Brahms 105-1 Analysis Symposium

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Yale University Department of Music Yale University Department of Music

Analysis Symposium: Brahms Op. 105/1 Analysis Symposium: Brahms Op. 105/1

Author(s): Austin Clarkson and Edward Laufer Author(s): Austin Clarkson and Edward Laufer Reviewed work(s):

Reviewed work(s): Source:

Source: Journal of Music Theory,Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 15, No. 1/2 (Spring - Vol. 15, No. 1/2 (Spring - Winter, 1971), pp. 2-32+34-57Winter, 1971), pp. 2-32+34-57 Published by:

Published by: Duke University PressDuke University Press on behalf of theon behalf of the Yale University Department of MusicYale University Department of Music Stable URL:

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/842895http://www.jstor.org/stable/842895..

Accessed: 11/03/2013 02:34 Accessed: 11/03/2013 02:34

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ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS

BRAHMS

BRAHMS

1 0 5 / 1

1 0 5 / 1

AUSTIN

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Vie Melodien zieht

Vie Melodien zieht es

es mir

mir

Klaus. Klaus.GrothGroth

Alrt Alrt Singstimme

Singstimme -&-& 1 1

"-- -.

"-- -.

Wie Wie

Me.lo

Me.lo didi en en ziehtzieht eses mir mir leilei bedurchbedurch denden

Pianoforte

Pianoforte

p,..re

p,..rede'

de'

II.I II.I --in.

in. wie wie FruhFruh inging blublu men bluht menbluht es es und und schwebtschwebt wieDuftwieDuft dada

n, n, undund schwebt schwebt wieDuft wieDuft -hin. -hin. J& J&

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Cancel Anytime. "-A"II A"II Doch kommtdas

Doch kommtdas Wort. Wort. und- und- fa6t fa6t es und es und fiihTtfiihTt es~es~ vorvor dasdas

Aug,

Aug, wie wie NeNe bel-graubel-grau erer blatblat es es nd nd schwinschwin detdet wiewie einein

-moo-H -moo-H

Augh,

Augh, uanduand schwin schwin - - det det wie wie ein ein Hauch.Hauch.

Un

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Rei

Rei me verme ver borbor en en wohl wohl ein Duft,ein Duft, den den mildmild aus stilaus stil lemlem

Kei

Kei . . .me.me cincin feuch tesfeuch tes AuAu ruft,ruft, denden

mild

mild atusatus ti-ti- lemlem Ki.

Ki. mte mte etieti feuchfeuch tt',tt', einein feuchfeuch te--

te--Au Au ruft.ruft. _ _ . . - - •O.•O. ....

7--7--

-7-

-7-

-.-

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ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS

BRAHMS

BRAHMS

1 0 5 / 1

1 0 5 / 1

AUSTIN

AUSTIN CLARKSON

CLARKSON

Brahms's

Brahms's "Wie

"Wie Melodien

Melodien zieht es" has

zieht es" has aroused much

aroused much less

less in-

in-terest

terest than

than one

one might

might expect

expect of

of so

so fine a

fine a product

product of

of the

the com-

com-poser's maturity.

poser's maturity.

Perhaps

Perhaps it is

it is because,

because,

as Frau

as Frau Elisabet

Elisabet

von

von Herzogenberg

Herzogenberg acutely

acutely observed

observed in

in

letter

letter to the

to the composer,

composer,

the

the poem

poem is

is unusually

unusually abstract.

abstract. *1

*1 Whereas

Whereas most of

most of Brahms's

Brahms's

texts

texts are

are in

in the more

the more concrete,

concrete,

narrative and

narrative

and descriptive

descriptive vein

vein

of

of the Romantic

the Romantic lyric,

lyric, "Wie

"Wie Melodien"

Melodien" deals

deals with the aesthetic

with the aesthetic

of

of the

the lyric

lyric in

in an

an almost

almost symbolist

symbolist manner.

manner. If the

If the tune

tune did not

did not

reappear

reappear in

in the

the first

first movement

movement of

of the

the

major

major Violin

Violin Sonata,

Sonata,

Op.

Op. 100,

100, it would have

it would have been

been noticed

noticed even

even less.

less.

