Ο ΧΩΡΙΣΜΟΣ ΤΩΝ ΓΟΝΕΩΝ ΤΟ ΔΙΑΖΥΓΙΟ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΠΑΙΔΙΑ (ΧΡΥΣΗ Γ. ΧΑΤΖΗΧΡΗΣΤΟΥ)

124  Download (0)

Full text

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)

20 O ~ w p r l ~ p d ~ r w v y o v t u ) v X < L ~ ~ ( 1 xnrd16.

~ n i h e u u r TOIQ hr rrc~lyiozt ma xnlS~ri ano-rt-kne uq y uvtlxii B<y(x

E'e~uvaq TV< ~+q~~o),oyirxg cmci TU ~ < C I L ( I E Q ~ X O V T115 II~ltat.~iug TO.U 1970. Zry Gqltr,ol~r/irj. rot1 ~ b l u i r ~ g o v cvSi.ur~;F'~ov~o; y tu rqv i ~ r IQYU R I ~ T I ~ a u v i r ~ ~ v a v rrt\lLl,.oi ~ r r r ~ u y c ~ v r c ; , xu~icti; cipwq 7 p~yG1.q uuSqcnl T o l l rrptki-

go6 Trm Glatuy irov SIF t 3 ~ r 3 ; try (il,-u zu ; ~ O ~ Y W V I : A O - O L ~ I O Y O ~ ~ L ~ ~ ~ ~ Q O ; ! L U T U .

MF TV\' ~ l r i ~ ~ o f j o ZOU ~ ~ ~ O V O U ~ ~ Y Q T C T ~ ~ ~ ( ~ ~ X E ivu p y a k n bi~n~(rttl I L O V L ; I ~ ~\:Grcrvipov yiu yciitll B~pti~..ro)v i ~ ; ~ ~ t i x h v ELF TO 81.rr~<y~o xcri TL; LILXU-

y d v ~ l ~ ; UFTU TO ~ a ~ ~ i t r p c i r t o v yovF'ro~ OF. noij.r>Z:; E ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ @ ~ ' L ~ o ~ ; xhi- hat05 ([puxokoyiu: ~(rt6~;ltr)y~xlj. ~ W ~ I I I T Q ~ E ~ , X O ~ Y ( ~ ) V L O ~ C ~ ~ ~ C I , VLIULKT~,

air.a\:obiirx), anocrr.o;.rcY)v-~tx5 mvlv it~~uE,E,r(i~.q ~ ~ n t n r r q ~ l t q olwv ~ w v lt~iL6)~

T I ~ ; O L X W ; ' ~ V E L(X; CIE CITOUMO, O I X O ~ F V E I ( L X C ~ . Z O I V W V ~ . ; C ~ 1 1 ~ 1 o titovt)p~~d ~ n i n ~ f i o .

C E F X O < C ~ K I 5 xIrr m r l ~ ( , ~ n i x h f i ~ f i ~ p i ~ a XQCITOV 5q5 Evp~nu'ixq; 'Evtucrq; X U I Lii,.i;o~il x ~ a ~ c ; ~ v yttx t t ; \~ovoyov~'i.xi; ~ \ I Y . O ~ ~ Y F I F; W C ~ ~ ~ Q U -

vruc ovvljOw; znrqyoll te: p o v t o v - y o v i w v [ L E ('lticrq T I ~ uu<~l.;'lxri ~01:s xcwth-

mnaq (xrjpoc: F?. ~ I C I ~ F Z I ~ ~ ~ V O L~E;, ( X V C T I U ~ ~ C > I ~ F S ) . H ~ Q I ~ ~ H ~ O T [ U ~ ~ ( T ~ TOV d ~ o v aorxrlyt'vcta )LE i ~ w 1/(1vCuu

11

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l r o y ~ v ~ i ' x l j o i x ~ y I ~ ~ ~ t a . . ' (single- parent family

li

lone-parcnt family) P~et n h i ~ ~ ~udI€@tlltl€i IT^ ht~Hvq (31 (?F,ioy~c~qic(, xugk ti; ~ a l x p i c ~ ~ I; (<?I. c n l xctr a v ~ a v ~ A ' t ~ r l v u)iuylj rov ug y ~ i x t b v m t . ~ ~ o ~ t i ; r w v y fiecl) crnr; TO ~ I ~ L ~ C ~ L O . iumg b ~ l p l , o l l ~ y ~ i hat)&-

~ i v q ~vnjxwuq WLS/FTI.X~. l t ~ TO I T I ] ~ I U V Z I ; I ~ ~ d h o nou i y , ~ i X ~ X L o ciX),o< yr~viix,;. Zrrl C J L E T ~ ~ ~ PtPl,.li,yp~li<( - p r ~ t i ~ yo~loyo~p~-ix€; U L ~ O ~ ~ V E I F ~ u v a c p f ~ n m a ~ E X ~ C T I ~ S O L n~pi.rltctlil~~< O L Y . ~ - ~ E V F L ~ ~ ) ~ # 6~011 yiri p ~ y f i i u %PO-

Vl'~h ~C(I!JT~~!I(LT(L P 61'175 ( X T [ ( ~ TOUS b ~ c l ; ~ o v E ~ ; ~ F V % ( I T O ~ K F ~

EIULI

[(F flit'

unolko tnv QIXF;FVFL(~. O X ~ T F , r . ( t ~ u T)] ~ C ~ Q X I : I 11 T ~ I ! ;CQ~YOI! U X O Z H U ~ C I ~ T O P

~ ~ 6 j ' / n ~ f ( r . 11 cli%u./iv~ta hElt0lIQy~i de fatto !~ovo;'clv~'~%lj o t x o % ( ~ ~ € ~ a (de factr) single-parent f;rinilies, Krlslow & Schnartz. 1987). H axovcritx

~ o u F v05 y o v i c r -pu i i ~ y 6hu ~ ~ o v i x f i ~ L ( X C I T I ~ ~ U T U ~ K O Q E C vcx o q i ~ i l ~ ~ r u t

E ~ T E (IE E I C ( Y ' ; ~ F ~ ~ L ~ T I X O & ovc ( n . ~ . VCI.UTIXO~. T C T ~ ~ ~ ( F ~ E S , U T ~ U Z L ( ~ ) T L -

xoi, vxGi,j~~.yl,ni-rrt~hi~ 6 ~ ~ O v 6 v o~~a1#1~7~1t1'1~, diniu)\r~t~r~Ojv t ' x ~ ~ ~ ~ l i l j v ,

~ T O ~ ~ I ~ & F ) Y L X ~ I Y E T U L Q F I . ~ ) V x.C.) F ~ T F E - { x ~ ~ E L ( ~ \ ~ o U F ih~tl~., q ~ h a ; t q X . ~ J L .

0 Roll (lr)92), yiu v a < ~ n ~ - p k i c i r a neo(-lh~jparu .top o~itrpoil r~l: ! ~ c ~ \ v l -

y o v ~ i n ~ s OLXO*;'~VEL(X:. fiCic711 su (IT(ITLUT~XU b~fi~pCvu m15 % ~ ; I I ) F S ~ q g Evewxu'ix~jc 'Evooq; n ~ j t i r ~ ~ v ~ to\'

EEI~S

o ~ i o p o zov ccpdvou-yovirt,, (single-parent): MO yovF'cig ;rou S F V Lci p& v.dmt~~uv hihu wg <t.l)y6~1 ( f i r €

y t i p o ~ E ~ T E (wpfii~uq), JIOV p n o p i

fl

(;xi vw ~ C V E L pnti \!F ui.lov< (n.1.

q)ii.nv: ~j cru;lyc\l~is) x u ~ nov U ~ I ~ F I 11ctti [(P F\'( I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ k C i ~ r i l t o v T I C I L ~ ~ XUTO

rwv IS FT(&>>. ME TT]Y ~ Q O O ~ F I J T C ~ ~ I ~ E ; T I ~ T ~ ~ ( L \ ~ C I - ; ' V W ~ I I ( I ~ TOI! ~ ~ ~ ( Z I T L Y , O I ? ~cihov toc y o ~ i c i xozl l i ~ v i x ~ i ~ x t p c ' h ~ ttt TOW nulb~thv m y v OLXOYF:-

vcia PET& xo ~ w ~ u r u r i xui ~11v -chntl h ~ ~ b v i S ; ylcr civrY~qyy -c115 y ~ v i x l j ~ : p & ~ ~ p v a g 11tx1, trn6 rozl; 6110 yov~bc. xg t)cri!lorro~oBv~txl ahiov ol c i p i

ndvadmrj p o v o ; / o v ~ i x ~ j orxo?lii.t-,rz~ (<<double single p:ircnt-family),) (Sa-

ger XCIL

mv.,

198.1)

4

.c~l~.-rl'pqv~xrj O I X O ~ E ' V E I I X ~ (<<binuclear family))) (Ah-

rons, 1980).

H cruv~p L X T ~ X I ~ d.~toq\!qqicr zunl sca\.biojv OF p o ~ o y ov~1r.i5 o ~ x o - ~ d - v e ~ ~ g < E L pt. q r i e a ( * O ~ X O - { F V E ~ E < !LE ~ i ( j v ~ j-pq~E'e~;>> - singlc-mother

l'emil i t s ~j mother-headed families). To flirutxd-c~~,o pc Yoboioylv.6 z-rgd- Ilhylla q v ~rnbyyo~l zt~)v ~ F ~ O ~ ~ ~ I Y O I J E V O X ~ < F T ~ L u t o OTL urq p i v ~ ; - J ~ ~ T ~ Q E S m 2 ) ~ l x ~ ~ i h a ~ 1 ~ c i v o ~ r u t tn~vrjl)rog 01 ~ c r i v ~ g - l q r i ~ ~ g p~rci, an6 biu-

i i l y ~ c ~ ;(w~iapo, PET& ax.16 TO t t b v t ~ ~ o toll n a t i y t ~ , xnOrb~ % a t nl ~ T ) T ~ ~ E S X011 htv . ~ X @ V V ~ W V T Q E Z ! T E ~ . B~[<nib) j, t l r jl6'fc t j , . ~ i i r ~ @ Jr00Ocmj ~ ( ; ~ o T F ~ o ~ v 0 1 f i l t l ~ ~ ~ ' / \ k E ' v € ~ ~ I ] T + Q F C . @U X ~ ~ T I F I F I I D V S V([ E ; [ ~ u ~ ) ~ u Y ~ & i (511 ; I O ~ ~ ? ~ ~ &

(m6 TL; p ( j v ~ t ; - l i q ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~txiluntrv~g~vovrrti, a..tcir& o (1~1.fly65 rwv povoyo-

v~'tnC;)v O L ~ ~ W : ~ . I ' E I ~ ! ~ V 1 7 ~ X ~ O F ~rripu c t v a q k ~ ~ r n ~ crto ~ ~ o v l r . 6 616crc1lpcs

X ~ ~ T U TO onoio at[< O I Y . O - ~ ~ Y F ~ E ; c1.1~65 ~ E V ~ O ~ U E prl;i r j xrr~fpnc.

