Computer Network Lab Manual

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EST.1998, Affiliated to C.S.V.T.U, Approved by AICTE, Accredited by




1. Introduction to LAN with its cables, connectors and topologies

2. To connect two personal computer with straight thru and cross over twisted pair

3. Introduction to Motherboard & Installation of LAN Card

4. Case Study of Ethernet(10 base 5,10 base 2,10 base T)

5. Create a simple network with two PCs using a hub • Identify the proper cable to connect

the PCs to the hub• Configure workstation IP address information• Test connectivity using

the ping command

6. Installation & working of Remote desktop

7. Installation and working of Telnet (Terminal Network)

8. Working with Null modem

9. Installation of Windows 2003 server

10. Installation of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)




Experiment no 1

Aim: Introduction to LAN with its cables, connectors and topologies


• LANs are privately owned network with maximum span of 10Km and provides local connectivity within a single building or campus of few Kilometer in size.

• LANs are distinguished from other kinds of networks by three characteristics:

– Size : LANs are restricted in size, transmission time is bounded and known in advance and thus ease of maintenance

– Transmission technology: consisting of single cable to which all the machines are attached. Runs at speed of 10 to 100 Mbps

– Topology: Like BUS, STAR, TREE, HYBRID etc. TRANSMISSION MEDIA Transmission media can be divided into two broad categories: GUIDED AND UNGUIDED MEDIA.


• Guided media is the one which provides a conduit from one device to another; include twisted pair cable, co-axial cable and fiber optic cable.

• Twisted and co-axial use metallic (Cu) conductor that transport signals in the form of electric current, whereas optical fiber is a glass or plastic cable and transport signal in the form of light.

Twisted Pair Cable (100 Hz to 5 MHz)

Frequency range of Twisted Pair Cable is 100 Hz to 5 MHz. Twisted pair cable comes in two forms:

1>Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), 2> Shielded Twisted Pair (STP). Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

UTP is the most common type of telecomm. Medium and is use in telephone system, which consists of two conductor (Cu), each with of different plastic color insulation to identify specific conductor.

Advantage of UTP

UTP is cheap, flexible and easy to install, higher grade of UTP are used in many LAN technologies.

UTP cable standards

EIA has developed standard to grade UTP cables by Quality with 1 as lowest and 5 as highest • Category 1: Used for telecommunication system. Works fine for voice transmission

but not for low-speed data transmission.

• Category 2: Suitable for voice and data transmission up to 4 Mbps.

• Category 3: Required to have at least 3 twists per foot and used for transmission up to 10 Mbps.

• Category 4: It must also have at least 3 twists per foot and is capable of transmission rates up to 16 Mbps

• Category 5: Used for data transmission up to 100 Mbps. UTP connector

UTP is most commonly connected to n/w devices via a snap-in plug like RJ45 connector with 8 conductors.


Shielded Twisted Pair(STP)

• STP has a metal foil or braided-mesh covering that encases each pair of insulated conductors. The metal casing prevents the penetration of electromagnetic noise. • Through the use of STP we can eliminate the phenomenon called cross talk. • STP has the same quality consideration as UTP.

• STP is more expensive than that of UTP but less susceptible to noise. STP connector

STP Uses same connectors as UTP but shield must be connected to ground.

Co-axial cable (100 KHz to 500 MHz)

• Coaxial cable carries signal of higher frequency ranges (100 KHz – 500 MHz) • Coax has a central core conductor of solid or stranded wire enclosed in an insulating

sheath, which in turn, encased in an outer conductor of metal foil, braid, or a combination of two (usually copper).

• The outer metallic wrapping serves both as a shield against noise and second conductor which completes the circuit.

• The outer conductor is also enclosed in an insulating sheath and the whole cable is protected by a plastic cover.


Coaxial cable standards

Different coaxial cable designs are categorized by the Radio Government (RG) ratings. Each denotes a unique set of physical specifications, including wire gauge, the thickness and type of inner insulator.

The following are:

• RG – 8, RG – 9, RG – 11: Used in thick Ethernet. • RG – 58:00 Used in thin Ethernet.

• RG – 59: Used for TV. Coaxial cable connectors

There are number of connectors available for coax some of them are

1. BNC (bayonet n/w connector)

2. T-connectors which allow secondary cable to branch off from main line 3. Terminators used in Bus topologies.


• Optical fiber is made of glass or plastic and transmits signals in the form of light. • A core is surrounded by cladding, forming the fiber. Fiber is covered by a buffer layer

that protects it from moisture; finally the entire cable is encased in an outer jacket. • Both core and cladding can be made either of glass or plastic but must be of different

densities. The inner core must be completely regular in size and shape.

• The outer jacket can be made either of Teflon coating, plastic coating, fibrous plastic, metal tubing etc. each of which has its own purpose and depends on where the cable is to be installed.

• Optical fibers use reflection to guide light through a channel. A glass or plastic core is surrounded by a cladding of less dense glass or plastic.

• The difference in density of the two materials must be such that a beam of light through the core is reflected off the cladding instead of being refracted into it. • There are two types of Propagation Modes:

• The purpose of fiber optic cable is to contain & direct a beam of light from source to target. For transmission, the sending device must be equipped with a light source & the receiving device with a photosensitive cell.


Advantages of Optical fiber • Noise Resistance • Less signal attenuation • Higher Bandwidth Disadvantages of Optical fiber

• Cost

• Installation/maintenance • Fragility or delicate


The term topology refers to the way physically or logically arrangement of network. There are five basic topologies:

1) Mesh 2) Star 3) Tree 4) Bus 5) Ring Mesh

• Every device has a dedicated point-to-point link to every other device. • It needs n-1 I/O ports and

• A fully connected mesh has n(n-1)/2 links for n devices. • Advantages:

– Dedicated links eliminates traffic problems – Robust

– Privacy and Secure for communications.

– P2P makes fault identification and fault isolation easy. • Disadvantages

– High amount of cabling and number of I/O ports – Expensive and need large space


Each device has a dedicated point-to-point link to a central controller, usually called hub. • CHARACTERISTICS

1. The failure of medium does not seriously affect the network.

2. The malfunctioning of a station does not seriously affect the performance of network.

3. The network can use a variety of guided and unguided transmission media. 4. The failure of HUB seriously affects the network.