In

In the

the fourth

fourth

volume

volume of

of his redoubtable

his redoubtable biography,

biography, Max

Max Kalbeck

Kalbeck discusses

discusses

the

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draw

draw an

an interesting

interesting parallel

parallel between

between itit and "Meine

and "Meine Lieder"

Lieder"

106/4),

106/4), another

another song

song on

on the

the nature

nature of

of the

the lyric.

lyric. *3

*3

After

After Kalbeck,

Kalbeck, the

the song

song receives

receives little

little comment

comment as

as studies

studies of

of

the

the Brahms

Brahms lieder

lieder seem

seem to

to focus

focus on

on dimensions

dimensions and

and issues that

issues that

leave

leave "Wie

"Wie Melodien"

Melodien" out

out of

of account.

account. Walther

Walther Hammermann's

Hammermann's

metric

metric and harmonic

and harmonic analysis

analysis in

in the

the Riemann

Riemann manner

manner (1912)

(1912)

passes

passes over it

over it very lightly,

very lightly, and

and Max

Max FriedlLnder's

FriedlLnder's

handbook

handbook

(1922)

(1922) does

does little

little more

more than

than quote

quote Frau Liesel's

Frau Liesel's

response

response and

and

note the connection

note the connection with

with the

the violin

violin sonata.

sonata. *4

*4 Rudolf

Rudolf Gerber's

Gerber's

study

study of

of the

the form of

form of Brahms's

Brahms's songs

songs (1932)

(1932) fails

fails even to cite

even to cite

Op.

Op. 105

105 /1

/1 as

as an

an example.

example. *5

*5 The

The author is intent

author is intent on

on demon-

demon-strating

strating that

that the

the gross

gross form of

form of the

the songs

songs is

is controlled

controlled by

by the

the

explicit

explicit

content

content of

of the

the text and

text and accordingly

accordingly concentrates

concentrates on

on

songs

songs whose

whose poems

poems have broad and

have broad and obvious

obvious contrasts

contrasts of im-

of

im-agery, thought,

agery, thought, or

or mood

mood that can be

that can be clearly

clearly compared

compared to

to the

the

musical

musical setting.

setting.

Klaus

Klaus Groth's

Groth's poem

poem is

is bypassed probably

bypassed probably be-

be-cause the

cause the development

development of

of its

its thought

thought is

is subtle,

subtle, the

the imagery

imagery is

is

of

of essences,

essences,

and the

and the mood

mood is

is introspective.

introspective.

Had

Had Gerber

Gerber cited

cited

"Wie

"Wie Melodien",

Melodien", he

he would

would have

have classed

classed it as

it as

variation

variation type

type

of

of strophic

strophic song

song along

along with

with "Mit

"Mit vierzig

vierzig Jahren"

Jahren" (Op.

(Op. 94/1),

94/1),

song

song with

with

similar

similar structure.

structure.

In

In Op.

Op. 94/1

94/1 Gerber sees

Gerber sees the

the

musical

musical variations

variations of each

of each strophe

strophe corresponding

corresponding to

to the

the changing

changing

thought

thought and

and imagery

imagery of

of the

the poem,

poem, and,

and, on

on the basis

the basis of

of such

such

songs,

songs, concludes

concludes that

that in

in Brahms's

Brahms's songs

songs the tonal

the tonal structures

structures

are

are dominated

dominated by

by the

the thought

thought and

and feeling

feeling of

of the

the poem.

poem.

Never-

Never-theless,

theless,

in

in some

some purely

purely strophic

strophic songs,

songs, Gerber

Gerber is

is unable

unable to

to

discover

discover any

any connection

connection between

between the structure

the structure of

of the music and

the music and

the

the meaning

meaning of

of the text.

the text.

Konrad

Konrad Giebeler's

Giebeler's more

more recent

recent dissertation

dissertation

(1959)

(1959) is the first

is the first

to

to study

study seriously

seriously

the

the declamation

declamation patterns

patterns of

of the

the songs,

songs, but

but

he

he too

too tests

tests the

the word-tone

word-tone relation

relation by

by searching

searching for

for "purely

"purely

musical"

musical" responses

responses

to

to the

the content

content of

of the

the text.

text.

Regarding

Regarding Op.

Op.