0 ~ w k ) ~ t ~ , ~ d ; TOJV -/ilvtitllv TO ti~(~Lliyio MKOTE).~:~ I ~ I C ~ ~ o i ~ u i ' v O ~ t l 1 hl.ct8ixctniu pt' ~o1xij.c; ulJbay €5 UE noMoBg roycii tqc

L ~ J J ~ ;

cii,.ov ~cuv ~lt'hhv 31; 0 1 . ~ 0 y k ' f l ~ j R r ~ c ~ ~ U C F , O @ E Z L ' A ~ LCI n@~)~lcl[I!lo)lli;. H h ttrt'll-

xrrtria TOIQ Gtcrhyiozl ano.rrI.~i exiq; per p ~ ~ a f i u ~ l x ~ i qlcir~rl tirolirxqg xtxt

I I I X O Y F I ~ F ~ C I % ? ~ ~ &E€j11E~;. 01UI,TI?IQI~(TFI; H ~ I L 1] n~ouaQlloyrj rwv ycw<(~w

xtic, zwv ncxih tchv o z ! o ~ ~ t ~ u v r n ~ pc ~ O I X ~ ~ E : Y . O I , V ~ V L X ~ ~ , o ~ n ~ y ~ v ~ l ( ~ * r ( t : ~ X(XL (nopinig n t t e a p , i z ~ o v ~ . Cry oy-~rlxtj iS~flliuyecxcpia xov azlv6.i~~ T I C rrt)~x~ - ht c II(XQ(X~F:TQOIIC ROU

UXFTZI)VTCL~

\it T ~ V ~ ~ o o c r ~ p o y l j ~ m v nrsr hici)~ Ir l.Tcr

TO h~(~LZjyio (XV(X~~T:QFT(KL ~ V ( I ( ~ ~ v H E ru Of,(r)~q~ix(i p o v ~ t i o ~ 1 . c I I I ~ i l M I ~ V

(13)

n ~ p r y p d r p ~ l m115 nowiiovj nugd-tnvrq nor c r l l w ~ ~ l L ~ n ~ 6 ~ ~ u ~ v xaoopi-

<ovv wamtq T ~ L ! U T O ~ O I ' (Kurdek, 198 I). H ai.iqienib~uaq -cov

nci~clpF'tewv rov pax@on~~nrj~larog ( r . u ~ v o v t x k r i k i ~ ~ . ( I T ~ C T E I . S , umci.fi -

qlELg, U T ~ t l l X l l l & ~ E ~ O @ Y C I ) , TOI! F ~ { , ) C ~ ~ J O Z T ~ / ~ C I T ~ ~ j ( I C ~ Q ~ ~ ~ E T Q L ' I Z 0 I 1 <fi)'/XI-: -

n ~ i p i v o v

~ E Q ~ P ~ ~ ~ ~ o Y T O F ,

C j i l ~ ~ XF~IJ;(XMOVT~X< j ~ ( t i OI.;COVO~IXES UYAU-

ye;, 3ixr.w~ 11ndmtjpt:q;). TOI~ ! i i ~ p ~ m ! r n I J I ~ ( ~ r u ~ ( ~ r j l i 0 ~ : 5 TVIV p ~ 1 . h ~ rill;

O I . ~ I ) ~ ~ \ J F I C ~ ; ) xai TV,! o v z o y ~ v ~ rtxori cnrcrr~prxzo; (%rr~rxr,tqp tcrtunh zozl nut-

hi06 xar y ~ ~ ~ ~ i t o ~ ~ ~ r w ~ x i l ~ l r d ~ x c r U) (Kurdek. 1481)

JEIIGF

i it(wFf~l)i~n~.;~d

pdho t r q v n ~ o c r n ~ u o y ~ j o>.o~v -ruw pciuttjv -q< o i x q iv~,crt.; bc'th TO X W Q L ~ ~ U . ZTO f i ~ f l j ~ i o rn!rci ; ' ~ E Q L ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ v o \ T u L ~ a i u t ~ ~ l ~ ~ i i l o ~ ~ ~ ~ t I I Q ~ ( J E ( E I Y E ~

c q p a v t i x f g rta~6p~-c@oi v , a ~ sun ~~trtrri[)n)v c n l r n ~ ) ~ h ~ ~ ) v T C ) ~ x ~ e r ( i C i i k ~ -

vtog snv a r r i ~ r o ~ ~ m u E i ~ u ~ ~ [ t k t o ~ io-ctit€~ YIII t 11 ;M~ito~!t)t;icr tq j c)iicoy<.-

w i a ? xa! t q v npooct~poy ~j rcuv ncnS triv

(no

OI:XO"~EYEIWL~, itn; i l ~ ~ l ~ ~ ~ t i

; I F Q ~ ~ ~ ( ~ I ~ ~ , o \ : j i ~ ~ b TO ~ ( 1 1 ~ l o w 6 ~ a w */OV&IJV. T(x AFAOUFYC~ yiin ~q bitrhcr.u- cria ~ozl ;~wptapcl6 xc~i ri; t x v r ~ b ~ w i u ~ i ; twv nutbi~;lv fiuoi~ovrtxi trE anots- iF'aprxrrr xolb~th~~.flpu,~p EICF.E t h y , C ~ Q ~ ~ J V : E ~t ~ ~ . ~ i r i ~ Z itni X ~ ~ L V I .x(.;Iv U-

v6v crx6 G 1 ~ 0 r t j ; c ~ ! ~ i o ) ; I : \ f l h o ; l ~ a v i c l Y.UL CIF

F ~ G X I ~ ~ E ;

( % E T ~ . x ~ ; ~ I F ~ . . E .

T E ; xai ~ Q F Z ~ V E ~ nou I ~ ' ~ ~ X O I T ( q v ~i~h11vtx1j f i i f i h l o ~ / ~ u ~ i u . H r~~c;)tnl ~ c u v F Q E I ! Y ~ T ~ X ( ~ ~ V B ~ O T E ) ~ E U J L ~ Z W V F ~ V U C ~ I ( X ( ~ q p r ~ ~ ~ u i l q ~ p o i h d t l ~ u q *;'LCX qv n x o ~ ~ i ~ ~ u u t r n i t c i q ~ a Trov apoy y crpy h ~ o n c r . u p ~ o v l ~ u r i x f i ~ v n o t r ~ q p -

575.

A H M O r P A @ I K A

AEAOMENA KAI

NOMOOETIKO DIAICIO TIA T O AIAZYTIO

(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)

tGEN tS Ci M N G -> h3 N h3 f.3 N M N h: G NramNNNmtGNNKt.2W~ 4 - - c "C" -P G7 G1 01 -3 CO -U1 9 --I U1 -1 yr Sc G-, tG c, cc ;c;Pu=- K -L -L W W -m -m -W P F CD Pi Pi ti. IGIZwNNNb2WNNN~~W m Lq m .. C p

"

W W p "W -U W -m + q 0 b b bu A* I> -1 W'O-k 0 ornu- a m +

(18)
(19)
(20)

IIivrutnq 10 Ilouoah G~app~-cidv trinwv o~woyweihv (1 990- 199 I)

B&iy~u Auvia I'~ppnv~n EMhGu havicl raMin IphavSia I~aAia Aou<~pj3oupyo U,UtlvGia noproydiu HV~~FLO

Bcrtr11t:lo

Auorpia @~vhav&iu IuhavGia NopPqyia Lhu1;6i'a EdPcria

-. nq~i. Social Portrait or Eut~~pe. Eurostat. 1996 Cirvoho <CU~~~>MS\- <CIJ y bp <EUY~@IU anti za u~~oia: xwpi~, 1iruiii6 pc nu~S~ii 86,5 33,s 52,7 91,O 41,O 50.0 91,5 39,4 52.1 92.4 30, 1 i9.2 90,O 21,9 641 B9,6 35,7 549 86,O 19.2 65,9 88,6 25,9 62,6 87,8 31,8 56.0 89,9 36, l 547 90.3 28,8 61,5 sti,5 $9.2 47,~ S7,O 33.1 549 87,ti 36.0 Ewoho povrryov~,~- Cirvoho K& O~KOYEVEI~JC' p6~01- ~~VFS - OIK~IYEVEI~\~ c11 io ~ic, onoi~q: 11ax6pq ptlrfpcq 13.5 '7,; 10,s 100,O 9,O 1,2 7,fi !00,0 8.5 L4 7,2 100.0 7,6 1,5 6,1 100,O l(1,0 1.4 4.6 100.0 10,4 1,5 83 100,o 15,O 2.5 12,4 l00,n 11,4 2,7 8.7 1 h? ,0 12,2 2,s $7 100,O 10.1 2,4 7,7 100,O 9,: 1,s $3 100,O 13,s 1.9 11,7 100,o 13.0 L9 11,l 100.0 12,4 1,8 10,6 l OQ,O 86,Y 38,l 13,l 03 13,l 1011,O 79,6 28,s 50,T 20,4 3,o l i>4 100,O 91,s 53,5 8,5 l,!? 7,3 100,O Fc,O 41,5

W

1.3 6.7 100,o

(21)
(22)

IIrlyi Eumel~t Labour rhrw Survg, 1989: EI&IK~~ wdl\uq on6 ~q ZT~TIOLIK~ Yn~pcviu ~q$ EupwnaY~ijq Kolvri~q~a; n LO Lone Pcrunts Farr~ikirs in thr Enmpeun C~rttrnuriit~. A Report to the Eurupem Cnrnrnishiot~, 1992 Zqpeiwoq: Epy uuia nQpuuq lral PE~IKI~I; una~o~ qwqc oi rr,)q opi jrtal arin TO uu~po nou E~,I - jtfq~ob 01 &pc< anuqtilrlmlq I qv ~aer mu ~qy opia ~~ulai.li~)b qtlo VTIKC~ and kphr0~ ~~6~0~.