• Advantages

– Less expensive than a mesh topology

– Needs only one cable and one I/O port to connect to hub – Easy to install and reconfigure

– Easy addition and deletion of nodes


• Disadvantages

– Central node dependency.


• Tree is variation of a star, in which majority devices connected to a secondary hub that is connected to central hub.


• Ring topology, each device has a dedicated P2P line configuration. Each device in the ring incorporates repeaters.


5. The failure of medium seriously affects the network.

6. Because the interface are active devices, their malfunctioning seriously affect the performance of network.

7. Because the interface is active devices, there is no limitation on the length of network.

8. Because each interface creates a delay, the total propagation delay is dependent on the no. of station on the network.

9. The network can use one of a variety of transmission media including fiber optics cable.

• Advantages:

– A ring is relatively easy to install and reconfigure. – Fault isolation is simplified

• Disadvantage:

– Unidirectional traffic can be disadvantage. The weakness can be solved by using dual ring or a switch capable of closing off the break


• A bus topology is multipoint; one long cable is act as a backbone to link. Nodes are connected to the bus cable by drop lines and taps.

• As signal travels along backbone, some of its energy is transformed into heat; therefore it becomes weaker & weaker the farther to travel. For this reason there is a limit on the number of taps.


1. The failure of medium seriously affects the network.

2. Because the interfaces are passive their malfunctioning does not seriously affect the performance of network.

3. Because the interfaces are passive there is limit on the length of network unless repeaters are used.

4. The propagation delay is independent of number of stations on the network. • Advantages

– Ease of Installation

– Use less cable than mesh, star or tree topology • Disadvantages

– Difficult reconfiguration and fault tolerance – Fault break in the bus cable stops all transmission


Experiment no 2

Aim: To connect two personal computer with straight thru and cross

over twisted pair


A crossover cable connects two devices of the same type, for example DTE-DTE or DCE-DCE, usually connected asymmetrically (DTE-DCE), and by a modified cable called a crosslink. Such distinction of devices was introduced by IBM.

The crossing wires in a cable or in a connector adaptor allows:

 connecting two devices directly, output of one to input of the other,

 letting two terminal (DTE) devices communicate without an interconnecting hub knot, i.e. PCs,

 linking two or more hubs, switches or routers (DCE) together, possibly to work as one wider device.

 Let's start with simple pin-out diagrams of the two types of UTP Ethernet cables and watch how committees can make a can of worms out of them. Here are the diagrams:

 Note that the TX (transmitter) pins are connected to corresponding RX (receiver) pins, plus to plus and minus to minus. And that you must use a crossover cable to connect units with identical interfaces. If you use a

straight-through cable, one of the two units must, in effect, perform the cross-over function.

Two wire color-code standards apply: EIA/TIA 568A and EIA/TIA 568B. The codes are commonly depicted with RJ-45 jacks as follows (the view is from the front of the jacks):


 If we apply the 568A color code and show all eight wires, our pin-out looks like this:

 Note that pins 4, 5, 7, and 8 and the blue and brown pairs are not used in either standard. Quite contrary to what you may read elsewhere, these pins and wires are not used or required to implement 100BASE-TX duplexing--they are just plain wasted.

 However, the actual cables are not physically that simple. In the diagrams, the orange pair of wires are not adjacent. The blue pair is upside-down. The right ends match RJ-45 jacks and the left ends do not. If, for example, we invert the left side of the 568A "straight"-thru cable to match a 568A jack--put one 180° twist in the entire cable from end-to-end--and twist together and rearrange the appropriate pairs, we get the following can-of-worms:

 This further emphasizes, I hope, the importance of the word "twist" in making network cables which will work. You cannot use an flat-untwisted telephone cable for a network cable. Furthermore, you must use a pair of twisted wires to connect a set of transmitter pins to their corresponding receiver pins. You cannot use a wire from one pair and another wire from a different pair.

 Keeping the above principles in mind, we can simplify the diagram for a 568A straight-thru cable by untwisting the wires, except the 180° twist in the entire cable, and bending the ends upward. Likewise, if we exchange the green and orange pairs in the 568A diagram we will get a simplified diagram for a 568B straight-thru cable. If we cross the green and orange pairs in the 568A diagram we will arrive at a simplified diagram for a crossover cable. All three are shown below.

There are only two unique cable ends in the preceding diagrams. They correspond to the 568A and 568B RJ-45 jacks and are shown to the right.

Again, the wires with colored backgrounds may have white stripes and may be denoted that way in diagrams found elsewhere. For example, the green wire may be labeled Green-White--I don't bother. The background color is always specified first.


Now, all you need to remember, to properly configure the cables, are the diagrams for the two cable ends and the following rules:

A straight-thru cable has

identical ends.

A crossover cable has

different ends.

It makes no functional difference which standard you use for a straight-thru cable. You can start a crossover cable with either standard as long as the other end is the other standard. It makes no functional difference which end is which. Despite what you may have read

elsewhere, a 568A patch cable will work in a network with 568B wiring and 568B patch cable will work in a 568A network. The electrons couldn't care less.


1. Pull the cable off the reel to the desired length and cut. I have a box of cable at one end of my shop and a mark on the floor 10' away. For cable lengths which are a fraction of ten feet, I eye-ball the length as I pull the cable out of the box (also, my feet are about one foot long). For longer cables, I pull it out to the ten foot mark and go back to the box and pull the remaining fraction or another ten feet. If you are pulling cables through walls, a hole in the floor, etc., it easier to attach the RJ-45 plugs after the cable is pulled. The total length of wire segments between a PC and a hub or between two PC's cannot exceed 100 Meters (328 feet or about the length of a football field) for 100BASE-TX (and 10BASE-T).

2. Strip one end of the cable with the stripper or a knife and diags. If you are using the stripper, place the cable in the groove on the blade (left) side of the stripper and align the end of the cable with the right side of the stripper. This is about right to strip a little over 1/2" of the jacket off the cable. Turn the stripper about one turn or so. If you turn it much more, you will probably nick the wires. The idea is to score the outer jacket, but not go all the way through. Once scored, you should be able to twist the end of the jacket loose and pull it off with one hand while holding the rest of the cable with the other. If you are using a knife and diags, carefully slit the cable for about an inch or so and neatly trim around the circumference of the cable with the diags to remove the jacket.