105/1

105/1 he

he observes that

observes that the form

the form of

of the

the song (including

song (including the

the dec-

dec-lamation)

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the

the prosody,

prosody, verse

verse structure,

structure,

literary imagery,

literary imagery,

and

and affective

affective

content

content in the musical

in the musical setting,

setting, and then

and then concludes

concludes whether

whether or

or

not

not he

he has achieved

has achieved

"good"

"good" relation.

relation.

Separatists

Separatists

appear

appear to

to

assume that

assume that "good"

"good" music-language

music-language

relation is

relation is a universal

a universal

ideal

ideal unrestricted

unrestricted by

by local differences

local differences

in the

in the form

form and function

and function

of

of song.

song.

On

On the

the other hand are the assimilationists

other hand are the assimilationists

who see

who see

song

song essentially

essentially

as absolute music in

as absolute music

in which

which the words

the words are

are for

for

the most

the most part

part transformed into

transformed into purely

purely musical

musical elements.

elements.

The

The

description

description of

of song

song from

from this

this vantage

vantage point

point is

is in

in some

some ways

ways

unproblematic.

unproblematic.

The

The composition

composition is

is treated

treated as

as though

though it were

it were

virtually

virtually an

an instrumental

instrumental piece

piece throughout,

throughout, and the text

and the text plays

plays

very

very small,

small, even

even negligible,

negligible,

part

part in

in the

the description.

description.

hope

hope to avoid

to avoid the

the pitfalls

pitfalls of

of both

both the

the separatist

separatist and

and assimila-

assimila-tionist

tionist approaches

approaches in

in the

the following

following discussion

discussion of 'Wie

of 'Wie Melodien".

Melodien".

wish,

wish, instead,

instead, to

to construe

construe the

the song

song as

as an

an instance

instance of a me-

of a

me-dium

dium which

which is

is quite

quite distinct

distinct from absolute music

from absolute music on

on the

the one

one

hand

hand and

and from

from speech

speech on

on the other.

the other.

would prefer

would

prefer to

to express

express

the

the imagery

imagery of the

of the song

song in terms

in terms of

of features

features of

of the

the whole

whole signal

signal

rather

rather than

than in

in terms

terms either

either of

of relations

relations between

between the verbal

the verbal and

and

tonal

tonal components

components of

of the

the signal,

signal, or

or of

of the

the purely

purely tonal

tonal dimension

dimension

alone.

alone.

shall

shall therefore

therefore

attempt

attempt to

to constitute

constitute the

the song

song as

as

structure

structure of

of what

what Walter

Walter Wiora

Wiora refers

refers to

to as

as "Ganzheitseigen-

"Ganzheitseigen-schaften",

schaften", features

features of

of song

song that

that are

are lost when

lost when the

the words

words and

and

tones

tones are examined

are examined separately.

separately. *7

*7

My

My first

first step

step will

will be

be to

to offer

offer

reading

reading of

of the

the poem,

poem, not to dis-

not to

dis-avow

avow the

the principles

principles stated

stated above,

above, but

but to

to simplify

simplify the

the descrip-

descrip-tion

tion of

of

complex

complex phenomenon.

phenomenon.

I

I do

do not

not set

set up

up the

the text

text as

as

given,

given, against

against which

which to

to judge

judge the

the composer's

composer's

tonal

tonal setting,

setting, but

but

as

as

poem

poem which we

which we shall

shall observe

observe Brahms

Brahms singing.

singing.

Describing

Describing

the

the poem

poem simplifies

simplifies the

the task

task of

of description,

description,

but

but it also

it also identi-

identi-fies those

fies those poetic

poetic values

values and structures

and structures

which

which play

play important

important

roles

roles in

in the

the song.

song. In

In effect,

effect, this

this reading

reading of

of the

the poem

poem is

is guided

guided

by

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Doch

Dochkommt

kommtdas

dasWort

Wortund fasst

und fasstes

es

But if the

But if the word comes

word comesand

andgrasps

grasps

und

undfiihrt

fiihrtes vor das

es vor dasAug,

Aug,

and

andbrings

brings t before

t beforemy eye,

my eye,

wie

wieNebelgrau

Nebelgraurblasst

rblasst s

s

it

it fades

fades like

like gray

graymist

mist

und schwindet

und schwindetwie

wie ein

ein Hauch.

Hauch.

and

andvanishes ike a breath.

vanishes ike a breath.

