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The Magic of Christmas


Academic year: 2021

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ISBN 934-979-275-7



Original title: The Magic of Christmas

Copyright © 1984. Ms. Mary Sun B. Pacheco (Gypsy).

Copyright © 2002. Urantia. Development Center for a New Age. Caracas.


Copyright © 2005. Urantia. Development Center for a New Age. Caracas.


The rights of this work owned by Mrs. Mary Sun Pacheco B. (Gypsy) and

Urantia. Development Center for a New Age. Therefore, it is strictly

forbidden to reproduce any part by any means, including photocopying,













I thank God for giving me

The Gift of Christmas, and have taught me

The true sense of rebirth.

I thank my father, wherever HE is

In this vast universe of stars

Nativity ... Thanks ...

I thank life that leads me

The route of the North Star

Beyond the myths and truths.


I thank my daughters for being part of my All.

I thank my mother for making this all understandable.

I thank my teachers: of trades and life.

Causing doubts, revealing truths.

And all of them

And for myself

I pray that the light of Eternal Christmas

Staying forever

in the heart of every one of you.

I hope this material will awaken the spark of understanding and,


Understand what it really means to say: MERRY CHRISTMAS!

With all my love to you all!











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When the leaves begin to fall calendar, as the year progresses rapidly toward its end, when December starts to become increasingly close and obviously, something happens in humans. A kind of magic sky surrounds us all. Nobody can say exactly what happens!, But it happens.

A strange need to express begins to emerge. Some are stunned in the shops wonnering what to spend, some took refuge in their sad memories, which seem to emerge more


clearly at this time. Most seek to share with others, give and take, exchange heat and affection, that's when it becomes truce in the wars, when concerned about abandoned children, disabled, stray animals, the elderly alone. It begins to make plans and purposes to make amends from again next year: "I do diet," "I will start collecting money to buy a house" or "car", "I will be more sympathetic to others "," I will leave the alcoholic beverages, "" I forget the cigarette ", etc.. All this happens as a flood in less than 45 days before returning to the same, after 7 January.

But what really happens in this time of year? Why do we say, almost unconsciously: Smells like Christmas!? What is special about this time that we can not escape its magic? To all concerned: the good become more good, become more grumpy curmudgeon. The depressed detest more than ever see the happiness of others, but obviously affects us all.

Christmas, a time of love, peace, harmony, reconciliation, forgiveness, food, drink, music, feasts, reflections, memories, ornaments, gifts, lights, odors, cold and snow in the north, hot and sunny in the South, all together. What is it really? What does it mean? What in heaven when it December? Why the Nativity of Jesus is at this date and not in another? What real relationship between the tree and Christmas, Santa Claus, the Spirit of Christmas, Candlemas, the star, candles ...?

What is the real hidden symbolism of Christmas is what we will try to unravel. I invite you to know THE MAGIC OF CHRISTMAS!



Every twenty (23) hours, fifty-six (56) minutes, forty (40) seconds, the earth goes round on itself, ending its daily rotation. Similarly, every three hundred sixty five (365) days, five (5) hours, forty-eight (48) minutes and forty-six (46) finished second to make a complete travel around the Central Star, ie. the Sun. This movement is causing the effect of apparent movement of the heavenly constellations westward.

The earth rotation movement leads us to establish an axis of rotation, in order to establish specific points on the Earth's surface. The intersection of this axis with the surface of the earth represents the two poles. In turn, the Earth moves around the Sun on an orbit located in an imaginary plane called the ecliptic. The axis of rotation to the ecliptic form an angle of sixty-six degrees, thirty minutes (66 ° 30 '). The combination of these two movements (rotation and translation) determines the incidence of the sun's rays on the surface of our planet. The inclination of the axis of rotation and translational movement is what gives rise to the four seasons.

When the North Pole is tilted toward the Sun in the Northern Hemisphere's summer. When the North Pole is tilted away from the Sun in the Northern Hemisphere's winter. Between these two there is a moment in which the North Pole begins to lose light and receives the South Pole first. This usually happens between 22 and 23 September (Autumn Equinox), when day and night are equal length. Between 20 and 23 December, the Sun appears to move away from Ecuador and begins the Winter Solstice. The sun falls perpendicularly on the Tropic of Capricorn by our shorter days and longer nights. We will not further explain the rest of the seasons, as the winter solstice is the point that interests us, for now.

When the Sun in your virtual tour of the earth's surface is at the South Pole and embarks on his way to the North Pole, at that exact moment is the Winter Solstice, the beginning of winter in the Northern Hemisphere. This happens between 21 and 23 December. The inaccuracy in the timing of commencement of the stations is that the translational motion is regular, while the rotation is not. There years that the average speed of rotation is accelerated to decrease rapidly in the following.

If the exact time of the solstice is variable, how do we know?

Well, the Sun and the planets move on a defined band in the sky. This band is what we know as the Zodiac and is centered on the ecliptic, which is the projection of Earth's orbit on the sphere of heaven. Looking at the sky, from our planet, the sun moves across virtually the three hundred sixty degrees (360 °) of the zodiacal band once a year. Four specific signs determine the start of the season. When the Sun in March, touch zero degrees (0 °) of Aries begins the sidereal year or cosmic, begins the spring, the vernal equinox. By June 22 when the sun touches the zero degree (0 °) of Cancer, the summer solstice. The Autumn Equinox arrives in September at 22, when the Sun passes through zero degrees (0 °) of Libra. Finally we have the Winter Solstice, between 21 and 23 December, when the sun touches the zero degree (0 °) the sign of Capricorn. In that instant, zero degrees, zero minutes, one second of Capricorn (0 ° 0'01 ") is announcing the entry Solstice Winter. Of course, the entry indicating dates Equinoxes and Solstices, for the entry of the annual seasons depends on other factors.


An ephemeris hand show us the precise dates of HMG required, simply convert to the corresponding local time. Similarly, over the Internet can locate the place time and date through various local sites.

Knowing these dates, whatever is not an astrologer or astronomer, us aware of our place in the known universe in the solar system.

The Aries Point (or vernal equinox) and the Point Libra (or autumnal equinox) are points of departure.

The Aries Point is one in which the Sun crosses the Southern Hemisphere to the North, which, as mentioned, occurs around March 21 (Spring Equinox in the northern autumn equinox in the South). It has zero declination and right ascension 0h (starts to tell the RA and the zodiacal constellations), however, due to the precession of the equinoxes, this point has fallen slowly since it was calculated and is now in the constellation Pisces ( that is, should be called Point Pisces).

Libra is the point diametrically opposite to Aries, and indicates the point where the Sun crosses the south of the northern hemisphere, which occurs by 21 September (spring equinox in the southern autumnal equinox in the North). It has zero declination and right ascension 12h, due to the precession of the equinoxes, this point has also fallen slowly since it was calculated and is now in the constellation Virgo (ie point should be called Virgo).