3. Inspect the wires for nicks. Cut off the end and start over if you see any. You may have to adjust the blade with the screw at the front stripper. Cable diameters and jacket thicknesses vary.


4. Spread and arrange the pairs roughly in the order of the desired cable end.

5. Untwist the pairs and arrange the wires in the order of the desired cable end. Flatten the end between your thumb and forefinger. Trim the ends of the wires so they are even with one another. It is very important that the unstripped (untwisted) end be slightly less than 1/2" long


If it is longer than 1/2" it will be out-of-spec and

susceptible to crosstalk. If it less than slightly less than 1/2" it will not be properly clinched when RJ-45 plug is crimped on.. Flatten again. There should be little or no space between the wires.

6. Hold the RJ-45 plug with the clip facing down or away from you. Push the wire firmly into the plug. Now, inspect the darn thing... before crimping and wasting the plug! Looking through the bottom of the plug, the wire on the far left side will have a white background. The wires should alternate light and dark from left to right. The furthest right wire is brown. The wires should all end evenly at the front of the plug. The jacket should end just about where you see it in the

diagram--right on the line. Aren't you glad you didn't crimp the plug?

7. Hold the wire near the RJ-45 plug with the clip down and firmly push it into the left side of the front of the crimper (it will only go in one way). Hold the wire in place squeeze the crimper handles quite firmly. This is what will happen:

(Crimp it once.) The crimper pushes two plungers down on the RJ-45 plug. One forces what amounts to a cleverly designed plastic plug/wedge onto the cable jacket and very firmly clinches it. The other seats the "pins," each with two teeth at its end, through the insulation and into the conductors of their respective wires.

8. Test the crimp... If done properly an average person will not be able to pull the plug off the cable with his or her bare hands. And that quite simply, besides lower cost, is the primary advantage of twisted-pair cables over the older thinwire, coaxial cables. In fact, I would say the RJ-45 and ease of its installation is the main reason coaxial cable is no longer widely used for small Ethernets. But, don't pull that hard on the plug. It could stretch the cable and change its characteristics. Look at the side of the plug and see if it looks like the diagram and give it a fairly firm tug to make sure it is crimped well.

9. Prepare the other end of the cable so it has the desired end and crimp.

10. If both ends of the cable are within reach, hold them next to each other and with RJ-45 clips facing away. Look through the bottom of the plugs. If the plugs are wired correctly, and they are identical, it is a straight-thru cable. If they are wired correctly and they are different, it is a crossover cable.


11. If you have an operational network, test the cable. Copy some large files. 12. If the cable doesn't work, inspect the ends again and make sure you have the right cable and that it is plugged into the correct units for the type of cable. Try power-cycling (cold booting) the involved computers.

13. If you have many straight-thru cables and a crossover cable in your system, you should consider labeling the crossover cable or using a different colored cable for the crossover cable so you don't mix them up. I do not recommend implementing the crossover function, as recommended elsewhere, with two RJ-45 jacks, appropriately wired back to back, and two straight-thru cables. This method costs noticeably more, introduces more than the necessary number of components and connections, increases the complexity and time of assembly, and decreases reliability.


1. Try to avoid running cables parallel to power cables.

2. Do not bend cables to less than four times the diameter of the cable.

3. If you bundle a group of cables together with cable ties (zip ties), do not over-cinch them. It's okay to snug them together firmly; but don't tighten them so much that you deform the cables.

4. Keep cables away from devices which can introduce noise into them. Here's a short list: copy machines, electric heaters, speakers, printers, TV sets, fluorescent lights, copiers, welding machines, microwave ovens, telephones, fans, elevators, motors, electric ovens, dryers, washing machines, and shop equipment.

5. Avoid stretching UTP cables (tension when pulling cables should not exceed 25 LBS).

6. Do not run UTP cable outside of a building. It presents a very dangerous lightning hazard!

7. Do not use a stapler to secure UTP cables. Use telephone wire/RG-6 coaxial wire hangers which are available at most hardware stores.


Experiment no 3

Aim: Introduction to Motherboard & Installation of LAN Card


Introduction to motherboards

The primary component of a computer is the motherboard (sometimes called the

"mainboard"). The motherboard is the hub which is used to connect all of the computer's essential components.

As its name suggests, the motherboard acts as a "parent" board, which takes the form of a large printed circuit with connectors for expansion cards, memory modules, the processor,



There are several ways in which a motherboard can be characterised, in particular the following:

 the chipset,

 the type of processor socket used,  the input-output connectors.


Integrated components

The motherboard includes some on-board components, meaning that they are integrated into its printed circuitry:

 The chipset, a circuit which controls the majority of resources (including the bus interface with the processor, cache memory and random-access memory, expansion cards, etc.)

 The CMOS clock and battery,  The BIOS,

 The system bus and the expansion bus.

What's more, recent motherboards generally include a number of onboard multimedia and networking devices which can be disabled:

 integrated network card;  integrated graphics card;  integrated sound card;

 upgraded hard drive controllers.

The chipset

The chipset is an electronic circuit whose job is to coordinate data transfers between the various components of the computer (including the processor and memory). As the chipset is integrated into the motherboard, it is important to choose a motherboard which includes a recent chipset, in order to maximise the computer's upgradeability.

The CMOS clock and battery

When the computer is turned off, the power supply stops providing electricity to the

motherboard. When the computer is turned on again, the system is still on the right time. An electronic circuit, called the CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxyde Semiconductor, sometimes called the BIOS CMOS), saves some system information, such as the time, the system date, and a few essential system settings.

The CMOS is kept powered by a battery (a button battery), or a battery located on the motherboard. Information on the hardware installed in the computer (such as the number of tracks or sectors on each hard drive) are stored in the CMOS. As the CMOS is a form of slow storage, certain systems sometimes recopy the CMOS's content into the RAM (fast storage); the term "memory shadow" is used to describe this process of copying the data into RAM.


The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is the basic program used as an interface between the operating system and the motherboard. The BIOS is stored in ROM (read-only memory, which can not be rewritten), so it uses data contained within the CMOS to find out what the system's hardware configuration is.

The BIOS can be configured using an interface (named the BIOS setup), which can be accessed when the computer is booting just be pressing a key (usually the DEL key. In


reality, the BIOS setup is only used as an interface for configuration; the data is stored in the

CMOS. For more information, check your motherboard's manual.)

