Passenger Cruise Terminal at Goa

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PASSENGER CRUISE TERMINAL

at

Baina Bay ,

Goa

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C E R T I F I C A T E

This is to certify that the following study on “PASSENGER SHIP

TERMINAL ( Cruise Terminal)”at Goa

Is a bonafide work of SAMSON V. GOMES, carried under my

guidance.

JAL ARIA

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I acknowledge with gratitude the guidance, creativity, criticism, endued

encouragement, advice and continued interest shown throughout this

project by my Thesis Guide Prof. Jal Aria, without whose help, the study

would not have been successful.

Special thanks are due to Mr. PANJAWANI , Chief Navigator of

Marmagoa Port Trust, and the employees who helped in site searching and

Mr. ELVIS GOMES the captain of “Captain of Ports Jetty”.

My heart full thanks to my friends and well- wishers, all my classmates ,

and school mates who helped increase my motivity.

My all thanks to Tammy, Larisa and their Mom Riza for my continous

help in Goa.

My thanks to GOVERNMENT OF GOA ( DEPARTMENT OF

TOURISM) for the information on the GOA tourism analysis.

Last but not the Least , I am highly indebted to my parents for their

constant support, appreciation and timely help without which the study

would not have been successful.

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INDEX

1. Introduction to Goa

2. General information & Transport

3. History and Climate of Goa

4. Types of Transport & PASSENGER WATER TRANSPORT AT GOA

(VASCO).

5. Why Goa and Why Vasco

• Strengths

• Trends and Forecasts of Tourist Traffic

• World Tourism

• Indian Scenario

• International And Domestic Tourists

6. Existing Terminal & Aims and Objectives

7. Travel demand modeling for Vasco Cruise Terminal

8. Types of Ports, Eight Plan

9. Inland water transport in India By

Cdr R.M. Nair

10. National Transport Policy Committee (NTPC) report (1980)

11. GOA map ..VASCO with respect to heart of city

12. Considerations of three proposals of the port

13. Statistics of all the vessels (CRUISE LINERS) which came to goa in the past

14. Comparision of all the 5 PORTS having cruise ship Ports

15. CASE STUDIES.

• Harumi Passenger Ship Terminal.

• The New York City Passenger Ship Terminal.

• BPX Bombay Cruise Terminal.

16. Materials.

17. Landscaping.

18. Environmental and Economic appraisal.

19. General Design Principles.

20. Dredging.

21. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

22. Terminal and offshore Facilities.

23. DESIGN CONCEPT and typical terminal photos.

24. Structural and Roofing System.

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INTRODUCTION

GEOGRAPHY

.

Goa

occupies a narrow strip of the Western Indian Coastline. It is approximately 105 kms. Long & 65 kms. Wide, with a total area of 3702 sq.kms. the boundaries of Goa are well defined . In the North, It is surrounded by the Sindhu Durg district of Maharashtra state & in the west by Arabian Sea. In the East and South it is surrounded by Belgaum & Karwar districts of Karnataka State.

The state is situated on the slope of Western Ghats and is in heavy rainfall zone, having an average rainfall of 3200 mm per annum. The climate is temperate with temperatures ranging from 15.7C to 35.6C.

The state of Goa is intersected by an extensive network of waterways, important among them being Terekhol, Mandovi, Zuari & Talpona rivers. All these rivers are navigable and as such are very vital for the development activities of the state.

Administratively Goa has been organized into two districts namely (1) North goa comprising 6 talukas with an area of 1736 sq.kms. and (2) South Goa having 5 talukas covering an area of 1966 sq.kms. no. of inhabitated villages are 374, which have been grouped into 183 village panchayat. As per 1991 census, there are 31 towns, of which 13 are municipaltiesand 18 are census towns.

In terms of Topography, Goa falls into three district areas (1) Western Ghats, (2) The midland region and, (3) The coastal region.

Western Ghats

In the east of the state lie the foothills and some of the peaks of the Sahayadri ranges of Western Ghats. Some of the main peaks are Sonsagad (1166m); Catlanchimauli(1107m); Vaguerim(1067m) and Morlemchogad(1036m). Another high point, Dudhsagar, is the site of waterfall. The eastern talukas of Goa are relatively an developed but are vital for Goan environment, because all the rivers of Goa originate from the hills in them. These sahayadri ranges are also responsible for high annual rainfalland are rich in Flora & Fauna.

Midland Region

Between the Western Ghats and the coastal area lies the second area aptly known as midland region. This is Goa’s hinterland. It is mostly made up of plateaus between 30m and 100m elevation. In some areas they extend upto coastline itself. Almost all have been used for fortresses. In this region, spice, fruit and areca nut plantations have been established. The terraced orchards are made up of coconut palms, areca, jackfruit, pineapples and mangoes. In the fields below, rice paddy is cultivated. Coastal Region

Though coastal region is very small portion of total area of the state , it is best known to the tourists coming to Goa. The tidal stretches of rivers- sometimes even upto 40 kms. Inside, have mangroves that provide habitat for birds and marine animals. Further, the low-lying areas, known as Khazans, are reclaimed by building embankments. These help in fish farming and making of salt.

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GENERAL INFORMATION Area 3702 sq.kms

Population 1,343,998 (2001 census)

Languages Kongani, Portuguese, Marathi, Hindi & English. Climate Summer – March to June(24 C – 32.7 C ).

Winter --November to February(21.3 C – 32.2 C) Monsoon- June to September ( Rainfall = 320 cm) Altitude Sea level to 1022 metres.

Location Between latitude 15 48’00”& 14 53’ 54” and Longitudes 74 20’ 13” E & 73 40’ 33” E. Religion Christianity, Hindu, Islamic TRANSPORT & COMMUNICATION

• Air Transport Facilities:

Goa has one airport at Dabolim, 3 km from the city of Vasco-da-gama and 29 kms from Panaji. The airport is under the cover of Indian Navy and operates as civil airport only for a few hours during the daytime.

Among International flights, Air India operates a flight via Bombay to Europe twice a week. Indian Airlines operates a bi-weekly flight from Chennai via Trichy and Goa to Sharjah and Quait. Apart from the above, charter flights which mostly originates from Europe, are allowed to directly land as Goa only on three days a week.

Domestic flights, Indian Airlines, Jet Airways, Sahara and Gujarat Airways operate flights from Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Kochi (via Bangalore), Pune and Agatti (Lakshadweep).

The charter flights originate normally from England, Germany Switzerland, Holland. Some of the frequent charter services are operated by Monarch Airlines, Air Holland, LTU Airways, Brittannia Airways, Caledomain Airways, Fin Air, Maersk Air, TEA Cross Air, etc.

• Water Transport Facilities:

Goa as a major port at Mormugao, It is almost entirely for Cargo movement and does not play any significant role as a gateway for tourists. A luxury Catarman service is operational between Mumbai and Panjim, except on monsoons.

• Rail Transport Facilities:

Goa has developed excellent rail linkages with the rest of the country. The distance of the railhead at Margoa to some of the major cities are:

Bangalore - 672 km. Chennai - 1045 km. Delhi - 2170 km. Mangalore - 450 km. Mumbai - 771 km. Pune - 579 km.

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• Road Transport Facilities:

Kadamba bus service mainly operates in the Goa, It accounts for entire bus transportation in Goa. Though the intra state services of KTC ( Kadamba Transport Corporation) the inter state services cater almost excessively to the tourist population. The Corporation has a fleet strength of 331 buses, operates services within Goa state as well from places like Mumbai, Bangalore ,etc. A large number of private tour operators also run bus services from

Maharashtra, Karnataka, etc to Goa.