Und

Unddennoch

dennochruht

ruht im

im Reime

Reime

And

Andyet,

yet, there

thereresides n

resides n verse

verse

10

10 verborgen

verborgenwohl ein

wohl ein Duft,

Duft,

an essence

an essencewell

wellhidden,

hidden,

den mild aus stillem

den mild aus stillemKeime

Keime

whichsoftly

which

softly from

from the

the still core

still core

ein

einfeuchtes

feuchtesAuge

Augeruft.

ruft.

calls orth a moistened

calls

orth a moistened ye.

ye.

If

If Groth'S

Groth'S poem

poem seemed abstract to

seemed abstract to Frau

Frau Liesel

Liesel in

in 1886,

1886, itit

must

must have

have seemed even

seemed even less

less concrete

concrete in 1854 on

in 1854 on first

first printing.

printing.

At

At

time

time when

when authors

authors sought

sought to

to arouse

arouse thought

thought and

and feeling

feeling by

by

assaulting

assaulting the

the reader

reader with

with explicit

explicit

narration

narration

and

and depiction,

depiction,

Groth stimulates

Groth stimulates responses

responses

through

through the

the allusive

allusive power

power of

of set

set

of

of symbols.

symbols.

For

For example,

example, although

although the

the poem

poem is

is about

about sound,

sound,

one of

one of the

the principal symbols

principal symbols is

is the

the eye.

eye.

In

In the

the second

second stanza

stanza

the

the eye

eye stands

stands for

for the reason

the reason which

which reads the

reads the word

word but

but is

is un-

un-moved

moved by

by emotion,

emotion, and

and in

in the

the third stanza

third stanza the

the eye,

eye, moistened

moistened by

by

tear,

tear, represents

represents

the

the feelings

feelings aroused

aroused by

by the

the lyric. Through-

lyric.

Through-out

out the

the poem,

poem, effects

effects are

are obtained

obtained by

by a

a series

series of

of metaphors

metaphors

dressed

dressed up

up as

as similes

similes that

that mark

mark the

the poem

poem as

as an

an early

early essay

essay in

in

the

the symbolist

symbolist manner.

manner.

The

The poem

poem treats

treats the aesthetics

the aesthetics

of

of the

the lyric by

lyric by comparing

comparing the

the

ability

ability of

of the

the various

various sonic media

sonic media

absolute

absolute music,

music, speech,

speech,

and

and lyric poetry

lyric poetry

to arouse feeling.

to arouse

feeling.

Of

Of the

the three,

three, pure

pure tone

tone

(Melodien)

(Melodien) arouses mood

arouses mood but

but fleetingly;

fleetingly;

it fades

it fades like

like spring

spring

flowers

flowers and the clouds

and the clouds of

of their

their fragrance.

fragrance.

The

The spoken

spoken word

word

(Wort)

(Wort) tries to

tries to grasp

grasp emotion

emotion and

and even

even to

to display

display itit to the

to the eye

eye

in

in script,

script, but

but mood eludes

mood eludes speech

speech too,

too, fades like a

fades like a mist,

mist, and

and

disappears

disappears

like

like a

a breath

breath of

of air.

air.

Of

Of the

the three,

three, it is

it is only

only the

the

lyric

lyric (Reime)

(Reime) that

that fully

fully arouses

arouses emotion.

emotion. Hidden

Hidden within

within the

the

lyric's

lyric's blend of

blend of tone

tone and

and word

word lies

lies the

the power

power to

to bring

bring tears

tears to

to

the

the eye.

eye.

The

The strongest appeal

strongest appeal to

to emotion

emotion is made

is made by

by

com-

com-bination

bination of

of the

the explicit

explicit meanings

meanings of

of language

language with

with the

the evocative

evocative

power

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els

els of

of the second

the second couplet:

couplet:

"Frithlingsblumen, bltlht,

"Frithlingsblumen, bltlht, Duft".

Duft".

But the

But the two

two couplets

couplets are

are united

united by

by the

the soft

soft 1's,

1's, v's,

v's, m's,

m's, and

and

d's which

d's which help

help evoke the evanescent

evoke the evanescent

play

play of

of melodies and

melodies and the

the

hovering

hovering scent

scent of

of spring

spring blossoms.

blossoms.

The

The hard,

hard, rough

rough conso-

conso-nants

nants k,

k, g,

g, f, s,

f, s, and

and

[)I

[)I

contrast the

contrast the next stanza

next stanza strongly

strongly with

with

the

the first.

first.