The precession of the equinoxes (day and night equal) and solstices (day> evening / night> day) determine the four annual seasons are the periods of the year when the weather conditions continue, in a certain region, within a certain range. These periods last about three months and are called spring, summer, autumn and winter, although in areas where land goes exactly parallel Ecuador or 00 are just two seasons, dry season and rainy season, because in them varies rainfall dramatically, but not the temperature. Since 07 is observed parallel the four seasonal changes clearly.

Because of the eccentricity of the orbit, the seasons do not have the same length as the Earth crosses their path with variable speed. Goes faster the closer the Sun and slower the further away. Therefore, the rigor of each station is not the same for both hemispheres. Our planet is closer to the Sun in early January (perihelion) that in early July (aphelion), which makes you get 7% more heat in the first month of the year since the middle of it. For this reason, overall, among other factors, the winter is warmer than the southern and the southern summer is hotter than the northern.

Because of disturbances experienced by the Earth as it rotates around the sun, it passes through the solstices and equinoxes with accuracy, which motivates the different stations do not always start at the same moment.

The Northern (or boreal or northern) is a classical geodetic divisions into which the Earth. Includes Europe, North America, the Arctic, most of Asia, much of Africa, northern South America and some smaller islands of Oceania.


The seasons occur in reverse to the Southern Hemisphere. Thus the summer extends from June to September, while the winter it does between December and March. Because perihelion occurs in January, the summer is longer than the southern and warmer, conversely, the winter is shorter than the southern and less severe.

Historically, the Northern Hemisphere has been considered a rich and developed hemisphere, in contrast to the South, mainly due to the existence of European countries, USA and Japan in this area. About 90% of the world population lives in this hemisphere, especially in China and India.

Winter lasts from the winter solstice (usually December 22) to the Vernal Equinox (usually March 20), while summer lasts from the summer solstice (usually June 21) until the Autumn Equinox (usually the September 21).

The Arctic is the region north of the Arctic Circle. Its climate is characterized by cold winters and cool summers. Most precipitation falls as snow. In the Arctic summer may experience some days when the sun never sets, and some winter days when the sun never rises. The duration of these phases varies from one day in the places near the Arctic Circle to several months near the North Pole itself.

Among the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer is the North Temperate Zone. Changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally mild, rather than extreme hot or cold. However, a temperate climate can have very unpredictable weather.

The tropics (between the Tropic of Cancer and Ecuador), are generally warm throughout the year and tend to experience a rainy season during the summer and a winter dry season.

In the Northern Hemisphere, objects moving through or above the surface of the Earth tend to turn right by the Coriolis effect. As a result, the flow of air or water tend to form large-scale shifts in the direction of clockwise north of Ecuador. This is reflected in patterns of ocean circulation in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. To the south of Ecuador, the spins are reversed.

For the same reason, the air flows towards the north of the Earth's surface tend to spread over the entire surface in a pattern clockwise. Therefore, the airflow is characteristic clockwise high pressure cell of time in the Northern Hemisphere. By contrast, the increase of air from the north to the surface of the Earth (creating a low pressure region) tends to draw air into an opposite pattern. Hurricanes and tropical storms (low pressure mass systems) spin counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (Southern Hemisphere). During the day the sun tends to maximize its position in the south, while in the southern hemisphere rises to a maximum in the direction of Ecuador). In both hemispheres, the Sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

Moon also appears "upside down" compared to a view from the Southern Hemisphere. The North Pole is facing outward from the galactic center of the Milky Way, this translates into the existence of a much smaller and less bright stars visible in the Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern Hemisphere, which the Northern


Hemisphere is most suitable for the observation of deep space, it is not "blinded" by the Milky Way.


We have the scientific explanation, but what actually happens?

Our ancestors (now seems wiser than us) lived according to cosmic cycles. Many scholars attribute this to the fact of the existence of social groups basically agricultural and natural cycles needed to know to take better advantage of the earth. Ironically, today there is strong evidence showing that an important part in the mismatch of mankind, is represented in the loss of contact that man has insisted on having with Nature, Mother Earth.

After exchange of nomadic to sedentary, homo added more knowledge to those already handled: was guided by the stars and made long hours without getting lost, the flight of birds, the smell of the earth, the appearance of the clouds, we indicated the presence of drought and the proximity of the rains, the behavior of some animals were also signs, as what has been called Groundhog Day (Candlemas Day or Candelas), announcing the more the winter remained. The man lived in harmony with the vibrations of the Earth.


Considering that most of the known population was located in the Northern Hemisphere, it was obvious she felt the rigor or the benevolence of the seasons and learn to know and differentiate locating dates and environmental changes for each. Now, what does it mean, specifically, the Solstice for man?

Just as the Spring and Autumn Equinoxes point with days and nights of equal length, the Solstices tell of days or nights longer, depending on summer or winter. Thus, man was learning how the Language of Nature she was explaining the reason for the phenomena which he lived.

In the Christian world, for example, we have the summer solstice coincides with the feast of San Juan Bautista. It represents the triumph of darkness, the Gate of Men. Provided the dark but not as evil as the lack of Divine Illumination. Represents fertility through the sign Cancer. The Winter Solstice, in turn, coincides with the feast of St. John the Evangelist, and represents the triumph of Light, the Gate of the Gods, the moment when the divine light to settle down in the hearts of men. In the first, the peak of the light gives way to darkness, while the second peak of darkness gives way to the Light. Note that these concepts were handled by the so-called pagans, many centuries before the entry of Christianity and still manage. I know that many people understand it will cost but ignorance of knowledge has helped put a blindfold over the eyes of the majority. Although, for the West, Christianity is the most popular religion is not the only one. Ironically it is the most divided and full of sects, which originate from the Vatican itself, plus much of their celebrations or commemorations are taken from existing festivals from previous centuries.

As noted above, in the Winter Solstice, the Sun is at the South Pole and embarks on his way north. The peak of midnight begins to descend. It is the cosmic cycle of inner sun. Hienal Solstice represents the birth of the sun, you understand as birth appeared on the horizon.

Among the Greeks and Latins Pythagoreans the arrival of the solstice is the time of the appearance of Janus (Ianus), the porter who gives birth to January, the month that begins the year of our current calendar. He (Janus) is who has the keys (Gold and Silver) that open the doors to the Two-Way Path of Life. Represents the God of Initiation.

Many cultures, for centuries, have been held at this time the arrival of the Light of the world and the Light of the world. So the Romans celebrated the Saturnalia or the Saturnalias, the Norse Odin paid tribute to the Persians celebrated the birth of the god Mithras.