BOMBAY: The capital of Maharashtra, The economical hub of India, of the major metros Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta Mumbai lies at the natural harbour bay . thus coastal shipping can be in a great demand. Mumbai has developed their coastal region for inbound water traffic or passenger & also cargo ships. Passenger cruise lines come at BPX Bombay Port Trust cruise terminal& Domestic ships come at Gateway of India& Bhaucha Dhakka. Both these are free port for inbound domestic traffic (passengers).

GOA: The hub of India and World as a Tourist spot. People over all world and also over all India visit Goa for leisure.Goa has a very long coastline of 105 km palm fringed. All beaches , unbroken for several kilometers, have fine stretches of sand. There are a total 34 important beaches.It has one major Port which caters to passenger and cargo .It caters to international tourist passengers. Goa also has small port at Panaji which caters to domestic tourist traffic.

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HISTORY OF GOA

Goa came under various rulers including the Satavahanas, the Chalukyas and the Kadambas. The Kadambas built their capital at Old Goa, just 9 km off Panaji, in the 11th century. The Muslims took over Goa in the 14th century, only to lose it to the Vijayanagaris. Finally, the Adil Shahis of Bijapur made Old Goa their second capital and built a palace at Panaji. When Goa came under the

Portuguese in the 16th century, this palace was taken over as the Viceroy’s official residence. They made Panaji the capital in 1843 after the collapse of Old Goa. Panaji, “the land that never floods,” was now renamed Panjim by the Portuguese and it was also referred to as New Goa.

CLIMATE OF GOA

Goa has an equable climate with not much variation in the average minimum and maximum temperatures. During the summer (April to June) the minimum is 26°C and the maximum is 34°C. The monsoon (July to October, 225 to 300 cm) brings temperatures down marginally so that the minimum is 24°C and the maximum is 31°C. In winter from Nov to March the minimum is 21°C, while the maximum is 32°C.

The town itself is laid out in a criss-cross grid fashion, being built around the Church Square or Municipal Gardens, as the park is called. The Secretariat, housed in the Adil Shahi palace, lies to the north of Church Square. Panjim’s Portuguese Quarter, Fontainhas and the suburb of Pato, overlook the Qurem Creek, while Sao Tome, the other Old Quarter, lies to the north of Fontainhas.

A large bridge spans the Mandovi estuary to the north, while the NH-7 heads off the south, connecting Panaji to the airport and to the rail station at Vasco da Gama.

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PASSENGER WATER TRANSPORT AT GOA (VASCO)

Passenger Ships are used to move passengers from one state to another . Cruise lines are used for movement of passengers.

TYPES OF TRANSPORT

There are three major modes of transport Roads, Railways & Airways. All these are used for movement of passengers from station to station, to outstation, one to another state, country to another country. Waterways is also another mode of transport. Cruise lines used for transport of International tourists( from one country to another country). Cargo is also passed through ships for the least cost of transport. Domestic transport of passengers by waterways is now been started in India. The coastal region of India consisting of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Tamilnadu, Kerala, Calcutta etc, has a very good capacity of developing a good water terminals for inland domestic water transport system. Thus this will lessen the traffic catered by railways. The coastal states: Several alternatives were examined for the terminal layout for Vasco with different

plans. The recommended layout is based on optimum circulation, good level of service

and cost considerations besides environmental/aesthetical considerations. The facilities include the following:

1. Terminal building 2. Administrative Building 3. Link Span

4. Quay wall

5. Car park, taxi park and public transport parking 6. Maintenance work shop

7. Internal roads 8. Fuel Station

The terminal building includes the following facilities: 1. Departure hall for Cruise ships

2. Departure hold for Cruise ships 3. Arrival hall for for Cruise ships 4. Security check

5. Circulation, kiosks, toilets, offices, stores. 6. Restaurants

7. Crew room 8. Office room 9. Duty free shops.

10. Medical care (First aid) 11. Child care

12.Postal services.

13. Communication Area, (Phone , Internet connection,etc). 14. Check- in offices

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16 Baggage handling for Arrival passengers 17 Baggage handling for Departure passengers 18. Customs and Immigration clearance area. 19 Security area at the entrance

20. check –in for the vehicles parking.

The Administrative building consists of the following facilities. 1. Fire fighting office with equipment and staff.

2. General meeting room 3. Police office room 4. Fuel maintaining room 5. Reception Area

6. Technical officers , with Chief technical officer 7. Security chief office

8. Duty officer 9. Waiting area

10. Life guard with staff and equipment 11. Maintenance officer

12. Ship companies offices 13. Salary administration 14. Cash flow analysis 15. Insurance and Taxation 16. Salary Administration

17. TERMINAL MANAGER with secretary.

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Why GOA & Why VASCO Tourists Traffic in GOA

Strengths

Goa has a rich inventory of World class tourism resources, both natural as well as manmade, they include:

Picturesque landscape, beautiful mountains (the Western Ghats ) and serene rivers like the Mandovi, Zuari, etc.

105 km of palm-fringed shoreline with fabulous beaches. Luxuriant greenery dotted with beautiful villages.

Wildlife sanctuaries at Bondla, Mollem, Cotigao in the Ghat region and Sal;im Ali Bird Sanctuary at Chorao Island.

Tranquil Lake at Mayem and breath-taking waterfalls and Dudhsagar.

Heritage monuments- many Churches reflecting Baroque or traditional Portuguese style of architecture with exquisite interiors;

Temples and mosques which are thronged by thousands of devotees every year-great potential for religious tourism.

7. Rich cultural heritage- Celebration of various Hindu and Christian festivals through fairs, dances, fun and frolic, a mix of Konkani and Portuguese traditions- enjoyed by residents and tourists alike.

8. Warm, hospitable, peace-loving nature of the ethnic Goan people, high level of literacy and working knowledge of English.

9. Pleasant climate for most part of the year, ranging from 24c- 35c in summer and 21c-32c in winter-plenty of warm sunshine which attracts lakhs of foreign tourists.

10.Accessibility by all modes of transport:

By air directly from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Pune ,Cochin, Agathi, Sharjah & Kuwait apart from direct chartered flights from Europe.

By rail from anywhere in India by Konkan railway via Mumbai,Mangalore and South Central Railway via Londa/Castle rock.

By Road from Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore and other important cities in the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, etc.

By sea- Luxury Catamaran service from Mumbai except during monsoons. 11. Fairy developed tourism related and supportive industries:

Reasonably developed hotel industry and inexpensive, popular paying guest accommodation systems.

Acceptable levels of local public transport facilities. Decent network of financial services.

Large number of rural and handicrafts/cottage industrial units, cashew processing units, etc.

12. Some of the new policies of the government of India are oriented towards giving a thrust to the tourism sector and are applicable in Goa as well.

Export house status granted to specified units with easier criteria.

Tourism export promotion council established with the objective of marketing India as a vital tourist destination within ten years and act as a single window clearance facility for approval of all export related requirements.

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Goa has enormous potential for development of new product ideas , some of which are the latest craze in the western world today.

Heritage Tourism.

The state has an abundance of old mansions , palaces, several forts, which can be suitably renovated and opened up for tourism.

2. Health Tourism.

Western tourists has great regard for the ancient Indian practices of treatment and Goa can capitalize on the same by opening health parlours similar to those in Kerala.