(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)

% ~ . ~ ~ I I V C I !1 F TO OIXII'(FVELQX~ Ainaio noz* i q l l ~ p f i ~ ~ i to 1483 (;CQOY\I.~

r.crrir qv onoicr t i ~ , i / ~ t r ~ v ~ t . I ~ $ E L T O v60 O ~ Z O Y F Y E I ~ ~ X C ~ Aixuio). O L ~ ~ c I T C I - :E L; ~ 0 1 1 EPSopotl K ~ q x ~ l . a i n ~ l tuu TCtag~ov B1 (~),LoI~ TOV Amtnoii Khbi%u n:w c~cpagoilv so hitxc~ly~o avucyF'~ovtav oru @ O ~ c i 1438- 1462. Zatx ttxtiho~lUri c i ~ t l ~ t x 1439-14.16 ~ u v Atrttxoil Kihhtxri avu~dgovztrt 01

1.6y oi ?La TON; oxoiov; o ; t c i O ~ dtvyo; pnt,pcn;c~~ vu < I ~ T ~ ~ C I E L A I

&i"/

111:

K v ~ i c x ~ p ) ~ciico m11v ~ x b h c r a ~ .cclnl ~ ~ ~ ) i ~ t w c r ~ c u v bicxcuy ioll E'mii- ;F r) SZ~VUTOZI)T~ TOV F V ~ ~ ~ ~ Y T C I ~ n l ~ 2 ; y o ~ ~ v a a n o d ~

12.~1

ci~i o uJbE,or oiltuyos

~ i v l a l vlrtri.rloc cnJpqcuvir Ire 71; ; ~ Q o ~ ~ ~ ~ E Q ~ E ~ u E < 6ctr~rire1g. To bixui-

wpa, i.otariv. yicl Gintiiyio U X I ~ ~ ~ E (IT(> (Infll.td ;IOU o ui~tljv I T < ; I ~ ~ O < ano-

& E ~ X V U F T - ~ V T~J[.oY.~~FIcTI~%T~ UX(X~TL(ITI]TU T O L ~ 6hh0v O U ~ ~ I I I Q . YE IFQLXTO-

o e i , ~ ~niovtcrpol: TV; ~yyupov q i c w ~ > ; > > , trx6yq x r ~ i F E w ~ ~ n ~ i ~ ~ ~ h ~ , ~ r l

~ o v jibiwv, -10 b~nuiw'j(w 71 CK 6~11LGiilyi0 ~ E V ~ I V ( ~ T ( I V OTUV o X ~ ~ O V I C ) ! L ( ~ ; ~ o u yupou o r f ~ ~ h t i ~ n v xv~icog atov cxizodv.cn cru<~lyn.

S ~ ~ ) i u t ~ r i ~ - c i ~ c r t c l ~ ~ ~ o ; ytu T ~ V ~~.hixuerv nut, ry vopixlj ~ t i t l ~ i u r ~ l xoh- h6v EY.Y.I)E ~ o u ~ J L ; ) ~ U X O H ~ ~ T F I I I Y fi~t$l!;';oi~ UIIOT€);EUE o N. $hS;74 yia TO c ~ a u ~ c i p a ~ o G ~ r ~ ; i l y o p ) . C ~ ; ~ ~ X I V U I ~ E TO w i l l # CILOTO, TO htur;i!y~~) ~ X O Q U I ~ F

v c ~ L r l q O ~ i UE ~ E ~ I ~ ~ J C T E L: ht(i(nuuq j T U ~ V av;v*pv yiix ( T I ~ V E X ~ j X ~ O ' G ~ L X ~ hiucnqpcw xoli Giapxnilo~ n k v o ~ ttxti < j ~ , ~ o ~ l i . k ~ i m o v x ~ c i v i t x .

Evzoilroi;, o~ticry y o l i d ~ o -;liu TL; t r ~ ~ ~ i x i ~ . ~ I K U U T ~ X E ' ~ ( ~ J c o I c ; ~ ~ -

( T E L ~ nai TT] mtyvcit~l~u TWV h i u c v y i ~ ~ ) ~ 11Trl! E ~ b ~ b 4 6 u ~ ~ J - i d X(XL -11~1 t11 -(€V 1- x c 5 ~ ~ e y avuH~cl;pqtr~l o~uuq; xuvw ~ n o bin'<<y LO, a;rorE'i~rr~ TO v60 O ~ x o y ~ v ~ t c c x o Aixuto rol! 1483 (N. 1329/8?), \(F .ro onoio seononui~Or(- xtrv o i hlm6E~~q 01 ~ 7 ~ ~ T l i l i j pc T ~ V ~ x b o ~ q ~ L L ~ ~ U Y ~ O I ! xi11 c(v(L)'vwQI'- trrqxF yia n e 6 ~ 1 l ycl~ri 11 b t ' v u ~ ~ q ~ c r . E'xGotrq~ ctcruva~v~riv.ilil biu<vyiov>> ( r i ~ t l ~ o 1441). C)( b i a ~ a t ~ ~ ; roll A ~ ~ u i l d l i KLShiit(1 ( ~ E ' I I Y . ~ V E TO biu<~+{to c~v~ir.uzuo~riO~~ncii~ mo d v o h d tov; !LE ti; V ~ E ; S L ~ T U < F L < ( ( i ~ e k w 1438-

1 44h). Era a;t6>.ovilcr a ~ O e a 1 439- 1441 roll Atrrixo6 Kw6ir.u uvrrq!t'~o-

(28)

3-z

2

mru 7. 4 -2 5 3 T.

2:

>.*

-i 2-42 --L!<-

-

4

-3.2

7 -, S

c-?

2. r: F3

=

S;:.;" 3% c

-

W

5.

2

-.

&.F$

=

9

< r y

-

- -

C:" C

8

-.

2- < 2' 3

2.

2 C

$2

-

r- ' 5

(29)
(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)
(34)
(35)

r!=oa;7e COO ,=gggsg

5

2

r:

5,;

2

ez m 3 C.,m

9

5

'm. FT~5~Vp*

2

83~~

i o ,c.

2

9F.W

2 E-; -.

;.

$\g,. 2" .i 2

?Z,*

5

m v 2.3 b

-

6

-

$-

53.2

@.z:$.r

A

?.(?

2

5

X 3.~5 a ,.-X 5 =I

g?

C

,.

Q *X? G,-,,, < Lh.o g.>

2

2.e -?

2

2

2.

-

2.z G

m.5

2 c X=

zg

5.5 2 3. m ec4 P, 3

=

p

5

2.5

2

&F<

3T m, Z>

*,,

5

5

C)

9'

?b

F,

5\

y

v, . CO rr

-2

-

3, -Z

,-?

2

-

a\ 2 4 E,? 23% 3 52 5 =I

E.22

23 wy5 'D? -5 r s5-CitY-?15. 3

=,g

2

-

23<5zz+ .G z 9

5

S,

S

S>

ci P,&;

-

C

.,

S C xc,

8,

2,

5,

2.

2 5

=

c\

.=

" a j.

9

11 1

$3

g

,L

2\

? 4 3 ?l 4

2

25g

F 0 3 2 Q U' 9 25,c

-F2

9

r,m2m P*

<

2.

-5,

rl

4

2

25

32

C.(

5

9

-5

Z + 0. 2

E'

-:

< 4 m T0"X m F' 0 Q

3.3

2

4

6

2.5

Z M 2

Pp-

emss

& .= 5. --:

g>

e d - 3s,?s 1 F rl 9 2. 7

G3

e-4-2 a

,c?

c

-

.:r 5 5 -5

=

C 2 n 4

-

zz

5 2 0, -, 3 c.7 -< <-S Q

2,.

5 <\ <L fir 5

z

3 a

:

2,

3 *

(36)
(37)

Ap10pG$ A~a<iy'wv

*

N Y C- - X u=u '5 c+: so: 2 COL

5,

-4 -d..

,

..-.,

Ln 1371 m a 1973 I

5

$

1P75 2

z

F

E

6

g

F 9 3 5

2.

1979

%,

5 -. F 1981

2

g 3 8 198.3 4 3 c N l ClA.5 h 1 Yd7

ih

1989

5

2

19th

$'

U 1 YJ'311 W 2 Y

(38)
(39)
(40)
(41)
(42)
(43)
(44)
(45)
(46)
(47)
(48)

2

"

.X CO, *7. 4 ,S <I1

,2f

:

5 e.

2

% -< =! d

4

23,z2

--

-

-7 p.55 6

-

c. 4 < X < F, Y3 S,, -2

-

-L

-

-. 3'

2

5

=

E

4<s

3 r R

.

-,-l

-.-

?c 'iex3 "$oz.

-

5 -< ,<l

-.

m,

3

r

:.g"

"

-5 G

g

- <

-

,E Y'

2.

E 2

6;2

g.

5

-e, '5

2

,S 202 2 r* m 2,

7,

2

Sr -: 4 <' -&,

"

_,I

-

X, p ,n

5

* z E 'FT

E

c. -< 2

4,

-5

E

5

g

n; <

5

F

7

(49)
(50)

r n d ~ n c tu ~ w v v ~ o ; ~ ~ ~ u i a ~ w ~ ~ ~ w v ~6i,o)v myv r . u B q y ~ e i ~ ~ j j w j c r ~ o ~ ~

top"< tou voir.oxvpio6, o i x o y f v ~ t ~ ~ q , t q ~ F ~ / C X C T ~ ~ xmi TOT) m i ~ v i h l - oil)) (Kitson gL Kaschkc, 1981). 'Ooov avoe6 TU F ~ F ~ ~ ~ K T L X U ~ & ~ L C I T V < n ~ o c ~ a ~ p o y j ? ~ o u atciltov no11 x ( r ) ~ i ; ~ i mi; X Q O V I X ~ C ~ f , d u ~ i q : ((I) XQIV m ;~ueiop6,

(p)

XUT& TV ~ L ~ Q X F L ( X TOV ~ u ~ t ( ~ p o l j xcit (j') TO ~ ( o ~ i i r p 6 ,

crrq t r ~ ~ n w j ( ~ I , ~ ~ ~ o ~ Q Q I c ; ~ c x U V Q ~ < Q O V T Q L bi<iq7oea RC(I)QI~TLXU yovtF'hu

;lo?-iu no tv& oqp~icr. xou i ~ o ~ ~ v 6 1 ~ 5 Girtqio~~~ixti O ~ t o ~ q t txti nhtxicrctx

W; (36q (Ciuttmann, 1993). AxoE.ove~i 11 JIFQ tyeuyj T Q C C ~ Y ~ ~ o ' c T ~ ? ~ u ) z ' T(X oxoicc uvurpE'povtcci c n r x v k ~ ~ r x xrxt O ~ o ~ n G w r x t pnrrlr.6 my r r i ~ ~ c . x ~ j

PI

fl>bio)r~urpba, JGOV X U ~ ~ ~ X T O V V TLS u ~ ) p a v ~ i x & ;i)iuu~uo~i; TY j J ~ Q O U U Q ~ O -

Y ~ S crtu 61ut8yiu.

