t, o u r in s titu tio n s is a r tic u la te d b y h id d en m e tap h o rs, and no m ore so th a n w hen we p o n d er on m a tte r s p h ilo so p h ical o r p o litic a l. I f on e d a re s t o draw t h e c irc u m fe r e n c e w id er s till, th e n co n sid e r t h e c a s e o f m yths, p a ra b le s, an d sym b ols, f o r th e s e , to o , a r e la r g e ly m e tap h o ric al- W hat follo w s i s a n e n t r e a t y t o c o n s id e r t h e ro le o f m e ta p h o rs in p o litic a l th o u g h t, fro m t h e G reek s t o t h e p r e s e n t day , b u t w ith p a r tic u la r a tte n tio n t o t h e w ork o f o n e o f t h e f i r s t tr u l y m o d e m p o litic a l th e o ris ts : Thom as H obbes. C ould m e tap h o r, t h a t m o st s u b lim e v e h ic le o f hum an u n d erstan d in g , illu m in a te t h e th o u g h t o f Hobbes, o n e o f t h e m o st im p o r ta n t p o litic a l th in k e r s o f any ag e? The a n s w e r is : m o st a ssu re d ly y es. And w here do we go fro m th is , p e rh a p s s u rp risin g , a ffirm a tio n ? To t h e realm o f p o litic a l im a g in a tio n , w h ere d w ells t h e p h ilo so p h er an d t h e p o e t, t h e a r t i s t an d t h e p o litic a l th e o r is t, w hich w ill b e th e th e m e o f t h e fin a l c h a p te r o f th i s d is s e r ta tio n .

L e t u s f i r s t b eg in w ith t h e r a t h e r an o d y n e d e fin itio n t h a t t h e g o a l o f p o litic a l philosophy is t o d is c o v e r t h e g ro u n d s o n w hich t h e s t a t e ju s tif ie s i t s a u th o rity o v e r i t s c itiz e n s . In tu r n , t h e p o litic a l t h e o r i s t a t te m p t s t o p ro v id e t h e u n d erp in n in g s f o r v a rio u s c o n c e rn s su ch a s p o litic a l o b lig atio n , in d iv id u a l r ig h ts an d lib e r tie s , th e o r ie s o f ju s tic e , an d o th e r p rin c ip le s o f a ju s tif ic a to r y n a tu re . The aim o f a p o litic a l t h e o r i s t t o d e v e lo p a c o h e r e n t - t h a t is , c o n s is te n t - philosophy o f t h e s t a t e , p o litic a l

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in s titu tio n s , an d s o c ie ty .

This d e fin itio n o f p o litic a l philosophy w ould p e rh a p s go un ch allen g e d f o r i t s in o ffe n siv e n e ss; in d e e d i t fo r m s t h e s ta r tin g p o in t f o r m o st o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f p o litic a l th o u g h t fro m P la to onw ards. The ab ov e fo rm u la tio n o f t h e c o n c e rn s o f p o litic a l th o u g h t, how ever, d o es le a d u s t o n o tic e a secon d c h a r a c te r i s t ic t h a t u n til th e l a s t hu nd red y e a r s h a s gone la rg e ly u n n o ticed : t h a t p o litic a l th o u g h t is in e x tric a b ly b u ilt in to t h e la n g u a g e t h a t i t uses.

This l a t t e r o b s e rv a tio n is n o t a s in n o c e n t a s i t m ay f i r s t se e m . I t i t s e l f is a p ro d u c t o f t h e "lin g u istic tu rn " m ade by m any o f t h e hum an s c ie n c e s o v e r t h e l a s t e ig h ty y e a rs (variously: philosophy, psychology, l i t e r a r y c ritic ism and , o f c o u rs e , p o litic a l th o u g h t) .1 T he in te rd is c ip lin a ry a p p e a l o f th i s lin g u is tic a p p ro a c h t o hum an know ledge le n d s c re d e n c e t o i t s supposed in s ig h ts, c o v e rin g a w ide r a n g e o f c o n c e rn s from t h e way we th in k a b o u t o u rse lv e s a n d o u r c u r r e n t co n d itio n t o how we "think" in g e n e ra l. The o f f - s h o o t o f t h e lin g u is tic tu r n , b e s t e x e m p lifie d by t h e a n a ly tic p o litic a l th o u g h t o f T.D. Weldon an d M a rg a re t M acdonald, ta u g h t t h a t s e v e r a l o f t h e p ro b lem s p e re n n ia lly e n c o u n te re d by p o litic a l p h ilo so p h e rs co u ld be re so lv e d by a c lo s e r e x a m in a tio n o f t h e la n g u a g e w hich w as u sed . I f one w ere no lo n g e r "b e w itc h e d by la n g u a g e " (to borro w from W ittgenstein ) i t w as b e lie v e d t h a t one w ould th e n b e a b le t o r e f o r m u la te t h e p o litic a l a n d p h ilo so p h ical p u z z le s w hich h av e p la g u ed p o litic a l th o u g h t, an d th u s a r r iv e a t a c l e a r e r u n d e rsta n d in g o f t h e t r u e n a tu re o f t h e p o litic a l.

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a tte n d in g t o t h e u s e o f la n g u ag e w as i t s e l f a p r o d u c t o f p sy c h o lo g ic a lly a n d s o c ia lly in sp ire d e r r o r s o f th o u g h t. The lin g u is tic t u r n w as a sign o f a c re e p in g illn e s s i n r a ti o n a l d is c o u rs e , a n a t t e m p t , a s B ertra n d R ussell c o m p lain e d , t o a c q u ire by t h e f t w h a t o n e h a s f a ile d t o p u rch ase by h o n e s t to iL T oday, p e rh a p s N o rm an B arry b e s t ty p ifie s th is a t t i t u d e a g a in s t a lin g u is tic a lly b a se d p o litic a l th o u g h t w hen h e d e c la re s t h a t " th e d o m in a n c e o f t h e p u re ly lin g u is tic a p p ro a c h t o p o litic a l philosophy i s a t a n end." In B arry 's a c c o u n t, m o d e m p o litic a l th o u g h t sh ou ld b e a b o u t t h e " tr u th a n d p r e d ic a tiv e p o w e r o f p a r tic u la r th e o rie s " a n d n o t a b o u t m eaning, w hich h o ld s l i t t l e re le v a n c e i n pol.iti.cal philo sop hy 's m ore " sc ie n tific " p u rs u its . 2

Y e t w h a t a b o u t m etap h o r? Should t h e s tu d y o f o u r m e ta p h o ric a l u tt e r a n c e s a ls o b e r e le g a te d t o t h e d u stb in o f id e a s m e re ly b e c a u se th e y do n o t s p e a k o f "science" o r " fa c ts " o r " tru th ? " In a n a t t e m p t t o p ro v e o th e rw is e , th i s f i r s t c h a p te r a t te m p t s t o r e - a lig n t h e s u b je c t o f o u r m e ta p h o ric a l p ro n o u n c e m e n ts o n to a n o r b it w hich in c lu d e s t h e p h y s ic a l sc ie n c e s a s w ell a s t h e s o c ia l. The follo w ing

h o pes t o show t h a t t h e do m ain o f m e tap h o r, p o litic a l a n d o th e rw is e , c a n n o t b e c o n sid e re d t o be m ere p o e try . As t h e f i r s t s e c tio n o f th i s p r e s e n t c h a p t e r a rg u e s , B arry an d o th e rs e r r i n a r tic u la tin g a f a ls e d ic h o to m y b e tw e e n t h e re a lm s o f s c ie n c e an d n o n -s c ie n c e . In d e e d ,

m e ta p h o ric m odels fo rm a cru cial lin k b e tw e e n t h e w o rld aro u n d u s a n d o u r s c ie n tif ic k no w led g e o f i t .

The se c o n d s e c tio n t r a c e s m any o f o u r c u r r e n t p ro n o u n c e m e n ts upon m e ta p h o r b a c k t o t h e i r c la s s ic a l G reek o rig in s. By r e - c a s tin g t h e lo n g shadow o f m e ta p h o ric d isco u rse b a c k t o i t s o r ig in a l p o s tu re , th i s s e c tio n sh o w s t h a t we a r e t h e p a r t i a l in h e r ito r s o f t h i s a n c ie n t

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tr a d itio n , a n d a lso t h a t so m e o f o u r c u r r e n t m isevaluatLon o f t h e s u b je c t c a n b e t r a c e d b a c k t o th e s e G reek r o o ts .