3. Educational Tourism

The state has an already established base of a reputed university – medical, engineering and law colleges, institutes of management, catering technology hotel management, etc. Development of residential public schools, professional institutes and specialized research centres like the National Institute of Oceanography, can open up a new area of educational tourism to attract students not only from all over the country but from various parts of the world as well. This would also stimulate substantial visits by the family members of students, teachers, researchers, etc to Goa.

4. Business Tourism

Goa is already an established centre for conferences and conventions for domestic and multi-national companies. The state has also hosted major political conventions like the commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in 1983. the State can serve as a major

destination for conventions, conferences, industrial trade fairs, etc provided such centres with residential facilities , exhibitions grounds, dte are created.

5. Entertainment Tourism

Tourism activity in the state of Goa thrives mainly on the natural tourism resources like beaches and few architectural marvels.One of the features of modern tourism , completely absent in Goa, is entertainment complexes such as amusement parks, water parks cable car rides , aquariums, casinos, sound and light shows, etc. These features are highly popular in the west as well as in India, wherever available. These features have a great potential in Goa as they will introduce a variety of recreational facilities to tourists.

6. Cultural Tourism

The Carnival in Goa is one of the unique festivals in the world, attracting lakhs of domestic and International tourists, every year. Apart from the above, religious festivals like Shigmotsav, feast of St Francis Xavier, etc are also very popular with the residents as well as

domestic tourists. The food and the cultural festival exhibiting the culinary delights and ethnic tradition, is another popular festival which if properly marketed ( in India and abroad) can give a major boost to tourism in Goa.

TREND AND FORECASTS OF TOURIST TRAFFIC

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At global level, tourism has emerged as one of the major economic activities today. In 1995, the World Tourist arrival were about 567.4 million of which Europe’s share wa

by America with 20 % . The share of South Asian region was an abysmally low 0.8 %.

WORLD TOURISTS ARRIVALS IN 1995.

Region No. of Tourists ( in Million) Europe

America East Asia & Pacific

Africa Middle East

South Asia World Total Share of India

The World Tourism Organisation ( W.T.O.) in its forecast World tourism “Tourism

has estimated 692 million tourist in the year 2000; more than one billion in 2010 and around 1.6 billion in 2020.

According to WTO estimates, Europe will continue to remain the most popular tourist destination with about 717 million tourist estimated for the year 2020. Eas

America by 2010 to become the second most visited destination. International tourists arrival in South Asia is expected at 19 million in 2020, which is almost 5 times that of 1995, but still quite low as compared to other destinations.

India is expected to fuel 4.5 times growth in international tourist arrivals, more than half of the total arrivals in South Asia.

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At global level, tourism has emerged as one of the major economic activities today. In 1995, the World Tourist arrival were about 567.4 million of which Europe’s share was almost 60 % , followed by America with 20 % . The share of South Asian region was an abysmally low 0.8 %.

WORLD TOURISTS ARRIVALS IN 1995.

No. of Tourists ( in Million) Percentage Share

337.2 59.4 111.9 19.7 84.0 14.8 18.8 3.3 11.1 2.0 4.4 0.8 567.4 100.0 2.1 0.4

The World Tourism Organisation ( W.T.O.) in its forecast World tourism “Tourism

million tourist in the year 2000; more than one billion in 2010 and around 1.6

According to WTO estimates, Europe will continue to remain the most popular tourist destination with about 717 million tourist estimated for the year 2020. East Asia and Pacific region will surpass America by 2010 to become the second most visited destination. International tourists arrival in South Asia is expected at 19 million in 2020, which is almost 5 times that of 1995, but still quite low

India is expected to fuel 4.5 times growth in international tourist arrivals, more than half of the total

14.8

19.7

59.4

3.3 2.0 0.8

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At global level, tourism has emerged as one of the major economic activities today. In 1995, the s almost 60 % , followed by America with 20 % . The share of South Asian region was an abysmally low 0.8 %.

Percentage Share

The World Tourism Organisation ( W.T.O.) in its forecast World tourism “Tourism -2020 Vision” million tourist in the year 2000; more than one billion in 2010 and around 1.6

According to WTO estimates, Europe will continue to remain the most popular tourist destination t Asia and Pacific region will surpass America by 2010 to become the second most visited destination. International tourists arrival in South Asia is expected at 19 million in 2020, which is almost 5 times that of 1995, but still quite low

India is expected to fuel 4.5 times growth in international tourist arrivals, more than half of the total

East asia & Pacific America

Eurpoe Africa Middle East South Asia

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THE INDIAN SCENARIO

International Tourists In India 1) Past Trend

The Eight Five Year Plan of the Government of India had envisaged a growth target of 9% per annum in international tourist arrivals during the Plan period. The actual figures however fell short substantially due to various socio-political unrest across the globe and in the country as well and registered an average annual growth rate of 6% only.

International Tourists Arrivals in India

Year Targets ( in million) Actual ( in milliom) % Variation

1991 1.68 1.68 -- 1992 1.83 1.87 +0.01 1993 1.99 1.76 -11.56 1994 2.17 1.89 -12.90 1995 2.36 2.12 -10.17 Years 2) Forecast

The past trend in tourist arrivals from all the major countries and regions, since 1972, was analysed by the Working Group on Tourism for the Ninth Plan (1997-2002) by using linear and exponential regression models with the help of National Informatics Centre. The exponential mode has been found to be most appropriate than the linear model in the case of several countries . Based on this

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 1990.5 1991 1991.5 1992 1992.5 1993 1993.5 1994 1994.5 1995 1995.5 International Tourist Arrivals in India( in millions)

Actual Targets

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model, the aggregate forecast of international tourist arrivals to India ( using exponential model). According to said forecasts, the average annual rate of growth during the Ninth Plan Period is 6.4 %. It confirms to the WTO projections for the South Asia region.

Forecast for International Tourist Arrivals by using Exponential Model

Year Tourist Visits( in million) % change

1996 2.26 -- 1997 2.40 6.2 1998 2.55 6.4 1999 2.71 6.3 2000 2.89 6.6 2001 3.08 6.6

3) Modified Growth Forecast

The forecast given in the table are based on past trends and do not take into account the changes which have been taking place and various contributory factors, which include the following:

• The process of economic liberalization and globalization initiated since july, 1991 and the consequent increases in foreign investment in the tourism sector.

• The changes that are taking place in the air transportation industry including liberal policy on bilateral agreements liberalized charter policy , privatization of airports and air services etc. • Greater momentum in the domestic investment in tourism infrastructure.

• Greater awareness on the part of State/Union Territory Governments about the economic benefits of tourism and

• Overall developments in the basic infrastructural sectors like airports, air and rail services, special roads and road transport system, telecommunication facilities, power, etc.

In view of the above factors , the Working Group on Tourism for the Ninth Plan has assumed a growth forecast of 8% per annum is given:

Forecast of International Tourist Arrivals Based on Modified Growth Rate of 8% per annum

Year Tourist Arrivals(Thousands)

1996 2289

1997 2472

1998 2670

1999 2884

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16 | P a g e 2001 3363 2002 3632 2003 3922 2004 4236 2005 4575 2006 4940 2007 5336 2008 5762 2009 6224 2010 6722 2011 7259 2012 7840 2013 8467 2014 9144 2015 9876 2016 10655 2017 11578 2018 12440 2019 13435 2020 14510 4) Purpose of Visit

According to estimates of the Deptt. Of Tourism , Government of India, 89% of the tourists visit India for holiday and sight-seeing, followed by 7.3% for business while the rest comprise of people visiting for Conference, Education, Visiting friends7 relatives, etc.