O Bohannon (1970) HEU)QE~ TO h i ( x ~ 6 ~ 1 0 pit^ Ai(xEH%tx(ri(t n01! (LIU- T E ~ ~ E ~ T ( X I . ( W J C ( ~ 651 c c c n ( i A i ( x ~ (IE 6 i a ~ o ~ ~ t i . i l 0 6 ; toy~,i;: t(illl O X O ~ O V q U E L Q U

b ~ v ~ i v a t Q J I C I Q ~ ~ T ~ T U q i 6 ~ a y ia TAU ztx ~ T O ~ L ( X , dnrr)~ ihw h1-:21 E ~ I J I I I . q

C v ~ a u j aovg os xues ~povixtj cf,aoq. 'l*a m156 tu uvt6 ~ivwi ~u crxohoutlcl:

tqv rxnoyorj~~utry, TV f i v c ~ a ~ i t r x ~ c a x n t ryv l . 4 ~ ~ ~ l m i m n d v ~ ~ j UF.TU;~:L TOVS XClL € T ~ ~ ? F v T Q ~ \ ~ o ' L ' T u ~ OE Q Q V ~ T C X O U , ; ; C ( X Q ( X % T ~ Q ~ ( T ~ O U < TOV/TI~C (IllCG- yov xal TOI! yupo~l~ozlj. ME tl] u ~ u h ~ a x f j ~ ~ O ~ U X @ I J V U I ) an6 TI] q i u 1 1 TOU E V ~ < ctnti tou; 6uo trvtByol!; t r E yc:yahljr~~o PaBpci, av xcti T- lb~,ttovgyba

t q ~ o r ~ o y i v E LUS U ~ O Q F I ~ M I . V O ~ E Y 1x6 vu Gi.ut.q~~i.tui ma i61a ~ n i m i j u , ovcritxrrr~xti xtrc,cxpiCnovttri Y.(XI. ( ~ y ~ o ~ Z i v t n i tct x e ~ p i ~ q p c ~ ~ n xni 6 ~ 1 ! y i v ~ -

Bohannon t x v t q i @ ~ i tin ot n ~ h , i c r t r t j s ~ ~ ~ g q ~ ~ i x i 5 Y O ~ O ~ ~ E ~ E < a t ; ~ I ! T I -

' ~ 6 ; ;C&@&< ~ F V ~ n e S ~ i ~ v 6 0 . u ~ TJV U X U Q U ~ ~ T [ ' I ~ F U C I L ( T ~ ) ? ~ C ~ ~ ( X W j nQ0g Ti; uvuyxs; ~ w v p s h 6 ~ O L . X O ~ & Y E L U S xov p ~ b o x ~ t a i a y Siub~xuaba h a - jvyiov v.ui &v ~ G U ~ J ~ T O U V TY uomq

OUT^

lit01 Ojm~ YCI E ~ V U L h ~ l v u ~ f l y

cwnocpd~ttaq 6 1 0 ) ~ to)v t~uvtxicrtl~lph~ov y E xo~valv~xti c x x o h ~ x ~ o 6 ~ TQO-

nov5 xcxrti TV qxiuyl zou cnlvcxrtrHypflnxo~ G~a(vyiou. 0 Bohannon m i q q

H E W ~ E ~ 02t xuxoio~ fiiit~yci~ot, !iq ixuv~a; xni t q v r.r~rt(li,f~~h~l x u ~ u ~ ~ i a y ,

nohh65 cpo~e; trvvr~hoilv mrlv F ' v ~ a q t y ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ 6 z y r a ~ ilai rov m!yx~oz:l-

OEWV, mqv uxov6p~1jml xxal cny ~ ~ q u i ~ i o x o i y o ~ l py c r a ~ ~ t Ov ttlr.~txwv RUT& rq vopiwj h ~ ( ~ h txauiu.

To 61a(v'ylo nxo' zov x u ~ v o yov~ixd @ d o

0 t i ~ o j ((hia~6yio axd to\/ xoc~lti Y ~ V E ' ~ ' A O ~ 6 l ~ o ~ UVUCC~<QFT(ZL (IT<) y ~ y o v d g oti, €v6 oi yov~i; ~ ( O Q ~ O V Y UF o , ~ i utpoea t o crur,l~ytx6 ~ d h o xnt

T ~ V ucrxqcrq ~ o u y o v ~ ~ x o z i eohov unci xoivt~tl c r ~ lootiyy p h q , o xtiflt-

yovttxg ~ ~ x w ~ l a u S i r n q ~ ~ i ro ~ O I / F L X ~ TOIJ QO?-O a n < t l c t ~ ~ i ~ I T ( X X C L L ~ L U . Zzq qhoy a v ~ j , no11 (nlv6i~ruc ~ ~ E U U pc to vop111~j TO O I X O V O / L L X ~ b i a < . j y ~ ~ , 6i~z~O tzot;v.rai 6)-u rn. jq~qptx~u tcc cr;~~ri;tG y E q v c ~ L ~ C ~ E tu ~ w v n a ~ b t h v ilal ~u GI y.txicipcizu ~nixoivovia; sou yovt'tx rrou ~ F Y ~ X F L TT]Y

~ x i p d h ~ ~ u . 0 Bohannon ~ E U I Q E ~ OIL ~ 6 A y ~ a v TI- j F X C ~ ~ ~ ~ E I U ; h ~ p i o v ~ y ~ i rrvancicp~uxtu ytu dvioq x u ~ a v u p j ( ~ ( 1 bcitu~~pwru TWV Silo yovtcuv, o n d t ~ wmiosogcx fictxylo~d. my S z l ~ a t o ~ v t ~ ~ n i f i ~ c x q ~ u ~ y v u v a t ~ o q j xni ~xnwifieway ~ w v nu~Si6v u n o ~ ~ l ~ ~ i nyyrj iv~crovg xwi ouyx~oljtr~ov 11~~aEti TWY m(6yw~ ilaFl(h5 X(XL ~ V T O V O ~ W L ~ ~ / L X O ~ TEOYOI~. 0 Bohannon ~ ~ c i ~ h ~ o v TOV$EC 6 ~ 1 o nio ivtovog Y ~ I Y - ~ F n6v05 ;it. 71- p ~ y u l 6 x ~ ~ q behe-

XFL(X ~ Q O ~ Q ; C F T ~ L ux6 U U T ~ TO I3it~~li~eo m 6 TOV x o i ~ o Y O V F ~ X ( ~ pjho. To dcaceiyto uno' q v xorvdwza

To crcdbco 1%1!~6 ~ ~ v b ~ ~ ~ c c t U€ s ~ g ahhuy6; not! ~ n k ~ , ~ o v z c r i a o v

xowwv~xci xiluho ZWV cqih~v ~ u i . ~v(ilmLi)v, F ~ T E ()L xe&i)rlv d l f ~ y o c nrivu- ~tc:ivouv mqv ihcu Y E ITOVIC~ E ~ T E ~ E T ( X X O ~ L ~ ( S O ' U Y U& ahhq, m a txmimo txu ngo\.lhqua~u pova5165 xtwi K O L Y ~ ~ V L X ~ ~ ~ u n o p 6 v w u ~ ~ xnt ( q v ava<Tj~?lrnl ~~notn.rlie~Sqq an6 ahhn &TOFU, o y r i b ~ q , ito~vwvcxozi j avkhoy ou;.

(51)

c-rg==I 4 c. 2 K' .c '5 m W2

?*?

z-zz--

rl Y.3$ .- h

9

2

X wv'J<". 0 " 4 4 -> '!'

52s

Q ,3, ,- cx c

=

v 'p,

=

-i

E

22

e>35

a 2

5

#L T\ $2

=

3

57.2

g;

(52)
(53)
(54)

,g

3

m,

5

2

-

G X

2

-2 E, 1

-

G.

E

4 0, 5 c.

2

fC 2

9

d * 0 2

9

2

2

'C. 2 -,

-

5 e.

(55)
(56)
(57)
(58)

L.. .- - .. -, .

(59)

tlyd rti [iiau ;rt.~i;rov trlS ~ F ~ U ~ T ~ L I < TOV 1970, 11 ~ ~ i h p c r t n l T11i1 hr(t- iuyiotl nrrr ~ t r ~ b i c i ctnotf'j,~o~ uqpc~vrixti B<prr. ~ Q F V V U < rll< 4l1q~oj~.oylt1;, T ~ S ;lor~:tov~oi,oyits xcii nl; ani6ayo)rix1j<. Z ~ q v CQ-:VY(I rt~:rq avvE'pui,uv nut h h f , ~ ~ ;I(~L)U,/O\TF;. * n ~ r ~ i l r ) < 6pw; '1 pvyfiiq air\iln~l TOP a ~ i t l p o ~ j . r t w biucvyirov. nolxij.ut xou~cl)~~uob, o i x o y ~ v ~ itxxoi xtw~ mtopixoi x u ~ h y o - I F ~ E j ;1(d<o1~ U ) I ~ L C ~ \ T ~ X ~ ~ 6 1 ~ 0 tnqv rxih~crarl ruu hturvy iov cntr na1.516 xui irx11 ~ E T C ~ E it" T Q O C T C T Q ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ m t ~ ~ . KU~\YJJVIY.E'<

CIEL'ES

%(ti X Q ~ T I ~ X C I F;IT]-

<)~ci*,ovv T I ~ V av~ii,qvy -rwv xtx~ b ~ c ; ~ ;'I ct TO ht~r<+/ro X U L ipprtra ~ i ; u v ~ i -

S@tE L; rol!;. ' E ~ ~ z w e g F'XOVV ~ F @ I till TO E Y ~ ~ X ~ ~ ~ F V O X O L V W J V ~ X ~ (niyprl ;tat zu a e v q ~ t n 6 c r ~ ~ ~ t - d n q a n yin TOI~: - ~ o v ~ i q xt~c' t'j/o~w xo)~iuci, ytu T ~ V a ~ n a r i ~ p u y r j awv ila16~6v xut yia T I ~ i,~~,~ov[)yicr. rr(q ULXOYE'VEL(I~

ET&

TO btcxjilyio ~ ~ i h ~ o i ' v ( t ~ \ ~ q t t , x h CTE dj..u t u pE'1.y q; o i x o y 6 1 ~ ~ 1 ~ (Brnndwcin,

Brown, & Fox, 1974). Exicrq;. <Q&I~VE; o~ X ~ Q E ; FE p t x ~ i ) ~ t - L W I I I ~ % V C ~ T ~ T U G~cxjvyio\: cr;rti ~ 1 , ; H. l l . A . . xtrt crvziu-coixu PE a ~ v y t ~ x 6 ~ e ~ ~ c xo~vwviili: crtha~i; xnr Irt-~;lui,dr~at) v.oiv,l)vrxci u~byya, waqieovv p ~ * ; ( ~ l i l r ~ p r r zgd-

[31L~pri~rt. c n y ~ n ~ g ~ ~ o ~ d ; x u ~ $vxoi;oy 1.x.i; ~ , ~ o o u ~ y o y q 5 T ~ ~ I Y nrr~ b~r;i\l U F T ~ TO l i t u ~ ~ ~ y i t ~ xcii X F Q ~ O C T C ~ T E Q F ~ ~ U W A O I . ~ E ~ ( n i ~ ~ < c I E ~ < ~l'rlqg F E rot!; bdo ~ O V E I ; (:\IIIR~O & KCII

h.

1O1Jlil).