The processor socket

The processor (also called the microprocessor) is the computer's brain. It runs programs using a set of instructions. The processor is characterised by its frequency, the rate at which it executes instructions. This means that an 800 MHz processor can carry out 800 million operations per second.

The motherboard has a slot (sometimes several, for multi-processor motherboards) into which the processor is inserted, called the processor socket or slot.

Slot: A rectangular connector into which the processor is mounted vertically. Socket: In addition to being the general term, it also refers more specifically to a

square-shaped connector with many small connectors into which the processor is directly inserted.

RAM connectors

RAM (Random Access Memory) is used to store data while the computer is running; however, its contents are wiped out as soon as the computer is switched off or restarted, as opposed to mass storage devices such as hard drives, which keep information safe even while turned off. This is why RAM is called "volatile."

Expansion slots

Expansion slots are compartments into which expansion cards can be inserted. These are cards which give the computer new features or increased performance. There are several types of slots:

 ISA slots (Industry Standard Architecture): For inserting ISA slots. The slowest ones are 16-bit.

 VLB slots (Vesa Local Bus): Bus formerly used for installing graphics cards.

 PCI slot (Peripheral Component InterConnect): used for connecting PCI cards, which are much faster than ISA cards and run on 32 bits

 AGP slot (Accelerated Graphic Port): A fast port for a graphics card.  PCI Express slot (Peripheral Component InterConnect Express): Faster bus


AMR slot (Audio Modem Riser): This type of slot is used for connecting mini-cards to PCs which are built for it.

the input-output connectors.

The motherboard has a certain number of input/output sockets found on the rear panel.

Most motherboards have the following connectors:  A serial port, for connecting old peripherals;  A parallel port, mainly for connecting old printers;

 USB ports (1.1, low-speed, or 2.0, high-speed), for connecting more recent peripherals;

RJ45 connector (called LAN or ethernet port) used for connecting the computer to a network. It corresponds to a network card integrated into the motherboard;

VGA connector (called SUB-D15), for connecting a monitor. This connector interfaces with the built-in graphics card;

Audio plugs (Line-In, Line-Out and microphone), for connecting sound speakers or a hi-fi system, as well as a microphone. This connector interfaces with the built-in sound card;

Instructions on how to fit a PCI network interface card.

1. Shut down Windows and then turn the computer off and unplug it. Never work in your computer's insides with the power on or the power cord plugged in!

2. Remove the cover from your computer. There are normally a number of screws on the outside of the case to remove. Put the screws someplace where they won't wander off.


Figure 1: Removing your computer's cover.

3. Find an unused expansion slot inside the computer. The expansion slots are lined up in a neat row near the back of the computer. All new computers have at least three or four slots known as PCI slots.

4. Many older computers also have several slots known as ISA slots. You can distinguish ISA slots from PCI slots by noting the size of the slots. PCI slots are smaller than ISA slots, so you can't accidentally insert a PCI card in an ISA slot or vice versa. Figure 2 shows the different types of slots.

Figure 2. PCI slots are white, ISA slots are black

5. When you find the right type of slot that doesn't have a card in it, remove the metal backplate from the back of the computer's chassis. A small retaining screw holds the backplate in place. Remove the screw, pull the backplate out, keep it in a safe place in case you ever want to remove the network card.

6. Insert the network card into the slot. Line up the connectors on the bottom of the card with the connectors in the expansion slot, and then press the card straight down. Sometimes you have to press uncomfortably hard to get the card to slide into the slot. 7. Ignored the little cable that came with the card, you can chuck this in the bin. It is a

Wake-On-LAN connector and isn't required for your card to work. 8. Secure the network card with the screw that you removed in Step 4.

9. Put the computer's case back together. Watch out for the loose cables inside the computer; you don't want to pinch them with the case as you slide it back on. Secure the case with the screws that you removed in Step 2.


Experiment no 4

Aim: Case Study of Ethernet (10 base 5, 10 base 2, 10 base T)

Ethernet Overview

If you have an existing network, there’s a 90% chance it’s Ethernet. If you’re installing a new network, there’s a 98% chance it’s Ethernet— the Ethernet standard is the overwhelming favorite network standard today.

Ethernet was developed by Xerox®, DEC™, and Intel® in the mid-1970s as a 10-Mbps (Megabits per second) networking protocol—very fast for its day—operating over a heavy coax cable (Standard Ethernet).

Today, although many networks have migrated to Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps) or even Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps), 10-Mbps Ethernet is still in widespread use and forms the basis of most networks.

Ethernet is defined by international standards, specifically IEEE 802.3. It enables the connection of up to 1024 nodes over coax, twisted-pair, or fiber optic cable. Most new installations today use economical, lightweight cables such as Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair cable and fiber optic cable.

How Ethernet Works

Ethernet signals are transmitted from a station serially, one bit at a time, to every other station on the network.

Ethernet uses a broadcast access method called Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) in which every computer on the network ―hears‖ every transmission, but each computer ―listens‖ only to transmissions intended for it.

Each computer can send a message anytime it likes without having to wait for network permission. The signal it sends travels to every computer on the network. Every computer hears the message, but only the computer for which the message is intended recognizes it. This computer recognizes the message because the message contains its address. The message also contains the address of the sending computer so the message can be acknowledged.

If two computers send messages at the same moment, a ―collision‖ occurs, interfering with the signals. A computer can tell if a collision has occurred when it doesn’t hear its own message within a given amount of time. When a collision occurs, each of the colliding computers waits a random amount of time before resending the message.

The process of collision detection and retransmission is handled by the Ethernet adapter itself and doesn’t involve the computer. The process of collision resolution takes only a fraction of a second under most circumstances. Collisions are normal and expected events on an Ethernet network. As more computers are added to the network and the traffic level increases, more collisions occur as part of normal operation. However, if the network gets too crowded, collisions increase to the point where they slow down the network considerably.


Standard (Thick) Ethernet (10BASE5)

 Uses “thick” coax cable with N-type connectors for a backbone and a transceiver cable with 9-pin connectors from the transceiver to the NIC.

 Both ends of each segment should be terminated with a 50-ohm resistor.

 Maximum segment length is 500 meters.

 Maximum total length is 2500 meters.