T he th i r d s e c tio n o f f e r s a r i v a l tr a d i ti o n t o t h a t o f t h e classLcaL T he R o m a n tic m o v e m en t w hich h ad , r a t h e r cu rio u sly , d raw n i t s in s p ira tio n fro m P la to c o n sid e re d m e ta p h o r t o b e in tim a te ly lin k e d t o t h e a r t o f im a g in a tio n . To t h e c la ssic a l s c h o o l w hich had a t te m p t e d t o c a r v e u p e x p e rie n c e i n o r d e r t o s tu d y a n d u n d e rs ta n d i t b e t t e r , t h e R o m a n tic s h a d re sp o n d e d b y m e ta p h o ric a lly r e s tr u c tu r in g m an's p la c e i n t h e cosm os. Thus t h e R o m a n tic s saw m e ta p h o r a s a b rid g e c o n n e c tin g b o th t h e a r t i s t t o h is w orld a n d m an's own r a tio n a lity t o n a tu r e 's g ra n d design.

T he f o u r th a n d co n clu d in g s e c tio n i s i n d i r e c t re s p o n s e t o t h e f i r s t t h r e e s in c e t h e d e c o n s tru c tio n is t a c c o u n t o f m e ta p h o r p la y s a n e s s e n tia lly su b v e rs iv e r o le i n t h e c a u s e o f p o litic a l philoso ph y. The d e c o n s tru c tio n is t a c c o u n t o f m e ta p h o r p re c lu d e s a n y t a l k o f s c ie n tif ic o r o f c la s s ic a l d iv isio n s o f e x p e rie n c e , a n d s p u rn s t h e R o m an tic n o tio n o f im a g in a tio n . I f th is f in a l s e c tio n sh ie s aw ay fro m so m e o f t h e m o re s e v e r e co n clu sio n s t h a t t h e d e c o n s tru c tio n is ts h a v e t o o f f e r, i t d o e s so only i n t h e b e lie f t h a t t h e r e i s a p o e t, t h e r e i s a s c ie n tis t, t h e r e is a p o litic a l p h ilo so p h er who im a g in a tiv e ly c r e a te s his m e ta p h o rs fro m t h e s to c k o f im a g e s w hich su rro u n d him a n d , in dcdng s o , e f f e c tiv e ly c h a n g e s o u r u n d e rsta n d in g o f t h e w orld, a n d in p a r tic u la r o u r p o litic a l im ag in a tio n .

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vyhat is m e a n t by a tr a d itio n i s t h a t t h e a u th o rs c o n c e rn e d s h a re a c o m p a ra b le a p p ro a c h t o t h e prohLem o f la n g u a g e . M etap h o r is t h e a r t o f co m p arin g , a ca llin g t o mind, a coILectLon o f re s e m b la n c e s . When we fu s e tw o seemingLy unlike th in g s to g e th e r an d d e c la r e t h a t th e y a r e id e n tic a l we do so, w ith a nod an d a wink, know ing t h a t th e y a r e n o t. T rad itio n , i n i t s w e a k e s t se n se , n e e d do no m ore t h a n m e ta p h o r i n th i s re g a rd : a n e v o c a tio n o f th in g s in com m on, a c o rre s p o n d e n c e o f a p p ro ac h es.

S ectio n 1:

Metaphor, Popper, and S ocial S cien c e E xplanation

In an in trig u in g p a ssa g e , Thom as Hobbes re m a r k s i n L e v ia th a n t h a t th e u s e o f m e tap h o rs i n s c ie n c e is lik e w anderin g a m id in n u m e ra b le absurditi.es w hich c a n only le a d t o f a ls e kn o w led g e an d , w o rse s till,

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t o c iv il u n re s t. H obbes's w arning a b o u t m e ta p h o rs i n s c ie n c e is su rp risin g b e c a u se t h e p assag e it s e lf i s f u ll o f m e ta p h o ric a l im a g e s: t h e p u rs u it o f s c ie n tif ic know ledge is lik e n e d by H obbes t o tr a v e lin g dow n a p a th , an d m e ta p h o rs a r e said by him t o b e " fa ls e fire s " t h a t

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m islead t h e s c ie n tif ic w a n d e re r i n s e a rc h o f t h e t r u t h . A lthough a lm o s t a l l c o m m e n ta to rs h av e m isunderstood H obbes on th i s p o in t (a m isun derstandin g w hich w ill b e c le a re d up i n c h a p te r th r e e ) , i t i s n o t uncom m on t o fin d H obbes's o v e ra ll m is tru s t o f m e ta p h o rs , p a r tic u la r ly i n s c ie n c e , ec h o e d i n p hilosophic and s c ie n tif ic c i r c le s e v e n t o th i s d ay . I f s c ie n c e is c o n c e iv e d a s th e p u r s u it o f t r u t h , t h e a r g u m e n t ru n s, th e n i t fo llo w s t h a t an y la n g u a g e w hich i s t o r e f l e c t t h e s c ie n tif ic e n d e a v o r m u st r e m a in f r e e fro m r h e t o r i c a l flo u rish . The d isc o u rse o f s c ie n c e , in c lu d in g t h a t o f s o c ia l s c ie n c e , m u st a lw ay s s triv e t o b e l i t e r a l and n e v e r m etap h o rical.

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An a c c o u n t o f so c ia l s c ie n c e an d s c ie n tif ic e x p la n a tio n in r e g a r d s t o m e ta p h o r, th e n , w ould h av e t o b eg in w ith a n a n a ly sis o f w h a t i t m ean s t o d e fin e o r t o d e sc rib e so m e th in g . I f p re c isio n in la n g u a g e i s t o b e o u r g o al, th e n w hen ev er possible w ords m u st d ir e c tly co rre sp o n d t o t h e i r o b je c ts . H obbes's c o m p la in t a b o u t m e ta p h o rs i n s c ie n c e w as t h a t t h e m eaning o f w ords o u tsid e t h e s c ie n tif ic d o m a in - in p o e try , f o r e x a m p le - o f te n c o n tra s te d w ith how th e y a r e u sed w ith in t h e s c ie n tif ic d iscip lin e s, th e re b y m ak in g t h e p u r s u it o f k n ow ledge im p o ssib le . In s h o rt, f o r m any th in k e r s ab o v e t h e d o o rw ay o f a s o c ia l s c ie n c e o r s c ie n tif ic in s ti tu te sho uld a p p e a r a sig n t h a t re a d s : F o r N o m in a lists Only.

M ore r e c e n tly , K a rl P o pp er's in flu e n tia l p ro n o u n c e m e n ts o n t h e m eth o d s o f s c ie n c e h a v e b een a p a r tia l r e s t a t e m e n t o f H obbes's ow n c o n c e rn s v o ic e d t h r e e h u n d red y e a r s e a rlie r. F o r P o p p er, t h e la n g u a g e o f s c ie n tif ic d e fin itio n s should n e v e r s tr a y from b a s ic n om in alism . P o p p e r d e c la r e s t h a t t h e r e a r e tw o m ethods o f en g ag in g i n d e fin itio n : t h e n o m in a lis t m eth o d an d t h e e s s e n tia lis t m eth o d . 5 E sse n tia lism , a c c o rd in g t o P o p p er, c a n be d e sc rib e d a s t h e b e lie f t h a t o b je c ts c o n ta in c e r t a in e s s e n c e s o r p ro p e rtie s a n d t h a t th e s e a r e d is ti n c t fro m t h e i r m a te r ia l o r o b serv ab le c h a r a c te r is tic s . A ris to tle , f o r in s ta n c e , b e lie v e d t h a t t h e d e fin itio n o f a th in g w as a n a c c o u n t o f i t s e s s e n c e - i t s t r u e in n e r su b sta n c e r a t h e r th a n i t s a c c id e n ts . A

s im ila r a c c o u n t o f th i s is t o b e fou nd i n t h e P la to n ic F o rm s o r World o f Id e a s w h ere t h e t r u e n a tu re an d d e s c rip tio n o f a n o b je c t c a n be fo u n d i n a n im m a te ria l re a lm r a t h e r th a n in t h e w orld o f a p p e a ra n c e s .

N om inalism , on t h e o th e r hand, is d e sc rib e d by P o p p e r a s h av in g i t s r o o ts i n t h e s e v e n te e n th c e n tu ry e m p ir ic is t th e o r y o f s c ie n c e .

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o b je c t c a n b e u sed . Thus t h e s e tw o r iv a l d e s c rip tio n s o f o b je c ts - t h e i r e s s e n tia lis t n a tu r e v e rs u s t h e i r no m in a listic u s e - i s p re s e n te d by P o p p er a s i f t h e r e w e re a d e a n b re a k b e tw e e n th e m i n t h e f ie ld o f s o c ia l an d p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e , t h e i r r e s p e c tiv e m eth o d o lo g ies a p p e a rin g t o b e m u tu ally e x clu siv e.