H cihI+qh~a ibpntrq T ~ , ) I ~ TU@L(C(F'TQOJV TOU pnxeomm dparug (xoht- ar.ouix<; xui xotvwvtxi; t x E b ~ ; : v l i ~ l t ~ ; , m c i a ~ q ) , roll ~Ewmloz?jpnzug

(r.o~vc,~vir.i~ X W Q U ~ F T Q O ~ TOU (TI!YXEY.~I I I S V ~ I ! ;IFQ( ( k i ' h h i ~ ~ ~ ~ j), ~ o u l i r x p - rrvar&~(rto; ((~;c~(TEL,: ttrlv p&i,(hv TV; O I X O ~ E ' Y E ~ ( ~ : ) X(IL to^ O M O ~ E Y E Z L X O Z ;

alvrrqrritro; (~u~or.oivwvir.t~ ~ n t i ~ x ~ i r t xcrr ;~crpur.rr\~tcn~~~ti TOIJ naiS~.oil)

(liurdek, 1981, Pib, i l ~ r p h h a ~ o 3) ;rcri<t~ i l - ~ t R o ~ ~ r n ~ ; . . c i eciXo q vqoacxv- poyi t l u v na1.61611. I I o h u ~ i O p y CQFI~VC; ~ X O Z I V b~iEt.1 671 oc ~ Q Q ~ ~ I F . T Q O ~ ;rt)v tn!r q ~ ~ i < o v ~ c i i Fa rqv neoou~po';lrj T wv mlij~.wv Y F T ~ TO hi(~:~?/io

~ i v u L X O I X ~ L E ~ , (1kkk )I & ~ E , Q E Z ~ V ~ U I ~ Z T ~ S ( ~ ~ V O E T V ; nhl$sni8pnoq; rolv n a ~ u p i a e w v ii~:rc;~v n ~ ~ o c r h ~ c ~ c ~ Z ~ t tou; n u ~ h y o l r ~ ; < < n i ~ h 1 : ' ~ 0 1 ~ ~ K a 8 0 ~

v.ui rovq cca~orrrrn~l:rizoC~;~~ n c t e c i y o v ~ ~ ~ yLn q v n ~ o o u ~ y o y ~ j xrrr 1qv

xahq W I J ~ X ~ vy~icr T I I ) ~ ~ 1 ~ t i 6 r o v (Hethcrington, Bridges, & Tnsabelln, 1998). T a xaihrri rrov ~ w ~ i ( r p t . ' v c r ~ v yoviwv xat TUV Y O Y ~ W V X O I ~ t;p)~!~' ~ a v a n c c v t e ~ v ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ t r v i ~ m w n ~ ~ i c r ~ o r ~ e ~ ; y ~ v ~ o x ~ . ( 1 i v ~ ) v i x i ~ h~l[lxr>hir;

auyx~~.r~..rcri \cc T I T nuihiu T(II\' onoiwv 01 yov~i; b ~ v i x i ) ~ ) ~ ~ ( O Q I ' I J E I n o ~ i . LZ(rtciao, ~ ~ 1 1 I ~ E T tilq I:1(3i,.10:r~ucpi(r ; I u e a t ~ ~ ) ~ i ~ a i p ~ y h l ~ q ~ I ~ ~ ( c , ( I I Y iu %E- rixu pc TIIY dx~titr7), TO f i ~ ~ f j p d xai TT] ~ ~ U Q ~ I E C ( I TOW J ~ Q O ( ~ ~ ~ I ) ~ ~ T U ~ V UI!TC;IV

~;ut,Tiu; rl,)V TOUU ~ ~ ( Z C C ~ O Q F ~ L ~ ~ ~ I V U V T ~ ~ @ ~ < T E W ~ TUW n ~ l ~ b l h ~ <JTl j

~ E T I X P U -

-c~xis ~pCiu~i; ~ 1m<uytnfl; xurhirrnq 1 ~ j ~ c l ~ v yovir~jv t t w 5 (Hetherington xai cruv., 1998). Ta ( X ~ O T F X ~ ( T ~ ( X T U TIOY F Q F V V ~ ~ I V x ~ l i nolI.(t')v u ~ ~ u u ~ o m -

c7~cr)v T ~ S C I X E T I ~ ~ ; ~ifll,,toy~utyitx

K F V

xcr~rrj,rj*;r~ilv trF opoqjcuva avpxc:- ~cia[~trm. z v ~ v c i ~ c v a t uvrL.cpa~i;cu, l l n o m 1 l ~ ~ o \ r c r 5 F ~ T E 6tl. TO &iaM-jto

~ X E I rrr p i u ~ ~ t r y F : v ~ ; ( X Q Y I ~ T ~ X ~ < F ~ ~ J I T I ~ E ~ F t; I J T T ~ uvfi(inri+~~) TU)V nu L&L(;)v

F ~ T F r j ~ i +;cF~ ~ F Y ~ I ~ T , s xui C ( I ~ X ~ O ~ / Q ( ~ V I E ; ~xintti)o&1;. 01 b i . u ~ r , ~ ~ i ~ C ~ V T ~ S

o ( p ~ ij.o~~r(li K Z ~ Q ~ O S I ~ ;1~7ixi?~(1 Q p 6 ~ 0 h 0 ~ 0 y i x h n ~ o ( j l ~ t j p a t ( i T { ~ ) v Q-LETLX(;)V

EQEIJV(;)~, no11 (nlvo$;o~rar uru (IxL~?-ouI)u: E T ~ A o ~ ~ pq U V T L X ~ I ~ U ; I I I F V T ~ - %&v r.ui nolLl,.is r i , u ~ , < ~ Y.F,.Lv~x~;Iv ~ F G Y ~ U T ~ O Y n,i.yHvi~poi" 6?L?L~il)r~~ ~j..Cj''io~! ~ ~ O o ~ i r n i x h ~ ~ F T ( I ~ ~ I , . ~ ~ ' I Y , C ~ T L U ; 11I~ixiu tov n u t h i o ~ x u ~ a TO h C L $ ~ I O .

~ ~ o v i x ? & I & Q ~ F I( I an6 7 0 S~.it<i";'to, 11 11hl:xiu TOV nctih~olj xani T I ~ Y i p -

VC(. ilbh&iyq ~ h i y ~ o 1 0 11)s (d:j.tlA.t.nib~clq~ nm8o~ics~r~x(hv p~-ctxfi)+~lrhv ./lr,-

T ~ Y x~ocruepoy~j TIIIV nulh~(;)v, c i n w ~ ~ivrri 7 oiv,ovop~r.rj xa~cirnaov zqq

O L X O ~ & Y F L ( X S , 01 ~ ~ * ; ' x c ) o ~ ' u E I < TW\' YI)Y€U)V, )I ~+!vj/t%~j TOUS ~ y ~ i a , ot pi80- 601 avurgovrj< ~ w v na1.61 WIJ v..ci. E Q [ I I ~ V F ~ ( L ~ ~ u T E ~ ~ s ( J ~ ~ ( ~ ~ c u v ~ ! U X F ' T L ( T ~ ~ S w; rwrcr~relr--cr~&~~uv t n . ~ i a ) b ~ ~ v tqio~cmr ( ~ x L T I ~ ~ - w ~ ~ E ' F . F ~ ~ . I c ~ ) (A~nato & Keith,

1YYla Blechntsn, 1982. Emery, 1988. Hr.tl~sringtrbn, Bridges,

Sr

Insa- bclla. lWc3). IF a v u m f i x q q Z ~ S ( j i , f l j r ~ o ~ p c ~ ~ i u & C(V~~>;U(IV 92 %E-

tixtdv ~ ~ ~ u v c 6 v yiu t)~" E;tih~trtry ~ o v birl;~l;'io~! t ~ t l l . n a ~ 6 i ( i U E TT) (n(u1-

mir.~i uF'doSo y ~ r u - n v h l ~ l a ~ l c . oi Arnnto xai Keith I 1991al 61u-t'

,

im01- 0U.V 6 ~ 1 TC. 7Icllhlri ~ / w @ ~ u ~ € Y I o ~ ' Y O V ~ ( J ) \ ' F

h ~ \ '

~ I X Q ~ T E Q O ~ J ~ ~ F ~ K T E ~ I ~ W ~ O - xr>ivcuvix~js xuc, axokixfls neocrcx~~o-r~is (]E d y x ~ i o q P E T C ~ I : ~ mvtq~qE.i- xovg zou? nov <\nru UE roll; hiju ~ ' o t ~ ~ b ~ , uiLjMci 01 hiarpo~ir, umt; ~ j r r r ~ y~vi.xa p t q i ~ .

AEV v;r(f~xo~bv ~ > i l j ' ~ . ~ x g i ~ i t . v ~ ; cnixt(;)o~i; no^: p x o p ) u ~ 1 ' ~ ~E~!I!)T]- H O ~ Y uvmx6cp~vnzn rr;ro~CX~npa yw~i.upoB ~ w v yoviwv mu rrrrtblci. ' E p i 6 tami(n~il€i~i C < T ~ TO ~ L C L ' < U ~ I O hftl C I ~ ! ~ F J I & ~ F T ( Z ~ ~ n q t ~ i ~ q t a ( L Q V ~ T I -

xi; ~#u~a~.oyixC,; F X I ~ ~ ~ ~ J E I ~ 'ILU T(L mtSici (Gardner, 1979). H fiiufiiwq xcli t x 0 ~ u y X ( X T ( ~ T ~ V nutfiinq XCTL ~cr;qFiv.q yf.iv,irx ( W r r ~ ~ i p u h h o v Fe ~ T I I Y E ~ ~ F ~ S m y i l ~ , o i i o ~ i ~ e x 8 ~ d t q ~ a y tu ~c~yrila ~ ~ ~ o v i ~ c i duttnflpnztx

(60)
(61)
(62)
(63)
(64)
(65)

S32

e3 S E c> 4

2

6

6;

$5

..

2-5 Q 4

4

.',c

5 c: 0 -< 5 < r R*, c < 2 25 $7 5 G d

-

e m 2

-

2

5.

< ?nfl~rn~f~ 3 3,

2,22-F

2

'

d

3esz

\m

a,

g

p;:

2 0,3< *CG<T 52 @<zp4:" i Q3

5

c

*

2.2

-3zse m 2 d!

5

%

=I o-Jz 2 <sgKe9a zecas&

22

3 7. "< < E..

FB5,

-.