They

They suggest

suggest the

the rough

rough treatment

treatment speech

speech alone

alone (and

(and

especially

especially

the written

the written word)

word) accords

accords emotion,

emotion, and the

and the back,

back,

open

open vowels

vowels of

of "doch,

"doch, kommt,

kommt, Wort,

Wort, Aug,

Aug, Grau,

Grau, Hauch"

Hauch" con-

con-the

the emptiness

emptiness

of absent feeling.

of absent

feeling.

The

The [fv]

[fv] of

of "schwindet"

"schwindet"

blows

blows the

the mood

mood away

away in

in

fricative

fricative rush,

rush, and recalls

and recalls

the

the con-

con-trasting

trasting "schwebt",

"schwebt", which stands

which stands at

at

parallel

parallel point

point in the

in the pre

pre

vious

vious stanza.

stanza.

The i-vowels of

The i-vowels

of "schwindet,

"schwindet, wie"

wie" similarly

similarly re-

re-call the

call the principal

principal vowels

vowels of

of the

the first

first two

two lines

lines of

of the

the poem.

poem.

Comparing

Comparing the

the three

three stanzas,

stanzas, we

we note

note that the

that the principal

principal word

word

of

of each

each first

first line

line (Melodien,

(Melodien, Wort,

Wort, Reime)

Reime) shifts

shifts toward

toward the

the

end

end of

of the

the line

line as

as the

the poem

poem progresses:

progresses:

Wie Melodien.

Wie Melodien. . .

Doch

Doch kommt

kommt das

das Wort.

Wort.

Und

Und dennoch ruht

dennoch ruht im

im Reime.

Reime. . .

"Melodien"

"Melodien" begins

begins on the first

on the first stress,

stress,

"Wort"

"Wort" on the

on the second,

second,

and

and "Reime"

"Reime" on the

on the third.

third.

By

By positioning

positioning "Reime"

"Reime" at

at the

the end

end

of the line

of the line after

after progressing

progressing

through

through "Melodien"

"Melodien" and

and "Wort",

"Wort",

the

the poet

poet throws

throws itit into

into strong

strong rhythmic

rhythmic relief which

relief which is

is rein-

rein-forced

forced by

by the sound

the sound of

of rhyme

rhyme itself.

itself.

"Melodien"

"Melodien" lacks

lacks words,

words,

"Wort"

"Wort" lacks

lacks music,

music, but

but "Reime"

"Reime" has

has both,

both, and

and one

one manifesta-

manifesta-tion

tion of

of the

the music

music of

of poetry

poetry is

is the

the verbal

verbal consonance

consonance of

of rhyme.

rhyme.

Thought

Thought and

and sound

sound conjoin:

conjoin: of

of the

the three

three media,

media, only

only "Reime"

"Reime"

wins

wins

rhyme,

rhyme, and it

and it does

does so with

so with "Keime",

"Keime",

word

word that

that adds

adds

new

new and

and deeper

deeper level

level of

of meaning.

meaning.

Together

Together "Reime"

"Reime" and

and

"Keime"

"Keime" form the

form the crux

crux of

of the

the poem:

poem: the

the lyric

lyric calls

calls forth

forth from

from

the

the central

central bud

bud of

of being

being the

the expressive

expressive

form

form that moves

that moves the

the

feelings.

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projects

projects effectively

effectively

the climactic

the climactic

image

image of

of

welling

welling tear

tear and

and

humid

humid eye.

eye.

The

The quality

quality of

of calm

calm and

and fulfillment

fulfillment is

is maintained

maintained

in

in the

the long

long vowels

vowels of

of "Auge"

"Auge" and

and "ruft",

"ruft", the last

the last two

two words

words of

of

the

the line.

line.

Both

Both words

words are

are tied to

tied to earlier

earlier images: "Auge"

images: "Auge" re-

re-calls

calls the

the "Aug"

"Aug" of

of line

line

with

with the

the essential

essential

difference that

difference that the

the

eye

eye of

of line

line

is

is by

by implication dry

implication dry in

in contrast

contrast to

to the

the moist

moist eye

eye

of

of line 12.

line 12. "Ruft"

"Ruft" in

in turn

turn picks

picks up

up its

its rhyme

rhyme "Duft"

"Duft" together

together

with

with the

the "Duft"

"Duft" of

of line 4 and

line 4 and brings

brings into

into play

play the

the important

important im-

im-age

age of

of inchoate

inchoate essence.

essence.