 Maximum length of transceiver cable is 50 meters.

 Minimum distance between transceivers is 2.5 meters.

 No more than 100 transceiver connections per segment are allowed.

Thin Ethernet (ThinNet) (10BASE2)

 Uses “Thin” coax cable.

 The maximum length of one segment is 185 meters.

 The maximum number of segments is five.

 The maximum total length of all segments is 925 meters.

 The minimum distance between T-connectors is 0.5 meters.

 No more than 30 connections per segment are allowed.

 T-connectors must be plugged directly into each device.


Twisted-Pair Ethernet (10BASE-T)

 Uses 22 to 26 AWG unshielded twisted-pair cable (for best results, use Category 4 or 5 unshielded twisted pair).

 The maximum length of one segment is 100 meters.

 Devices are connected to a 10BASE-T hub in a star configuration.

 Devices with standard AUI connectors may be attached via a 10BASE-T transceiver.

Fiber Optic Ethernet (10BASE-FL, FOIRL)

 Uses 50-, 62.5-, or 100-micron duplex multimode fiber optic cable (62.5 micron is recommended).

 The maximum length of one 10BASE-FL (the new standard for fiber optic connections) segment is 2 kilometers.

 The maximum length of one FOIRL (the standard that preceded the new 10BASE-FL) segment is 1 kilometer.




• Create a simple network with two PCs using a hub • Identify the proper cable to connect the PCs to the hub • Configure workstation IP address information

• Test connectivity using the ping command


A hub is a networking concentration device sometimes referred to as a multiport repeater. Hubs are inexpensive and easy to install, but they permit collisions to occur. They are

appropriate for a small LAN with light traffic.

In addition to the physical and data link connections, which are Layers 1 and 2, the computers must also be configured with the correct IP network settings, which is Layer 3, so that they can communicate. Since this lab uses a hub, a basic Category 5/5e UTP straight-through cable is needed to connect each PC to the hub. This is referred to as a patch cable or horizontal cabling, which is used to connect workstations and a typical LAN. Start this lab with the equipment turned off and with cabling disconnected.

Resources/Apparatus required:

• Two workstations with an Ethernet 10/100 NIC installed • Ethernet 10BaseT or Fast Ethernet hub

• Several Ethernet cables, which are both straight-through and crossover, to choose from for connecting the two workstations.


Step 1 Identify the proper Ethernet cable and connect the two PCs to the hub

a. The connection between the two PCs will be accomplished using a Category 5 or 5e crossover cable. Locate two cables that are long enough to reach from each PC to the hub. Attach one end to the NIC and the other end to a port on the hub. Be sure to examine the cable ends carefully and select only a straight-through cable.

b. What kind of cable is required to connect from NIC to hub? ___________________ c. What is the category rating of the cable? ______________________


d. What is the AWG wire size designation of the cable? ______________________ Step 2: Verify the physical connection

Plug in and turn on the computers. To verify the computer connections, insure that the link lights on the both PC NICs and the hub interfaces are lit. Are all link lights lit?

Step 3: Access the IP settings window

Windows 95 / 98 / Me/ users should do the following:

• Click on Start > Settings > Control Panel and then click the Network icon.

• Select the TCP/IP protocol icon that is associated with the NIC in this PC and click on Properties.

• Click on the IP Address tab and the Gateway tab. Windows NT / 2000 users should do the following:

• Click on Start > Settings > Control Panel and then open the Network and Dial-up Connections folder.

• Click ad open the Local Area Connection icon.

• Select the TCP/IP protocol icon that is associated with the NIC in this PC. • Click on Properties and click on Use the following IP address.

Windows XP users should do the following:

• Click on Start > Settings > Control Panel and then click the Network Connection icon. • Select the Local Area Network Connection and click on Change settings of this connection.

• Select the TCP/IP protocol icon that is associated with the NIC in this PC. • Click on Properties and click on Use the following IP address.

See the example below:

Step 4: Configure

TCP/IP settings for the two PCs


b. Note that the default gateway IP address is not required, since these computers are directly connected. The default gateway is only required on local area networks that are connected to a router.

Computer Computer IP Address Subnet mask Default Gateway PC – A : Not Required PC – B : Not Required Step 5: Access the Command or MS-DOS prompt

Use the Start menu to open the Command Prompt (MS-DOS-like) window: Windows 95 / 98 / Me users should do the following:

Start > Programs > MS-DOS Prompt

Windows NT / 2000 users should do the following: Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt Windows XP users should do the following:

Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt Step 6: Verify that the PCs can communicate

A) Test connectivity from one PC to the other by pinging the IP address of the opposite computer.

Use the following command at the command prompt. C:>ping (or

Step 7 Confirm the TCP/IP network settings Windows 95 / 98 / Me users should do the following:

Type the winipcfg command from the MS-DOS Prompt. Record the results. Windows NT / 2000 / XP users should do the following:

Type the ipconfig command from the Command Prompt. Record the results.

Step 8 Restore the PCs to their original IP settings, disconnect the equipment, and store the cables.


write down the existing IP settings, so that they can be restored at the end

These include IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS servers. If the workstation is a DHCP client, it is not necessary to record this information.




 Installation & working of Remote desktop

Hardware Required:

LAN Card, LAN drivers, 2-computers, Modem, Cables Theory:

Remote Desktop, a function included with Windows XP Professional, enables you to connect to your computer across the Internet from virtually any computer, Pocket PC, or smartphone. Unlike a typical VPN connection (which will give a remote PC access to the company network) Remote Desktop will actually allow you to see and control your connected PC as though you were sitting directly in front of it.

Remote desktop technology makes it possible to view another computer's desktop on your computer. This means you can open folders, move files, and even run programs on the remote computer, right from your own desktop. Both Windows and Macintosh computer support remote desktop connections, though they use different implementations. Windows XP and Vista both include Remote Desktop as part of the operating system. The Remote Desktop program uses Microsoft Terminal Services and the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) to connect to a remote machine. Remote connections can be opened using Windows' Remote Desktop Connection (RDC), which is also referred to as Terminal Services Client (TSC). This program allows users to configure and manage remote connections to other computers. Of course, to connect to another machine, the remote system must be

configured to accept incoming RDC connections.