55gF'

3 I

g

2

3

2

5

m

4

2

$g

5.2

pc 2 F$'D 9.D

2

E' a S'

S\

" 0.5" Fi 0, X 4 -Q

g

Q, 4, rl3 4 04 g

85.55

g

1r1

(66)
(67)
(68)
(69)
(70)
(71)
(72)
(73)
(74)

n<cimv u;?;?Es ( J ? ~ [ ~ C ~ V T I : L ~ T F Q < ~ ( I Q C X ~ & T Q O U S . 0 1 Wallersl t i n xct! Kel l y

( 1980. (IFA.. 207) a ~ ~ ~ y ~ ( i c p o u v x l j a ~ r j l o u t 3 ~ ; xnHo~icrr~v.J: nnpriltF'ryoi0:: ( I ) TIIV I X U V ~ T ~ T ~ X T0)V Y O V ~ O V Z1(Z E T ~ ~ ~ O O I ~ Y 11 V(Z ~ ~ . ~ ~ ? f l ! l € p i O t v ~ v TL;

( J U ~ X Q O I ~ C I F I , ~

IIETCTEI~

t o l ~ ; x ~ i TO tl.~!pd T O I ! ~ XUI. v a U ~ O O H I ~ R C ~ I ~ I ~ T ~ ) V U Y ~ L - ;1~)11q11~71) ~ L E T I ~ tl] 1,ljul) TOV y h ~ ~ o v . (2) TI)Y F X ( X V ~ ~ X T ~ U T ] , ~ I U T I ~ ~ ) T ] ( I I I

PF

l,.- riuicrq rq; ixuvotyr(~; TtrlV ~OVF'UIV Y L U {I(~)(TTT~ uvur~ocpq T l l j V rrcrtblr;l\,. ( 3 )

r11v a ~ a c a i t r txr.uOqya~czrv u x t i ~ ~ i l y q ; ~ L U TO ~ t ~ i 8 i an0 -ro yovict Toll ~ E Y

t. 2%~ ttl v ~ n i ~ i i i ~ ~ i t r xui TT] auvixicrv rv; q & r n l ; xut E T I I ~ x c ~ I ~ ~ u ) ~ ' ~ ~ ~ 0 1 1 ; CTE z u x ~ t x r j flcicrtl x a i uvhhoya JIF t o orubio clvhan!$lr roll nuthioil. (4) z ~ l v q)t,c~r,)n~r.drt(-ca xtxi ~)vxohoycxrj ~ ~ . r t f p r , ~ i u 2011 OF ~(1161.0Zi ~ C O Q L ( J T ( ~ . Y L Q T ~ V ~ ~ ~ t ~ p t - : t ( t j , i ~ ~ ~ l rv j ~ ~ i t q ~ TV; O L X O ~ ~ V E I ~ ~ ; roll ;cc11 T ~ V wnvdrqt6. roll IJU f l a o i m ~ i cnvv ~ ~ q r p u i a , rq vtrv~nuirs. r11v xoLvruvixq w)~tporvrti roll xtri q vtr.cxvtj~ytu -cov y ~ c r ut~r<ljrquil u r q ~ t t q 5 nrra oi~vopqi..i-~uu; slui EVY-

iLixotlgn (5) rqv 2:'nr1&11 €1'65 h ~ x n i o v v~ucnri~i:)]; *;La ro xcxthi ( h ) -cqv uxozltrin ovv~x~i;6l~t.vtnl Pl~lroc x t r ~ ~ ( ~ ~ C i C j h v l t l ; cm) ~ ( ~ i ( r b . X U I (7) TO

vli-

i,-o xcr~ q v ~l>~ixici rov nrr I ~ I L I I ; .

YE

~ i i u ~ x t x v ~ E i m n ~ l 11.3 x(III\I(~'F Y.'.IIL fv~ijJAt1)v tov &F,~";(~(xTO;, 11

oxoicr anolbo<Byo~ 10 xptiv~rr ~ F T U TT]V U O % I X ~ (i<ioi~i;')]rl?l, q Wallcrstein (1985) Gia;litntt)rrE d r ~ <\'a nt>(~cttrrd ( n ~ p i n o u RS%,) rwv YF(XQ(J')IJ ~ v q h i - XUJY

FE{IXO~.OII~~OI~UE

VCI f l t - ( r ) p ~ i I ~ T I TO h~(i;ql'~ll~ t w b / ~ ~ t c l j t p E I ~ F uqpavrt- xf; c~r.tstrCirt.t,: cr~,11 h w ~ j rou ;(L>$. ?'H b ~ o ~ w . WIT& ~i.dav Q v r o v ~ ; UCXL ~ ~ ( T I ~ Q E U T F ; pvTj FE,; t ~ n d TU Y E ~ O V ( ~ T C I m11 ~ U C ( O I ~ T(IN y o v i t l ) ~ TOI~;, uioBfjptx~tx i.lixq5. a i 1 v ~ ; ~ t ~ t i p s v q h v o u ~ i t r x ~ i a y i u TO?? yo\l~i; roll; xttl ro rxitrff~lvu rjn rirr-~jtlOqxtrv z t ~ E ~ I E I . Q ~ S S ;IOU fl(i E ~ X C I V / ~ L ( ~ U E C (XY F ~ X C I Y

p ~ ~ u i , . o ' ) ( l ~ i XUI. TOV j *;OVF~S. 0 1 ~lt'.ui ~ v & Q E ~ , K(XL YIJVC~~GC;, XQI

u i - r ~ o a ul .flliJ{r1xcg. ~xbrjhmvtrv ~ b i u i r ~ e q c ~ v ~ l c n r ~ i a p~jxw.; r-:ncrvuiripoll~' oi ibiol i v t t G~lcrzv;litr;tivo yc'tpo iixwg o i ~ O V F ~ S rov:, xtri F;F:(F,QU<UV nlv

rr~;roiCJqt?tl ciri Oa crno@youv CYU nifluv6 ~ L Q ~ $ ; J L O yta X&C)T] T(OV n u ~ h ~ i r j ~ ~011;. H W;~llet.~tei~l (1985) t)eulC)ei r\ a t x R ~ ~ ? \ C L V T ~ ro.rjztcr~j ~ o v ~ 105

~qrrclcb~rj. ~cue~upE'vwv y o v t o v ~ ~ivtxi E'vu a n d r u J I > ~ ~ O Z ~ ~ C ~ X Q O X Q O H E ( J U ~ ~ ~ ; t r ~ i t o i , o ~ l b t ~ T ~ S E ;im q i a ~ zou Gtn<v,vyiou t w v yoviwv.

ZE p10.

E ~ U I ~ E C F ' T C ( ( ~ ~ ~

r6)v n ( ~ ~ f i i ( h v nol! i y i v ~ h ~ ~ 6 v ~ a p ~ t u r o 6111-

L ,

~ v y t o TlrW yovicl~v rou5 (7 pCoq qivixicr twv xarSl,wv x a ~ u zo G L < U ~ L O r j r ~ y

10,l ~ g o v t o v ) , Hetherington v.ui o~ a u v ~ y y u r t g rv; (Hett~eririgiun. Cox.

& Cox, 1C)85) wvnrpC~o11.v OTL t o Gtfijily~o Fxt-I m(:, ~ p v l l t t x i ; [ta;igo;rgci-

~)€uJIE; (~I!\lht..lt.< YlCK t" ~'{d@lu, FVI;~ 0 ~ F ~ ' T E Q O : . { U P ( ~ < TTJS p]~cli)a<

a v c r ) ( ~ t tjdruv L(F p~iu011 TWV ~ ~ o f l l ~ ? l p a ~ t o I ' U*;OQIU %c? c. t ~ v t i B ~ ~ r r . , ~ l v txG611q ru)v npopi,,qpbtwv (mu r . o ~ ( ~ o ~ c r . Tu npofii.flpcrr~t ~ ; w r c ~ ~ x t . u p i -

vtov ~ O Q ~ X ~ Y ( T U ~ T F Q ~ C F O Q U S E i v u ~ , act) ~ r r u b ~ ~ 6 t m i ~ y 6 ~ I . u : TU nQ0-

(ii,,rjpu~u c c r t ~ ) t ~ ~ i r . r ~ ? p S v o , ~ ! l o ~ ~ t i ) v rn!pn~elcpo~Ci; ZLO m a O e ~ c i ixu

xopiroia. Tu notbhri. s o ~ v ~ l , , ~ i n u ~ v , 1 r v y oviwv rtvrip€ro;li~o.rw X E Q L ~ ~ -

rrptr tryvv~lv.S< {ti..j.cr.~i; r.rrL E ~ L X E L ~ ~ E C < { ~ t j TOIIC, ~ O I ! ~ C S X E T ~ O Y T { I L f i p f i r ~ \IF ~ r ~ u i 3 ) . q l 1 i ~ ~ i l n ~ ' p n ~ ~ _ l i q l ~ l ~ { i ; pihhov.

H llctheringtcln ( 1Y71) h i ~ @ ~ f i y q a ~ ~ n i q rig E T E Q ~ T U ~ E ; WX<CIEI;

E~IT/(IIUT Y . V ~ I T [ T ~ ~ ~ V rwv OIO~WY OL YOVELS E ~ U V XUIQLUEL xeiv a111rl

aoziv (nrlv q i ~ ~ . i c r T I U V 5 X Q ~ I ~ U I \ ~ (TV ( n j y x ~ ~ u q UE x o @ I r ~ i t t zoi! (1 n a t i ~ q

rou; ~ . k r nt-Orri1~1 xrtl xo~ircrccr JrnLu <ou(rav XUI pE TOU,; hi10 yov~i;. T u xo@(ttr ~ r r rrrlv ~ r ~ ) p l trui~'c~,v O L ? ~ O ~ F V E L D ~ V ~ n l b i ( ~ i ~ . ( ~ ~ ~ nEel00dr~l)q n @ o o q f i %(XL ~3llqlli xnl. ~ i ~ t r v aio i v ~ o v q p11 i . e r . ~ i r . ~ ~nir.o~v(r3vitx (JE E T E Q O ~ ? U ~ E < C~XBUEIF L I E LFVVD~I)>,.~Y.DU; X U I ~vvi.ii(ciy. OF a v r I R ~ ( q FE t ( t X O Q ~ T U L U TOW onoictnl o r t u t i ~ r t q 6 i ~ € ~ E O I ~ Z ~ E L . nov F X ~ Y ~ ~ W Y U V UVTL(ITOLXU ~ O Q C P < ?

mlp;r~~lc(,aptE; oi unoie; ; ~ t r ~ a . ~ r r l e i < < w ~ ( i ~ ! axo fi~c~rtcx~~;lotllr<t, ~ L X O - a q o v xtwi ~ ( n o ~ ~ v p j . Eniuqq, F ~ X ( I Y X E Q L O O C ~ T F ~ I r ~ ~ v q t l i l i (lr(ir7q x i i ~ cruyr.eoiiuci; p~ TOY ; I ~ ~ T ~ I ) u mug. I'tt r.opL~cr~u ;roll c i f i i v ('lruius~ r o d1ci<6- ?/10 TWY YOYBWV TOVC XQLV an6 rrjv q'htxia rwv 5 yWphruv ~ k n v rywrrxi< crxdtrc~; v w ~ i t ~ ~ c t x(ii o t l ~ v i i t s ~ c i U V ~ ~ . Q ~ T L K ~ !IF TR X O Q ~ T I J I I I no11 E

bi~v

( ~ L ~ o F , , rn Gtrrjilyio to)v y o v i w v TOUS

PET^

T ~ V 11i~1xin TIOV 5 lpljv(tlt1. O t ~ E C T E L S pqr6@ac-%(il)v< qrclv n a p d p o t ~ ; xcri trrlF reFl; o p r i 6 ~ c oaov

nqnph ~q azopyj. rov i h c y ~ u %at q v ;TE~RIXQX~U. Oi XIO~LIJILIVI; yrpF'i)i.~

t ' b ~ ~ ~ v n v J ~ F Q L U U O T E ~ ~ u t r u v t x ~ i a nrvv

E X L P O ~ I ~

*F I t ) i l i ) ~ i ~ < xut ~nt:r)u-

hav ZLO U ~ X V U t t p o ~ i ~ ~ U E (r~e(711 PE a q E Q ( I I T I X ~ ~ b @ u o ~ q ~ i 6 r l l r ~ ~

