Chapter 4 Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

Section 1 The History of Cell Biology Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells


Chapter 4


• Name the scientists who first observed living and nonliving cells.

• Summarize the research that led to the development of the cell theory.

• State the three principles of the cell theory.

• Explain why the cell is considered to be the basic

unit of life.


The Discovery of Cells

• All living things are made up of one or more cells.

• A cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all of the

processes of life.


Chapter 4

The Discovery of Cells, continued

• Hooke

– In 1665, Robert Hooke discovered cells in slices of cork.

• Leeuwenhoek

– In 1673, Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe living cells in microorganisms;

Leeuwenhoek called these organism animalcules

~ we now call them protists.


The Cell Theory

• The cell theory states that all living organisms are made of one or more cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function, and cells come only from

pre-existing cells.

• In 1838, the German botanist Matthias Schleiden concluded that all plants were composed of cells

• In 1839, Theodor Schwann concluded the same thing for animals

• In 1855, Rudolf Virchow noted that all cells come

from other cells


Chapter 4

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Visual Concept

Cell Theory


The Cell Theory, continued

• Cellular Basis of Life

– All living things are made of organized parts,

obtain energy from their surroundings, perform

chemical reactions, change with time, respond to

their environment, and reproduce.


Chapter 4


• Explain the relationship between cell shape and cell function.

• Identify the factor that limits cell size.

• Describe the three basic parts of a cell.

• Compare prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

• Analyze the relationship among cells, tissues,

organs, organ systems, and organisms.


Cell Diversity

• Cell Shape

– A cell’s shape reflects its function.


Chapter 4

Cell Diversity, Continued

• Cell Size

– Cell size is limited by a cell’s surface

area–to-volume ratio.


Cell size differs amongst species


Cell Size

• Unicellular organisms are made up of one cell

• Multicellular organisms are made up of many cells that often specialize according to function -


Chapter 4


Specialized Animal Cells

Bone Cells Cheek Cells

Red Blood Cells


Prokaryotic Cells Chapter 4

-Cells lack a nucleus and

membrane-bound organelles

-Includes bacteria -Single, circular chromosome in nucleoid region

-Surrounded by cell membrane and a cell wall made up of


-Divided into two domains,

I.e., Archaea and Bacteria


Eukaryotic Cells

- Cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

-Incudes protists, fungi, plants, and animals


Chapter 4

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Comparing Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes


Basic Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell

• The three basic parts of a cell are the plasma

membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus.


Chapter 4

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Internal Organization of a Cell


Basic Parts of a Cell, continued

• Plasma Membrane

– The cell’s outer boundary, called the plasma

membrane (or the cell membrane), covers a cell’s

surface and acts as a barrier between the inside

and the outside of a cell.


Chapter 4

Basic Parts of a Cell, continued

• Cytoplasm

– The region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and that includes the fluid, the

cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus is called the cytoplasm.

– The part of the cytoplasm that includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but not membrane bound organelles is the cytosol

– About 20% of the cytosol is made up of protein


Basic Parts of a Cell, continued

• Nucleus

– The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that

contains a cell’s DNA.


Chapter 4

Cellular Organization

• In multicellular eukaryotes, cells organize into tissues,

organs, organ systems, and finally organisms.



• Describe the structure and function of a cell’s plasma membrane.

• Summarize the role of the nucleus.

• List the major organelles found in the cytosol, and describe their roles.

• Identify the characteristics of mitochondria.

• Describe the structure and function of the cytoskeleton.


Chapter 4

Plasma Membrane

• Selectively permeable, separates internal metabolic reactions from the external

environment, and allows cell to excrete waste

• Membrane Lipids

– Cell membranes consist of a phospholipid bilayer.

– Phospholipids have a polar, hydrophilic

(“water-loving”) phosphate head and two nonpolar, hydrophobic (“water-fearing”) fatty acid tails

– Cholesterol gives membrane firmness and prevents freezing in low temperatures

and Features


Structure of

Lipid Bilayer


Chapter 4

Plasma Membrane, continued

• Membrane Proteins

– Cell membranes often contain proteins embedded within the phospholipid bilayer.