A Windows computer can be configured to accept incoming remote desktop connections by opening the Control Panel and selecting "Performance and Maintenance." Then click the "System" icon and select the "Remote" tab in the System Properties window. Next, check the box that says, "Allow users to connect remotely to this computer." Then click OK. This should enable remote desktop connections to your machine. You can then click "Select Remote Users..." to only provide access to specific users. Of course, if you don't want your computer to be accessed by anyone, leave the "Allow users to connect..." box unchecked. Mac OS X 10.5 and later includes a feature called Screen Sharing that allows other users to remotely access the computer's desktop. To turn on Screen Sharing, open System Preferences and select the Sharing option. Next, check the "Screen Sharing" check box. You can then add access for specific users in the "Allow access for:" section of the window. If the Mac OS X Screen Sharing option feels a bit limited, you may want to try a program called "Apple


Remote Desktop." This program, which is developed by Apple, provides more advanced remote access features and is often used for managing several computers on a network.

Remote desktop is a program or an operating system feature that allows the user to connect to a computer in another location, see that computer's desktop and interact with it as if it were local.

People use remote desktop capability to do a variety of things remotely, including the following:

 Access a workplace computer from home or when traveling.  Access a home computer from other locations.

 Fix a computer problem.  Perform administrative tasks.


Remote desktop connectivity relies upon any of a number of protocols, including Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), Virtual Network Computing (VNC), NX technology and

Independent Computing Architecture (ICA).

Remote desktop software exists for most operating systems and platforms, including handheld computing devices. Microsoft and Apple each have a product called "Remote Desktop." Other remote desktop products include Citrix XenApp, Cross Loop, Jaadu (for the iPhone and iPod Touch), GoToMyPC, PCAnywhere and Chicken of the VNC.


1. Go to My Computer properties window by right clicking and selecting properties from menu that appears

2. Select Remote

*For successful connection we have to perform 3 things:-

 Check the checkbox ―Allow users to connect remotely to this computer

 Turn the Firewall off

 Set password by:

a) Right clicking My computer and click Manage. b) Select ―Local user & group‖

c) Right click on ―Administrator‖

3. Set IP of 2nd computer in ―Remote Desktop Connection‖ window. To open ―Remote Desktop Connection‖ StartAll programsAccessoriesCommunication Remote Desktop Connection


4. Give username and password of 2nd computer. The 2nd computer will automatically Log off while 1st one is working remotely on it. The remote connection is last once the user of 2nd computer logs in again.


The two computers are now accessing each-other by remote desktop connection. The accessing of remote systems is possible by configuring remote desktop.




Installation and working of Telnet (Terminal Network)

Hardware Required:

LAN Card, LAN drivers, 2-computers, Modem, Cables Theory:

Its an abbreviation for ―Terminal Network‖. Telnet is a protocol that allows a user to log on to other computers. You use an IP address or domain name to log on. Bulletin boards are still available to play games, download files or read information. In addition, you can play games with your friends over this type of network. Telnet is not as common as it once was.

Nevertheless, it is a simple method of connecting to different friends or online communities. Telnet is a user command and an underlying TCP/IP protocol for accessing remote computers. Through Telnet, an administrator or another user can access someone else's computer remotely. On the Web, HTTP and FTP protocols allow you to request specific files from remote computers, but not to actually be logged on as a user of that computer. With Telnet, you log on as a regular user with whatever privileges you may have been granted to the specific application and data on that computer. A Telnet command request looks like this (the computer name is made-up):


The result of this request would be an invitation to log on with a user-id and a prompt for a password. If accepted, you would be logged on like any user who used this computer every day. Telnet is most likely to be used by program developers and anyone who has a need to use specific applications or data located at a particular host computer.



1. Go to ―My Computer‖ right click and select properties.

2. Then go to Manage. In the opened window select ―Services and Application‖ then select ―Telnet‖ from right hand side of window.

3. In property window of telnet set ―start-up‖ box to ―Automatic‖ 4. Go to StartAll ProgrameAccessoriesCommand prompt

5. In ―C:‖ prompt(C:\>) type telnet and type the IP of the 2nd computer after space. Eg: telnet

6. Enter username and password of 2nd computer when prompted. 7. To quit type ―exit‖

Properties of Telnet:

 Telnet is done via command prompt  telnet works on password protected system  Telnet service must be ―ON‖ on both the system Result:




Working with Null modem

Null Modem Cable After all, isn't this why you came to this site?

The purpose of a null-modem cable is to permit two RS-232 "DTE" devices to

communicate with each other without modems or other communication devices (i.e., "DCE"s) between them.

To achieve this, the most obvious connection is that the TD signal of one device must be connected to the RD input of the other device (and vice versa).

Also, however, many DTE devices use other RS-232 pins for out-of-band (i.e., "hardware") flow control. One of the most common schemes is for the DTE (the PC) to assert the RTS signal if it is ready to receive data (yes, it DOES sound backwards, but that's how it works), and for the DCE (the modem) to assert CTS when it is able to accept data. By connecting the RTS pin of one DTE to the CTS pin of the other DTE, we can simulate this handshake.

Also, it is common convention for many DTE devices to assert the DTR signal when they are powered on, and for many DCE devices to assert the DSR signal when they are powered on, and to assert the CD signal when they are connected. By

connecting the DTR signal of one DTE to both the CD and DSR inputs of the other DTE (and vice versa), we are able to trick each DTE into thinking that it is connected to a DCE that is powered up and online. As a general rule, the Ring Indicate (RI) signal is not passed through a null-modem connection.

Common Null-Modem Connection

Signal Name DB-25 Pin DB-9 Pin DB-9 Pin DB-25 Pin

FG (Frame Ground) 1 - X - 1 FG

TD (Transmit Data) 2 3 - 2 3 RD


RTS (Request To Send) 4 7 - 8 5 CTS

CTS (Clear To Send) 5 8 - 7 4 RTS

SG (Signal Ground) 7 5 - 5 7 SG

DSR (Data Set Ready) 6 6 - 4 20 DTR

CD (Carrier Detect) 8 1 - 4 20 DTR

DTR (Data Terminal Ready) 20 4 - 1 8 CD

DTR (Data Terminal Ready) 20 4 - 6 6 DSR

Here's another null-modem connection that I've seen floating around the net. Some folks say that it's the cable that's shipped with LapLink 4 Pro.