I t i s P o p p e rs c o n te n tio n i n The Open S o c ie ty an d I t s E n em ies t h a t s c ie n tif ic p u rs u its re m a in e d la rg e ly s ta g n a n t s o lo n g a s ph ilo so p h ers w e re s d e y c o n c e rn e d in t h e "e sse n tia l" n a tu r e o f o b je c ts . 6 Y et, P o p p er a rg u e s , q u estio n s a b o u t t h e s u b s ta n c e and m eaning o f th in g s a r e u ltim a te ly u n an sw erab le. F o r e x a m p le , we do n o t know an y th in g a b o u t t h e t r u e su b sta n c e an d m eaning o f t h e p henom enon o f "lig h t," b u t we c a n know so m eth in g a b o u t how l i g h t b e h a v e s - t h a t is , we c a n d e s c rib e th o s e f e a t u r e s w ith w hich a no m in a listic a c c o u n t o f l i g h t is a b le t o p ro v id e us. C ru c ia lly f o r P o p p er, t h e "backw ardness" o f t h e s o c ia l s c ie n c e s th ro u g h o u t h is to ry i s d u e a lm o s t e n tir e ly t o t h e i r r e lia n c e upon e s s e n tia lis t d e s c rip tio n s . The d e g re e t o w hich t h e v a rio u s s c ie n c e s h av e b e e n a b le t o m ake p ro g re s s , P o p p er a v e rs, d ep en d s upon t h e d e g re e t o w hich th e y h a v e fo rs a k e n essentLalism an d h a v e a d o p te d nom inalism a s t h e i r guiding m ethodology.

In sistin g t h a t th i s d is tin c tio n b e tw e e n r i v a l d e s c rip tio n s o f o b je c ts w ill u ltim a te ly le a d so cial s c ie n c e , o n c e i t h a d a d o p te d t h e c o r r e c t n o m in a lis t p o s tu re , t o c r e a te a s y s te m a tic body o f kn o w led g e, P o p p er c la im s t h a t t h e d is tin c tio n b e tw e e n e s s e n tia lis m a n d nom inalism c a n b e re c o g n iz e d b y how t h e d e s c rip tio n s a r e " r e a d ." 7 An e s s e n tia lis t, P o p p e r e x p lain s, w ould f i r s t s t a t e t h e n a m e o f t h e o b je c t t o b e d e fin e d on t h e l e f t sid e o f t h e e q u a tio n a n d th e n d e s c rib e t h e o b je c t's p ro p e r tie s on t h e r ig h t sid e . T he e s s e n tia lis t d escr ip tio n th u s r e a d s from l e f t t o r ig h t. F o r e x a m p le , we c a n d e fin e

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"m an" a s "a f e a th e r le s s h ip ed w ith a c a p a c ity f o r sp e e c h , n o rm a lly co n sistin g o f tw o a rm s a n d tw o le g s ..." an d s o on u n ti l we grow tir e d , f o r th is form o f d e s c rip tio n c a n n e v e r be e x h a u s te d s in c e , i f we ch o se t o do so , we c a n l i s t a n e n d le ss n u m b e r o f th in g s w hich c o m p rise w h at i t m eans t o be hu m an. On t h e o th e r h an d , P o p p e r p o in ts o u t, a n o m in a list's d e s c rip tio n i s r e a d fro m r i g h t t o l e f t a n d c o n ta in s l i t t l e o r no in fo rm a tio n a b o u t t h e p r o p e r tie s o f t h e te rm u sed. F o r ex am p le, in s te a d o f m aking a n e n d le ss l i s t o f t h e p r o p e r tie s o f "m an" we c a n in s te a d a g r e e t o u se a s h o rth a n d la b e l, sa y , t h e l e t t e r 'X 1, ju s t t o s a v e tim e . T he n o m in a list's r ig h t t o l e f t d e sc rip tio n , acc o rd in g t o P o p p er, s e rv e s only t o "in tro d u c e new a r b itr a r y s h o rth a n d la b e ls ." 0

Now P o p p er m ig h t b e c o r r e c t in p roposing t h e p arad ig m o f " l e f t t o rig h t" a s opposed t o " rig h t t o l e f t " a s a m eans o f d e sc rib in g o b je c ts , o r e v en o u rselv es. H ow ever, t o s a y along w ith P o p p e r t h a t one form o f d e s c rip tio n i s s c ie n tif ic a n d t h e o th e r n o n -s c ie n tific i s t o f a i l t o u n d e rsta n d how la n g u a g e , s p e c ific a lly m e ta p h o ric a l la n g u a g e , is used. F o r ex am p le, l e t u s c o n sid e r a n a l te r n a t e p arad ig m t o P opp er's: a m odel o f s c ie n tif ic d e s c rip tio n s w here t h e w ord on t h e l e f t sid e o f t h e e q u a tio n i s d e fin e d on t h e r ig h t sid e a n d - t h i s i s t h e im p o r ta n t p a r t - one w h ere t h e r e i s a sim u lta n e o u s m o v e m e n t fro m r i g h t t o l e f t . An in te r p la y th u s d ev elo p s b e tw e e n r ig h t a n d l e f t , w ith t h e s c ie n tif ic d e s c rip tio n re sid in g b e tw e e n t h e tw o p o les. W hat we a r e d e sc rib in g h e re , i n o th e r w ords, is a m e tap h o r.

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(P opper's e sse n tia lism ) a n d a s a sh o rth a n d d e s c rip tio n o f i t s b e h a v io r (P op per's n o m inalism ). M etap ho r b rid g e s t h e g a p b e tw e e n t h e e s s e n tia lis t an d t h e n o m in a list d e s c rip tio n o f o u r w orld. When we d e s c rib e 'x 1 a s b ein g 'y \ w hich is t h e s ta n d a r d m e ta p h o ric a l f o r m a t, w h a t we a r e i n f a c t say in g i s t h a t t h e p r o p e r tie s o f 'x' an d th o s e o f V a r e s h a re d . M oreover, th e s e p ro p o e rtie s c a n b e c o m b in ed t o c r e a te a n im a g e - a n im a g e w hich i s n o t e x c lu siv e ly co m p o sed o f 'x' o r 'y1 b u t is m ade u p o f b o th 'x ' an d 'y* sim U taneousLy. T he f a m ilia r s o c ia l s c ie n c e m e ta p h o r o f " th e s t a t e is a m achine" c a n n o t, f o r in s ta n c e , b e a d e q u a te ly re d u c e d , v ia P o p p er, t o e i t h e r e s s e n tia lis m o r nom inalism . O ne o f t h e re a s o n s why th i s p a r tic u la r m e ta p h o r h a s b e e n so com m on t o p o litic a l th o u g h t sin c e t h e s e v e n te e n th c e n tu r y i s i t s p riv ileg ed a b ility se e m in g ly n e v e r t o e x h a u s t i t s e lf ; e v e n to d a y new in s ig h ts a r e b ein g c r e a te d w hich seem t o conform t o t h i s m e ta p h o ric m odel o f s o c ie ty . The c r u c ia l p o in t is th is : w hen a s c i e n t i s t o r a s o c ia l s c ie n t is t c r e a t e s su ch m e tap h o rs h e i s n o t a tte m p tin g t o e s ta b lis h a n e s s e n tia lis t, m y s tic a l re la tio n s h ip b e tw e e n tw o un lik e th in g s i n o r d e r t o sow co nfusion , n o r is h e sim p ly o f fe rin g u s a sh o rt-h a n d l a b e l w ith w hich t o r e f e r t o a p o litic a l s o c ie ty . R a th e r, t h e in tro d u c tio n o f a m e ta p h o ric d e s c rip tio n by t h e s o c ia l s c ie n t is t

c a n im b u e t h e s u b je c t w ith a p a r tic u la r c la r ity t o w hich no n o m in a lis t d e fin itio n c o u ld e v e r hope t o a s p ire , an d t h e s a m e g o e s f o r a d e fin itio n t h a t i s so le ly e s s e n tia lis t.

So w ith ap o lo g ies t o T.S. E lio t, we c a n s a y t h a t b e tw e e n t h e e s s e n tia lis t an d t h e n o m in a list, f a lls t h e m etap h o r.

In d eed , p a c e P o p p er, i t is d if f i c u lt t o c o n c e iv e o f an y ty p e o f s c ie n tif ic e x p la n a tio n t h a t d o es n o t a lre a d y e x is t w ith in so m e s o r t o f m e tap h o ric fra m e w o rk . S c ie n tific m odels an d s c ie n tif ic te rm in o lo g y

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a r e h o p elessly m e tap h o ric al- F o r in s ta n c e , o u r u n d e rsta n d in g o f p a r tic le p h y sics i s p a r tia lly b ased upon t h e im a g e o f p a r tic le s in

m otion. We c a n assu m e t h a t a to m s sw irl a ro u n d i n a m o lecu le lik e p la n e ts r o t a t e a ro u n d t h e sun, b u t we do n o t know th i s f o r a f a c t . I t

m ay b e possible t h a t g a s b eh av e s a s i f i t w ere m ade u p o f p a r tic le s in m otion, b u t, e p is te m id o g ic a lly sp eaking , g a s a n d p a r tic le s m ay b e co m po sed o f tw o e n tir e ly d if f e r e n t e n titie s . O ur d e s c rip tio n o f g e n e r a l r e la tiv i ty w hich ta lk s o f "worm holes" o r o f e le c tr o n s e x istin g in " e le c tro n clouds" o r o f a to m s i n " m in ia tu re s o la r sy ste m s" a r e e n tir e ly m e ta p h o ric a l, t o l i s t b u t a few e x a m p le s . As Rom H arre p o in ts o u t, w ith o u t a m od el in w hich t o d e c ip h e r in fo rm a tio n , w e h av e no m ethod i n w hich t o b ase o u r s c ie n tif ic e x p la n a tio n s. A cco rd in g t o

H arre,

"The k in e tic th e o r y o f g a se s is nothing b u t t h e e x p lo ita tio n o f t h e m o lecu lar m odel o f gas, and t h a t m o del is i t s e l f c o n c e iv e d

9 by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m ech anics o f m a te ria l p a r tic le s ."

