Indoor Coverage

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Indoor Coverage

Indoor Coverage

Indoor Coverage

Indoor Coverage

Solutions

Solutions

Solutions

Solutions

V. Merle

V. Merle

V. Merle

V. Merle

RF Solutions Engineer 

RF Solutions Engineer 

RF Solutions Engineer 

RF Solutions Engineer 

GSM Solutions

GSM Solutions

GSM Solutions

GSM Solutions

06/17/99

06/17/99

06/17/99

06/17/99

(2)

Indoor Solutions Objectives

Indoor Solutions Objectives

Indoor Market 

Indoor Market 

includes a

includes a

wide range of 

wide range of 

applications

applications

for operators

(3)

Indoor Solutions Objectives

Indoor Solutions Objectives

Indoor Market 

Indoor Market 

includes a

includes a

wide range of 

wide range of 

applications

applications

for operators

(4)

 Agenda

 Agenda

 Agenda

 Agenda

Indoor Coverage Solutions

Indoor Coverage Solutions

Indoor Coverage Solutions

Indoor Coverage Solutions

 –

 – Indoor Solutions approachesIndoor Solutions approaches

 –

 – RF distribution SystemRF distribution System

Indoor Radio Dimensioning

Indoor Radio Dimensioning

Indoor Radio Dimensioning

Indoor Radio Dimensioning

Corporate Coverage Specificity

Corporate Coverage Specificity

Corporate Coverage Specificity

Corporate Coverage Specificity

Indoor Design Process Outlines

Indoor Design Process Outlines

Indoor Design Process Outlines

Indoor Design Process Outlines

Indoor Realizations

Indoor Realizations

Indoor Realizations

Indoor Realizations

 –

(5)

Indoor Coverage Solutions

Indoor Coverage Solutions

Which Which Indoor  Indoor  Solution ?  Solution ? 

?

?

Source Source

(6)

Macrocell & Indoor Application

Macrocell  Densification

• Indoor coverage improvement, especially for 

higher floors

• Difficulty to get perfect indoor coverage,

especially for low floors, underground

parking & deep indoor 

• No extra capacity extension

if not taken into account from the start

(7)

Microcell solution

Higher sites density 

• Good coverage solution, especially for 

lower floors

• High capacity solution

• High spectrum efficiency

• High density of sites

higher cost

• Problem of dimensioning the macro/micro

cell in order to cope with building generated

traffic

• Localized solution

• Problem of atypical areas

(8)

Repeater solution

Extension of the outdoor  coverage coming from a macro/micro

cell 

• Coverage everywhere in indoor areas

• Fast & low cost solution

• No extra capacity

Possible overload of the serving cell

• Limited power solution

• Possible BTS blocking & BTS desensitivity

Fine tuning of repeater amplifier gains

(9)

Picocell solution

Dedicated cells for the

considered 

buildings

• Coverage everywhere in indoor areas

• Capacity extension into indoor areas

• Highest spectrum efficiency

• Higher design load : specific design for 

specific building

(10)

Indoor System

2 key points

- BTS source - RF system

Indoor 

Objectives

- Good coverage - Good quality  - Traffic capture DAS BTS Repeater  RF system *

(11)

Indoor Issue

How to Integrate

the Indoor cell  in your  Network ?  - in terms of  interference - in terms of  traffic capture - in terms of 

Handover  Outdoor cell Indoor cell

 Field strength Competition  Indoor/Outdoor Interference

Indoor Objectives Good coverage Good quality Traffic capture

 Indoor cell resurgence

Maximize Indoor field strength,

Minimize Outdoor leakage

(12)

RF Distribution System

System choice depends on :

• Building form & size

• Required capacity/coverage/quality 

• Available spectrum

• Installation constraints

• Reuse of existing infrastructure

• Resources constraints

• Cost 

Repeater & Picocell  solution specific  Coaxial cable • + Antenna • + Leaky feeder  Distributed   Antenna System • Optic Fiber DAS  • CATV 

• Coax + Power   Amplifier 

Distributed Base Stations (DBS)

(13)

Indoor RF system

Existing  infrastructure Confinement  request  Interference competition 2 Main Technologies

• Coaxial feeder (antenna / leaky cable)

— widely used solution — large band system — low hardware cost

— installation constraints and costs

• Optic Fiber System (DAS)