To all mankind, this date has always been something special. Since the ancient world was centered in the North (at least known) for all coincided with the coming of winter. So-called heathen peoples paid homage to the God of Light for their delivery, it was the God they knew, to spend a winter not too hard and be eligible for a fruitful spring. Christmas, Christmas present, did not exist until the fourth century (354 AD), when Pope Julius I set and announced that from then on, the official day of birth of the Messiah would be provided on 25 December. The Bible itself provides very accurate


data makes feasible that this date has nothing to do with Jesus, the Emmanuel. However, that December 25 was not a casual choice. It was a ruse, a clever way and nothing arbitrary set the most important date for Christianity, just about them called pagan festivities. Winter Feasts of the Church was to remove and beginning on the date of the Solstice reached its peak for 25.

However, many of these pagan traditions were sincretizadas by Christianity and have extended until today. Unless some rituals basically Christian, Jewish essence though, almost all the traditions we associate with these dates come to us from long ago, even today the exact dates vary for some days. Many centuries before the advent of Christianity.

Just to clear up the confusion (in some cases) and lack of documentation (other), we will try to learn the origin and meaning of some of the most important traditions associated with Christmas.


Sometimes, we seem to forget that we live on a planet full of cultures, religions and traditions of many different types, and we seem to close in on a single perspective.


Deaf, within even the unique perspective to everything that seem strange to be different from what is heard or learned from childhood.

Given that the Western tradition extract is basically Christian, your Christmas is one of the main celebrations. And if we consider that we are governed by the calendar can only understand how Christmas in the Northern Hemisphere coincided with the Winter Solstice, while it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere. We must remember that we are talking about symbolic dates currently are not necessarily their origin or geographical location, most are still held collectively.

However, Christmas is experienced in almost all parts of the world but in a very different way. Traditions, beliefs, colors, food ... everything changes depending on where you are.

The streets are illuminated with colored lights, for example, in Spain, the squares are filled with typical markets, families gather on Christmas Eve (December 24) with midnight mass at twelve o'clock, in Christmas (December 25) meet with the family, and December 31 (years old), more collectively, to dismiss the year. Dressing tables, decorated with poinsettias, candles ... etc.., Typical food such as lamb, cabbage, turkey, nuts, nougat and marzipan.

On New Year's Eve, New Year's Eve, at present, are prepared in front of the TV with the twelve grapes they are taken to the sound of bells. A tradition that was generated from a purely commercial reason as some winemakers in Alicante saw the need to dispose of surplus grapes, a very good crop year. Thus the ritual tradition has remained to this day, including on other countries.

The houses are decorated with Christmas carols, nativity scenes, Christmas trees ... In Germany the day after Christmas dinner, the children look forward to the gifts. When it rings a bell (which is placed behind the classroom door), children run away because they know that under the tree are his gifts, but ... can not open them until they sing the traditional carol Silent Night "Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht."

In Belgium the habit of going out to skate on Christmas Day after a typical family meal. The whole family gets the skids and slides down the icy rivers. San Nicolas, visit the December 4, children of the city to verify that they have been good and two days later returned to make gifts and candy to those who have been good and a stick in the shoe to the most mischievous .

The Finns were hung from the branches like Christmas tree rows of flags from different countries as a symbol of brotherhood between peoples and cultures. Have an ancient tradition: the "Pikkujoulu" or "Little Christmas", which is that during the days before Christmas Eve, after working hours, the family gathers for the Christmas decorations in homes.

Christmas in France beginning on 6 December with the arrival of St. Nicholas, who brings presents to children, although the Christmas atmosphere you can breathe from the November 25, the day of Sainte Catherine. Is widespread advent calendar and each


day that passes you have to open one of its windows. This tradition continues in the U.S. and each day comes a sweet, sweet, or figurine alluding to the time.

The vast majority of Irish are Catholic, so Christmas traditions are basically Christian. One of the most unique traditions of the Christmas decorations are candles in Ireland, as was initially in Germany. Place a large white candle in the driveway or in a window. This ensures the smallest lights house on Christmas Eve as a symbol to welcome the Holy Family and may only be extinguished by a girl or a woman named Mary.

In Italy the last night of the year, "Notte di Capodanno" is typical to eat a plate of beans before going to the usual party at any of the clubs in the place. Women are the gift tonight red lingerie, to have luck all year. In Rome and Naples, arriving twelve at night, pull the lumber to start the new year off right.

"A gift, a poem," Christmas is the theme in Latvia. On the night of Christmas Eve, just after dinner, look next to the Christmas tree, but no one can catch him without first reciting a little poem. Another custom is to gather logs and bonfires lit with them year-end, to end all the ills and problems before the new year.

In Poland the traditional nativity scene includes puppets, unique in the world. In the manger there is a small stage for puppet theater. They usually represent classic episodes of Christ's birth and satirical stories and customs. On Christmas Eve the whole family gathers for dinner and as usual, in all places a table covered more than normal and a sheet of wafer that diners leave as a symbol of reconciliation.

UK Christmas without the traditional mistletoe would not be the same. Protects against the demons and bring luck to the household. Christmas in Britain would not be the same without the "crackers", exploding firecrackers to break in two. They contain a hat, a surprise gift and a joke.

Because alcohol excesses committed in Switzerland during the Christmas celebrations, has appeared an association calling itself "Red Nose" Here, watch for drivers who seem to be a little drunk and offered to bring in your car until home. Hopefully the "Red Nose" would spread to many places, not just at Christmas, alcohol has become a pandemic virus.

On December 6 is the day of San Nicolao, who was accompanied by his assistant Schmuzli, which in German means "laughing inside." The two visits to all children in your notebook and check if you have been good. If so, give them little bags with dates, walnuts, mandarin oranges, figs and chocolate.

The Jewish tradition clearly does not celebrate Christmas, but during the month of December to coincide with the Christmas season with the celebration of "Hanukkah," a Jewish holiday in which children receive gifts from family. This holiday takes place evidently only in the family and private or in the case concerned Jewish religious schools.

In Southern Hemisphere countries like Australia Christmas has the peculiarity that is held during summer, so the classic Christmas atmosphere with snow and cold we are used, there is transformed into Santa Claus beaches and summer.


In the Philippines, one of the few Catholic countries the majority in its population, as was a Spanish colony, Christmas is celebrated very similarly to traditional, including midnight mass and other traditions, resulting from the former having the inhabitants of these lands, with others that they came from old Europe.

Clay lamps line the walls of homes in India, as is done during the Hindu festival of Diwali. In addition, poinsettias decorate many churches for midnight mass.

The tradition of Russian Babushka's own. According to legend this is a Christmas figure who distributes gifts to good children, and who declined to go to Jesus with other scholars from the cold.

Each country has its customs, every place has its tradition, but everyone in one way or another, celebrate their Christmas.

Christmas is a special time for many people around the world. This essentially celebrates the birth of Jesus. It's like celebrating a special anniversary.

Ignorance of the most controversial becomes how to mark in other countries and cultures, linking this date exclusively to the birth of Jesus and despise everything that does not originate in the Catholic Church and its rituals. This is demeaning, because until the real celebration offends. It is understood that the Vatican defend their religion, but not offend or harass those who do not share or folded into other. Aside from being studious of religion and my love of Christmas that has personal origins, essence'm Christian and my knowledge, far away from the concept, I was much closer then gave me a level of understanding far broader, more more spiritual and universal.

The celebration of this important event such as Christmas, cause sometimes reactions to some rare and strange, they do not understand that it is reminiscent of ancient traditions present throughout the world.

In Norway hide all brooms and mops on the eve of Christmas, it is traditionally believed that witches and other evil spirits flying out in the middle of the night to fly around the house.

Two weeks before Christmas, children in Yugoslavia come quietly to her mother tied her feet and shouting, "Mother's Day, Mother's Day, they'll leave you for free?" Then she gives gifts! The following week the children do the same trick on their father and they (the children) receive even more gifts.

In Portugal, the feast called "Consoda" is held on Christmas morning. Extra points are placed on the table for the souls of the dead. Food offered in the hope that this will bring luck back to the family during the next year.

The Italians decided to leave behind using a Christmas tree and chose small wooden pyramids with fruit which decorate. This is much better for the environment and health, as the fruits are eaten at the end.


In Caracas, Venezuela, the streets were blocked on Christmas Eve so that people could ride their skateboards to the church. The reason for not walking to the church is unclear and remains a mystery to this day that, like many others, this tradition has almost disappeared.

Ukraine is considered good luck finding a web in your Christmas tree on Christmas morning. So it has become a tradition to place Ukrainian artificial cobwebs in the trees as part of the decoration.

Red Christmas cards may be popular in the world but in Japan would be considered in bad taste. Because they send their funeral notes in red cards.

December is supposed to be a joyful time to get into the holiday spirit and spend time with family. In parts of Austria, and Switzerland Babaria, the last month of the year is also a special time for children to be frightened evil! Traditionally, young people dress up as Krampus, a demonic creature equipped with bells and sticks, which are usually accompanied by Nikolaus (a kind of Santa Claus) and wander the streets to scare children and adults. This is called a Krampuslauf.

Christmas is a dish Kiviak Greenland. This is done using the alkaline raw meat (a game bird water) which has been buried under a stone wrapped in sealskin for several months, until it has reached an advanced state of decomposition. It smells like old blue cheese flavor is very sharp.

In Colombia, people place lighted balloons fly through the air during the night of Christmas as an expression of joy and happiness for this special date. Unfortunately these balloons caused extensive damage when they fell on the houses of other people and burned, so they were banned.

Christmas (Latin: Nativitas birth), is a party originally intended to celebrate the annual birth of the God-Sun in the Winter Solstice (natalis Solis invicti) and adapted by the Catholic Church in the third century AD. C. to allow conversion of the Gentiles. This feast is celebrated on December 25 by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Church some other Protestant churches and the Romanian Orthodox Church, and on January 7 in other Orthodox churches because they did not accept the reforms made to the Julian calendar, to pass the current timetable, called Gregorian, name of your reformer, the Pope Gregory XIII.

Anglophones use the term Christmas, which means "Mass (mass) of Christ." In some Germanic languages such as German, the party called Weihnachten, which means 'blessed night'. The Christmas holidays are proposed, as the name suggests, celebrate the Nativity (ie birth) of Jesus of Nazareth.

For some historians the historical celebration of Christmas should be in Spring (April-May), and others, following the story of Luke 2:8, indicating that the night of Jesus' birth, shepherds tending flocks in the air free and that the sky was full of stars. This confirms that it is unlikely that this event had occurred in the winter (Northern Hemisphere). The Christian Church, however, maintains the December 25 date as conventional, as in the Spring or Fall the Church celebrates Easter.


According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, Christmas is not included in the list of Christian holidays of Irenaeus, and Tertullian in the list on the same topic, which are lists oldest known. The earliest evidence of concern about the date of Christmas is in Alexandria, circa 200 AD, when Clement of Alexandria states that certain Egyptian theologians "very curious" assign not only the year but also the day actual birth of Christ as 25 Pashons Coptic (May 20) in the twenty-eighth year of Augustus. From 221, in the work Chronographiai, Sextus Julius Africanus popularized the 25 December as the birthday of Jesus. By the time the Council of Nicaea in 325, the Alexandrian Church had already set the Díes nativitatis et epifaníae.

Pope Julius I in 350 asked that the birth of Christ was celebrated on December 25, which was decreed by Pope Liberius in 354. The first mention of a Christmas feast on that date in Constantinople, dating from 379, under Gregory Nazianzen. The feast was introduced in Antioch about 380. In Jerusalem, Egeria, in the fourth century witnessed the feast of the presentation, forty days after January 6, February 15, it must have been the date of the birth. The December feast reached Egypt in the fifth century

At Antioch, probably in 386, John Chrysostom urged the community to join the celebration of the birth of Christ with that of December 25, although part of the community and kept that day for at least ten years before.

In the Roman Empire, the celebrations of Saturn during the week of the solstice, which were the main social event, reached its peak on 25 December. To make it easier for the Romans could become Christians without abandoning their festivities, Pope Julius I in 350 asked that the birth of Christ was celebrated on that date.

Some maintain that December 25 was adopted only in the fourth century as a Christian holiday after the Roman emperor Constantine the Great converted to Christianity, to encourage a common religious festival and convert pagans to Christianity. The reading of historical records indicates that the first mention of such a feast in Constantinople did not happen until 379, under St. Gregory Nazianzen. In Rome, can be confirmed only when a document is mentioned about the year 350, but with no mention of the penalty by the Emperor Constantine.

The early Christians celebrated mainly the Epiphany, when the Magi visited the baby Jesus. This is still celebrated in Argentina, Armenia, Spain, Ecuador, Peru, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Colombia, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

For the Eastern Churches the Epiphany is more important than the Nativity, as it is the day when released to the world in the person of aliens.

Some traditions of Christmas, particularly in Scandinavia, have their origins in the celebrations as the Germanic Yule, and as the Christmas tree is transferred to the party. There is called Christmas Yule (or Jul).

During the Protestant Reformation, the celebration of the birth of Christ was banned by some Protestant churches, calling it "the papists Traps" to "Claws of the beast" because of his relationship with Catholicism and ancient paganism. After the parliamentary victory against King Charles I during the English Civil War in 1647, the rulers English Puritans banned the celebration of Christmas. The people rebelled making several riots


to take major cities such as Canterbury, where the doors decorated with slogans that spoke of the sanctity of the party. The Restoration of 1660 ended the ban, but many of the reformist clergy, non-conforming, rejecting the Christmas celebrations, using Puritan arguments.