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c o g n itio n ,11 Boyd ex p lain s, " co m p u ter m e ta p h o rs h a v e a n in d isp e n sa b le 10

r o le i n t h e f o rm a tio n an d a r tic u la tio n o f th e o r e tic a l p o sitio n s."

A gain, o u r P opperian-H obbesian frie n d m ig h t stO l w a n t t o re p ly t h a t th e s e m e ta p h o rs sim ply a c t a s e x p la n a to ry m odels, p e d a g o g ic a l d e v ic e s w hich e n a b le t h e r e a d e r m ore firm ly t o g ra s p w h a t is being d iscu ssed . S cie n ce a n d s o c ia l sc ie n c e u se m e ta p h o rs, o u r frie n d m ay c o n tin u e , p re c is e ly b e c a u se o u r a b ility t o u n d e rs ta n d co m p lex p h en o m en a i s h e ig h te n e d by t h e u se o f m e ta p h o r o r a n alo g y , o r by t h e u se o f e a s ily u n d e rsto o d m e tap h o ric im a g e s o n w hich t o m o d el t h e in f o r m a tio n w e r e c e iv e . O nce th i s im fo rm a tio n i s p ro c e s s e d by u s, o r

o n ce t h e m o d el h a s se rv e d i t p e d a g o g ic a l p u rp o se, s c ie n tif ic e x p la n a tio n c a n s a f e ly r e t r e a t b ack in to t h e w orld o f no m in alistic d isc o u rse , hap p y i n th e fo rm u la tio n o f l i te r a l , s h o rt-h a n d d e s c rip tio n s o f s c ie n tif ic phenom ena.

The m ain problem w ith t h e above o b je c tio n is t h a t i t d o e s n o t in v ite to o c lo se a s c ru tin y in to how m e ta p h o ric m odels a r e u se d in s c ie n c e . T hom as Kuhn, f o r ex am p le, p o in ts o u t t h a t m e ta p h o rs a r e "essen tial... i n e sta b lish in g lin k s b e tw e e n s c ie n tif ic la n g u a g e an d t h e

11

w orld." T hese m e ta p h o ric models, Kuhn adds, c a n n o t b e d is c a rd e d in f a v o r o f l i t e r a l d e sc rip tio n s e v en a f t e r t h e su p p o sed in s ig h ts w hich t h e m odels p ro d u ce h a v e b een n o te d . F o r e x a m p le , t a k e N iels B ohr's m e ta p h o ric m od el o f a to m s . As Kuhn s u g g e sts, B ohr's m o del o f a to m s r e p la c e d t h e " so la r sy stem " m etap h o ric m o d el w hich h a d p rev io u sly b e e n p o p u la r. B ohr's s u c c e s s was c h iefly d u e i n re p la c in g one s e t o f

m e ta p h o rs w ith a n o th e r. "W ithout i t s aid ," Kuhn a rg u e s - o r i n o th e r w ords, w ith o u t B ohr's m etap h o ric m odel - "one c a n n o t e v e n to d a y w rite dow n t h e S ch ro d in g er e q u atio n f o r a co m plex a to m o r m o lecu le, f o r i t is t o t h e m odel, n o t d ir e c tly t o n a tu re , t h a t t h e v a rio u s t e r m s i n t h e

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12

e q u a tio n r e f e r ." So m e ta p h o ric m odels c a n n o t b e th o u g h t o f a s m e re ly p ed ag o g ic d e v ic e s f o r o f te n , a s w ith Bohr's ow n m odel, i t i s t o t h e m e ta p h o ric m odels th e m s e lv e s t h a t t h e l i t e r a l d e s c rip tio n s i n s c ie n c e r e f e r , e i th e r d ir e c tly o r in d ir e c tly .

As i s com m on ly ap p lied , m e ta p h o r (from t h e G reek w ord m etapheredn) is a "fig u re o f s p e e c h i n w hich a n am e o r d e s c rip tiv e te r m i s tr a n s f e r r e d t o so m e o b je c t d if f e r e n t fro m , b u t an alo g o u s t o , t h a t w hich i t is p ro p e rly ap p licab le" [O ED ]. Beyond b ein g j u s t a lin g u is tic ex p ressio n , m e ta p h o rs also o f f e r u s a n im a g e f o r in sp e c tio n . M etaph ors s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e is a re la tio n s h ip b e tw e e n tw o seem in g ly unlike th in g s an d t h a t w hen th i s re la tio n s h ip i s u n d e rsto o d (o r o n ce t h e im a g e is g rasp ed ) t h e r e s u l t c a n b e a p ro fo u n d in s ig h t. As

A ris to tle say s, " i t i s fro m m e tap h o r t h a t we b e s t g e t hold o f 13

so m e th in g fre s h ."

I t w ill h o p efu lly b e d e a r by now t h a t b o th s c ie n c e an d s o c ia l s c ie n c e m ake h eav y u se o f m e tap h o ric m odels. The "body p o litic ," f o r ex a m p le , is a co m m o nly u sed m e tap h o r in t h e s o c ia l sc ie n c e s , joining in d iv id u a ls in t o a sin g le com m u n ity . As M ich ael W alzer pcdnts o u t, t h e b o d y -p o litic im a g e "p ro vides t h e s ta r t in g p o in t f o r p o litic a l th in k in g , [from w hich] so lo n g a s i t i s e f f e c tiv e , n o o th e r s ta r tin g

14

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d e fin itio n s o f p o litic a l r e a l ity c a n a ris e t o s u p p la n t an d c r e a t e a 15

new o rth o d o x y ." The c o u n te r p a r t t o s c ie n tific la n g u a g e c a n n o t b e m ore c le a r . J u s t a s m e ta p h o ric m odels in co g n itiv e p sychology a n d p h y sics a r e in d isp e n sa b le i n fo rm u la tin g an d u n d e rsta n d in g s c ie n tif ic kno w ledge, so to o t h e m e ta p h o ric m odels i n t h e s o c ia l s c ie n c e s p la y a g o v ernin g r o le i n a r tic u la tin g m any o f o u r p o litic a l e x p e rie n c e s .

Now p la c in g m e ta p h o ric d e sc rip tio n s on a p a r w ith m o re l i t e r a l la n g u a g e h a s c r e a te d d if f ic u ltie s f o r p o litic a l p h ilo so p h ers th ro u g h o u t h is to ry . J u s t a s P o p p e r h as ig n o re d t h e r o le o f m e ta p h o rs i n a r tic u la tin g s c ie n tif ic d e sc rip tio n s, m any p o litic a l th e o r i s ts hav e b e e n unhappy w ith an y th in g t h a t is n o t p e rc e iv e d a s l i t e r a l la n g u a g e .

While l i t e r a l p ro p o sitio n s, i t h a s b e e n a rg u e d , h a v e t h e b e n e f it o f co rresp o n d in g t o r e a l ity ( th a t is , th e y c a n b e t e s t e d f o r t h e i r t r u t h v a lu e a g a in s t t h e know n w orld), fig u ra tiv e la n g u a g e c a n n o t b e a n a ly z e d by lo ok in g e i th e r a t t h e w orld o r a t t h e d e fin itio n s o f t h e w ords in v o lv ed . T he m eaning o f a m e tap h o r is n o t t h e s a m e a s a l i t e r a l m eaning o f t h e w ords u sed. The s t a t e is c le a r ly n o t a m achine o r a hum an body, th o u g h i t m ig h t o p e ra te lik e o ne. F ig u ra tiv e la n g u a g e h as th e d e f e c t, i t h a s f u r th e r b e e n su g g ested , o f b ein g am b ig u o u s a n d open t o v a r ie d in te r p r e ta tio n s , w h ilst t h e m eaning o f l i t e r a l p ro p o sitio n s i s a t o n ce d e a r an d , i f i t i s n o t, c a n b e u n d e rs to o d by a n a p p e a l t o t h e l i t e r a l d e fin itio n s o f t h e w ords in v o lv ed .