"Ruft"

"Ruft" also

also climaxes

climaxes the

the chain

chain of

of

predicates

predicates that

that forms

forms the

the poem's

poem's spine:

spine: "ziehen, fassen,

"ziehen, fassen,

ftth-

ftth-ren,

ren, rufen".

rufen". The

The last

last three

three words

words tie

tie up

up the motifs

the motifs of

of the whole

the whole

poem

poem in

in

neat,

neat, expressive

expressive

knot.

knot. They

They summarize

summarize the sounds

the sounds

and

and sense

sense of an

of an utterance that

utterance that reflects

reflects on

on the aesthetic

the aesthetic form

form of

of

the

the lyric

lyric in

in the

the lyric

lyric medium itself.

medium itself.

Perhaps,

Perhaps,

as

as we

we turn

turn to

to

Brahms's

Brahms's song

song on

on his friend's

his friend's poem,

poem, we

we shall

shall uncover

uncover an

an essay

essay

on

on the aesthetics

the aesthetics

of

of song.

song.

Stanza

Stanza

The

The stanza

stanza of "Wie

of "Wie Melodien"

Melodien" is

is

common

common species

species of

of the arche-

the

arche-typal

typal quatrain

quatrain that consists

that consists of

of four

four lines

lines each

each of

of four stresses

four stresses

and

and eight syllables.

eight syllables.

If

If the

the falling

falling (or

(or masculine)

masculine) cadence

cadence dom-

dom-inates,

inates, the

the couplet

couplet is

is ideally:

ideally:

where

where

is

is

syllable

syllable with

with

primary

primary stress,

stress,

and

and

is

is

syllable

syllable

with

with

secondary

secondary stress.

stress.

But

But ifif the

the rising

rising (or feminine)

(or feminine) cadence

cadence

is

is in

in control,

control, the

the couplet

couplet is

is ideally:

ideally:

The

The species

species of

of quatrain

quatrain found

found in "Wie Melodien"

in "Wie Melodien" has

has

couplet

couplet

of

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By

By assimilating

assimilating

the

the

syllable

syllable of

of

line

line to the

to the

sixth,

sixth, the

the fourth

fourth stress

stress is

is joined

joined to

to the third

the third and

and is

is by

by contrast

contrast

weakened

weakened to

to create

create a

a feminine

feminine cadence.

cadence.

The line now

The line

now has three

has three

stresses

instead

stresses

instead of

of four and

four and

feminine cadence in

feminine cadence

in place

place of

of

masculine.

masculine.

The

The second

second line

line is truncated

is truncated by removing

by removing

the

the

fourth

fourth foot

foot altogether,

altogether,

which

which produces

produces another

another three-stress

three-stress

line,

line, but with

but with a masculine

a masculine cadence.

cadence.

Thus,

Thus, the

the two

two lines

lines of

of the

the

couplet

couplet are

are well

well contrasted

contrasted in

in syllable

syllable count,

count, cadence

cadence type,

type,

and

and rhyme,

rhyme, and

and group together

group together closely

closely to

to

13-syllable

13-syllable

long

long line

line with

with

strong

strong final

final caesura

caesura

and

and

weaker

weaker median

median

pause.

pause.

Poets

Poets of the

of the day

day found

found this

this stanza

stanza useful

useful for

for many

many purposes.

purposes.

Groth's

Groth's own

own poems

poems in

in this meter

this meter range

range from

from simple

simple folklike

folklike

lyrics

lyrics to

to his

his elegies

elegies

on

on the death of

the death of Robert

Robert Schumann

Schumann and

and the

the

singer

singer Hermine

Hermine Spies,

Spies, and

and

poem

poem to

to Hermine

Hermine Spies

Spies on her

on her

singing

singing of

of Brahms's Alto

Brahms's Alto Rhapsody.

Rhapsody.

More germane

More

germane to this

to this study

study

is the

is the fact that

fact that Brahms

Brahms set

set

number

number of other

of other poems

poems in

in this

this

meter

meter that

that range

range from a

from a Scottish

Scottish folksong

folksong translated

translated and edited

and edited

by

by Herder

Herder ("Murrays

("Murrays Ermordung",

Ermordung", Op.