Signal Name DB-25 Pin DB-9 Pin DB-9 Pin DB-25 Pin

FG (Frame Ground) 1 - X - 1 FG TD (Transmit Data) 2 3 - 2 3 RD RD (Receive Data) 3 2 - 3 2 TD RTS (Request To Send) 4 7 - 8 5 CTS CTS (Clear To Send) 5 8 - 7 4 RTS SG (Signal Ground) 7 5 - 5 7 SG

DSR (Data Set Ready) 6 6 - 4 20 DTR

DTR (Data Terminal Ready) 20 4 - 6 6 DSR

Personally, I don't think that a null-modem cable built to the above pinout will work quite as well, but a lot of folks appear to have success with it. In general, it will work with some software packages, such as those that only use RTS/CTS hardware flow control. However, some packages that rely on the proper assertion of the CD signal will not work with this cable.

Here's a good set of figures for DB-25 male and female connectors, as viewed from the pin side (not the solder side).


DB-25 Female

Here's a good set of figures for DB-9 male and female connectors, as viewed from the pin side (not the solder side).

DB-9 Male

DB-9 Female

If you're using a serial cable or null-modem cable for local serial connectivity or for modem replacement, you might consider looking at the Traversix™ network

connectivity solutions. You can use Traversix ethernet-to-serial connectivity products to connect to serial-enabled devices over the Internet, even (especially) when those devices are located behind a third-party firewall.




Installation of Windows 2003 server Theory and Procedure:

Windows Server 2003 operating systems take the best of Windows 2000 Server technology and make it easier to deploy, manage, and use. The result: a highly productive infrastructure that helps make your network a strategic asset for your organization.Windows Server 2003 SP2 provides enhanced security, increased reliability, and a simplified administration to help enterprise customers across all industries.

Microsoft Windows Server 2003 R2 Standard Edition Requirements Computer and processor

PC with a 133-MHz processor required; 550-MHz or faster processor recommended; support for up to four processors on one server


128 MB of RAM required; 256 MB or more recommended; 4 GB maximum Hard disk

1.2 GB for network install; 2.9 GB for CD install Drive

CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive Display

VGA or hardware that supports console redirection required; Super VGA supporting 800 x 600 or higher-resolution monitor recommended

Plan your installation

When you run the Windows Server 2003 Setup program, you must provide information about how to install and configure the operating system. Thorough planning can make your

installation of Windows Server 2003 more efficient by helping you to avoid potential problems during installation.

when planning for your Windows Server 2003 installation  Check System Requirements

 Check Hardware and Software Compatibility  Determine Disk Partitioning Options


 Decide on a Workgroup or Domain Installation  Complete a Pre-Installation Checklist

After you made sure you can go on, start the installation process. Beginning the installation process

You can install Windows Server 2003 in several methods – all are valid and good, it all depends upon your needs and your limitations.

In this tutorial we are installing directly from a CD by booting your computer with the CD. Start the computer from the CD.

You can press F6 if you need to install additional SCSI adapters or other mass-storage devices.


Setup will load all the needed files and drivers.


Read and accept the licensing agreement and press F8 if you accept it.

Select or create the partition on which you will install Windows Server 2003.Now you need to click C to create new partition


Enter the partition size and press enter

After creating the partition you need to select where you want to install windows server 2003 press enter


Now you need to format your new partition with NTFS select the option as below and press enter


After format setup will start copying files is in progress


The computer will restart now and the installation process will start in graphical mode.

It will then begin to load device drivers based upon what it finds on your computer. You don’t need to do anything at this stage.


Click Customize to change regional settings, if necessary.

Current System Locale – Affects how programs display dates, times, currency, and numbers. Choose the locale that matches your location, for example, United Kingdom.

Current Keyboard Layout – Accommodates the special characters and symbols used in different languages. Your keyboard layout determines which characters appear when you press keys on the keyboard.


Enter your product key click next


Enter the computer name and administrator password click next


Installing network in progress


Select use the following ip address radio button and enter you ip address details click ok


In the Workgroup or Domain window enter the name of your workgroup or domain.

A workgroup is a small group of computers on a network that enables users to work together and does not support centralized administration.

A domain is a logical grouping of computers on a network that has a central security database for storing security information. Centralized security and administration are important for computers in a domain because they enable an administrator to easily manage computers that are geographically distant from each other. A domain is administered as a unit with common rules and procedures. Each domain has a unique name, and each computer within a domain has a unique name.

If you’re a stand-alone computer, or if you don’t know what to enter, or if you don’t have the sufficient rights to join a domain – leave the default entry selected and press Next.


Next the setup process will finish copying files and configuring the setup. You do not need to do anything.


After logging in you should see similar to the following screen for Windows server 2003 R2 editions now you need to insert CD2 to install extra components click ok




Installation of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Theory:

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, a protocol for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices on a network. With dynamic addressing, a device can have a different IP address every time it connects to the network. In some systems, the device's IP address can even change while it is still connected. DHCP also supports a mix of static and dynamic IP addresses.

Dynamic addressing simplifies network administration because the software keeps track of IP addresses rather than requiring an administrator to manage the task. This means that a new computer can be added to a network without the hassle of manually assigning it a unique IP address. Many ISPs use dynamic IP addressing for dial-up users.

A DHCP Server assigns IP addresses to client computers. This is very often used in enterprise networks to reduce configuration efforts. All IP addresses of all computers are stored in a database that resides on a server machine.



Installing DHCP Server is very easy in win server 2003 or win XP

First you need to go to Start–>All Programs–>Administrative Tools–>Manage Your Server


Verify the following steps click on Next

Select Server Role as DHCP Server option click on Next


Installing DHCP Server in progress


A scope is a collection of IP addresses for computers on a subnet that use DHCP. enter the name and description of your scope click next

Now you need to define the range of addresses that the scope will distribute across the network,the subnet mask for the IP address . Enter the appropriate details and click next.