Such h a s b e e n t h e a rg u m e n t le v e le d a g a in s t m e ta p h o ric d isc o u rse i n p o litic a l th o u g h t, a n d f o r t h e m o st p a r t i t i s sLmpLy a r e s ta t e m e n t

o f t h e P o p p e ria n view o f s c ie n tif ic la n g u a g e a p p lie d t o p o litic a l d isc o u rse . The d e f e c t o f th i s p o sitio n , h o w ev er, a s w as w ith i t s a p p lic a tio n t o t h e p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e s , i s t h a t i t is d if f ic u lt t o c o n c e iv e o f s o c ia l s c ie n c e d isco v ery an d e x p la n a tio n o u ts id e o f a

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m e ta p h o ric fra m e w o rk . The r a t h e r s tra ig h tfo rw a rd d e fin itio n o f t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e rn s o f p o litic a l philosophy w hich w as e n u n c ia te d o n t h e seco n d p a g e o f th i s c h a p te r , f o r in s ta n c e , r e v e a ls t h e v e r y problem t h a t p o litic a l philosophy h a s w ith m e ta p h o ric a l la n g u a g e f o r em b ed d ed

w ith in t h e d e fin itio n a r e m e ta p h o ric a l t e r m s w hich a r e n o t p resu p p o siti o n le ss. T alk o f t h e "grounds" o f p o litic a l th o u g h t an d t h e a t t e m p t t o p ro v id e t h e "underpinnings11 o f a th e o ry o f ju s tic e , f o r in s ta n c e , r e v e a l a n in te r p r e ta tio n o f p o litic a l th o u g h t t h a t is p rim a rily f o u n d a tio n a l - i n o th e r w ords, t h e d e fin itio n a lre a d y p resu p p o ses t h a t t h e r e i s a s tr u c tu r e o f th o u g h t w hich c a n b e e a sily tr a n s la te d in to g ro u nded p rin cip les. A fte r a ll, i f one p re su p p o se s in o n e's d e fin itio n t h a t su ch a c o n s tru c tio n e x is ts , th e n i t h a rd ly s e e m s su rp risin g t h a t t h a t is w h a t one soon finds.

A r a t h e r r e c e n t a t t e m p t t o co m e t o t e r m s w ith m e ta p h o ric d isco u rse in t h e s o c ia l s c ie n c e s h as b een m ade by T.D . Weldon. Weldon co n sid e re d t h a t t h e a im s o f p o litic a l philosophy sho uld b e t o p ro v id e t h e "grounds" f o r i t s philosophy and, p re f e r r in g t o e m b ra c e p o litic a l p hilosophy's a r c h ite c to n ic a s p e c ts , h e e m b a rk e d upon a n e n te r p r is e t o

1 B r e v e a l w h a t la y h idd en w ithin t h e s tr u c tu r e h e h a d e n c o u n te re d .

Weldon e x c a v a te d t h e "foundations" o f p o litic a l th o u g h t i n o rd e r t o ex p o se t h e fa lla c ie s t h a t w ere hidden w ith in t h e s tr u c t u r e . The d if f e r e n c e i s t h a t f o r Weldon a m e ta p h o ric a l d e s c rip tio n (lik e t h e " s ta te i s a m achine") i s n o t a n im a g e b u t a l i t e r a l d e s c rip tio n o f t h e s t a t e w hich c a n b e t e s t e d f o r i t s a c c u ra c y , j u s t a s i t w ould b e i n t h e p h y s ic a l sc ie n c e s . P o litic a l th o u g h t, Weldon a rg u e d , o f te n t a lk s a s i f t h e r e r e a lly a r e "grounds" an d "fou ndatio ns" t o i t s s tr u c t u r e . I f ta k e n li te r a l ly , th e s e m etap h o rs w ill r e v e a l t h e p ro b le m s t h a t

17

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h o w ev er, t o t a k e Weldon's in te r p r e ta tio n o f p o litic a l d isc o u rse e n tir e ly a t f a c e v a lu e . If o u r "fo u n d atio n s" do n o t h av e a m e ta p h o ric a l m eaning th e n Weldon m u st be u sin g th e m i n so m e s p e c ia l se n s e . As o n e c o m m e n ta to r h a s re m a rk e d , W eldon's claim t o t h e lib e ra lity o f p o litic a l m e tap h o rs c a n only b e ta k e n s e rio u s ly , i f we

18 t a k e t h e te r m "liberal" m etap h o ric ally .

M a rg a re t M acdonald, on t h e o th e r hand , i s w illing t o a d m it t h a t m e ta p h o rs a r e n o n - lite r a l d e sc rip tio n s o f a p e rc e iv e d p o litic a l r e a lity ("th e s t a t e i s a m achine" th u s o f f e r s u s a p ic tu r e o f t h e w ay i n w hich t h e s t a t e o p e ra te s ), y e t sh e a lso b e lie v e s t h a t m e ta p h o rs a r e

c r e a te d by p o litic a l th e o r is ts la rg e ly t o ju s tif y t h e i r philosophy. 19 I n sa y in g th is , M acdonald i s su g g estin g t h a t th e s e m e ta p h o rs a r e r h e to r ic a l, t h a t th e y a r e used f o r t h e i r p e rs u a s iv e a b ility r a t h e r th a n f o r t h e i r s c ie n tif ic tru th fu ln e s s . A gain, w h a t M acdonald s e e k s t o av o id i s t h e b e w itc h m e n t o f la n g u a g e - i n th i s c a s e i t i s

m e ta p h o ric a l la n g u a g e - a s we f a l l u n d e r t h e s p e ll o f m e c h a n istic o r o rg a n ic m e ta p h o rs o f t h e s t a t e . F o r M acdonald, t h e m e ta p h o rs o f t h e so cial s c ie n c e s a r e a r t i f i c i a l c o n triv a n c e s o r p o e tic a n a lo g ie s. R eal a n alo g ies, M acdonald a rg u es, a r e re s e rv e d f o r t h e p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e s a s a m eans o f g ain in g know ledge. P o e tic , p o litic a l m e ta p h o rs a r e t h e d o m ain o f opinion, a f a ls e fro n t, a s i t w ere, p e rsu a d in g u s t h a t t h e im a g e p r e s e n te d i s r e a l, an d sh e p o sits t h a t t h e tw o u s e s o f m e ta p h o r - t h a t i n t h e s o c ia l s c ie n c e an d t h a t in t h e p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e - a r e d is ti n c t b e c a u se t h e i r a p p lic a tio n s a r e d if f e r e n t.

The problem o f assum ing t h a t t h e d o m a in o f s c ie n c e i s d is ti n c t fro m t h a t o f t h e s o c ia l s c ie n c e , a s i s M acdonald's c la im , i s t h a t i t n e a tly av o id s c o n fro n tin g t h e f a c t t h a t t h e w ay i n w hich m e ta p h o ric m odels o p e r a te w ith in e a c h d iscip lin e m ay b e e n tir e ly sim ila r.

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In d eed , M acdonald's p o s itio n en ds u p in o v e r s ta tin g t h e a c c u ra c y o f s c ie n tif ic m e ta p h o rs w hile underplaying t h e i r le g itim a c y i n p o litic a l th o u g h t. M acdonald's b e lie f in t h e su p rem ac y o f s c ie n tif ic m e ta p h o rs s te m s fro m a m isc o n cep tio n o f w h at s c ie n c e d o e s a s opposed t o w h a t p o litic a l ph ilosophy d o es. As W.V. Quine t e l l s us, m e ta p h o rs a r e eq u ally fu n d a m e n ta l t o b o th d iscip lin e s a s th e y a r e " v i t a l ...a t t h e

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grow ing e d g e s o f philosophy and scien c e." M acdonald's e r r o r i s a com m on on e: t h e a ssu m p tio n t h a t t h e fu n c tio n o f s c ie n c e is t o p o s it th e t r u e n a tu r e o f t h e th in g s which w ill re q u ir e no f u r t h e r in te r p r e ta tio n . M odels a n d m etap ho rs in s c ie n c e a r e e x a c t, o r s o t h e a rg u m e n t g o es, w h ils t th o s e in p o litic a l philo so ph y a r e e i th e r am b ig uo us o r r h e to r i c a l o r f o r e v e r re q u irin g f u r t h e r in te r p r e ta tio n . The f a lla c y o f th i s p o sitio n i s n o t i n t h e b e lie f t h a t p o litic a l philosophy's m e ta p h o rs a r e in e x a c t o r am bigu ou s, b u t i n t h e b e lie f t h a t m e ta p h o rs o f sc ie n c e som ehow corresp on d t o t h e " tru th ."