Op. 14/3)

14/3) and

and a Slovak

a Slovak

folksong

folksong published

published by

by Wenzig

Wenzig (Op.

(Op. 69/2)

69/2) to various

to various poems

poems by

by

Uhland,

Uhland, Platen

Platen (Op.

(Op. 32/6),

32/6), Daumer

Daumer (Op.

(Op. 57/1),

57/1), Candidus

Candidus (Op.

(Op.

72/1),

72/1), Lemcke

Lemcke (Opp.

(Opp. 85/6

85/6 and

and 107/2),

107/2),

and another

and another by

by Groth

Groth

(Op.

(Op. 63/7).

63/7).

comparison

comparison of

of the

the settings

settings Brahms

Brahms composed

composed for

for these

these poems

poems

shows

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all the other

all the other settings

settings Brahms

Brahms made

made of

of this verse

this verse type.

type. Instead

Instead

of

of

one-syllable upbeat

one-syllable upbeat it has

it has

three-syllable

three-syllable

anacrusis,

anacrusis,

and

and

instead

instead of

of taking

taking up

up four

four beats,

beats, the

the first

first five

five syllables

syllables take

take up

up

seven beats.

seven beats.

The

The result

result is that

is that the

the first

first couplet

couplet receives

receives

five- rather

five- rather than

than

four-measure

four-measure

phrase (Figure

phrase (Figure lm).

lm).

The

The

differences

differences

may appear slight

may appear slight at

at first

first hearing,

hearing, but

but in

in song

song

aesthetic

aesthetic that

that hews

hews so

so closely

closely to

to the

the Volkston,

Volkston, any

any distortion

distortion

of

of archetypal symmetries

archetypal symmetries

has

has a marked

a marked impact.

impact.

The

The three-syllable/beat

three-syllable/beat

anacrusis

anacrusis

is

is very

very rare

rare in

in Brahms's

Brahms's

lieder;

lieder; when

when itit does

does occur,

occur, itit is

is usually

usually associated with

associated with the

the

declamation of

declamation of

ten-

ten- or

or eleven-syllable

eleven-syllable

line

line (see

(see Figure

Figure 2a,

2a,

b,

b, c).

c). In

In Figure

Figure 2a and

2a and 2b,

2b, the first

the first principal

principal stress

stress

occurs

occurs

on

on the fourth

the fourth syllable

syllable just

just before

before the cesura.

the cesura.

The verse

The verse of

of

Op.

Op. 105/4

105/4 is similar

is similar in

in length,

length, but

but the

the cesura falls

cesura falls after

after the

the

sixth

sixth instead

instead of

of after the fourth

after the fourth syllable

syllable (Figure

(Figure 2c).

2c). An

An upbeat

upbeat

figure

figure of

of three

three eighths

eighths may

may also

also be found for

be found for eight-syllable

eight-syllable

verse

verse in

in

triple

triple meter,

meter, as

as in

in Op.

Op. 47/3

47/3 (Figure

(Figure 2d),

2d), but

but for

for

seven-syllable

seven-syllable

line in

line in duple

duple meter,

meter, a three

a three beat anacrusis

beat anacrusis

is

is

most

most exceptional,

exceptional,

as is

as is the

the succeeding

succeeding

measure

measure in

in which

which two

two

syllables

syllables are

are spread

spread over four beats.

over four beats.

The

The normal

normal declamation

declamation

rate

rate for

for this verse

this verse type

type is

is four

four syllables

syllables per

per measure,

measure,

thus

thus

rate

rate of

of two

two syllables per

syllables per measure

measure reduces

reduces the

the rate

rate by

by one-half.

one-half.

But after the

But after the first

first verse,

verse, the declamation

the declamation of

of "Wie

"Wie Melodien"

Melodien" is

is

perfectly

perfectly conventional.

conventional.

There is

There is

typical

typical dotted

dotted pattern

pattern for

for

line

line 2,

2, which is

which is reiterated

reiterated for

for lines

lines 3 and

3 and 4. It

4. It is the first

is the first line

line

that

that sets

sets the declamation

the declamation of

of "Wie

"Wie Melodien"

Melodien" apart

apart from

from all other

all other

the

the

(26)

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Figure

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References

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