Enter the IP address range that you want to exclude and click on next

Select lease duration how long a client can use an IP address assigned to it from this scope. It is recommended to add longer leases for a fixed network (in the office for example) and shorter leases for remote connections or laptop computers and click next


You are given a choice of whether or not you wish to configure the DHCP options for the scope now or later.You can select Yes,I want to… radion button and click next

Enter the router, or gateway, IP address click next. The client computers will then know which router to use and click next


Enter the DNS and domain name settings can be entered. The DNS server IP address will be distributed by the DHCP server and given to the client click next

If you have WINS setup then here is where to enter the IP Address of the WINS server. You can just input the server name into the appropriate box and press Resolve‖ to allow it to find the IP address itself click next


Now you need to activate this scope now and click next


Now your server is now a DHCP server message and click finish

Configuring DHCP


Authorization completed now your DHCP server is up and running

DHCP servers permit you to reserve an IP address for a client. This means that the specific network client will have the same IP for as long as you wanted it to. To do this you will have to know the physical address (MAC) of each network card. Enter the reservation name, desired IP address, MAC address and description – choose whether you want to support DHCP or BOOTP and press add. The new reservation will be added to the list.

That’s it it is very easy to configure DHCP server in win server 2003 now you can configure your windows client pc to check your dhcp server is working or not.




To study DNS Server Case Study and to install DNS Server and its Configuration

Theory (Case Study):

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a standard technology for managing the names of Web sites and other Internet domains. DNS technology allows you to type names into your Web browser like and your computer to automatically find that address on the Internet. A key element of the DNS is a worldwide collection of DNS servers. What, then, is a DNS server?

Answer: A DNS server is any computer registered to join the Domain Name System. A DNS server runs special-purpose networking software, features a public IP address, and contains a database of network names and addresses for other Internet hosts.

DNS Root Servers

DNS servers communicate with each other using private network protocols. All DNS servers are organized in a hierarchy. At the top level of the hierarchy, so-called root servers store the complete database of Internet domain names and their corresponding IP addresses. The Internet employs 13 root servers that have become somewhat famous for their special role. Maintained by various independent agencies, the servers are aptly named A, B, C and so on up to M. Ten of these servers reside in the United States, one in Japan, one in London, UK and one in Stockholm, Sweden.

DNS Server Hierarchy

The DNS is a distributed system, meaning that only the 13 root servers contain the complete database of domain names and IP addresses. All other DNS servers are installed at lower levels of the hierarchy and maintain only certain pieces of the overall database.

Most lower level DNS servers are owned by businesses or Internet Service Providers (ISPs). For example, Google maintains various DNS servers around the world that manage the,, and other domains. Your ISP also maintains DNS servers as part of your Internet connection setup.

DNS networking is based on the client / server architecture. Your Web browser functions as a DNS client (also called DNS resolver) and issues requests to your Internet provider's DNS servers when navigating between Web sites.

When a DNS server receives a request not in its database (such as a geographically far away or rarely visited Web site), it temporarily transforms from a server to a DNS client. The server automatically passes that request to another DNS server or up to the next higher level in the DNS hierarchy as needed. Eventually the request arrives at a server that has the matching name and IP address in its database (all the way to the root level if necessary), and the response flows back through the chain of DNS servers to your client.

DNS Servers and Home Networking

Computers on your home network locate a DNS server through the Internet connection setup properties. Providers give their customers the public IP address(es) of primary and backup DNS servers. You can find the current IP addresses of your DNS server configuration via several methods:


 on the TCP/IP connection properties screens in Windows Control Panel (if configured via that method)

from ipconfig or similar command line utility

Install DNS

1. Open Windows Components Wizard. To do so, use the following steps:

a. Click Start, click Control Panel, and then click Add or Remove Programs. b. Click Add/Remove Windows Components.

2. In Components, select the Networking Services check box, and then click Details. 3. In Subcomponents of Networking Services, select the Domain Name System

(DNS) check box, click OK, and then click Next.

4. If you are prompted, in Copy files from, type the full path of the distribution files, and then click OK.

Configure DNS

1. Start the Configure Your Server Wizard. To do so, click Start, point to All

Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Configure Your Server Wizard.

2. On the Server Role page, click DNS server, and then click Next.

3. On the Summary of Selections page, view and confirm the options that you have selected. The following items should appear on this page:

o Install DNS

o Run the Configure a DNS Wizard to configure DNS

If the Summary of Selections page lists these two items, click Next. If the Summary of Selections page does not list these two items, click Back to return to the Server Role page, click DNS, and then click Next.

4. When the Configure Your Server Wizard installs the DNS service, it first determines whether the IP address for this server is static or is configured automatically. If your server is currently configured to obtain its IP address automatically, the Configuring Components page of the Windows Components Wizard prompts you to configure this server with a static IP address. To do so:

a. In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click Properties.

b. In the Internet Protocols (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, click Use the following IP address, and then type the static IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway for this server.

c. In Preferred DNS, type the IP address of this server.

d. In Alternate DNS, type the IP address of another internal DNS server, or leave this box blank.

e. When you finish setting up the static addresses for your DNS, click OK, and then click Close.

5. After you click Close, the Configure a DNS Server Wizard starts. In the wizard, follow these steps:

. On the Select Configuration Action page, select the Create a forward lookup zone check box, and then click Next.

a. To specify that this DNS hosts a DNS zone that contains DNS resource records for your network resources, on the Primary Server Location page, click This server maintains the zone, and then click Next.


b. On the Zone Name page, in Zone name, specify the name of the DNS zone for your network, and then click Next. The name of the zone is the same as the name of the DNS domain for your small organization or branch office.

c. On the Dynamic Update page, click Allow both non secure and secure dynamic updates, and then click Next. This makes sure that the DNS resource records for the resources in your network update automatically. d. On the Forwarders page, click Yes, it should forward queries to DNS servers with the following IP addresses, and then click Next. When you select this configuration, you forward all DNS queries for DNS names outside your network to a DNS at either your ISP or central office. Type one or more IP addresses that either your ISP or central office DNS servers use.

e. On the Completing the Configure a DNS Wizard page of the Configure a DNS Wizard, you can click Back to change any of the settings. To apply your selections, click Finish.

After you finish the Configure a DNS Wizard, the Configure Your Server Wizard displays the This Server is Now a DNS Server page. To review all the changes that you made to your server in the Configure Your Server Wizard or to make sure that a new role was installed successfully, click Configure Your Server log. The Configure Your Server Wizard log is located at %systemroot%\Debug\Configure Your Server.log. To close the Configure Your Server Wizard, click Finish.







C.S Dept.

2008-2012 BATCH