In colonial times the United States, New England Puritans rejected the Christmas and its celebration was outlawed in Boston from 1659 to 1681. At the same time, Christian residents of Virginia and New York followed the celebrations freely. Christmas fell into displeasure of the United States after the Revolution, when it was considered an English custom.

In the 1820s, sectarian tension in England had eased and British writers began to worry, because Christmas was dying out. Because imagine Christmas as a time of celebration sincere efforts were made to revive the party. The book of Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, "published in 1843, played an important role in reinventing Christmas party, emphasizing family, goodwill, compassion and family celebration.

Christmas was declared a federal holiday in the United States in 1870, a law signed by President Ulysses S. Grant, but it is still debatable by a party different Puritan leaders of the nation.

Today, "The Jehovah's Witnesses," one of the many sects of Christianity becomes not celebrate Christmas a pagan holiday, considering also reject it on December 25 the true date of birth of Jesus Christ, because in "the Jewish calendar, the month that falls between November and December is the month called Kislev," which "is cold and rainy." Then comes Tebet, between December and January is the month with the lowest temperatures of the year and even some snow in the highlands. Referring to the Gospel of Luke 2:8-12 say that when Jesus was born, there were shepherds in the fields, spending the night outdoors with their flocks, which would not be possible if it were winter.

The actual date of Jesus' birth is not recorded in the Bible. For this reason, not all Christian denominations agree on the same date. The origins of this celebration, December 25, are located in the customs of the ancient peoples who celebrated during the Winter Solstice (since 21 December), a party related to God or the Gods of the Sun as Apollo and Helios (in Rome and Greece), Mitra (in Persia), Huitzilopochtli (in Tenochtitlan), among others. Some cultures believed that the Sun God was born on December 21, the shortest day of the year, and the days became longer as the God he grew older. In other cultures it was believed that the Sun God died that day, only to return for another cycle.

When Julius Caesar introduced his calendar in 45 a. C., on December 25 should be between 21 and 22 December our Gregorian Calendar. In this event, the early Christians took the idea of Dec. 25 as the date of the birth of Jesus Christ.

Some experts have tried to calculate the birth date of Jesus taking the Bible as a source, as in Luke 1:5-14 states that at the time of the conception of John the Baptist, his father Zechariah, Obadiah group priest, officiated in the Temple of Jerusalem, Luke 1:24-36, Jesus was born approximately six months after John. 1 Chronicles 24:7-19 indicates that there were 24 groups of priests who served in shifts in the temple and the group he


belonged Obadiah the eighth inning. Counting bats since the beginning of the year, the group of Obadiah was assigned to serve in early June (8 to 14 of the third month of the Hebrew lunar calendar). Following this hypothesis, if the pregnancies of Elizabeth and Mary were normal, Juan Jesus was born in March and September. This date would be consistent with the indication of the Bible (Luke 2:8), whereby the night of Jesus' birth the shepherds tending flocks in the open air, which could hardly have occurred in December. Any calculation of the birth of Jesus must be set to this primary source, so that the correct date should be between September and October, early Fall. In addition, you should take into account the census ordered by Caesar at the birth of the Son of God, which obviously could not have been in December, a period of intense cold in Jerusalem, the reason is that the Jewish people was prone to rebellion and would have been unwise to order a census at this time of year.

As were weekly shifts, as confirmed by the Dead Sea Scrolls, discovered in Qumran, each group served twice a year and again it was for the group of Obadiah's turn at the end of September (from 24 to 30 of the eighth month Jewish). Taking this date as a starting point, John was born in late June and late December Jesus. Thus, some early Christian writers (John Chrysostom, 347-407) taught that Zechariah received the message about the birth of John in the Day of Atonement, which came in September or October. Moreover, according to historians, when the Temple was destroyed in AD 70, the group was serving priestly Jehoiarib. If the priestly service was not interrupted from the time of Zechariah to the destruction of the temple, this calculation has to turn to Obadiah in the first week of October, so some believe that the January 6 may be the right day.

In an anonymous treatise on Solstices and Equinoxes stated that "Our Lord was conceived on 8 April in the calends of March (March 25), which is the day of the Lord's Passion and philosophies, it was conceived the same day he died. " If it was conceived on March 25, the celebration of his birth would be set nine months later, ie December 25.

For Catholicism Christmas is not only a holiday but a holiday season, and just as the Passover, contains a time of preparation, called Advent, which begins four Sundays before 25 December.

It is customary to celebrate several masses at Christmas, with different content according to your schedule. So, last night (Christmas Eve) even Sunday, says the famous Midnight Mass Midnight Mass or, in some places there is even a Mass of the Aurora that is celebrated at dawn on December 25. And the noon Mass, which is customary before or after the Pope give a Christmas message to all the faithful of the world, this message is known as Urbi et Orbi (Latin: to the City of Rome and the World).

In the Orthodox Churches not to accept the proposed calendar by Pope Gregory XIII, still use the Julian calendar and therefore celebrate Christmas on December 25 but, according to the Gregorian calendar is Jan. 7. Although the Armenian Church celebrates it on January 6, along with the Epiphany.

Exceptions are the Churches of Alexandria, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Finland, Greece and Cyprus, we do celebrate Christmas on December 25.


Note that in Bethlehem, birthplace of Jesus Christ, Christmas is celebrated twice. For the Church of the Nativity is administered by the Catholic Church celebrates Christmas on December 25, and the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem celebrated on 6 January.

In that church there is an underground cavern with an altar on the place where tradition says Jesus was born. The exact spot is marked by a hole in the middle of a silver star of 14 points surrounded by silver lamps.

Although until the nineteenth century some Protestant churches stopped celebrating Christmas, to break away from Catholicism, most, beginning with Luther, continued celebrating the 25th December. In the United States shared the Christmas Catholics and Protestants from 1607, when it was first held this event in North America.

Christmas is celebrated by most Christians, although some believe that the Bible does not indicate the date of the birth of Jesus or ordered celebrate, no reason to celebrate or create a party for that reason. Well as many Protestants believe that Christmas is not a cause of disputes for not following the old traditions of the Catholic Church or the exact date of Jesus' birth.

The start of Christmas varies, remember we talked about the time and date. For some, December 16, when the groups are made official song, but this custom has been lost in many places. To spend Halloween, All Souls and All Saints is dedicated full time for Christmas, which stores magnificently promoted worldwide. Everything is prepared for the big party of 25, it follows with 31, and continue with the Epiphany, Twelfth Night. Some are closed the festival on January 7. Others continue until February 2, day some celebrate the Virgin of Candelaria and is only syncretism Candlemas Day, another of the many pagan celebrations misnamed.