~ ' ~ P w v

~ O Q L T U L ~ V . Tu x c i p i r ~ ~ i u nolr p ~ y ilbwouv o~ povoy ov~'ixC2 o txo-

- ~ i v r ~ r q rivut X E Q W U ~ E Q O x ~ f l a ~ 6 v(i nwrpiuruGv v w e i r e ~ u , vu ~ i v u ~ . i y x u ~ ~ X U T ~ m yiipo x a ~ , v n F ~ o u v i ~ l l l q j ~ t i ~ ~ ~ o n o o o m o d~cxc11yicr)v

c r ~

d y i c ~ i o v lit 71; G.~..EF outibe: (Hetherington & Parke. 1 0 7 5 McLanahan

& Bumpass. 1988). H Hethcrington H€uli,)~i ijt~ TM. v,o~iroiw n p o q o l i r . ~ ~ yhtxicr; ~ o r i l ~ r p ~ x ~ i ' o u v rig n v t i b ~ u u t . 15 ravs (no Gta<ilylo, xu.1 TU a n o r € -

(75)

5 F 3 m-

,

,

,.

5

2 b. 0 m, ~~~2~ 4 4

&g

*%F

G c 6

""

3 $ -K a, 2

zm

3 ga.Ge

*c

-'

2

2

=

3..

3

E-?

5.

e

5

~,ZG c

rl$s

S

sg*zgs

X In

-

2

3

a G-Q 3=m,

4-.?2-%

-

c2

,&X+S

1% 1, rg Q ?l< 0,s 3

5

'

C." 5 5 R

2%;

3

+

2 m

z

g

;G,

3.

age

3

Q P- fi d

E\Z

a, E rg 4ag

B

8

o. E,

2

2,

g

5

tFf

2

4z

S<

m

:$%?&p,

=ezE$

2 1% QZAU'

-

2>$flm 3 4

<22z!52

(76)
(77)
(78)
(79)
(80)
(81)

5

g'z-fi

;?z

z

4;.2'mFO% 4- 3 4 6, ?h W>

2

-7

A 3 M',,

FA

nE!

g,

gzg$

G,?

5 2

aszxg

-7

5

3. 3 3 y2u'

p;

2;ga.g

c

-9

<~&%25

3\ 0, trl c,

6,

0

2

2

se,gzs

-

rl

$3

sg4gx . - 2 Ei a?; E

r<'jgsx

2

c:r

Ef,

m

c.

%=,?,m\ X

";g5

F"

2

?g2%,8

2

E' d'

5

3 mg0s5 <

g

S

2

#%E 0,

"

X j, 5

5'

.;;

"

2

E' F

'"

< "P x3 E 2 3%

+g

.5 < 5' m, \Fi

3%

g

In 3 E0

e

fEg

2z

Q <

z

3

-z

E m Q I I z ?

2,

(82)
(83)
(84)
(85)
(86)
(87)
(88)
(89)

1 76 0 ~ w n r c r p ( i 5 r w v y o v i w v xnr zn x a r h ~ ( i

AtitE'; h ~ n z o p i ~ ~ i ~ j ROII X Q O ~ C ( ~ ~ O ~ ~ V ~Y;CO; x ~ t cpoflo~j; cna ncc~biu. JJgcx~nuBrjurc va ~ W ( J F T E ~ Lnuihci xunoi~g I E ~ ~ Y I ~ U F L S nov VCI XUTU- hcr(3aivouv. 'Otav I~XGQXEI u ~ ~ p u v , L ~ ~ I ~ ~ T E Q C T t u pixefi n ~ t b ~ ( i w t r -

TUU%&IJ(~<OVV)) 715 h111F'; TOUS C~LTL'FS i t W t tl; X F ~ L C T U ~ T F Q E ~ ~ 0 ~ 6 ; OFW-

eo6v I ~ E ~ ~ ~ U V O ~ ( 1 1 ~ Y O X O rov & u 1 ~ 6 TOUS cqia xutl ~ o z l CXavrxv y.ai 6qm-f~ o a u ~ ( ~ p n 6 ~ CTTO 7 0 oni~i)>.

AVU(FEQETF (3tU XalbLh C I ~ ~ Y ~ I E Y , @ ~ [ L ~ \ - ' F S X ~ ) O U J I ~ ~ E 1s: JIOU XUY(IT& Y tU vu (IEJ~TIWOFZF TV qF'csq utxg xcli va u ~ o ~ u y ~ z t : ro ~ w p a y c i . Etiv Tn xurb~ix yvrr~~?<ouv y la xunota bMrt y~yovtira. x . ~ . ~Eiutrzj;~ry~xis u p - o ~ i ~ , uv~tyvtr)ei(n~ i ) ~ t ( L J T O T F ~ O I ~ V E Y ~ E ~ ~ F L ; rq: pq ~xuvonoiyoq; uxd TV 0 ~ ~ ~( ~ ~ 6 0 ~ . 1 1 1 ~

E h u l tq~cuvr~v.6 va axocpwyrr~ 21; clE.Arl),oxu~~~yoek~ xcr~ rvv sxie-

QLlpl E V ~ ~ V V ~ V ctx6 to\, &VC!. mOV dhho. Avayvto@icr~~ x a l (L~'CO~F;ITF~T&

TU imovcr cnlvrxw8ljpcr~h W;, rx"r.'r.h ~ovia-ct- ~ Z L C) X(XOE"V~S P i h v ~ i T ~ I V xdvo. zq 8hi1pv xai ciicr str 6F.F.a trvvtiiotlljputa p~ t o K1316 tou ~ ~ 6 x 0 . Eivcri nvayxaio va seooxt10rjn~r~ vu txnocp6yazs rig r n ~ v ~ j l ~ i g Y.UTT]- y o e i ~ ; y ~ u zov hhio yovt'ct. '000 x & ~ i u c r o ~ ~ ~ o 1 ~ t x ~ q y o ~ ~ i - c ~ rnv tihho, rtiuo 1~@1<106tf QO C I X O { ~ T ~ T F C T I ( Z ~ V Q ~ am? TO

rracsi

ytx X ~ Q E L cc8F'trr)n

xa t Y(L

fir

~ L C ) Z ~ ~ ~ ~ C T E I pia nueuj10y txfl cccn!ppaxitr~ F E E(T&;, OECI)QC;I-

v ~zov a i-vu ~ Y O V € C ~ <cnuh6>> X U I TOV ah1.o ~cxuxd)). Eivai o ~ p a i ~ i i l 6 vu

Y ~ ~ o ) Q ~ ~ & T E ~)TI TO U J I O Z ~ ~ F ( ~ ~ U piUS ~ 6 ~ 0 1 ~ s "(nfppaxhx;)) ( ~ E Y F ~ V ( L I

p6vo 611 r o nabhi pxoeei va X&(IEL ivu yovin, tihld drl F ~ V C ~ L ~xi(rqq

6 i ~ y ~ { 5 v VU. a a i o ~ i vu axoeeimei p d ~ o g ~011 t-avrud zov xou npotb- t c i CIF TOY pnapnci

fl

TI) p a p 6 ~ rrao put3pd xou -ca xtribiti ~cr~~ri<ov.tni

[LE rovS - I O Y E ~ ~ TOVS.

Eivut u n a ~ a i ~ q - C O va

~ L U P E ~ ~ U L I ~ ~ ~ F T F

cnr~vu r a ~ruiGih c i ~ i &v ~ i v a i a ~ w i avn~68uvcra y i c ~

ra

iceoflhjpaztu. rv; oxF'orl5 T ~yoviulv ro~f;. Y O I ~ E yiu TO X W Q L U ~ ~ rev;, X U L tin hcv p x a ~ o ~ j v v u x6vauv tixozn y ~ c ~

va crui~rpl~~6oo.uv r o u ~ y o v ~ i ~ to~l;. 16iuit~eu rct p t x ~ u natG~ri ;10?hh6s

voeE';

cpav~autt~jvovv t i ~ i pno~oziv vu crvprplililoouv rov; y o v ~ k roug

xccl ~ @ o ~ T E u ~ o ~ ; \ ~ v(i t o ~n1Zlj~01n~ - UE YE ~ b q ~ 6 ao~lv~ifiyzo c n i -

J I F ~ O - PE ~ ~ L ( ~ ~ ~ O Q O U S ~ ~ c i x o v ~ .

Ka~aroqoq xai 5ta~ruewpdg zwv uv51~ytxwv X [ I L ywE'ixhv ~ 6 h w v

NUL U X ~ ~ E W V

X Q F , , I ~ ( F ~ T C ~ ~ v([ ~Eqyrjnc,t~ xoiki; ~ o p l i mu xct1Ai6 rq b~atpopa avh-

~ F N X (TTT[ rnlc~ly tnfi-(n'~r~orpi'~ii I ~ € C T T ]

~ F T ( x E ~ ~

(T(w;, q O X O ~ ( X ~ ( W I ~ F L Y(X

i j x d ~ ~ ~ i : K U L mov; y0~1bil06 j ~ d h o u c xui tqv ~ x i x o i ~ ~ w v i u yiu 0ipuru ~ w v xa161.6v, xov ~EaxohovBo.l;v va ux6p~ovv.

Eivat ctvv~xuio zla F X W U ~ L U ~ ~ U V E T E zoiti OXYU m u natbih h i o 6~trp65 rov xhBs yov&n ps TU nul.b~u n a ~ a p i v ~ ~ t q v ~ o q n v s k 6 ~ ~ q ~ a

anti TO ycyovti~ chc 8t15ov~ U E Gicrtpo~~~ixti cmi~itx.

XQEI.I~~;FT(XL \.'(l T O Y ~ ~ E T E %C11 'VCL £ J L Q Y ( L ? L ( X ~ ~ ~ ~ V E T E ;1[0i;.6j ~ 0 ~ 6 : ( h i €~ulloh~vtiEiT~ VU F ~ O T E ll ccp1]T$~~~)) XCXl 0 ~~JCUZ$QOS,, TU)V XCIL&I&)V. noz! t n uyn~oBv: t c t ; l ~ o u r u ~ ~ i j o v v xw~ t u cp~ovtb<oov.