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0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1991 1992 Tourists(in millions)

Domestic Tourists

1) Past Trend

The main stay of Indian Tourism is domestic tourists. Travel for Trade, or for p

an integral part of Indian society since ancient times. The economic growth achieved by the country since independence and the emergence of the large urban middle class with disposal incomes have resulted in the growth of domestic touris

domestic tourists visits during

1991-appeared to be much brighter with an average annual growth rate of 12.9% during the aforesaid period. Dom Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Holiday

1993 1994 1995 Tourists(in millions)

The main stay of Indian Tourism is domestic tourists. Travel for Trade, or for pilgrimage has been an integral part of Indian society since ancient times. The economic growth achieved by the country since independence and the emergence of the large urban middle class with disposal incomes have resulted in the growth of domestic tourism for holiday and sight seeing in the recent past. The

-1995 is shown in the table. The domestic tourism scenario appeared to be much brighter with an average annual growth rate of 12.9% during the aforesaid

Domestic Tourists- 8th Plan Period

Tourist Visits (in million) % change 66.44 81.46 22.6 86.64 6.4 100.04 15.4 108.04 8.0

89%

7%

4%

Holiday

Business

Others

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ilgrimage has been an integral part of Indian society since ancient times. The economic growth achieved by the country since independence and the emergence of the large urban middle class with disposal incomes have

m for holiday and sight seeing in the recent past. The 1995 is shown in the table. The domestic tourism scenario appeared to be much brighter with an average annual growth rate of 12.9% during the aforesaid

% change -- 22.6 6.4 15.4 8.0

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2)Forecast

Based on econometric models and taking into account the present day scenario, the working group on tourism for the Ninth Plan has projected that domestic tourist visits would grow at an annual rate of growth of about 9.5% as per table

Forecast of Domestic Tourist Visits

Year Tourist Arrivals( Thousands)

1996 120000 1997 131400 1998 143883 1999 157552 2000 172519 2001 188908 2002 206854 2003 226505 2004 248023 2005 271585 2006 297385 2007 323636 2008 356572 2009 390446 2010 427538 2011 468154 2012 512628 2013 561327 2014 614653 2015 673045 2016 736984 2017 806997 2018 883662 2019 967610 2020 1059532

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REGIONAL SCENARIO-GOA

Foreign Tourist to Goa

Goa has been one of the major tourist destinations in India for Foreign visitors 11% of the total foreigners visiting the country as is visible

Year Foreign visitors to India (million) 1991 1.68 1992 1.87 1993 1.76 1994 1.89 1995 2.12 1996 2.26(p) 1997 2.40(p) 1998 2.55(p) 1999 2.37(actual)

Share of Foreign Tourists in India Visiting Visiting

Goa in 1991

During the years from 1990 to 1998, the share of foreign tourists as share of total tourists visiting Goa has considerably increased from 11.83% in 1990 to 22.39% in 1998 as shown in the table. This is significantly higher than the normal trend of about 3.

India.

95% 5%

Rest of India Goa

88% 12%

Rest of India Goa

GOA

Goa has been one of the major tourist destinations in India for Foreign visitors. Its share is around the country as is visible

Foreign Tourists to Goa Foreign visitors to India (million) Foreign visitors to Goa (million) 1.68 0.078 1.87 0.120 1.76 0.170 1.89 0.210 2.12 0.230 2.26(p) 0.240 2.40(p) 0.260 2.55(p) 0.280 2.37(actual) 0.280

Share of Foreign Tourists in India Visiting Share of Foreign Tourists in India Goa in 1991

During the years from 1990 to 1998, the share of foreign tourists as share of total tourists visiting Goa has considerably increased from 11.83% in 1990 to 22.39% in 1998 as shown in the table. This is significantly higher than the normal trend of about 3.37% (1997) of foreign tourists observed in

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. Its share is around

% 4.64 6.42 9.66 11.11 10.85 10.62 10.83 10.98 11.81 Share of Foreign Tourists in India

During the years from 1990 to 1998, the share of foreign tourists as share of total tourists visiting Goa has considerably increased from 11.83% in 1990 to 22.39% in 1998 as shown in the table. This

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Percentage Distribution of Foreign and Domestic tourists visiting Goa

Year % of Foreign Tourists

1990 11.83 1991 9.37 1992 13.55 1993 17.60 1994 19.83 1995 20.69 1996 21.06 1997 21.97 1998 22.39

The arrival of Foreign tourists to Goa by charter flights has increased rapidly from a mere 3568 people in 1985-86 to almost 90,000 in 1997-98, as depicted in the table

Arrival of Foreign Tourists by Charter Flights to Goa

Year No. of Flights Tourists

1985-86 24 3568 1986-87 26 4401 1987-88 25 5419 1988-89 83 9705 1989-90 107 9266 1990-91 41 5815 1991-92 121 17102 1992-93 259 39871 1993-94 299 58369 1994-95 313 59881 1995-96 337 75694 1996-97 282 73172 1997-98 340 88817

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0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

98.86

Domestic Tourist to Goa

As regards domestic tourists, the share of Goa is less than 1% of the tota domestic tourist visits in the country. Further more, as evidenced in the table. The share of Goa has steadily declined over the years.

Year Domestic visitors in India (million) 1991 66.44 1992 81.46 1993 86.64 1994 100.04 1995 108.04 1996 120.00(p) 1997 131.40(p) 1998 143.88(p)

Share of Domestic Tourists in India Visiting

Total Tourist Traffic to Goa

1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

NO OF Flights

1.14

98.86

As regards domestic tourists, the share of Goa is less than 1% of the tota domestic tourist visits in the country. Further more, as evidenced in the table. The share of Goa has steadily declined over the

Domestic Tourists to Goa Domestic visitors in India (million) Domestic visitors in Goa (million) 66.44 0.76 81.46 0.77 86.64 0.80 100.04 0.85 108.04 0.88 120.00(p) 0.89 131.40(p) 0.93 143.88(p) 0.95

Share of Domestic Tourists in India Visiting

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1996 1997

Goa India

As regards domestic tourists, the share of Goa is less than 1% of the tota domestic tourist visits in the country. Further more, as evidenced in the table. The share of Goa has steadily declined over the

% 1.14 0.95 0.92 0.85 0.81 0.74 0.71 0.66

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During the present decade, one observes an average increase of 2.59% for domestic tourists, a whooping 12.88 % for foreign tourists and 4.24% for overall tourist traffic during the period 1990-1998 as shown in table. In between , the year 1991 has seen a drastic fall in the arrival of foreign tourists, which may be attributed to unstable socio-political situation in the country. The year 1996 again has seen a significantly low growth rate compared to the previous year.

Trends in Growth of Tourist Traffic to Goa

Year Domestic % increase Foreign % increase Total % of increase 1990 776993 104330 881323 1991 756786 -2.60 78281 -24.97 835067 -5.25 1992 774568 2.34 121442 55.14 896010 7.30 1993 798576 3.10 170658 40.53 969234 8.17 1994 849404 6.36 210191 23.17 1059595 9.32 1995 878487 3.49 229218 9.05 1107705 4.54 1996 888914 1.19 237216 3.49 1126130 1.66 1997 928925 4.50 261673 10.31 1190598 5.72 1998 953212 2.61 275047 5.11 1228259 3.07

CARG AVG. 2.59% Avg. 12.88% Avg. 4.24%

All the Statistic are taken from the “TOURISM MASTER PLAN : GOA-2011

FINAL REPORT, FEBRUARY 2001 “.