— new technology

— possible optic infrastructure reuse — high hardware cost

— low installation cost & constraints

(14)

Coaxial cable + Antenna

— Expectation of high EIRP — Wide area to cover 

— For small building coverage (3-5 floors) or small distribution distance (100 m)

— Localized source : careful attention on proximity of apertures to minimize outside leaking

— Limited deployment system — Installation constraints

Sufficient power  to guarantee

antennae EIRP & compensation of  feeder losses Careful attention on source  position to ensure coverage over  targeted area

(15)

Coaxial cable + Leaky feeder 

— For small building coverage (3-5 floors) or small distribution distance

— Homogeneous indoor coverage

— Very low outside radiation application — Good confinement possibility

— Installation constraints But no strong  signal … Jammer  overcome ? 

New solution :

Flat Strip

Radiax 

(16)

Optic Fiber System (1)

Various OEM Fiber distributed antenna

solutions

— Monomode

— Multimode

Nearly identical RF performances

Best solution criteria :

— material & installation cost

Use of fiber 

optic cables for  signal 

(17)

Optic Fiber System (2)

— Low-loss low-noise fiber optics transceivers for signal conversion — For huge building (> 5 floors) & wide distribution distance (1-2 km)

with no attenuation

— Possible infrastructure reuse

— Low installation cost and constraints  – ease of installation

 – small discrete flexible cable  – no bulky feeder trays required

 – minimal disruption to functions or staff 

— Low output power & same low EIRP for all connected antennas — Critical deployment speed

— Higher hardware cost

 Appropriate In-  building 

coverage for  scattered  buildings

(18)

Indoor Radio Dimensioning 

How to

dimension the Indoor network ? 

(19)

Indoor Solution

Build your Indoor solution considering :

— Capacity needs — Spectrum availability — Frequency Planning — Quality of Service — Coverage requests — Interference control — Building architecture — BSS features BTS RF system &

 C a p

 a c i t

 y

 R F d

 e s i g

 n

2 dimensioning

points

- Capacity 

- Coverage

(20)

• Repeater / BTS Constraints

— Traffic needs & capacity evolution — Spectrum availability

— Possible frequency planning — Power requirement issues — Installation issues

• Nortel Networks Solutions

Capacity dimensioning 

Who is the

targeted user?  Which quality of  service ? 

What spectrum can be used? 

First input for  RF design

Capacity solutions

Power solutions

Small Capacity :

• 2 TRXs S2000L / H

• up to 3 TRXs Corporate Piconode & distributed pBTS portfolio • High Capacity : S8000 • Low Power : • 2W & 8W Piconode BTS • 2.5W S2000L • High Power : • 24W S2000H • 30W S8000

(21)

Frequency Plan

High spectrum efficiency   possibility  Frequency  Hopping  • Spectrum reuse

— 3 dimensional frequency planning — by floor 

— from floor to floor 

• Fractional reuse

— MAIO / HSN allocation per building / floor 

MA1 MA2

(22)

1 single band  for the whole network 

Outdoor + Indoor 

Single band for outdoor and indoor 

Is there dedicated spectrum for indoor, how

much ?

Designing indoor radio network with spectrum

constraints

 – Careful borrow from distant macro cells for indoor  frequencies

 – Efficiency of the coverage confinement

Optimized outdoor spectrum utilization can save

some spare frequencies for indoor design

Whole spectrum for the network 

Outdoor µ cell Indoor

Spectrum sharing 

Nortel  solutions: BCCH plan  AFP  TCH plan Fractional reuse Spare frequencies for indoor 

(23)

Installation constraints

— Accessibility

— Distributed system : feeder runs, feeder trays … — Antenna type (omni, panel, …)

Minimize Cost

— Equipment : BTS system, feeders, splitters, antennas, connectors, amplifiers, …

— Installation

— Maintenance (distributed system, active elements, …) — Transmission / Power, equipment room (leasing)

(24)
(25)

Indoor Operator Approach

Corporate Service Offer 

— Commitments on QoS for a specific end-client — Deskset / gsm mobile interoperability

— Dedicated sub-network — PBX like Services

Corporate Coverage

— High quality of Coverage / QoS Improvement — Good voice quality

— Traffic Capture

— