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Project in Music 10

Project in Music 10

A research

A research

On

On

The Period of Romantic Period

The Period of Romantic Period

SY: 2011-2012

SY: 2011-2012

Submitted by:

Submitted by:

Kim John Bernas

Kim John Bernas

Grade 10-BJHS

Grade 10-BJHS

Submitted to:

Submitted to:

Mrs. Maria Rhona E. Sanchez

Mrs. Maria Rhona E. Sanchez

Music Teacher

Music Teacher

II.. HHIISSTTOORRIICCAAL L ANAND D CCUULLTTUURRAALL BACKGROUND OF ROMANTIC PERIOD

BACKGROUND OF ROMANTIC PERIOD Romanticism

Romanticism ((oor r tthhee RRoommaannttiic c EErraa oor r tthhee

"'

"'RoRomamantntic ic PePeririodod"'"') ) wawas s an an arartitististic, c, liliteterarary ry anandd iinntteelllleeccttuuaal l mmoovveemmeennt t tthhaat t oorriiggiinnaatteed d iin n tthhee second half of the 18th century in Europe, and second half of the 18th century in Europe, and g

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Revolution

Revolution..[1][1] IIn n ppaarrtt, , iit t wwaas s a a rreevvoollt t aaggaaiinnsstt

aristocratic social and political norms of the

aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Age of  Enlightenment

Enlightenment aannd d a a rreeaaccttiioon n aaggaaiinnsst t tthhee scientific

scientific rationalizationrationalization oof f nnaattuurree..[2][2] IIt t wwaass

embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, a

annd d lliitteerraattuurree, , bbuut t hhaad d a a mmaajjoor r iimmppaacct t oonn historiography,

historiography,[3][3] educationeducation[4][4] and natural history.and natural history.[5][5]

  T

  The he momovevemement nt vavalilidadateted d ststrorong ng ememototioion n as as anan au

auththenentitic c sosoururce ce of of aestheticaestheticexpexperieriencence, e, plaplacincingg n

neew w eemmpphhaassiis s oon n ssuucch h eemmoottiioonns s aass trepidation,

trepidation, hohorrroror r anand d teterrrroror andand aweawe —  — especiallyespecially

tthhaat t wwhhiicch h iis s eexxppeerriieenncceed d iin n ccoonnffrroonnttiinngg the

the sublimitysublimity oof f uunnttaammeed d nnaattuurre e aannd d iittss p

piiccttuurreessqquue e qquuaalliittiieess, , bbootth h nneew w aaeesstthheettiicc categories. It elevated

categories. It elevated folk artfolk art and ancient customand ancient custom to something noble, made spontaneity a desirable to something noble, made spontaneity a desirable characteristic (as in the musical

characteristic (as in the musical impromptuimpromptu), and), and ar

argugued ed fofor r a a "n"natatururalal" " eepipiststememolologogy y of of huhumamann activities as conditioned by nature in the form of  activities as conditioned by nature in the form of  language and customary usage.

language and customary usage. R

Roommaannttiicciissm m rreeaacchheed d bbeeyyoonndd the

the rationalrational andand ClassicistClassicist ideal models to elevate aideal models to elevate a revived

revived medievalismmedievalism aannd d eelleemmeenntts s oof f aarrt t aanndd narrative perceived to be authentically medieval, in narrative perceived to be authentically medieval, in an attempt to escape the confines of population an attempt to escape the confines of population growth, urban sprawl, and

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Revolution

Revolution..[1][1] IIn n ppaarrtt, , iit t wwaas s a a rreevvoollt t aaggaaiinnsstt

aristocratic social and political norms of the

aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Age of  Enlightenment

Enlightenment aannd d a a rreeaaccttiioon n aaggaaiinnsst t tthhee scientific

scientific rationalizationrationalization oof f nnaattuurree..[2][2] IIt t wwaass

embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, a

annd d lliitteerraattuurree, , bbuut t hhaad d a a mmaajjoor r iimmppaacct t oonn historiography,

historiography,[3][3] educationeducation[4][4] and natural history.and natural history.[5][5]

  T

  The he momovevemement nt vavalilidadateted d ststrorong ng ememototioion n as as anan au

auththenentitic c sosoururce ce of of aestheticaestheticexpexperieriencence, e, plaplacincingg n

neew w eemmpphhaassiis s oon n ssuucch h eemmoottiioonns s aass trepidation,

trepidation, hohorrroror r anand d teterrrroror andand aweawe —  — especiallyespecially

tthhaat t wwhhiicch h iis s eexxppeerriieenncceed d iin n ccoonnffrroonnttiinngg the

the sublimitysublimity oof f uunnttaammeed d nnaattuurre e aannd d iittss p

piiccttuurreessqquue e qquuaalliittiieess, , bbootth h nneew w aaeesstthheettiicc categories. It elevated

categories. It elevated folk artfolk art and ancient customand ancient custom to something noble, made spontaneity a desirable to something noble, made spontaneity a desirable characteristic (as in the musical

characteristic (as in the musical impromptuimpromptu), and), and ar

argugued ed fofor r a a "n"natatururalal" " eepipiststememolologogy y of of huhumamann activities as conditioned by nature in the form of  activities as conditioned by nature in the form of  language and customary usage.

language and customary usage. R

Roommaannttiicciissm m rreeaacchheed d bbeeyyoonndd the

the rationalrational andand ClassicistClassicist ideal models to elevate aideal models to elevate a revived

revived medievalismmedievalism aannd d eelleemmeenntts s oof f aarrt t aanndd narrative perceived to be authentically medieval, in narrative perceived to be authentically medieval, in an attempt to escape the confines of population an attempt to escape the confines of population growth, urban sprawl, and

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attempted to embrace the exotic, unfamiliar, and attempted to embrace the exotic, unfamiliar, and d

diissttaannt t iin n mmooddees s mmoorre e aauutthheennttiicc than

than RococoRococo chinoiseriechinoiserie, harnessing the power of , harnessing the power of 

the imagination to envision and to escape. the imagination to envision and to escape.

 The modern sense of a romantic character may be  The modern sense of a romantic character may be

ex

exprpresessesed d inin ByronicByronic idideaeals ls of of a a ggififteted, d, peperrhahapsps mi

misusundndererststooood d lolonenerr, , crcreaeatitivevely ly fofollllowowining g ththee dictates of his inspiration rather than the standard dictates of his inspiration rather than the standard ways of contemporary society.

ways of contemporary society. A

Alltthhoouuggh h tthhe e mmoovveemmeennt t wwaas s rrooootteed d iin n tthhee German

German Sturm und DrangSturm und Drang movement, which prizedmovement, which prized

iinnttuuiittiioon n aannd d eemmoottiioon n oovveer r EEnnlliigghhtteennmmeenntt rraattiioonnaalliissmm, , tthhe e iiddeeoollooggiiees s aannd d eevveenntts s oof f  the

the FreFrench nch RevRevoluolutiotionn lalaiid d ththe e babackckgrgrouound nd ffroromm w

whhiicch h bbootth h RRoommaannttiicciissm m aannd d tthhee Counter- Counter-Enlightenment

Enlightenment eemmeerrggeedd. . TThhe e ccoonnffiinnees s oof f tthhee In

Induduststririal al ReRevovolulutition on alalso so hahad d ththeieir r ininflflueuencnce e onon Romanticism, which was in part an escape from Romanticism, which was in part an escape from modern realities; indeed, in the second half of the modern realities; indeed, in the second half of the 19th century, "

19th century, "RealismRealism" was offered as a polarized" was offered as a polarized opp

opposiosite te to to RomRomantianticismcism..[6][6] RomantRomanticism icism elevelevatedated

the achievements of what it perceived as heroic the achievements of what it perceived as heroic iinnddiivviidduuaalliisstts s aannd d aarrttiissttss, , wwhhoosse e ppiioonneeeerriinngg examples would elevate society. It also legitimized examples would elevate society. It also legitimized the individual imagination as a critical authority, the individual imagination as a critical authority, which permitted freedom from classical notions of  which permitted freedom from classical notions of 

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form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a zeitgeist , in the

representation of its ideas.

II. DESCRIPTION AND HISTORY OF ROMANTIC MUSIC

Although the term "Romanticism" when applied to music has come to imply the period roughly from the 1820s until around 1900, the contemporary application of "romantic" to music did not coincide with this modern interpretation. In 1810 E.T.A. Hoffmann called Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven the

three "Romantic Composers", and Ludwig

Spohr used the term "good Romantic style" to apply to parts of Beethoven'sFifth Symphony.   Technically, Mozart and Haydn are considered

Classical composers, and by most standards, Beethoven represents the start of the musical Romantic period. By the early 20th century, the sense that there had been a decisive break with the musical past led to the establishment of the 19th century as "  The Romantic Era", and it is referred to as such in the standard encyclopedias of music.

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 The traditional modern discussion of the music of  Romanticism includes elements, such as the growing use of folk music, which are also directly related to the broader current of Romantic nationalism in the arts[23] as well as aspects already

present in 18th-century music, such as

the cantabile accompanied melody[24] to which

Romantic composers beginning with Franz

Schubert applied restless key modulations.

 The heightened contrasts and emotions of Sturm

und Drang (German for "turbulence and

urge(ncy)") seem a precursor of the Gothic novel in literature, or the sanguinary elements of some of  the operas of the period of the French Revolution.

The libretti Lorenzo of   da

Ponte forMozart's eloquent music convey a new sense of individuality and freedom. The romantic generation viewed Beethoven as their ideal of a heroic artist — a man who first dedicated a

symphony to Consul Bonaparte as a champion of  freedom and then challenged Emperor Napoleon by striking him out from the dedication of the Eroica Symphony. In Beethoven's Fidelio he creates the

apotheosis of the 'rescue operas' which were another feature of French musical culture during the revolutionary period, in order to hymn the

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freedom which underlay the thinking of all radical artists in the years of hope after the Congress of  Vienna.

Pyotr Tchaikovsky's wide ranging output includes symphonies, operas, ballets, instrumental and chamber music and songs. He wrote some of the most popular concert and theatrical music in the classical repertoire, including the ballets Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beautyand opera Eugene Onegin.

In the contemporary music culture, the romantic musician followed a public career depending on sensitive middle-class audiences rather than on a courtly patron, as had been the case with earlier

musicians and composers. Public persona

characterized a new generation of virtuosi who made their way as soloists, epitomized in the concert tours of Paganini and Liszt.

Beethoven's use of tonal architecture in such a way as to allow significant expansion of musical forms and structures was immediately recognized as bringing a new dimension to music. His later piano music and string quartets, especially, showed the way to a completely unexplored musical universe. E.T.A. Hoffmann was able to write of the

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supremacy of instrumental music over vocal music in expressiveness, a concept which would previously have been regarded as absurd. Hoffmann himself, as a practitioner both of music and literature, encouraged the notion of music as "programmatic" or narrative, an idea which new audiences found attractive. Early 19th century developments in instrumental technology — iron

frames for pianos, wound metal strings for string

instruments — enabled louder dynamics, more

varied tone colours, and the potential for sensational virtuosity. Such developments swelled the length of pieces, introduced programmatic titles, and created new genres such as the

free-standing concert overture or tone poem, the

piano fantasia, nocturne and rhapsody, and the virtuosic concerto, which became central to musical romanticism.

In opera, a new Romantic atmosphere combining supernatural terror and melodramatic plot in a folkloric context was first successfully achieved by Weber's Der Freischütz (1817, revised 1821).

Enriched timbre and color marked the early orchestration of Hector Berlioz in France, and the grand operas of Meyerbeer. Amongst the radical fringe of what became mockingly

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characterised (adopting Wagner's own words) as "artists of the future", Liszt and Wagner each embodied the Romantic cult of the free, inspired, charismatic, perhaps ruthlessly unconventional individual artistic personality.

 The Romantic-era ballet freed itself both from opera, in which a ballet interlude retained an essential role only in Paris, and from court fêtes, and independently paralleled the developments of  opera with explicit narrative libretti, expressed in lengthy passages of mime, the universal presence of impetuous or ill-fated young love, the supremacy of the ballerina and the choice often of  supernatural subjects: Giselle (1841) remains the

supreme example.

It is the period of 1815 to 1848 which must be regarded as the true age of Romanticism in music – 

the age of the last compositions of Beethoven (d. 1827) and Schubert (d. 1828), of the works of Schumann (d. 1856) and Chopin (d.1849), of the early struggles of Berlioz andRichard Wagner, of  the great virtuosi such as Paganini (d. 1840), and the young Liszt and Thalberg. Now that we are able to listen to the work of Mendelssohn (d. 1847) stripped of the Biedermeier reputation unfairly attached to it, he can also be placed in this more

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appropriate context. After this period, with Chopin and Paganini dead, Liszt retired from the concert platform at a minor German court, Wagner effectively in exile until he obtained royal patronage in Bavaria, and Berlioz still struggling with the bourgeois liberalism which all but smothered radical artistic endeavour in Europe, Romanticism in music was surely past its prime — 

giving way, rather, to the period of musical romantics.

III. PROMINENT COMPOSERS OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD

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Name Da te bor n Da te die d Nation

ality Notable works

Ludwig van

Beethov en

177

0 1827 German Ludwig van Beethoven

regarded by many as

the first Romantic

era composer, famous

for his nine symphonies, thirty-two piano sonatas, sixteen string quartets, ten violin

sonatas and piano trios Ferdina

ndo Carulli

177

0 1841 Italian

composer for the guitar, wrote concertos and cha mber music

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Anton Reicha 1770 1836 Czech composer who experimented with irregular time signatures, has

significant works for

wind quintet  Johann Wilhelm Wilms 177 2 1847 Dutch-Germa n

Best known for

writing Wien Neêrlands Bloed, which served as

the Dutch national

anthem from 1815 to 1932. Bernhar d Henrik Crusell 177

5 1838 Finnish composerand clarinet player

 Johann Nepomu k Hummel 177 8 1837 Austrian

composer and pianist,

his music bridged

the Classical era of   music and Romantic era Fernand

o Sor 1778 1839 Spanish composer the classical guitar whofor

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elevating the guitar to the level of concert instrument

Mauro

Giuliani 1781 1828 Italian composerand virtuoso guitarist Daniel

Auber 1782 1871 French opera composer notedfor La muette de Portici

 John

Field 1782 1837 Irish

composer and pianist,

notable for cultivating the nocturne Niccolò Paganin i 178 2 1840 Italian composer and

virtuoso violinist, wrote the 24

Caprices for violin, five

concerti for violin, string quartets and works for violin and guitar

Louis

Spohr 1784 1859 German

composer, violinist and conductor, renowned for

chamber music and

compositions for violin and harp

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George

Pinto 1785 1806 English

composer, violinist and virtuoso pianist, known for his contribution to the piano repretoire

Carl Maria von Weber 178 6 1826 German composer, conductor,

pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first

significant Romantic opera composers Giacom o Meyerb eer 179 1 1864 German

composer for grand

opera (Il crociato in Egitto, Les Huguenots, L'Africaine) Gioachi no Rossini 179 2 1868 Italian

prolific opera composer,

best known for The

Barber of Seville and

overtures to various other operas Ignaz Moschel es 179 4 1870 Bohemian

composer and piano

virtuoso, head of  

the Leipzig

Conservatory after Felix Mendelssohn

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Franz

Berwald 1796 1868 Swedish

composer, little known in his lifetime, but his works, including his four symphonies are better known today Gaetano Donizett i 179 7 1848 Italian

opera composer, known

for Lucia di

Lammermoor and L'elisir 

d'amore among others

Franz Schuber t 179 7 1828 Austrian Franz Schubert composer, regarded as the first

significant lieder writer, also known for his chamber music, piano

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works and symphonies

Early Romantic era composers (born 1800-1819)  Vincenzo Bellini (1801 – 1835), Italian opera

composer, known for I Puritani, Norma and La

sonnambula among others

   Jean-Baptiste Duvernoy(1802 – 1880), French composer and pianist

 Eliza Flower (1803 – 1846), English composer

 Adolphe Adam (1803 – 1856), French composer best known for his ballet score Giselle

 Hector Berlioz (1803 – 1869), French composer famous for his programmatic symphony,

the Symphonie Fantastique

 Henri Herz (1803 – 1888), Austrian composer and pianist

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 Franz Lachner (1803 – 1890), German composer and conductor, brother of Ignaz Lachner

 Mikhail Glinka (1804 – 1857), Russian nationalist composer, wrote operas such as  A Life for the Tsar 

   Johann Strauss I(1804 – 1849), Austrian dance

music composer famous for the Radetzky March

 Fanny Mendelssohn (1805 – 1847), sister of Felix Mendelssohn, German composer and pianist, remarkable for her vocal compositions and chamber music

   Johann Friedrich Franz Burgmüller(1806 – 1874), German composer and pianist, brother of Norbert Burgmüller

 Ignaz Lachner (1807 – 1895), German conductor, composer and organist, a prolific composer, notable for his chamber music

 Michael William Balfe (1808 – 1870), Irish conductor and composer, remembered for his opera The Bohemian Girl

 Felix Mendelssohn (1809 – 1847), brother of Fanny Mendelssohn, German conductor, music-director, composer and pianist, known for his Violin

Concerto and the Wedding March from A

Midsummer Night's Dream, also wrote five

symphonies including the Symphony No.

4'Italian', and several short lyrical piano pieces

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Frédéric Chopin

 Frédéric Chopin (1810 – 1849), Polish composer

and virtuoso pianist, his output

includes nocturnes, ballades,scherzos, etudes,

and a number of Polish dances such as mazurkas, polonaises, and waltzes (including theMinute Waltz )

 Ferenc Erkel (1810 – 1893), Hungarian composer of grand opera

 Norbert Burgmüller (1810 – 1836), German

composer, praised by Robert Schumann

 Robert Schumann (1810 – 1856), German

composer and pianist, husband of  Clara

Schumann, a significantlieder writer, a prolific composer, wrote many short piano pieces, four symphonies, concerti and chamber music

 Wilhelm Taubert (1811-1891) German Pianist,

Composer and Conductor whose early works received praise from Felix Mendelssohn

 Franz Liszt (1811 – 1886), Hungarian composer and a virtuoso pianist, wrote a number of tone

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poems and extended piano technique, famous

for his Hungarian Rhapsodies and other solo

piano works, one of the most influential and distinguished pianist composers of the Romantic era

 Ferdinand Hiller (1811 – 1885), German composer, conductor, writer and music-director, close friend of Felix Mendelssohn

 Ambroise Thomas (1811 – 1896), French

composer, best known for the

operas Mignon and Hamlet 

 Sigismond Thalberg (1812 – 1871), Swiss

composer and one of the most

distinguished pianists of the Romantic era

 Louis Antoine Jullien (1812 – 1860), French eccentric conductor and composer of light music, king of promenade concerts in England

 Friedrich von Flotow (1812 – 1883), German

composer, chiefly remembered for his

opera Martha

 Stephen Heller (1813 – 1888), Hungarian

composer, highly effected the late-Romantic composers

 Alexandre Dubuque (1812 – 1898),

Russian-resident French composer, known for teaching

 Charles-Valentin Alkan (1813 – 1888), French composer and virtuoso pianist

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 Ernst Haberbier (1813 – 1869), German composer of brilliant piano music

 Giuseppe Verdi (1813 – 1901), major Italian opera composer, best known for Nabucco, Rigoletto, La Traviata and Aida

Richard Wagner

 Richard Wagner (1813 – 1883), major German

opera composer (Der Ring des

Nibelungen, Lohengrin, Tristan und

Isolde, Parsifal among others), also famous for

the widely used Bridal Chorus in marriages.

 Giuseppe Lillo (1814-1863), Italian composer, best known for his operas amongst which is

worth noting Odda di Bernaver and Caterina

Howard

 Adolf von Henselt (1814 – 1889), German

composer and pianist

 Robert Volkmann (1815 – 1883), German

composer, companion of  Johannes Brahms

 William Sterndale Bennett (1816 – 1875), English composer, conductor, and editor

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 Émile Prudent (February 3, 1817  –  May 14, 1863), French pianist and composer

 Károly Thern (1817 – 1886), Hungarian composer, conductor and teacher

 Niels Gade (1817 – 1890), Danish

composer, violinist and organist

 Charles Gounod (1818 – 1893), French composer, best known for his operas Faust and Roméo et   Juliette

 Jacques Offenbach(1819 – 1880),

French opera and operetta composer, known

for The Tales of Hoffmann and Orpheus in the Underworld

 Franz von Suppé (1819 – 1895), Austrian

composer and conductor notable for his operettas

 Clara Schumann (1819 – 1896), German composer and pianist, wife of Robert Schumann, one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era

Middle Romantic era composers (born 1820-1839)

 Henri Vieuxtemps (1820 – 1881), Belgian

composer and violinist

 Giovanni Bottesini (1821 – 1889), Italian

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 Emilie Hammarskjöld (1821 – 1854), Swedish composer, consert pianist and organist

   Joachim Raff (1822 – 1882), Swiss-born German composer, best known for eleven symphonies, most of them program music

 César Franck (1822 – 1890), Belgian-born French composer, noted for his Symphony , also a

significant composer for the organ

 Édouard Lalo (1823 – 1892), French composer

remembered for his Symphonie Espagnole for

violin and orchestra and his Cello Concerto

 Theodor Kirchner(1823-1903), German

composer and pianist, he wrote over 1000 piano pieces.

 Anton Bruckner (1824 – 1896), Austrian composer of nine large-scale symphonies (one incomplete) and two more unacknowledged

 Bedř ich Smetana (1824 – 1884), Czech nationalist composer, perhaps best known for his cycle of  symphonic poems, Má vlast and his opera The Bartered Bride

 Carl Reinecke (1824-1910), German composer,

conductor and pianist, best known for his

attachment to classical forms and

conductedGewandhausorchester for nearly 35 years

 Jean-Baptiste Arban(1825 – 1889), French

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complète pour cornet à pistons et de saxhorn" now referred to as the "Trumpeter's Bible"

 Johann Strauss II(1825 – 1899), Austrian

composer known as "The Waltz King",

composed The Blue Danube and opera Die

Fledermaus, son of the composer Johann Strauss

I and elder brother of  Josef Straussand Eduard Strauss

 Ivar Christian Hallström (1826 – 1901), Swedish opera composer

   Josef Strauss(1827 – 1870), Austrian composer and younger brother of  Johann Strauss II

 Adolphe Blanc (1828 – 1885), French composer of  chamber music

 Anton Rubinstein (1829 – 1894), Russian

conductor, composer and pianist

 Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829 – 1869), American composer famous for performing his own romantic piano works

 Karl Goldmark (1830 – 1915), Hungarian composer  Hans Guido Freiherr von Bülow (1830 – 1894),

German conductor, composer and

virtuoso pianist

 Jan Gerard Palm(1831 – 1906), Curaçao born composer, best known for his mazurkas, waltzes, danzas, tumbas, fantasies, and serenades.

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 August Söderman (1832 – 1876), Swedish composer, best known for his lieder and choral works

 Alexander Borodin (1833 – 1887), Russian chemist and nationalist composer, wrote the opera Prince Igor 

 Johannes Brahms

 Johannes Brahms(1833 – 1897), German

composer, one of the leading musicians of  the Romantic period, famous for his working under and of being compared to Beethoven, and his most influential works include the four symphonies, Violin Concerto (Brahms), two piano concertos, and Double Concerto in A minor for Violin, Cello and Orchestra (1887), aside from his other orchestral works, numerous chamber music and piano music pieces and lieder.

 Amilcare Ponchielli (1834 – 1886), Italian opera

composer known for La Gioconda

   Julius Reubke(1834 – 1858), German piano and

organ composer, known for Sonata on the 94th

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 Camille Saint-Saëns (1835 – 1921), French music critic, composer, pianist and an exceptional organist, renowned for his Organ Symphony ,

numerous concert pieces, pieces of chamber

music, mélodies, Danse Macabre and The

Carnival of the Animals

 Henryk Wieniawski (1835 – 1880), Polish

composer and violinist, famous for two concertos and character pieces of exceptional difficulty

 Eduard Strauss (1835 – 1916), Austrian composer

and younger brother of  Johann Strauss

II and Josef Strauss

 César Antonovich Cui (1835 – 1918), Russian army officer, music critic, composer in Russian Five

 Friedrich Baumfelder (1836 – 1916), German

piano, choral, and orchestra composer, in his day known for his 'Tirocinium musicae' and today known for his 'Melody in F major'

 Léo Delibes (1836 – 1891), one of the first significant ballet composers since the Baroque music, known for Coppélia, Sylvia, and Lakmé

 Bertha Tammelin (1836 – 1915), Swedish

composer, consert pianist and opera singer

 Julius Weissenborn(1837 – 1888),

German bassoonist, composer and music

teacher, famous for his Practical Bassoon School

 Émile Waldteufel (1837 – 1915), French composer of light music

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 Mily Balakirev (1837 – 1910), Russian nationalist composer and leader of the Russian Five

 Georges Bizet (1838 – 1875), French composer of 

the opera Carmen

 Max Bruch (1838 – 1920), German composer,

known for his Violin Concerto No. 1, Scottish Fantasy , and Kol Nidrei for cello and orchestra

 Modest Mussorgsky (1839 – 1881), Russian

nationalist composer known for his intensely nationalist works including his opera Boris Godunov , and Pictures at an Exhibition, part

of Russian Five

   John Knowles Paine(1839 – 1906), first native-born American composer to acquire fame for his large-scale orchestral music

(27)

Late Romantic era composers (born 1840-1859)

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840 – 1893), Russian composer, known for his ballets (The Nutcracker , Swan Lake), his operas (Eugene Onegin), the 1812 Overture, his First Piano

Concerto, his Violin Concerto and hissymphonies

 Johan Svendsen(1840 – 1911), Norwegian

composer, conductor and violinist

 Emmanuel Chabrier (1841 – 1894), French

composer who influenced Maurice Ravel, Les Six, Jean Françaixand many other French composers, known for the opera L'étoile

 Antonín Dvoř ák (1841 – 1904), Czech composer, known for the "New World" Symphony 

(28)

 Arrigo Boito (1842 – 1918), Italian composer and librettist, known as a composer for his opera Mefistofele

   Jules Massenet(1842 – 1912), French composer

best known for his

operas Manon and Werther and theMéditation for

violin from the opera Thaïs

 Arthur Sullivan (1842 – 1900), English composer known for his operettas in collaboration with W. S. Gilbert

 Émile Bernard (1843 – 1902), French composer and organist known for his Divertissement for  Doubled Wind Quintet 

 Edvard Grieg (1843 – 1907), Norwegian composer known for his Piano Concerto, Lyric Pieces for the

piano, and incidental music to Peer Gynt 

 Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844 – 1908), Russian composer and member of  The Five, best known for Flight of the Bumblebee from The Tale of Tsar 

Saltan, Scheherazade, and the Capriccio

Espagnol

 Pablo de Sarasate (1844 – 1908), Spanish virtuoso violinist and composer

 Charles-Marie Widor (1844 – 1937), French

composer, known for his works for the organ

 Gabriel Fauré (1845 – 1924), French composer,

known for his chamber music and

(29)

 Ignaz Brüll (1846 – 1907), Austrian composer and pianist

 Robert Fuchs (1847 – 1927), Austrian composer and music teacher

 Ludwig Philipp Scharwenka (1847 – 1917),

German-Polish composer and music teacher, brother of Xaver Scharwenka

 Henri Duparc (1848 – 1933), French composer, noted for seventeen mélodies

 Hubert Parry (1848 – 1918), English composer, wrote choral song Jerusalem

 Ernesto Köhler (1849 – 1907), Italian flautist and composer, known by flautists for his instructional work Progress in Flute Playing

 Franz Xaver Scharwenka (1850 – 1924), Polish-German composer, pianist and music teacher, brother of Philipp Scharwenka

 Vincent d'Indy (1851 – 1931), French composer, teacher of Erik Satie and Darius Milhaud among others

 Francisco Tárrega (1852 – 1909) Spanish

composer and virtuoso classical guitarist, known as the 'Father of modern classical guitar playing'  Hans Huber (1852 – 1921), Swiss composer

 Ciprian Porumbescu (1853 – 1883), Romanian

(30)

 Engelbert Humperdinck (1854 – 1921), German opera composer influenced by Richard

Wagner, famous for Hänsel und Gretel

 Leoš Janáček (1854 – 1928), Czech composer,

known for his operas Káť a

Kabanová and Jenůfa and orchestral

pieces Sinfonietta andTaras Bulba

 Alfredo Catalani (1854 – 1893), Italian composer, known for the operas Loreley and La Wally 

 Moritz Moszkowski (1854 – 1925), German Jewish composer-pianist who wrote prolifically for the piano, also composed a piano concerto and a violin concerto

 John Philip Sousa(1854 – 1932), American

composer, "The March King"

 Ernest Chausson (1855 – 1899), French composer influenced by Franck and Wagner, seen as a bridge from them to Claude Debussy

 Julius Röntgen(1855 – 1932), German-Dutch

composer influenced by Brahms, close friend to Grieg

 Sergei Ivanovich Taneyev (1856 – 1915), Russian composer, pianist and music teacher

 Edward Elgar (1857 – 1934), English composer, wrote oratorios, chamber

music, concerti and symphonies, most famous for

his Enigma Variations and Pomp and

(31)

 Cécile Chaminade (1857 – 1944), French composer and pianist

 Ruggero Leoncavallo (1858 – 1919), Italian opera composer known almost exclusively for Pagliacci

 Giacomo Puccini (1858 – 1924), Italian opera

composer known forLa bohème, Tosca,

and Madama Butterfly 

 Sergei Lyapunov (1859 – 1924), Russian composer and pianist

(32)

Romantic era/20th century transition composers (born 1860-1880)