However, we must remember that most of the traditions associated with this date have been syncretism that have been consolidated or lost over time.

CHRISTMAS is beautiful, important for Christians, more global in its celebration is not the only date that is celebrated in December. December has on it a sacred mantle, which so pervades the Southern Hemisphere during this period. Much has been criticized since I first published this material, some forty years ago, because for many it is easier to maintain a lie to keep tied to many to explain the true and beautiful grounds of this date. No matter what you believe in Christmas or nativity or not. This date is magical and regardless of religious tone taken was magic date from the beginning of time. The magic of this date there will be Christian or Muslim, Inuit, Hopi or induced. The ancestors knew it and now, as then, Divine Magic surrounds the human being, beyond religions, beliefs and myths.


I must admit that the subject can seem complex. When I began to formalize my knowledge of Symbology and Study of Religions much I discovered through my research, contacts and travel. Much is unknown of the ocean, sky, animals and plants of our own world and its evolution. One issue has been just Christmas. When I started I spread these issues even under heavy attack by members of the Catholic Church who, instead of finding my sources, once pointed out to me, all filled with love and understanding, as the enemy. Ironically, with all the experiences, knowledge, readings and information, I managed to secure much more my respect for this beautiful day. In spite of coming from a Christian upbringing, with priests and nuns around me, my quality of scholar of religions led me to understand that at this time there is magic, far beyond the religious tendency which professes. And thanks to come from a family of open mind and, through their culture and understanding the human being Christian or not, helped me in my work not only academic but human, like many friends and even teachers, some, indeed , senior Vatican officials see today further strengthened my soul and I'm spreading it all I know.

Christmas is one of the most important Christian festivals, along with Easter and Pentecost, which celebrates the supposed birth of Jesus Christ in Bethlehem. Another Roman festival called Saturnalia, honoring Saturn, lasted about seven days and included the Winter Solstice. For this celebration the Romans postponed all business and warfare, had exchange of gifts, and temporarily freed their slaves. These traditions, as I have outlined, resemble the current Christmas traditions and used to establish a link between the two holidays.

In parallel, we find, as examples throughout history, as Capac Raymi celebrations, which was led by the Inca emperor. Allusion made by Guaman Poma. The Germans and Scandinavians celebrated the December 26 birth of Frey, Norse god of the rising sun,


rain and fertility. In these festivals adorned an evergreen tree, representing the tree Yggdrasil or the Universe, a custom that became the Christmas tree, when Christianity came to Northern Europe.

The Aztecs celebrated during the Winter, the advent of Huitzilopochtli, the Sun God and war, in the month Panquetzaliztli, roughly equivalent to the period from 7 to December 26 of current calendar. "For this reason and taking advantage of the coincidence of dates, the first missionaries, the Augustinians, promoted the substitution of characters and so disappeared prehispanic God and kept the celebration, giving Christian characteristics."

As I mentioned, the Incas celebrated the rebirth of the god Inti or Sun, the party was called Capac Raymi or Fiesta del Sol powerful for its size and was also covered a month name, therefore this was the first month of the Inca calendar. This party was the counterpart of June Inti Raymi, since December 23 is the austral summer solstice and the Inti Raymi happens in the austral winter solstice. In the austral summer solstice the sun reaches its greatest power (old) and dies but is reborn to reach maturity in June, then declines until December, and this completes the life cycle of the Sun This party had a connotation of birth, as it performs a ceremony of initiation into adulthood for young men of the empire, such initiation was known as Warachikuy.

The Aztecs also celebrated the birth of one of their gods in Winter: Huitzilopochtli Since most of the known world was centered in the Northern Hemisphere, many celebrations after they met.

The seasonal significance of the Winter Solstice is manifested in the reversal of the trend toward lengthening of the duration of the nights and shorter daylight hours. Different cultures define this in different ways, because sometimes it is considered that, astronomically, it may indicate either the beginning or middle of winter hemisphere. Winter is a subjective word meaning, since it has no beginning or middle it is scientifically established, however in the case of the Winter Solstice we can calculate the exact second that happens. Although in theory the Winter Solstice lasts only an instant, this term is also commonly used to refer to 24 hours a day in which it occurs. The meaning or interpretation of this event has varied in the different cultures of the world, but most of them recognized as a period of renewal and rebirth, involving festivals, fairs, gatherings, rituals or other celebrations.

The word solstice derives from Latin sol and sistere ("stand still").

From 45 to. C., when it was established on December 25 in the Julian calendar as the Winter Solstice in Europe, the difference between the calendar year (365.250 days) and the tropical year (365.2422 days) moved the day associated with the Solstice astronomical, advancing about three days every four centuries until 1582, when Pope Gregory XIII changed the calendar bringing the Winter Solstice (Northern Hemisphere) came around December 21. Each year in the Gregorian calendar Solstice fluctuates slightly, but in the long run, only about one day every 3,000 years.


The interpretations that different cultures give the Solstice are varied. Winter is a subjective term, so it is not scientifically established beginning or middle of a winter, but the winter solstice itself is clearly calculated accurately. For the Celtic countries, including Ireland, the winter season generally begins on November 1st, the day of Samhain. Winter ends and spring begins on Imbolc or Candlemas, which is Feb. 1 and Feb. 2. Ironically, our ancestors who owned only their observation of the heavens, were more accurate in their calculations.

This calendar system of stations is based on the length of days exclusively. In most East Asian cultures define the seasons in terms of solar energy, Dong Zhi at the Winter Solstice as the means or winter "extreme." This system is based on Sun's apparent height above the horizon at noon. Some midwinter festivals have occurred according to lunar calendars and so takes place the night of Hoku ("the full moon nearest the Winter Solstice"). And many European solar calendar midwinter is still center of the celebrations on the night of Dec. 24, in the celebrations of 25 December in the Northern Hemisphere, which was considered as the Winter Solstice since the creation of the Julian calendar . In the Jewish Talmud, Tehufat Tevet, is the season of Winter Solstice, and is recorded as the first day of "time step" or the winter season. Farsi culture also recognizes it as the beginning of Winter.