The K uhnian re sp o n se t o t h e b e lie f i n t h e s u p re m a c y o f t h e m eth od s o f s c ie n c e o v e r t h a t o f o th e r m ethods i s t o n o te t h a t s c ie n c e , w hen i t a c t s a s a n in s tr u m e n t o r m ethod o f m e a su re m e n t, d o es in d e e d p ro g re ss w hen i t so lv es v ario u s te c h n ic a l p ro b lem s, b u t th i s is n o t t o s a y t h a t t h e o n to lo g ic a l t r u t h - "w h at r e a lly e x is ts i n n a tu re " a s

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t h e u n iv e rse w ith t h e "h e lio -c e n tric " m o d e l th e y d id n o t a rr iv e a t so m e '‘tr u th " w hich only t h e m ethods o f s c ie n c e w ere a b le t o d isc e rn , b u t r a t h e r sim p ly fo u n d a b e t t e r way i n w hich t o m e asu re an d d e s c rib e w h a t w as a lre a d y o u t th e r e . We c a n co n clu d e fro m t h i s t h a t t h e p o litic a l th e o r is t's d e s c rip tio n o f s o c ie ty , su c c e ssiv e ly , a s a "b eeh iv e," a n " a n th ill," a "hum an body" a n d a "m achine" w orks i n a s im ila r fa sh io n t o t h a t o f t h e p h y sic ist's m o d e l o f p a r tic le s ; w h a t we h a v e a r e o nly d iffe rin g m e ta p h o ric a l d e s c rip tio n s w hich e n a b le u s t o m ake b e t t e r m e asu re m en ts. W hat we h a v e s u c c e e d e d i n doing i s t o s u b s titu te one ty p e o f m e ta p h o ric v o c ab u lary i n p la c e o f a n o th e r.

This P o p p e ria n im p u lse w ith in p o litic a l philosophy t o m irro r i t s m eth o d s on t h e p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e s c a n b e a t tr ib u t e d , i n p a r t, t o t h e i r com m on o rig in s i n W estern philosophy. From t h e G reek s t o t h e l a t e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry , p o litic a l th e o r is ts th o u g h t o f th e m s e lv e s p rim a rily a s n a t u r a l ph ilosop hers, a n d th e n s e c o n d a rily a s p h ilo so p h ers o f c iv il s o c ie ty . The im p u lse w as t o l o c a t e a sin g le un ify in g c a u s e o f e v e ry th in g , w h e th e r t h a t th in g w as co m p o sed o f a to m s , m onads, ra tio n a lis m , g e o m e try , o r God, a n d th e n t o e x p la in t h e p h en o m en a o f t h e w orld w hich w as g o v ern ed by th i s s in g le u nifying lin k . A lthough so m e , lik e A ris to tle , c o n te n te d th e m s e lv e s in e x p lic a tin g a w orld d e p e n d e n t upon t h e d iv isio n s o f la n g u a g e an d o f t h e s e n se s, o th e rs , lik e T hom as Hobbes, s t a r t e d fro m t h e p re m is e t h a t t h e w orld w as co m po sed o f m a tte r in m o tion , an d th e n d e riv e d from th i s sim p le p re m is e a n e la b o r a te th e o r y o f c iv il s o c ie ty . F o r a lm o s t a l l o f th e s e th in k e rs , m e ta p h o r w as c h ie fly s e e n a s a lin g u is tic d ev ice; f o r A ris to tle i t w as p le asin g t o lis te n t o ; f o r H obbes i t s e x c e ssiv e u se w as q u ite d ang erou s; f o r L ocke i t w as a n u n p ard o n ab le a b su rd ity .

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Y e t a s we h a v e s e e n , t h e c o n c e p t o f m e ta p h o r c a n n o t b e e a s ily d iv o rc e d fro m e i t h e r s c ie n c e o r s o c ia l s c ie n c e , a n d th u s c a n n o t be sLmpiy th o u g h t o f a s a r h e to r i c a l tr i c k o f s p e e c h . i t e x is ts a s a n a lte r n a tiv e d e s c rip tio n o f o b je c ts , n e ith e r w holly e s s e n tia lis t n o r p u re ly n o m in a list. W hilst in s tr u m e n ta l i n t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f t h e p h y sic a l s c ie n c e s , m e ta p h o r n e v e rth e le s s p la y s a c r u c ia l r o le i n t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e s o c ia l sie n c e s. We sh o u ld no lo n g e r, th e r e f o r e , c o n tin u e t o m ake t h e m ista k e o f dism issin g t h e m e ta p h o rs o f p o litic a l th o u g h t a s u n s c ie n tific , r h e to r ic a l, o r sim p ly ir r e le v a n t. A tte n tio n sh ou ld now b e p a id t o th i s r a t h e r cu rio u s fig u re o f sp e e c h .

S e c tio n Two:

The Ari^ntel-ian-Plagranal Tradition

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In f a c t , m any th e o r i s ts w ould claim t h a t th e s e te r m s c a n b e u sed in te rc h a n g e a b ly . T he a u th o rs o f M etaphors We Live By, G eorg e L ak o ff an d M ark Jo h n so n , a rg u e t h a t se m a n tic a lly t h e s e te r m s s h a r e a s tro n g s im ila rity , w h a t t h e y r e f e r t o a s a " m e ta p h o ric concept*" "C o n cep ts," th e y a rg u e , " a re n o t id e n tifie d so le ly i n t e r m s o f in h e r e n t p ro p e rtie s ; in s te a d th e y a r e d e fin e d p rim a rily i n t e r m s o f

22

in te r a c tio n a l p ro p e rtie s ." R ead i n th is w ay, m o s t o f t h e te r m s c ite d ab o v e a r e 'in te r a c tio n a l" i n t h a t th e y d e p e n d upon a co n ju n ctio n b e tw e e n tw o d is s im ila r th in g s. In his C o g n itv e T heo ry o f M etap h o r EarL Mac C o r m ac a rg u e s t h a t d if f e r e n t f ig u re s o f s p e e c h - sim ile , iro n y , m eto ny m y , sy n e c d o c h e , p e rs o n ific a tio n , an d c a ta c h r e s is - c a n a l l b e su b su m ed u n d e r t h e b ro a d um brella o f m e ta p h o r f o r m uch t h e s a m e

23

re a so n . A lm o st a l l o f t h e a u th o rs in c lu d e d i n tw o f a ir ly r e c e n t a n th o lo g ie s on m e tap h o r, On M etaphor, e d ite d by Sheldon S ack s (1979), and M etap h o r an d T hought, e d ite d by Andrew O rton y (1988), a lso s p e a k a s i f a n y fig u re o f s p e e c h w hich s u c c e e d s i n coupling tw o t e r m s in t o a sin g le c o n c e p t c a n b e a p p lie d t o m etaph or.

This tr a d i ti o n i n Anglo-A m erican philo sop hy o f assu m in g t h a t d iffe rin g f ig u re s o f sp e e c h c a n b e subsum ed u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l c a te g o r y o f m e ta p h o r g o es b a c k t o t h e G reeks, a n d i n p a r tic u la r , t o A ris to tle 's p ro n o u n c e m e n ts on t h e s u b je c t.

In L a tin t h e A ris to te lia n d ictu m t h a t m an is a n im a l r a tio n a le w as m e a n t t o d istin g u ish m an, a s t h e so le p o sse sso r o f re a s o n , from t h e r e s t o f t h e b ru te s . I f we go b ack t o original G reek , h o w ev er, we fin d t h a t i t r e a d s zoon lo g o n ech o n which t r a n s l a te s in t o a n im a l po ssessing log os. R eason i s ju s t o n e o f t h e m any p o ssib le m eanings o f log os, t h e o th e rs b ein g , variousLy, "w ord," "th o u g h t," "re a so n e d a c c o u n t,"

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"logic," an d p e rh a p s m ore usefully , " c o h e re n t sp e e c h ." 24 I t i s th i s l a t t e r d e fin itio n o f c o h e r e n t sp eech t h a t A ris to tle id e n tif i e s a s being lo g o s in h is s h o r t tr e a t i s e on la n g u a g e , De I h te r p r e ta ti o n e . F o r t h e G reek s w ords w ere n o t m ere sym bols o r so u nd s w hich p o in te d to w a rd s t r u t h o r t o a p e rc e iv e d r e a lity , b u t w e re t h e p rim a ry b e a r e r s o f m eaning. As w ith t h e ex am ple A ris to tle o f f e r s u s, t h e te r m " g o a t-s ta g " c le a r ly "sig n ifie s so m eth in g b u t n o t, a s y e t , a n y th in g t r u e o r f a ls e - u n le ss 'is' o r *is n o t1 i s ad d e d ( e ith e r sim p ly o r w ith r e f e r e n c e t o tim e )." 25 The w ord " g o a t-s ta g e ," th e n , h a s so m e kin d o f m eaning f o r A ris to tle , an d we could to d a y a d d m any o th e r ex a m p le s w ith in o u r ow n d isco u rse o f w ords w hich b e a r m eaning b u t w ith o u t h av ing a n y d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e ("unicorn" o r " S a n ta C laus," f o r ex am p le). As A ris to tle re m in d s us,

"E very s e n te n c e is s ig n ific a n t (n o t as a t o o l b u t, a s we said , by co n v en tio n ), b u t n o t e v e ry s e n te n c e is a s ta te m e n t- m a k in g s e n te n c e , b u t only th o s e in which th e r e i s t r u t h o r f a ls ity . T h ere is n o t t r u t h o r f a ls ity in a l l se n te n c e s : a p r a y e r i s a

26 s e n te n c e b u t is n e ith e r tr u e o r false."