– Proteins help move large molecules or aid in cell recognition (peripheral and integral)

and Features


Plasma Membrane, continued

• Fluid Mosaic Model

– The fluid mosaic model states that the

phospholipid bilayer behaves like a fluid more than it behaves like a solid.

– As a result of such lateral movement, the pattern, or “mosaic,” of lipids and proteins in the

cellmembrane constantly changes


Chapter 4


• The nucleus directs the cell’s activities and stores DNA.

• When a cell is not dividing, the DNA is in the form of a threadlike material called chromatin

• When a cell is about to divide, the chromatin condenses to form chromosomes

• Nuclear Envelope

– The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope.

• Nucleolus

– The nucleolus is the place where DNA is concentrated when it is in the process of making ribosomal RNA.

and Features


Nucleus of a Cell


Chapter 4


• Mitochondria harvest energy from organic compounds and transfer it to ATP.

• Mitochondrial DNA – endosymbiotic origin

and Features



• Ribosomes are either free or attached to the rough ER and play a role in protein synthesis.

• Made of protein an RNA molecules

• Ribosome assembly begins in the nucleolus and is

completed in the cytoplasm


Chapter 4

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and Features


Endoplasmic Reticulum – intracellular highway

• The rough ER prepares proteins for export or insertion into the cell membrane.

– Most abundant in cells that produce large amounts of protein for export, such as digestive glands and

antibody-producing cells

• The smooth ER builds lipids, like cholesterol, and participates in detoxification of toxins.

– In ovaries and testes, smooth ER produces estrogen and testosterone, respectively

– In skeletal and heart muscle cells, smooth ER releases calcium, which stimulates contraction

– Abundant in liver and kidneys for detoxification


Chapter 4

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Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Ribosomes

and Features


Golgi Apparatus

• The Golgi apparatus processes and packages

proteins; proteins get address labels that direct them

to other parts of the cell


Chapter 4


• Vesicles, including lysosomes (digestive enzymes) and peroxisomes (detoxification enzymes – liver and kidneys), are classified by their contents.

• Lysosomes digest worn-out organelles in a process called autophagy; digestion of damaged or extra cells by the enzymes of their own lysosomes is called


and Features

•Protein Synthesis

–The rough ER, Golgi apparatus, and vesicles

work together to transport proteins to their

destinations inside and outside the cell.


Processing of Proteins


Chapter 4


• The cytoskeleton is made of protein fibers that help cells move and maintain their shape.

• The cytoskeleton includes microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.

and Features


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Visual Concept



Chapter 4

Cytoskeleton, continued

• Cilia and Flagella

– Cilia and flagella are hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in movement.

and Features


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Structure of Cilia and Flagella


Chapter 4

Cytoskeleton, continued

• Centrioles

– Centrioles consist of two short cylinders of

microtubules at right angles to each other and are involved in cell division.

and Features



• List three structures that are present in plant cells but not in animal cells.

• Compare the plasma membrane,the primary cell wall, and the secondary cell wall.

• Explain the role of the central vacuole.

• Describe the roles of plastids in the life of a plant.

• Identify features that distinguish prokaryotes, eukaryotes,

plant cells, and animal cells.


Chapter 4

Plant Cells

• Plant cells have cell walls, central vacuoles, and plastids.

of Plant Cells


Cell Wall

• In plant cells, a rigid cell wall covers the cell

membrane and provides support and protection.


Chapter 4

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Parts of a Cell Wall

of Plant Cells


Central Vacuole

• Large central vacuoles store water, enzymes, and

waste products and provide support for plant tissue.


Chapter 4


• Plastids store starch and pigments.

– Chloroplasts – use light energy to make

carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water;

thylakoids contain green pigment chlorophyll that absorbs light energy

– Chromoplasts – contain colorful pigments – Amyloplasts – store starch

of Plant Cells


Comparing Cells

• Prokaryotes, animal cells, and plant cells can be

distinguished from each other by their unique



Chapter 4

Comparing Plant and Animal Cells

of Plant Cells





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