The solstice itself may have been a special time of the annual cycle of the year, even during the Neolithic period. Astronomical events, controlled in antiquity as the mating of animals, planting crops and measurement of reserves between harvests of winter, show how different mythologies and cultural traditions have emerged. This is proven by physics that remains in the designs of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age archaeological sites like Stonehenge (in Britain) and New Grange (Ireland). The main axes of both monuments seem to have been carefully aligned on a line of sight pointing to sunrise Midwinter (New Grange) and Sunset Winter Solstice (Stonehenge). Stonehenge is significant about the fact that the Great Trilithon was erected from the center to the exterior of the monument, ie, good flat face turned toward the sunrise of the winter. The Winter Solstice must have been immensely important because communities were to be deprived of many things during the winter, and had to be prepared in the last nine months. Starvation was common in winter, between January and April, also known as the famine months. In temperate climates, the midwinter festival was the last feast celebration, before the start of winter. Most of the animals were killed for not having to feed them during the winter, so it was practically the only time of year for the supply of fresh meat available. Most wine and beer during the annual harvest was finally fermented and ready to drink now.

Since the event is seen as the reversal of decline of solar presence in heaven, the concepts of birth or rebirth of sun gods have been common, the use of cyclic schedules for the different cultures, based on the Solstice Winter has been celebrated as the rebirth of the year in regard to life-death-rebirth deities or new beginnings the party as Scottish Hogmanay, New Year's tradition of cleaning.

Many traditions are often overlooked or taken for invasion of cultures. Some historians claim that many traditions often derived directly from the root of the above, all having a common core that began in the cradle of civilization or outside it, in a way that correlates with speculation about the origin of languages .


Festivals and celebrations of the Winter half occurring in the longest night of the year, often ask flowering perennial, bright lights, big fireworks, parties, communion with others. In the evening physical exertion by dancing and singing are examples of cultural winter therapies that have evolved as traditions since the dawn of civilization. These traditions can stir the knowledge, to avoid discomfort, reset the internal clock and rekindle the human spirit.

Here's how the world celebrated the Solstices since long before Christianity.

Since the amount of land area in the Southern Hemisphere is less, is also lower the number of cultures. However we find:

I said, the Inti Raymi or Fiesta del Sol, Suun Party, the religious ceremony of the Inca Empire in honor of the sun god Inti. It also marked the winter solstice and a new year in the Andes of the Southern Hemisphere. A ceremony performed by the Inca priests was Sol linking Machu Picchu, there is still a large column of stone called inti Huatana, which means "pillory the Sun" or, literally, "to tie the sun". The ceremony to tie the sun to the stone was to prevent the sun from escaping. The Spanish conquistadors destroyed all other inti Huatana, extinguishing, practically, the practice of linking the sun but could never find Machu Picchu. By 1572, the Catholic Church managed to suppress all Inti festivals and ceremonies. Since 1944 a play of Inti Raymi is held at Sacsayhuaman (two kilometers from Cusco) on June 24 of each year, attracting thousands of local visitors and tourists. Monte Alto culture may also have a similar tradition.

The Sunset Winter Solstice occurs at a point "key" from the ushnu of the Huaca de Chena: the intersection of the nearest horizon (Cerro Chena) and farthest (Cordillera de la Costa). Moreover, in this precise direction is the highest mountain summit (1,166 m) which culminates south of the hill Zapata. This detail might not be a coincidence, but an important topographic requirement due to the known association of the high mountains with the worship of water in various cultures.

Wexipantu ("New Sunrise") is the Mapuche New Year's celebration that takes place between 21 June and 24 June in the Gregorian calendar. Forms the longest night of the year and the uncertainty ancestral anxiety that the next day will not come. After three days it is clear that winter away. Pachamama ("Mother Earth"), Nuke Mapu, begins to sprout fertilized by the sun, from the Andean heights to the southern end. Antu ("Sun"), or Rapa Inti, the sun begins to come back to Earth, after the longest night of the year: it is now Winter Solstice. Everything begins to sprout again. Is the equivalent of Inti Raymi Inca.

The celebration of the Maruaroa or Takurua occurs from 20 to 22 June, and is considered by the Maori of New Zealand as half of the winter season. The Maori believe that the Sun has two girlfriends Takarúa Winter and Summer Hineraumati. It follows directly after the rise of Matariki (the Pleiades), which marks the beginning of the Southern and New Year is said to be when the sun comes back from his trip north with his girlfriend Takurua Winter (the star Sirius ) and begins its journey back to his girlfriend Summer Hineraumati.


The Night of San Juan ("Noite de San Xoán", "Nit de Sant Joan" Bonfires of San Juan, "San Xoan Cacharelas", "Fogera San Xuan", "Fogueres de Sant Joan", The Sanjuanada) is a very ancient festival which celebrates the arrival of summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere whose principal rite is a fire. The purpose of this ordinance was "to give more power to the Sun," that from that time was becoming more "weak". The days are getting shorter until the Winter Solstice. Metaphorically, the fire also had a role "cleansing" in people watching him. This festival is celebrated in many parts of Europe, but is especially strong in Spain, Portugal (Fogueiras de São João), Norway (Jonsok), Denmark (Sankthans), Sweden (Midsommar), Finland (Juhannus) and UK (Midsummer) . In most places where it is celebrated today continues the original tradition in Spain and Portugal but has lost some of its meaning. Usually made bonfires in the streets and squares of the towns where they meet friends and family. Note that the party in Spain is celebrated on the night ranging from 23 to 24 June, Midsummer Day, but actually the shortest night of the year, corresponding with the summer solstice is June 21. In some areas of Atlantic Europe like England, also marks the day 28 (the eve of St. Peter) a similar feast. This conclusion is particularly relevant in Alicante, Valencia (Spain), with the holidays and city officials declared of International Tourist Interest parties. The celebration in this city known for burning in the streets, built a papier-mache figures, called Bonfires, which represent a satirical and humorous characters or scenes generally present.

In the Northern Hemisphere have just a few of the celebrations that are directly related to the Winter Solstice.

In the late seventh century in Japan, held parties to celebrate the reemergence of Amaterasu or Amateras, the sun goddess of Japanese mythology, from his seclusion in a cave. Deceived by the other Gods with a strong conclusion, she seeks to find the image glimpses of herself in a mirror and is convinced by the other gods to return, bringing sunlight back to the universe returns. It is celebrated requiem for the dead, and SHISHIMAI manzai all night, waiting for sunrise aspects of this tradition has continued until today in the New Year.

The Festival is a festival Beiwe impressive of the Sámi of Northern Fennoscandia that, like many, I was privileged to witness, more like Sami practitioner, as well as with the Celtic, Wiccan and Indian shamans for, as I repeat, as Sami in the presence I had the honor and the obligation to witness and participate in their rituals. The Sami, the indigenous people of Finland, Russia, Sweden and Norway, have Beiwe worship the Sun Goddess of fertility and health. She travels across the sky in a structure made of reindeer bones with her daughter-Neia Beiwe to announce new green I think of the reindeer graze. In the Winter Solstice, sacrifice their deer, white females, and the meat, thread and sticks, make a bed with ribbons of rings. They also cover their doors and butter, so you can eat Beiwe and start your journey again.