Thus c o h e r e n t s p e e c h , lik e a n o ff e re d p r a y e r , n e e d n o t r e f e r t o an y th in g i n r e a l ity t o b e a r m eaning, an d f o r A ris to tle a n d t h e c la s s ic a l tr a d i ti o n w h a t w as t o b e av o id ed w as in c o h e r e n t s p e e c h o r n o n sen se, w hich w as t h e G reek n eg atio n o f logo s, alogos.

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A ris to tle n e v e rth e le s s knew t h a t t o h av e a n im a g e o f o n e w as n o t a n a b s u rd ity . S im ilarly , i n L ev iath a n Thom as H obbes d id n o t c o n s id e r h is m e ta p h o ric im a g e o f t h e " a r tific ia l man" t o b e a n a b s u rd ity , f o r a b s u rd ity f o r H obbes w as t h e dom ain o f no n sen sical la n g u a g e r a t h e r

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th a n o f im a g e s , a s f o r in s ta n c e a "round q u ad ran g le." W hat th i s m eans i n t h e A ris to te lia n -c la s s ic a l tr a d itio n o f m e ta p h o r i s t h a t a n y fig u re o f s p e e c h (w h e th e r i s b e m etaph or, sim ile , sy n e c d o c h e , o r w h atev e r) w hich i s co m b in ed i n su ch a w ay a s t o r e n d e r a n im a g e f o r in s p e c tio n b e co m es a u to m a tic a lly in te llig ib le t o t h e p e rc e iv e r. I f tw o t e r m s a r e co m b in ed i n s u c h a w ay a s t o esta b lish in im a g e o r a m odel, t h e n t h e ru le re g a rd in g alo g o s d o e s n o t apply.

The b ia s i n W estern philosophy a g a in s t m e ta p h o rs s e e m s t o b e la rg e ly d ir e c te d a g a in s t m e ta p h o rs a s fig u re s o f s p e e c h r a t h e r th a n a g a in s t t h e i r p u re ly im ag e-m a k in g c a p a c ity . In a d d itio n t o H obbes's a t t a c k a g a in s t ab su rd sp e e c h (as a p a r t fro m im a g e s), L ocke i n h is E ssay C o ncerning H um an U nderstanding d e c la re s t h a t i t i s " fig u ra tiv e sp eech " w hich le a d s one " to in sin u a te w rong id e a s" w hich a r e "w holly

28 t o b e a v o id e d ...w h e re t r u t h and know ledge a r e t o b e c o n c e rn e d ." In

W estern philosophy, from t h e G reeks onw ards, t h e c h a lle n g e t o ph ilo so p h ers w as t o c le a n up t h e la n g u a g e by av o id in g t r o p e s in p h ilo so p h ical o r s c ie n tif ic d isco u rse. I t w as n o t m an's im a g in a tio n o r im a g e -m a k in g c a p a c ity w hich was u n d e r a t ta c k , r a t h e r i t w as h is u se o f la n g u a g e t o a c c u r a te ly d e sc rib e h is su rro u n d in g s w hich w as u n d e r f ie r c e s c ru tin y . The p o ssib ility t h a t w ords w ould n o t h av e a fix e d m eaning, o r t h a t m eaning could be tw is te d t o so m e d ev io u s p u rp o se g r e a tly a n im a te d t h e G reeks. Thucydides, who alo n g w ith H ero d o tu s w as t h e f i r s t t o u se t h e w ord m e ta p h e re in , co m p lain e d b i t te r l y a b o u t th o s e who u se d w ords i n o r d e r "to change t h e i r u s u a l m eanings." How co u ld

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w ords co rre sp o n d t o r e a l ity w hen t h e i r m eaning f lu c tu a te d ? In t h e T h a e te tu s P la to co m p lain s t h a t w ords, a s t h e H e ra c le ita n s em p lo y ed th e m , n e v e r h a d a fix e d m eaning, f o r "w hen y ou p u t a q u e stio n , th e y p lu c k fro m t h e i r q u iv e r l i t t l e o r a c u la r ap h o rism s t o l e t fLy a t you, an d i f you t r y t o o b ta in so m e a c c o u n t o f t h e i r m eaning , you w ill b e in s ta n tly tr a n s f ix e d by a n o th e r, b a rb e d w ith s o m e n ew ly fo rm e d

m etap h o r." 30

The G reek s m ade l i t t l e a t t e m p t t o g e t b e h in d t h e o n to lo g y o f c o h e r e n t sp e e c h ; i t w as enough t h a t w ords e n jo y e d a fix e d m eaning, t h a t th e y c o u ld b e u se d an d u n d e rsto o d i n o rd in a ry d is c o u rs e , an d t h a t th e r u le s o f s y n ta x a n d g ra m m a r b e a p p lie d t o a v o id alogos. A lthough lo g o s d id n o t n e c e s s a rily co rresp o n d t o t h e t r u t h , i t cou ld n e v e rth e le s s s e rv e a s a m od el f o r r e a l ity , f o r in s ta n c e i n P la to 's F o rm s. The F o rm s f o r P la to w ere n o t p h a n ta s m s o r u n d e fin e d c o n c e p ts b u t w e re m irro rs f o r t h e in n e r s tr u c t u r e o f c o h e r e n t sp e e c h . The w orld f o r P la to h a d t o b ased upon lo g o s o r e ls e i t s m eaning w ould b eco m e n on sen se. A ris to tle , a lth o u g h r e je c tin g t h e P la to n ic o ntolo gy , a lso saw t h e s tr u c t u r e o f la n g u a g e a s re s e m b lin g t h a t o f t h e know n w orld. The p roblem t h a t la n g u a g e p r e s e n te d f o r A ris to tle w as n o t i t s a p p lic a tio n t o t h e know n w orld, h o w ev er, b u t i n fin d in g t h e a p p ro p ria te e x p re ssio n in w hich t o d e s c rib e i t . K now ledge c o n siste d i n lo c a tin g t h e c o r r e c t la n g u a g e a n d ex p re ssin g t h e in f o rm a tio n i n a

c o h e r e n t fash io n .

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tr e a t i s e s t o th e s e d iffe rin g fo rm s o f d is c o u rs e , d istin g u ish in g t h e m eth o d o f lo g ic a l d is c o u rs e from t h a t o f t h e p o e tic a l, t h e m e tap h y sica l, t h e p o litic a l a n d t h e r h e t o r i c a l G iven t h e G reek u n d e rsta n d in g o f la n g u a g e a s n o t c o n s titu tin g r e a l i t y b u t a s a m e a n s o f d e sc rib in g i t , e a c h m eth o d o f describ in g c a n only b e ju d g ed o n i t s ow n t e r m s a s b ein g c o r r e c t o r in c o r r e c t. T h e re fo re i t w ould sim ply n o t do, a s A ris to tle w arn ed , f o r a lo g ic ia n t o u se p o e tic la n g u a g e i n h is d e s c rip tio n o f t h e w orld sin c e p o e try i s m e a n t t o ch arm t h e h e a re r. As A ris to tle ex p lain s, la n g u a g e

" ...m u s t a lso b e a p p ro p ria te , avoiding b o th m eann ess an d undue e v a lu a tio n ; p o e tic a l la n g u a g e is c e rta in ly f r e e fro m m eanness, b u t i t i s n o t a p p ro p ria te t o p ro se . C le arn ess i s s e c u re d b y using t h e w ords (nouns an d v e rb s alike) t h a t a r e c u r r e n t and

31 o rd in ary ."

E ach u se o f la n g u a g e , i n o th e r w ords, w h e th e r i t b e i n lo g ic , p o e try , o rd in a ry p ro s e , o r r h e to r ic , m u st b e ju d g ed o n i t s ow n m e rits. A lthough w ords do n o t h a v e t o co rresp o n d t o t h e t r u t h , t h e y m ay s t i l l b eco m e s u s p e c t w hen t h e y s tr a y o u tsid e t h e i r r e s p e c tiv e d isc ip lin e s.