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EXISTING TERMINAL

There is one vaco port called Marmagoa port trust. Water Transport services and

communication crafts in existence for instance between Goa and rest of the world is carried from this port.

This port serves for both cargo and passengers cruise liners. But due to the demand of Goa and also the cargo exported and imported is iron ore , thus it becomes difficult for the passengers and also for cruise liners to drop the passengers at this Marmagoa port.

AIMS, OBJECTIVES & SCOPE.

This will intentionally bring the cruise passengers and also more beneficial to the state and the country for earning foreign currencies.This will thus increase the tourism for the Goa. “365 DAYS ON A HOLIDAY “, GOA Everything included”.

As the tourism in Goa is increasing day by day as shown in the statistics of the Goa 2011 master plan, Goa can fully survive on its own upon the tourism.

TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING FOR VASCO CRUISE TERMINAL

As STAR CRUISE have started the service of Cruise liners to and from Goa, Mumbai

& Lakshadweep. Middle income group have also started to board the cruise liners for

entertainment and for traveling.

As published in “Mid-day 24/04/05 Sunday” about the “STAR CRUISE” trips

to and fro form Mumbai , Goa and Lakshadweep.

Also Marmagoa port trust has proposed a Cruise terminal on the Baina Bay

attaching Four lane highway.

TERMINAL FACILITIES .

Terminal should include the following facilities.

• Good access to landward transport system, i.e. Roads, buses, taxis . • Reception area ticketing ,waiting, refreshments toilets.

• Embarkation/ disembarkation facilities.

• Safe approaches and departure routes for ships & small workshops for maintaining. • Fueling and Water supply.

• Toilet cleaning facilities.

SITE SELECTION AND TOPOGRAPHY.

The terminal is intended to serve as:

• A gateway to travelers coming to Goa. It will be serving the proposed the four lane highway. • A landmark in the Goa.

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The terminal will principally cater to the national and international cruise liner and allied activities. The complex as an interchange will also harbour parking facilities for Private cars buses,

The complex is to be principally developed as a recreational waterfront, with walkways pedestrians decks cafes and restaurants.

NAVIGATION

Total navigable length of inland water-ways in the country is 15,783 km of which maximum stretch lies in the state of Uttar Pradesh followed by West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Kerala and Bihar successively. Amongst the river system, the Ganga has the largest navigable length followed by the Godavari, the Brahmaputra and the rivers of West Bengal. Waterways are having the unique advantage of accessibility to interior places. Besides, they provide cheaper means of transport with far less pollution and communicational obstacles. The waterways traffic movement has gone up progressively from 0.11 m.t. in 1980-81 to 0.33 m.t. in 1994-95.

The development of inland water transport is of crucial importance from the point of energy conservation as well. The ten waterways identified for consideration for being declared as national waterways are namely:

Sea-Routes

Sea routes between east and west directions pass through major ports of India. The sea routes towards east and south from India move to Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, China and Japan. Towards west they move to United States of America, Europe and Africa.

EIGHT PLAN ABOUT SHIPPING

The Eighth Plan has as its main objective acquisition of a modern, diversified fleet capable of helping in the realization of the objectives of export promotion and improved balance of payments of the country. From this point of view about 15 lakh GRT will be replaced during the Eighth Plan period and about 10 lakh GRT will be added to the tonnage increasing the Eight Plane to 70 lakh GRT the outlay for the eight Plan for the shipping is Rs 3,668.91 crores.

PORTS

India’s coastline of about 6,000 km is dotted with 11 major, 11 intermediate and 168 minor ports. Nearly 95 per cent of the country’s foreign cargo (by volume) moves by sea and, therefore, ports/and their development assume an important place in policy making. Development and maintenance of India’s major ports are the responsibility of the Central Government, while Other Ports are in the Concurrent list.

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MAJOR PORTS

India’s major ports are governed by the Indian ports Act 1908 and the Major Port Trusts Act 1963. The former allow the Statutory to declare any port a major port, define port limit, levy charges etc. while the formation of Port trust Boards and vests the administration control and management of major ports in these Boards.

At the time of independence, India had five major Ports, viz. Mumbai, Calcutta, Vishakhapatnam, Chennai, and Cochin. With the Karachi Port going to Pakistan after Partition, there was the for a major port on the western coast. A new port was developed at Kandla, which was declared a major port in 1955. The Marmugao Port, developed by the Portugues, joined the ranks of major ports in 1964 after the liberation of Goa in 1962. Para deep, on the eastern coast, was declared a major port in 1966. Eight years later, New Mangalore and Tuticoin were added to the list of major ports. The inclusion of the Jawaharlal Nehru Port at Nhava Sheva on the western coast took the number of major ports to 11.

Development of port after the independence, the development of major ports was taken up in a planned manner. Mechanization and modernizations of cargo-handling facilities at Ports have been a thrust area in recent years, with emphasis on development of dedicated infrastructure. Deepening of ports to receive lager vessels has been another priority area. Vishakhapatnam and Chennai ports have already been deepened.

MINOR AND INTERMIDIATE PORTS

Minor and intermediate ports fall in the Concurrent list and their administration is the responsibility of the respective coastal states. Their number as well as their categorization into minor or

intermediate Ports has varied from time to time, depending upon the volume of cargo and the

number of passenger they handle. In 1996, there were 11 intermediate and 168 minor ports and state wise distribution was:

Orissa -2, Andhra Pradesh - 12, Tamil Nadu -10, Pondicherry - 1, Andarnan and Nicobar - 22, Lakshadweep -10, Kerala - 13, Karnataka - 9, Goa - 5, Maharashtra - 53, Darnan and Diu - 2 and Gujarat - 40.

Name of the 11 major ports

Calcutta, Haidia, Paradeep, Mumbai, Chennai Cochin, Tuticorin, JNPR, Kandla Vishakhapatnam, New Mangalore, and Marmugao.

SHIPPING

In the world and Asia-Pacific perspective, the Indian shipbuilding industry is quite small. In 1995, Japan built 394 ships of 8.4 million DWT for domestic purpose and 124 ships of 6.2 million DWT for export trade. Similarly, South Korea built 43 ships of 2.2 million DWT for domestic sailings and 100 ships of 7.9 million DWT for export trade. During the same year, 1,128 ships of 33.9 million DWT were built worldwide while in India, the Hindustan Shipyard Ltd. has built only 109 ships since 1952. Cochin Shipyard Ltd., the biggest in India, has built seven ships and 30 small crafts

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INLAND WATER TRANSPORT IN INDIA

India has 14,500 km of navigable inland waterways comprising of river system, canal, backwaters, creeks and tidal inlets. About 5200 km of major rivers and 485 km of canals are suitable for mechanised crafts. Even these navigable waterways lack the needed infrastructure such as navigational aids, terminals and communication facilities. The total cargo moved by inland water transport is about 20 million tonnes corresponding to just over 1.5 billion tonne km or 0.15 percent of the total inland cargo of about 877 billion tonne km, the balance being moved by road, rail and pipelines. The stretch of water way from Allahabad to Kolkata on the river Ganges (1620 km), the stretch from Sadiya to Dhubri on the river Brahmaputra (891 km) and the West Coast canal from Kottapuram to Kollam including the Champakara and Udyogamandal canals (205 km) have been declared as National Waterways I, II and III respectively. Kakinada- Marakkanam on the Godavari and Krishna rivers is likely to be declared as National waterway IV in the 10th plan. Other waterways that have potential for being declared as national waterways are Sundarbans, Mahanadhi, Narmada, Mandovi, Zuari rivers, Cumberjua canal in Goa and Tapi.