In the ancient traditions of the Kalash, people of Pakistan during the winter solstice, a demigod reunites Dezao and offer prayers to the supreme being. During this celebration of women and girls are purified by taking ritual baths. The men pour water over their heads while they hold up bread. Then the men and boys are purified with water and should not sit on chairs until evening when goat's blood is sprinkled on their faces. After this purification, a great festival begins, with singing, dancing, bonfires, and the feast of goat tripe and other delicacies.


Until today, the ancient festivals like Karácsony, are held in many parts of Europe, obviating the Christian Nativity.

The annual Riuri Deuorius was the great feast divine Winter, observed by the Coligny Calendar. The lunisolar Coligney mid-winter sun returned to the lineup every two years. The last day of the Persian month Azar is the longest night of the year, when the forces of Ahriman are assumed to be at the peak of its strength. The next day, the first of the month Dey known as Khoram ruz ruz or Khore (the day of sun) belongs to God (Ahura Mazda). Since the days are getting longer than the nights, this day marks the victory of Sun over the darkness. The occasion was celebrated in ancient Persian Deygan Festival dedicated to Ahura Mazda and Mithra, the first of the month Dey.

The Winter Solstice Festival or the end of Winter Chinese, Japanese, Korean or Vietnamese (dong chi, Pinyin, Dongzhi, Romaji, Toji, Romaja, Dongji) is one of the most important festivals celebrated by the Chinese and other East Asians during within the solar Dongzhi around December 21 when the sun is weaker and shorter daylight, ie the first day of the sun Dongzhi. The origins of this festival date back to the yin and yang philosophy of balance and harmony in the cosmos. After this celebration, there will be days with longer hours of daylight and therefore an increase in positive energy flowing. The philosophical significance of this is symbolized by the I Ching hexagram fu ("Volver"). Traditionally, Dongzhi Festival is also a time for family reunion. An activity that occurs during these meetings is to make and eat tangyuan pink and white, symbolizing family unity and prosperity. In the south is usually held with tangyuan or glutinous rice balls (with or without fillers), symbolizing meeting. In the north, where it is much colder, the food is familiar to this day Jiaozi. Tradition says that eating Jiaozi on the day falling Dongzhi prevents the ears from freezing. The tradition of meals and activities vary from area to area, although the two main ones are mentioned. In Korea, similar balls are prepared in a traditional glutinous rice porridge (porridge) with sweet red bean. This porridge is believed to have special powers and must be sprayed around houses the winter solstice to repel sinister spirits.

Goru is the ceremony of the Winter Solstice the Dogon country of Mali. It is the last ritual of the harvest and celebrate the arrival of humanity, of the sky god, Amma, via Nommo inside the Aduno koro or the "Ark of the World."

New Year's Eve celebration called Hogmanay in Scotland. The name is derived, it is said, the old Scottish name for Christmas in the Middle Ages, even when taking account something is not right. The first Hogmanay celebrations were brought to Scotland by the Norse invaders and occupiers who celebrated a solstitial new year (England celebrated the new year on March 25). In 1600 the Scottish implementation on January 1 as New Year and the continued repression of the church in the celebration of the solstice, holiday traditions moved to December 31. The festival is still called Yules by the Scottish Shetland Islands, which start the festival on December 18 and the tradition of celebrating the last (the ritual pursuit of a troll) on 18 January. The most widespread habit of Scotland is the practice of the first step, which starts immediately after midnight on New Year. This is the first person who (usually tall, dark hair) that crosses the threshold of a friend or neighbor, often, it becomes a symbolic presentation of gifts such as salt (less common today ), coal, bread, black bread and whiskey (fruit pudding)


intended for different types of luck for the homeowner. Food and drinks (such as gifts and often Flies cemetery) is given to the guests.

Or Junkunno Junkanoo in the Bahamas, Jamaica, is a masquerade, parade and street festival, which is believed to be of West African origin. Traditionally done through the streets towards the end of December, and includes participants dressed in a variety of fancy costumes. Today we find costumes like Cowboy, Horse, wild Indian, and the Devil. The parades are accompanied by bands usually consist of bagpipes, drums, and coconut graters used as scrapers, and Jonkanoo songs are sung. The same practice was common in the North Carolina coast, where he was called John Canoe, John Koonah, or John Kooner. John Canoe resembles Bear Taming of the medieval tradition of Britain. Both John Canoe Ceremony as the bears are very similar to the reversal of roles in social rituals that marked the ancient Roman festival of Saturnalia.

Karachun, Korochun or was a party Kracun Slavic similar to Halloween as the day when the Black God and other evil spirits are more powerful. It was held by the Slavs in the longest night of the year. On this night, Hors, symbolizing the old sun, becomes smaller as the days shorter in the Northern Hemisphere, and dies on 22 December, the December solstice. Is defeated by the darkness and the evil powers of the Black God. In honor of Hors, Slavs danced a ritual dance in the chain called Horo. The traditional dance of the chain in Bulgaria is called horo. In Russia and Ukraine, is known as khorovod. On December 23 Hors is resurrected and becomes the new sun, Koleda. On this day, Western Slavs make wood fires, burning logs locally, in cemeteries to keep warm their departed loved ones. Organized meals in honor of the dead in order not to suffer from hunger at this juncture, because otherwise the dead will be resurrected and will kill.

In the ancient Slavic cultures, the festival began in Kaleda the Winter Solstice and lasted for ten days. In Russia, this festival was later applied to Christmas Eve, but most of the practices were lost after the Soviet Revolution. Each family to a fire at home and invited his household gods to participate in the festivities. Children dressed up in the afternoons and evenings as Koledari start visiting homes, singing wishes of good luck, like Shchedryk, the hosts. As a reward, they were given a few gifts in a tradition called Kolyadovanie, like the ancient tradition of wassailing or mummers.

In the civilizations of the Aegean Sea, the all-female ritual of winter, or Lenaia Lenaea was the Festival of the Wild Woman. In the forest, a man or bull representing the god Dionysus was torn to pieces and eaten by Maenads. Later in the ritual offering a baby, representing the rebirth of Dionysus. Lenaion, the first month of the Delian calendar, derives its name from the name of the festival. In classical times, human sacrifice had been replaced by a goat, and the role of women has changed to the funeral mourners. Miracles Wine priests performed in which water or juice sealed in a room at night and next morning had turned into wine. The miracle was said to have been carried out by Dionysus and Lenaea. For the V century a. C. the ritual was turned into a festival of theater Gamelion competitions, often celebrated in Athens in Lenaion Theatre. The festival Brumalia, an ancient Solstice festival in honor of Bacchus, is held, usually for a month and ends on December 25 and was influenced by Lenaia. The festival included drinking and joy. The name derives from the Latin word Mist ("shortest day"), although the party almost always occurred at night.


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