The c la s s ic a l b ia s a g a in s t m e tap h o r, th e n , h a s h a d a n o b le lin e a g e , w ith r o o ts s tr e tc h in g b a c k t o t h e G reek c o m p la in t a g a in s t t h e S ophists, P la to 's a r g u m e n t w ith t h e p o e ts, a n d S o c ra te s 's re c o r d e d tr iu m p h o v e r G orgias. G iven A ris to tle 's i n i t i a l d is tin c tio n b e tw e e n th e lin g u is tic s tr u c t u r e o f d isco u rse (logos v e rs u s alogos) an d t h e a p p ro p ria te fo rm t h a t a d isc o u rse sh ould h a v e , t h e p la c e t h a t t h e s u b je c t o f m e ta p h o r holds in su ch a s c h e m a w ould seem m o s t tro u b lin g . M etaphor, by i t s v e ry n a tu re , is d e cid ed ly am bigu ou s. M etap h o r ho nors no s e p a r a tio n o f c a te g o rie s , co n fu sin g q u a lity w ith q u a n tity ,

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s u b sta n c e w ith a c c id e n t, g en u s w ith s p e c ie s. Y e t t h e G reek s a lso a rg u e d t h e m e ta p h o r c a n n o t b e ig n o red . A ris to tle d e c la r e s i n h is

P o e tic s t h a t " th e g r e a t e s t th in g by f a r is t o b e a m a s te r o f m e ta p h o r. I t i s t h e o n e th in g t h a t c a n n o t b e l e a r n t fro m o th e rs ; a n d i t i s a lso a sig n o f gen iu s, s in c e a good m e ta p h o r im p lie s a n in tu itiv e p e rc e p tio n o f t h e s im ila rity i n dissim iLars." 32

A ris to tle d ev elo p s h is id e a s on m e ta p h o r c h ie fly i n Book n r o f t h e R h e to ric a n d i n s e v e r a l c h a p te r s o f t h e P o e tic s . In c h a p te r tw e n ty -o n e o f P o e tic s h e l i s t s f o u r ty p e s o f m e ta p h o r fo llo w e d b y ex a m p le s o f how th e y a r e u sed . "M etaph or," h e t e l l s us, "co n sists i n giving t h e th in g a n a m e t h a t belongs t o so m e th in g e ls e ; t h e tr a n s f e r e n c e bein g e i t h e r fro m genus t o s p e c ie s , o r fro m s p e c ie s t o genus, o r fro m s p e c ie s t o sp e c ie s, o r on g ro u n d s o f a n a lo g y ." 33 In b r ie f , t h i s 'tr a n s f e r e n c e " c a n b e s e e n i n s u c h s e n te n c e s as: "H e re s ta n d s my ship"; "T ruly t e n th o u sa n d good d e e d s h a s U lysses w ro ug ht"; "D raw ing t h e li f e w ith b ro n ze"; and i n t h e an alo g y " th e cu p is i n r e la tio n t o D ionysus w h a t a sh ie ld is t o A r e s ." 34 In t h e R h e to ric A ris to tle ex p an d s t h e s e c la s s ific a tio n s o f m e ta p h o r t o in c lu d e t h e tr a n s f e r e n c e o f in a n im a te o b je c ts in to a n im a te o b je c ts , a n d s a y s t h a t

35 H om er's p o e try i s f u ll o f su ch ex am p les.

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In sp ate o f A ris to tle 's in flu e n tia l c o n trib u tio n t o t h e s tu d y o f m e ta p h o r, h is a c c o u n t is d e fic ie n t i n a t l e a s t o n e m a jo r r e s p e c t. L ack in g i n A ris to tle 's t r e a t m e n t is a c ritiq u e o f t h e m e ta p h o ric im a g e . F o r A ris to tle , m etap h o rs a r e w ords r a t h e r th a n im a g e s . This g la rin g om ission h a s u n fo rtu n a te ly c o lo re d a g r e a t m any s u b s e q u e n t c r itiq u e s o f m e ta p h o r, f o r a l l to o fre q u e n tly i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f p o litic a l th o u g h t m e ta p h o rs a r e dam ned f o r b ein g a n a b u se o f w ords an d y e t ig n o re d f o r t h e i r im ag e-m ak in g c a p a b ilitie s . C e rta in ly th i s is how L ocke an d fr e q u e n tly Hobbes have u n d e rsto o d m e tap h o r; a c a s e o f m islead in g t h e s c ie n tif ic w an d erer i n s e a r c h o f t h e t r u t h by m isusing t h e la n g u a g e .

A ris to tle 's ow n f a ilu re t o n o te m e ta p h o r's im a g e -m a k in g c a p a c ity c a n b e t r a c e d b a c k t o t h e G reek in s is te n c e t h a t m e ta p h o rs a r e a tr a n s f e r e n c e o f w ords. W ithin th e e a r ly c la s s ic a l tr a d i ti o n m e ta p h o rs w e re s e e n a s in d iv id u a l w ords r a t h e r th a n a s c o m b in ed c o n c e p ts. Is o c r a te s , who i s t h e f i r s t t o sp e c ific a lly u s e t h e w ord "m e ta p h o r," a rg u e s i n t h e E ra g o ra s t h a t "th e p o e ts a r e c o n c e d e d m any m e th o d s o f a d o rn in g t h e i r la n g u a g e , fo r...b e sid e s t h e u se o f n o r m a l w ords th e y c a n a lso em p lo y fo re ig n w ords, n eologism , a n d m etap h o rs" [em p h asis

36

a d d e d ]. I t d id n o t o c c u r t o A ris to tle t h a t h is ow n e x a m p le o f a g o a t- s ta g w as a m e ta p h o ric a l c o n c e p t o r t h a t i t w as e v e n p o ssib le t o e n t e r t a i n a n im a g e o f su ch a b e a s t. F o r A r is to tle , "E v ery w ord m u st

37

b e a c u r r e n t t e r m , a s tra n g e word, o r a m e ta p h o r." Im a g e s n e e d n o t ap p ly .

T he in s ig h t t h a t m etap h o rs com bine th e m s e lv e s in t o m o dels o r im a g e s d id n o t o c c u r t o t h e G reeks u n til a ro u n d t h r e e h u n d re d y e a rs a f t e r A ris to tle . The anonym ous a u th o r o f t h e R h e to ric a a d H eren n iu m , w hich a p p e a re d a ro u n d t h e y e a r 86 B .C ., in fo rm s u s t h a t a m e ta p h o r is

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Q Q

u sed " fo r t h e sa k e o f c re a tin g a v iv id m e n ta l p ic tu re ." A round 170 A.D. H erm og en es o f T arsu s a rg u e d t h a t t h e im p o r ta n c e o f m e ta p h o r w as n o t i n t h e A ris to te lia n " tra n s fe re n c e " o f w ords b u t i n i t s "co m p o sit c o n c e p t." A ccordin g t o H erm ogenes,

H i s O blique L anguage when a te rm n o t r e le v a n t t o t h e s u b je c t m a tte r b u t sig nifying so m e e x tra n e o u s o b je c t o f r e f e r e n c e is in tro d u c e d in to a s e n te n c e so a s t o u n ite i t s s ig n ific a n c e in

a co m p o site c o n c e p t; th i s is c a lle d M etaph or by t h e gram m arian s, b u t i t sh ou ld n o t be co n sid ered , a s th e y a v e r, a s a tr a n s f e r e n c e from life le s s t o a liv e , e t c ., f o r r h e to r ic e n tir e ly avcdds

qq busying it s e l f w ith such d e ta ils."

So m e ta p h o r b e g a n t o liv e a double li f e . As a c o m b in a tio n o f w ords m e ta p h o r w as c e r ta in ly A ris to tle 's "sign o f g en ius," b u t t h a t m e a n t t h a t i t w as also s u s p e c t w hen t h e w ords w e re u sed in a p p ro p ria te ly . H ow ever, in t h e l a t e c la s s ic a l p e rio d m e ta p h o r to o k on a se c o n d a ry c h a r a c te r is tic a s a "co m b in ed c o n c e p t" o r im a g e . By i t s in n o v a tiv e u se o f v is u a l im a g e s m e ta p h o r c a m e t o b e c o n s id e re d t o b e o n e o f t h e c h ie f to o ls o f p ersau slo n . C ic e ro re m a r k s i n De Q ra to re t h a t " m e ta p h o r h a s d i r e c t a p p e a l t o t h e se n se s, e s p e c ia lly t h e se n s e

An

o f s ig h t. In De In v e n tio n e he in s tr u c ts la w y e r s who t r y t h e i r c a s e s b e fo re t h e c o u r ts t o "bring t h e a c tio n a s v iv id ly a s p o ssib le b e fo re t h e e y e s o f t h e ju d g e ...so t h a t a s h a m e fu l a c t m ay se e m a s s h a m e fu l a s i f h e h a d b e e n p r e s e n t an d se e n i t in p erso n ." 41 E choing C ic e ro 's a d v ic e , Q u in tilia n co m m e n ts upon t h e v is u a l-p e rsu a siv e a b ilitie s o f m e ta p h o r i n t h e In s titio O ra to ria by say in g t h a t i t is "d esig n ed t o move t h e fe e lin g s , g iv e s p e c ia l d is tin c tio n t o th in g s , a n d p la c e th e m

42 viv id ly b e fo re t h e eyes."

Figure

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