 Isaac Albéniz (1860 – 1909), Spanish composer,

known for nationalist piano works such

as Iberia and a 'set of 12 piano pieces'

 Gustave Charpentier (1860 – 1956), French

composer best known for his opera Louise

Gustav Mahler

 Gustav Mahler (1860 – 1911), Austrian composer, one of the most important late-Romantic/early-Modernist composers, his works include nine

innovative large-scale and sometimes

programmatic symphonies, and many lieder

 Edward MacDowell (1860 – 1908), American

composer best known for his piano concertos and piano suites, his works include his most popular short piece, "To a Wild Rose"

 Hugo Wolf (1860 – 1903), Austrian composer of lieder, influenced by Richard Wagner

 Anton Arensky (1861 – 1906), Russian

(33)

 Claude Debussy (1862 – 1918), French composer, one of the most prominent figures working within the field of Impressionist music, known for his

compositions Clair de Lune (from Suite

bergamasque), Deux Arabesques, and many

others

 Frederick Delius (1862 – 1934), English composer, used chromaticism in many of his compositions  Pietro Mascagni (1863 – 1945), Italian opera

composer, known for Cavalleria rusticana

 Ricardo Castro (1864 – 1907), Mexican composer, works include piano music

Richard Strauss

 Richard Strauss (1864 – 1949), German composer, known for  Also sprach Zarathustra("Thus Spoke

Zarathustra"), wrote many tone

poems, operas and lieder

 Paul Dukas (1865 – 1935), French composer,

known for his piece of program music The

(34)

 Alexander Glazunov (1865 – 1936), Russian composer, influenced by Wagner and Liszt

 Carl Nielsen (1865 – 1931), Danish composer, renowned for his six symphonies and concerti

   Jean Sibelius(1865 – 1957), Finnish nationalist composer of seven symphonies, known for

the symphonic poem Finlandia and Violin

Concerto

 Ferruccio Busoni (1866 – 1924), Italian composer and pianist, known for his opera Turandot and his

many transcriptions and arrangements of  Johann Sebastian Bach

 Samuel Maykapar (1867 – 1938), Russian

composer

 Umberto Giordano (1867 – 1948),

Italian opera composer

 Enrique Granados (1867 – 1916), Spanish

composer and pianist, known for his piano works and chamber music

 Wilhelm Peterson-Berger (1867 – 1942), Swedish composer, wrote symphonies, operas, vocal and piano music

 Amy Beach (1867 – 1944), American composer and pianist

 Vittorio Monti (1868 – 1922), Italian

composer, violinist, and conductor

 Zygmunt Stojowski (1869/70 – 1946), Polish

(35)

   Julius Conus(1869 – 1942), Russian composer and violinist

 Franz Lehár (1870 – 1948), Hungarian composer, mainly known for his operettas

 Guillaume Lekeu (1870 – 1894), Belgian (Wallon) composer, known for his violin sonata

 Henry Kimball Hadley (1871 – 1937), American composer and conductor, composed the opera Cleopatra's Night 

 Oreste Ravanello (1871 – 1938), Italian composer, known for works for choir, and for organ

 Alexander Zemlinsky (1871 – 1942), Austrian composer and music teacher, his students include Schoenberg and Korngold

 Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872 – 1958), English

composer, his works include

nine symphonies, Fantasia on Greensleeves, and

other orchestral poems

 Hugo Alfvén (1872 – 1960), Swedish composer, known for Swedish Rhapsody , works include

choral music, and five symphonies

 Alexander Scriabin (1872 – 1915), Russian, known

for his harmonically adventurous piano

(36)

Sergei Rachmaninoff 

 Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873 – 1943), Russian

composer, conductor and virtuoso pianist, wrote

threesymphonies, four piano

concertos, Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini and

solo piano music

 Max Reger (1873 – 1916), prolific German

composer, known for his Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Mozart 

 Reynaldo Hahn (1874 – 1947), Venezuelan

composer, known for his strikingly beautiful and unabashedly tonal melodies

 Arnold Schoenberg (1874 – 1951), Austrian

composer, whose early works (e.g. "Verklarte Nacht") are influenced by Mahler, but subsequently developed atonalism and serialism with such watershed works as "Moses und Aron"  Franz Schmidt (1874 – 1939), Austrian composer,

influenced by Bruckner and Brahms

 Maurice Ravel (1875 – 1937), French composer, despite a limited number of compositions,

References

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