WATER TRANSPORT WHO USES IT ? WHY IS IT USED ?

Ferry Passengers To carry tourists ,passengers to

work, school or visit friends. Yacht Passengers & Sailors For cruising, races, holidays

/leisure Submarine Salvage Tug Bark Canoe Ocean Liner Rowing Boat Surf Board

GOVERNMENT PROPOSALS FOR THE INLAND WATER TRANSPORT

PROJECTS . THE NEEDS OF INLAND WATER TRANSPORTATION.

POLICY SUPPORT TO INLAND WATER TRANSPORT WITHIN INTERMODAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN INDIA

Cdr. R.M. Nair, FIS*

The prevailing trends towards rising population, increasing urbanization, spread of more water intensive lifestyle as well as the agricultural technology sweeping round the world require more water than essential. Preservation and optimum utilization of water assume

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greater importance in this regard. Navigation is one of the non-consumptive uses of water. If the waterways are developed for navigation it can provide an energy efficient and environment friendly mode of transportation for the sustainable development of the transport

infrastructure. It is in this context that the navigation component derives its importance in any water resources project.

2. Development and commercial use of inland waterway transport have assumed great significance in many countries particularly in the USA, China, Germany, and Russia.

Commonly known reasons for such development are higher fuel costs, rail and road network congestion and the large increase in the demand for dry and liquid bulk commodity

movements. The investment and operating costs of commercial inland waterway transport are significantly lower per unit of output and the capacity of waterways is usually not only large but easily and cheaply augmentable. In some countries such as China, inland waterway and coastal transport produces nearly as many ton-km of output as rail, road and air cargo transport combined. Nearly seventy per cent of the movement is on the Yangtze River primarily with commodities like coal, crude oil, iron ore, rolled steel and building materials. While inland waterways transport was traditionally the mode of choice for dry and liquid bulk or low unit value cargo transport, recent developments of higher speed inland water craft, as well as delays caused by increased rail and road congestion have resulted in significant movements on inland waterways of higher value goods, including containerized break bulk cargo.

3. A successful example is China where freight and passenger movement is predominantly on waterways. Similarly, the European continent has a navigable network of inland waterways measuring nearly 11, 000 km. On a comparative scale waterways are found to be cheaper than rail for freight movement and the sector is much more competitive. Russian and Chinese waterways together constitute the world’s largest waterway network. USA has one of the best waterway infrastructures. Nearly 65% of total tonnage is moved on this waterway system – the major advantage

4. India has an extensive network of inland waters consisting of rivers, canals and lakes, natural and manmade and a coast line of over 6000 kilometers, dotted with a number of major and minor ports. Inland Water Transport (IWT) represents a significant resource for India. The total length of navigable waterways in India is about 14500 kms, of which 5700 kms are navigable by mechanically propelled vessels. IWT in the past was a major means of

communication in many parts of India. Today IWT is unique as a participant of two major economic sectors - a multi-purpose water resources system and an inter modal transportation system. The relative success of IWT is highly dependent on the overall economic environment and the Government’s regulatory and investment policies.

5. Setting up of Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) in 1986, a statutory autonomous body for regulating and developing navigation and shipping in the inland

waterways has been a major landmark in the IWT development in India. The authority since its inception has endeavored to develop a scientific temperament for the development of inland waterway. Three waterways, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the West Coast Canal totaling

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a distance of 2700 Kms. have been declared national waterways and are being developed for shipping and navigation.

6. Inland Water Transport in India, as is in other countries, is location specific; confined to the geographical regions gifted with waterways. In such regions the IWT can have a larger share of the cargo linking the ports and the hinterland. In linking such regions with rest of the country IWT become part of an intermodal link, achieving higher efficiency in a multimodal service where cargo is carried by different modes, in more than one carrier but under the same transport document. It also has a role as a stand alone mode when the origin and destination are on the water front. The major benefits of the IWT are the achievable fuel savings, reduction in overall cost of transportation, reduction in environmental cost and line cost savings.

7. The IWT policy formulation preceded a detailed study closely examining the current sector characteristics and its amenability and options for private sector participation and component for a sustainable development of the sector. These documents included the IWAI Action Plan 1994, IWT Vision 2020 of 1998 and the IWT Strategy Document for Presentation to the Group of Ministers. A risk profile assessment of the sector and hence, an identification of the key concerns and challenges to private participation has been measured up against the existing policy of the government, international precedents and specific case instances of successful IWT projects. The endeavor was to explore solutions that optimally balance both public and private interests in developing a joint participation approach to support the sector. 8. In general, to make the IWT a viable and acceptable mode, certain conditions are to be fulfilled. These relate to rationalizing tariff structures, ensuring sufficient reductions in line haul, travel time, improved safety of goods in transit and providing sufficient financial incentives to consignees and end users of the transport product by providing:

Fairway development with sufficient depth and width. 24 hours navigation,

Terminals and mechanical loading facilities,

Access and cargo assurance to improve the load factor and hence profitability.

9. The IWT system in India has suffered from under investment and financial constraints not only in absolute terms but also in comparison to other modes of transportation. Conscious and bold investment is needed for the systematic development of fairway, fleet, terminals and navigational aids. Institutional set up is needed to be put directly by public – private

partnership with a long-term objective of minimizing the public money and maximizing the share of private investment. The Government, as a facilitator, should also step in to reduce the investor’s risk. This could be by way of fiscal concessions, easy availability of capital flow, and long-term assurance of cargo and concessionary rates of port charges for IWT vessels. IWT, like in any infrastructure sector, will have long gestation period for return of investment and

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hence at the initial stages government support would be inevitable. As the mode becomes popular and its viability well demonstrated, the private sector investment risk would reduce resulting in large flow of funds from the private sector and gradually a stage would emerge when the role of the Government would be only that of a regulator.

10. The Indian transportation system has been led by road and rail development. With the benefit of door to door service in case of roads and substantial investments already been made in backup linkages for railways, there is a high switching cost to other modes of transport. Being location specific multimodal transfers to access waterway adds to the IWT cost. User reluctance to experiment new modes is another impediment for a developing mode. Various measures have been considered to overcome these teething problems such as committed traffic, long term cargo assurance, captive users as project participants, joint ventures by

Government, shipper, carrier, etc. being some of the important steps to reduce the financial risks and are considered under the policy objective. Development of successful pilot projects paving the way for a more comprehensive development of other projects on the waterway and prioritization of subsequent projects that sustain private interest is the focus of privatization. Stable cash flows and a few revenue streams from commercially stable projects could be then leveraged to finance investments in subsequent projects.

11. The basic policy objectives of Indian IWT have ‘short term’ and ‘long term’

components. The short term objective is to effect a sizeable increase in the traffic volume, from the present level of around 1 billion tonne km to at least 20 billion ton-km within a five year period. The long term objective is to develop the full IWT potential of the country which – going by successful examples of other countries - could be as much as a 5 to 8 per cent of the total national transport output. A veritable IWT revolution is thus a key component of plans to improve India’s competitiveness and to place India among the leading industrial nations of the world in the 21st century.