IIQ(I(TX(XOI~(TTF V(I ; [ E Q ~ ~ c ) ( ~ I ~ E T F J C ( X C ~ ) I , I ~ T L ~ ( x > ~ J ~ ( ~ C < inqv X ~ L F J ~ C I E -

eivtj TOI~S <oo.lfi 000 TO ~I'VUTOV ~ F Q I O ~ O ~ E Q F C ~ L ~ ; l ~ ~ p 6 ~ ~ t ~ ~ . EYOUQ- ~ i r v ~ ~ t i .crx vrx. ~xyl~htrovv ri"r..~; r i ~ (xaopiEj v.m acg r x v y i w ~ i ~ ~ tovg xal

UXC~VI?@& p€ V X O ~ O Y ~ ~ . 0 1 rn~yit&nQt~iiv€; CLK(IVT~~UEL: O(Y.5 %CL1

v

dt(l- f l ~ P r i l : t r l ( ~ T j IT(X j h l f l ( X 3 ~ r i h l h ~ ~ t ~ (%F; tl.5 Pu~rlXi; TO17 j CIV&~(XE< E ~ V U ~ tliiaiz~eu u ~ u r . o u ~ t m ~ x ~ xui ~ U L ) ~ Y O Q E < yt(i T(X I ( x L ~ ~ L ~ .

n a ~ a 6 ~ y ~ ~ i . c ~ 1 1 ~ E ~ ~ ~ X Q ~ V E ~ B TO ~ E Y O Y ~ < h 1 p ~ g i ~ r i xeaxrtxh 0ipara Uwi <qrijputa &v ~ X O V I J C ( X < ~ ) ~ ( X EEXUF)CI~I(TTEI XUL E ; I C ; L U ~ ~ E ~ XCXL ~ L C I P E -

B U L W ~ E

m nutSid drt Bu tcr rvyp&erSor.c~ xui flu O ~ < ~ ~ U F T E C(& ~ o u g dtav E~CT'CF. n10 PF'flaio~ y ~ . a i q w y myitcx~~~~<vcilv anoqXiaswv.

~ ~ o F T ~ ? L ~ L ~ I T ~ € T(l n ( ~ tfilh Yl(X 715 ;[ t o ( 1 ~ 6 ~ (IIkP/i< XQI. TlS x ( x T ( I ~ ( ' L ( I F ~ ~

aou 8 a a v ~ i ~ c ~ ~ w n i u o z ! ~ mo pCXhoo.

E:?lyq'n& cnt~ arxtb~ci UE (IIZ(P ~ Y E L ( ~ ( i n n~aunru8eir~ vn e ~ c i l ~ < i r ~ t ~ 61(i-

voeu uvun6cp~umu xeopL@a~u xat 6.uoxcrLie; xcci 611 (TL*(IZ-UL?/U tlu E ~ ( K ~ ~ I , ~ O E L pi(^ i ( ~ o ~ ~ o n i ( i xnl. 8(x ;-r&~ticr~l T- y ~~aPrnl:xfi meinbog.

A Q X ~ ~ E vu a u ~ r a r e FE Ta naibiu y in tovg r ~ 6 i o v c XUL TT m x ~ 6 q t u TV j mixoivwviag ps TO YOVCCI ;IOU ~ E V (OB) ~ ~ V E I . uto ibio oni,~i.

(90)
(91)
(92)
(93)

h.

(94)
(95)
(96)
(97)
(98)
(99)
(100)

Q2

-.<

2.3

>>

92

-5 m 3

".

.

"$c: q mr -3' 3 X

S3

2.$$,E

5

2:j m

-.

If. S;%!?

.z

a7 'D F 0 m

4sa~

-

V

";,...S

F

+ G<.=

gZZ$.qe

P

-.*

2

z>

2

2

g<,.-

m

g+

E < <

m,cv

2 S J zx 2, c ,m <

2

v.

3

5

g3

3,

%g g

cc

m 4x '5 *O3 I

(101)
(102)
(103)
(104)

Mioq opoq, rm anodmq mu t-tests I. (Pdov~n~i ~qvu 2. Aumohrir~a~ vu u~oAoubri LI(; US~~IL~ ULU puBqpu 3. Avhplpq rj pq ~ar&hlhq oupircplyupi 4. N~~runa,i(i~, anopovopLiwq 5. Cqva apqpqpkoq olo pu0qpu 6. Yup~~piyipe~ui mi~ivGwa ': A~V TOU UP&?EJ TO ~01ti0 Y E yi tiucntohi~q mq paOqcq 9 .$poraivei fi Oupkvci 6~uv uvrlpcrwni<ci c'vu Grirr~obo ~~pciplqpo 10 Mrlayxo ~IKOS

I

11. AvuniiKo~roq 1.38 101 4.67 (0.7) U.O.

(105)

hatpopcq ru~;xAoeiq zwv olrvopqhi~wv p Puuq tqv oi~oy~vei~ ~utuaauq rov pal3qttjv Meoq opoq, rummj (UIOKXI~ KCU t-tests Epw~qlrar~liy~n mwpqlkwv Oltcoyiv~ra~e iria~i(rratnl Ei~rAst iut.1~ Xwp VI~'+O l Mq .ympzq lf~s~ t pvcic yvvcic :\f.O (TA.) M. O ,TA I KaAurcpo~ rpihoi oo!r 0.31 (1,l) 0,98 ( 1,01 V PEV K&LT l$ naph 2,Or) (2,6) 0<89 t 1.2) ?.K:' I APYIY.~< 0,40 <1>2> 0.99 (2,8) -2.07' 2 LU~TU Chqu:ivei 1,48 (3.ll 0.93 (23 P-" 3. Nrpon~ISr: 1,60 (3.4 l [I &G ll,S) P 4. Apicr~i ne AArnrqipoqkt I oiuur; 0,44 (1,l I 0,92 -2,03* 5. @nvrawp6voc 1,16 (l,W 0.88 (l,:,: p,t~.

(106)
(107)
(108)

X: E

'C

*

-

+- A L.

(109)
(110)
(111)
(112)
(113)
(114)
(115)
(116)

XaG~@rjrrrou. X.: & Hopf, D. ( 1Y1t2rr). E x r i p y q rq; cnmpnr glql(lQtr; prttlqrt~l!' ngcrnofihtlprcr~; xtxt h&~.ltcpoprifip~rt; ~x.zcri6~~lurl; ana m u ; mlv~~crlF.i%o(~; toll;. f l ( ~ ~ r S n y w y ~ x l j E,-trAc.&pquyi. l b . 141-161.

X ( ~ r i q ~ ~ r j m o u , X., & Hnpt', D. ( lUO$), h t'~oai~.ri.tlyq p(~t)~lrU'Li, '~')~~roilCit)pla;

zrr~ b~~l-r~gopctlluaq ~v.nclih~~!crq;. Ila~dnytc1y1,rxtj E;rrflt-tcigtlcrrl. 17.253-277.

Ahn111s. C. ( 1 980). Redel'ining the divorce family: A conceptual framework for post tl~vorce family svstems reorganization. Social Work. 25,437-44 l .

Nliron, P. D., k Furstenberg: F, F. (1989). How marital dissolution affects child- rcn: Variations by age and sex. Devtloptnunlal Psychoiop~ 25(4), 540-549. Amalo. P. R. (1987). Family processes in one-parent, stepparcnt, and intact fiimi-

lies: The child's point of view. Jn~imal of Mnm'ag arzd the Fumily, 49.327-337. Ama to, P. R.! 8: Keith. H. ( 199 1 a). Parclltal divorce and the well-being of children:

a meta-analysis. Ps~~choiogiu~lBulltlia: 110(l}, 26-46.

iimato, P. R., k Keith. B. ( l V01 h}. Parental divorce and adidl well-being: A meta- analysis. Journal of Miarriage and the Fumily, 53,43-58.

Anthony. E. J . (1974). Childrcn at risk from divorce: A review. rn E. Anthony &i I:.

Ko~~pernick (Eds.), Thu child in his family: Children uip.\ychil~hic r i ~ k (Vol. 3, pp. 132-173). New Yoi-L: Wilcy.

Bahr, S . J. ( 1 'IS3). h.lij1-i13l dissolution laws: Impact of recent changes for women.

JournuloJ'Far~~il~I.~stic~s. 4.455-Jbb.

Berg, B., & Ktlly. R ( 1 ~ ~ 7 0 ) . Thr mriicul-ed self-c~tccm of childrcn from broken, re- jected and i ~ ~ c p t ~ l l familivh. Jorrrrlril I!/ DII or-L P . ?. -<hj-.?bY.

Hianchi, S. M. 111)95). Thc changins demographic and sociorsonvmic <ha]-i~ctei-i- stics of s~ngle pi~rent families. In S, hl. Han51)n ct al. (Eilc.). S i t ; ~ l i , j n r r t 7 i r /h-

rnilies: I ) t k ~ r r t ~ , inyfltlhr nlrtlrt-nliti~,~ (pp. 71-97). Nrlv Yi~rk: The Haivorth Press.

Bltchmi~n, E. A . (14fi2). Arc chlldrcn ibilh a n t pnrrnt at ps~chcrlopical risk'' A me-

thodologic.~l rc v i e ~ . Jurimul r!f:Ilrirnrqr ilrrti rhr Forli~ls. .13( 7 ), 17'1-1 95. Bloom. B. L.. Asher. S. J . , & W h ~ t c . 5. W. (19?X). hlarilal disrupticin as a stressor A

revieb and ;~nalyhi\. P ~ d f o l o g i ~ ~ n l B~tlleti~r. S513), Xh7-84.1.

Bloom. B. L.. Hodgca. W F., A Caldwell. R. A. ( 1983). Marital separation: The first cight months. In E. J. C'allahan & K. A McKluskey (Eds.). Life-spun develo11- n t ~ n ~ c r i p ~ c h o l c ~ ~ , . Y o t t t m n m ~ i ~ t ! ~ ~ ~ 11fe fret&. Ncw Y r ~ r k : Acatlem~c Prcss.

Bohannnn, P. (1470). Thc z i ~ statlnns of divorce. I n P. Br~hannon (Ed.), Di~~ot-cuanli

afiei-. An rrnuhc~.~ r h t . rmrt~ric~rlnliitltl .\c)t.ral pmbicrns of dirurre (pp. 20-55). New York: ~ a u b l t ~ l ; ~ ~ .

Boorh. A., Jahnson. 13. H., & EEJwirJh, J. N. (1983). Measuring marital instability.

J o l i t t t ~ d of , t i < j t ~ ~ q t i111d rht, Ft~ttlily, 45< 3S7-LW4.

B ~ w t h , A.. Johnhan, D.. White, L., fir Ed~drds, J. (1'18.11. Women outside employ-

Figure

Updating...

References

Related subjects :