12. The physical components of the short term programme will be the removal of

impediments to the full exploitation of the existing waterways by tackling the fairway, terminal and vessel related issues, and providing the initial support for significant private participation. The physical components of the long term plan would cover, in addition to the above, the development of new waterways and the upgrading of vessel and cargo handling technologies to modernize the total IWT system and integrate it fully with the national transport effort. 13. The institutional set up needs to be directed to a public-private partnership. The financial analysis in a number of cases indicated that initially the government has to be involved to enhance the project viability. However, the objective must be to minimize the public money necessary in the long run to make the project viable by having a maximum share for the private investor. Private investors will only get involved when their expectations on the return on investment justify the risks, which they have to incur. The total risk of a project can be minimized if the risk is more transparent.

14. The financial risk comprises of debt financing risk and equity financing. Since, the debt financing risk will be perceived as being big for this kind of project, the possible revenue risk premiums will be high. Reducing this risk premium would require a large share of equity

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capital or external loan guarantees, thus, bringing the Government of India back into the picture.

15. Operating risk can be fully taken by the operator as long as government does not

intervene into major cost components (wages and fuel). Revenue risk pertaining to fare is very much influenced by government regulation. The more transparent the risk, the lower is the risk premium. Thus, the Government should give a clear and stable picture very early in the project to avoid paying unnecessary risk premiums later on. The IWT policy has focused on specific components to remove or reduce the investor risks to a large extent, by clearly defining the parameter for the private sector participation and defining the role of the Government. 16. Central to the invitation of the private sector participation and a key pre-requisite thereof, is the need for “bankable” and clear policy guidelines defining the scope and terms of private participation. The policy take cognizance of the risk issues endemic to the sector, constraints that have limited the development of the IWT sector as a preferred mode of transport in India, developmental initiatives and public and private partnership models in countries where IWT has proved successful, existing sector legislation, Government incentives and initiatives. The challenge is one of addressing the key risk issues plaguing the sector and breaking free of the inertia stymieing popular use and private participation in development of the sector.

17 he IWT policy announced by Government of India contains the following fiscal and administrative measures:

i) Inland Water Transport sector has been accorded the status of infrastructure under Section 80 I A of the Income Tax Act. Under this the investors in IWT infrastructure are eligible for 100% tax exemption for 5 years and further 30% tax exemption next 5 years to be availed of within a period of 15 years. The infrastructure sector being a priority sector this also facilitates priority lending by financial institutions for projects in IWT sector. There are spin-off benefits of the infrastructure status such as 74% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) with automatic clearance, priority lending by financial institutions etc.

ii) The role of the Inland Waterways Authority of India has been enlarged to facilitate its participation in commercial / joint ventures with equity participation. This is a major step towards public / private partnership.

iii) Provision for BOT projects for IWT infrastructure with Government participation up to 40% equity; details to be worked out on case-to-case basis.

(iv) Vessel building subsidy of 30% of the cost to the ship owners for inland vessels built in India. Such vessels to be registered under the Inland Vessels Act, 1917 and to be operated in the national waterways.

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(viii) Assistance to the State Governments for implementation of Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) for IWT development by way of 90% subsidy.

(ix) Cargo allocation of 5% of the Govt. controlled cargo to the IWT in corridors where waterways are functional.

(x) Setting up of an IWT Development Council under the Chairmanship of the Minister of Shipping with representation from 14 riverine states for coordinated IWT development. (xi) Empowerment of Inland Waterways Authority of India to sanction projects costing up to Rs.15 crores.

18. The IWT resurgence in India is more demand driven than of supply driven. The opening up of the Indian economy during mid nineties resulted in an unprecedented boom in the industrial and agricultural sectors and in export resulting in a sudden demand in the transport sector. Capacity constraints and inflexibility of the transport modes resulted in bottlenecks; shortage of wagons, non aailability of trucks and long waiting time at ports. This lead to a search for new modes and concerted actions for improving the existing modes. Another important factor, which influenced the revival interest of IWT, was the initiative by the UNESCAP. The New Delhi Action Plan of ESCAP for the development of transport and communication in the ESCAP region has to a large extent supported the national initiative for institutionalizing the neglected inland waterway transport services to emerge as a dynamic and sustainable mode and its integration in the overall transport system.

19. Systematic development of fairway, terminals and navigational aids and the IWT fleet would result in IWT providing an economic, efficient and environment friendly mode of transportation supplementing the other modes namely, road and railways for an optimal modal split. A synergy of various measures being taken up is bound to create an attractive investment climate in the IWT sector both for creation of infrastructure and IWT fleet augmentation.

20. Substantial stepping up of the Plan funds for the IWT development has been the first outcome of the Govt policy to give a greater priority for the IWT sector. The Plan Support increased from Rs.240 crores during 8th Plan (1992-97) to Rs.408 crores in the 9th five year plan (1997-2002). The tentative provision for the 10th Five Year Plan period (2002-2007) is close to Rs.800 crores. It is also envisaged that substantial external funding would flow in for development of IWT sector in India during the 10th Plan period. The Government of India has embarked on a massive programme for linking of rivers or river connectivity, which would be a multi-purpose water recourses project with a large navigation component. Though the details of this programme are yet to be finalized, this project is expected to provide a great impetus to the IWT development programme already under way.

---

• Cdr R.M. Nair is a Hydrographic and Navigation Specialist, a Charge Surveyor of the

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Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) in 1997 in the rank of a Joint Secretary to the Govt. of India. Cdr. Nair was a member of the Working Group set up by the Indian Planning Commission for formulation of strategy for the Indian IWI sector, both for the 9th and 10th Plan periods. Cdr. Nair has made significant contributions for the revival / resurgence of the Indian IWT Sector which have been duly acknowledged. He is presently the Hydrographic Chief of the IWAI.

By WORLD WATER COUNSIL.

INTRODUCTION TO INLAND WATER T

INTRODUCTION

IWT is the most efficient mode of transportation from the point of energy consumption, lower cost of transportation and environment friendliness. Notwithstanding these advantages, IWT in India has gradually declined due to various reasons, lack of investment for creation of infrastructural facilities being a major contributory factor. Simultaneous development of all modes of transport for an optimal modal split should be the strategy in a holis

transportation planning. In many countries where such a holistic approach has been adopted like the USA, Europe, China, the IWT has a substantial share of the national cargo which in effect reduces the transportation cost, provides access to the interi

connections and providing easy market accessibility for the low value bulk products. The Indian Inland Water Transport is expected to play a major role to meet the emerging transport infrastructure requirements.

OBJECTIVE OF IWT SECTOR Navigable inland waterways in India

and tidal inlets, extends to about 14,500 kms. Most waterways, however, suffer from

navigational inadequacies such as shallow waters, narrow width, siltation and bank erosion,. Moreover, vertical and horizontal clearances at overhead structures are not adequate for navigation throughout the year. Consequently, at present about 5200 kms of major rivers and 485 kms of canals are suitable for mechanised crafts. Even these navigable waterways lack the needed infrastructure such as navigational aids, terminals and communication facilities. The mechanised operations are confined to only few locations. Cargo transportation in an

organised manner is confined to Goa, West Bengal, Assam and Kerala. The total carg

by IWT is about 20 million tonnes corresponding to just over 1.5 billion tonne kms or 0.15% of the total inland cargo of about 1000 billion tonne kms, the balance being served by the road and rail.

If the waterways are developed for navigation wi

rity of India (IWAI) in 1997 in the rank of a Joint Secretary to Cdr. Nair was a member of the Working Group set up by the Indian Planning Commission for formulation of strategy for the Indian IWI sector, both for

periods. Cdr. Nair has made significant contributions for the revival / resurgence of the Indian IWT Sector which have been duly acknowledged. He is presently the Hydrographic Chief of the IWAI.

INTRODUCTION TO INLAND WATER TRANSPORT

IWT is the most efficient mode of transportation from the point of energy consumption, lower cost of transportation and environment friendliness. Notwithstanding these advantages, IWT

has gradually declined due to various reasons, lack of investment for creation of infrastructural facilities being a major contributory factor. Simultaneous development of all modes of transport for an optimal modal split should be the strategy in a holistic

transportation planning. In many countries where such a holistic approach has been adopted like the USA, Europe, China, the IWT has a substantial share of the national cargo which in effect reduces the transportation cost, provides access to the interior and hinterland port connections and providing easy market accessibility for the low value bulk products. The Indian Inland Water Transport is expected to play a major role to meet the emerging transport infrastructure requirements.

Navigable inland waterways in India, comprising of river system, canal, backwaters, creeks and tidal inlets, extends to about 14,500 kms. Most waterways, however, suffer from

navigational inadequacies such as shallow waters, narrow width, siltation and bank erosion,. horizontal clearances at overhead structures are not adequate for navigation throughout the year. Consequently, at present about 5200 kms of major rivers and 485 kms of canals are suitable for mechanised crafts. Even these navigable waterways lack the

ed infrastructure such as navigational aids, terminals and communication facilities. The mechanised operations are confined to only few locations. Cargo transportation in an

organised manner is confined to Goa, West Bengal, Assam and Kerala. The total carg

by IWT is about 20 million tonnes corresponding to just over 1.5 billion tonne kms or 0.15% of the total inland cargo of about 1000 billion tonne kms, the balance being served by the road

If the waterways are developed for navigation with the necessary infrastructure such as 32 | P a g e

rity of India (IWAI) in 1997 in the rank of a Joint Secretary to Cdr. Nair was a member of the Working Group set up by the Indian Planning Commission for formulation of strategy for the Indian IWI sector, both for

periods. Cdr. Nair has made significant contributions for the revival / resurgence of the Indian IWT Sector which have been duly acknowledged. He

RANSPORT

IWT is the most efficient mode of transportation from the point of energy consumption, lower cost of transportation and environment friendliness. Notwithstanding these advantages, IWT

has gradually declined due to various reasons, lack of investment for creation of infrastructural facilities being a major contributory factor. Simultaneous development of all

tic

transportation planning. In many countries where such a holistic approach has been adopted like the USA, Europe, China, the IWT has a substantial share of the national cargo which in

or and hinterland port connections and providing easy market accessibility for the low value bulk products. The Indian Inland Water Transport is expected to play a major role to meet the emerging

, comprising of river system, canal, backwaters, creeks and tidal inlets, extends to about 14,500 kms. Most waterways, however, suffer from

navigational inadequacies such as shallow waters, narrow width, siltation and bank erosion,. horizontal clearances at overhead structures are not adequate for navigation throughout the year. Consequently, at present about 5200 kms of major rivers and 485 kms of canals are suitable for mechanised crafts. Even these navigable waterways lack the

ed infrastructure such as navigational aids, terminals and communication facilities. The mechanised operations are confined to only few locations. Cargo transportation in an

organised manner is confined to Goa, West Bengal, Assam and Kerala. The total cargo moved by IWT is about 20 million tonnes corresponding to just over 1.5 billion tonne kms or 0.15% of the total inland cargo of about 1000 billion tonne kms, the balance being served by the road

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fairway, terminals and navigational aids the IWT mode would become competitive and would attract cargo. The objective of the IWT sector is to provide the above facilities in all potential inland waterways for their systematic and sustainable development for shipping and

navigation.

SETTING UP OF INLAND WATERWAYS AUTHORITY OF INDIA

The National Transport Policy Committee (NTPC) in its report (1980)

recommended various measures for development of IWT in the country. In order to maintain inland water channels in navigable conditions, NTPC recommended the following urgent measures :

a. To frame a detailed conservancy programme for each navigable section of the waterway;

b. To undertake the maintenance works regularly on priority basis;

c. To make specific financial provisions for conservancy and maintenance works; and d. To set up an independent Authority to design, direct and execute such projects. NTPC while recommending setting up a statutory authority, namely Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI), also suggested that IWAI can be entrusted with the responsibility of conducting economic surveys to assess future potential of traffic and provide infrastructure facilities in this sector. The committee, in addition, recommended that the Authority may be entrusted with IWT regulatory and administrative functions. As a follow up of the

recommendations of the NTPC, Inland Waterways Authority of India was set up in October, 1986 under the IWAI Act, 1985. As per this Act the Authority consist of Chairman, Vice Chairman, and Members not exceeding five. At present there is a full time Chairman, three full time and two part time Members in the Authority. The Head quarter of the Authority is situated at NOIDA, U.P. and its field offices at Kolkata, Farakka, Bhagalpur, Patna, Ballia and Allahabad on NW 1, Guwahati on NW 2, and Kochi & Kollam on NW 3.

WATERWAYS IDENTIFIED BY NTPC FOR CONSIDERATION FOR DECLARATION AS NATIONAL WATERWAYS

The NTPC recommended the following principles for declaration of a national waterways. a. It should possess capability of navigation by mechanically propelled vessels of a

reasonable size;

b. It should have about 45 m wide channel and minimum 1.5 m depth;

c. It should be a continuous stretch of 50 kms. The only exception to be made to waterway length is for urban conglomerations and intra-port traffic;

d. It should

i. pass through and serve the interest of more than one State(or)/li> ii. connect a vast and prosperous hinterland and major ports(or)

iii. pass through a strategic region where development of navigation is considered necessary to provide logistic support for national security (or);

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Hydrographic surveys and techno economic feasibility studies are the prerequisites f

establishing the potential and viability of a waterway. Extensive surveys and investigations have been carried out on all the above waterways based on which three waterways have been so far declared as national waterways namely the Ganga, the Brahmaputr

Coast Canal. Development of many more new waterways as national waterways are planned during the 9th Plan period.

LOCATION WITH RESPECT TO THE HEART OF THE CITY. Vasco is located on the exterior of the Goa

port trust ( MARMAGOA PORT TRUST ) has been set up at this place. Its location with respect to the panaji the capital to the city is

Vasco – Panaji 30 kms

CONSIDERATION OF THE THREE PROPOSALS OF THE POR 1. OLD GOA

2. VASCO CRUISE BERTH. 3. PANAJI PORT.

OLD GOA. 33

Hydrographic surveys and techno economic feasibility studies are the prerequisites f

establishing the potential and viability of a waterway. Extensive surveys and investigations have been carried out on all the above waterways based on which three waterways have been so far declared as national waterways namely the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the West Coast Canal. Development of many more new waterways as national waterways are planned

LOCATION WITH RESPECT TO THE HEART OF THE CITY.

Vasco is located on the exterior of the Goa . its has the maximum interface with the sea thus port trust ( MARMAGOA PORT TRUST ) has been set up at this place. Its location with respect to

CONSIDERATION OF THE THREE PROPOSALS OF THE PORT.

34 | P a g e

Hydrographic surveys and techno economic feasibility studies are the prerequisites for establishing the potential and viability of a waterway. Extensive surveys and investigations have been carried out on all the above waterways based on which three waterways have been

a and the West Coast Canal. Development of many more new waterways as national waterways are planned

. its has the maximum interface with the sea thus port trust ( MARMAGOA PORT TRUST ) has been set up at this place. Its location with respect to

Figure

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References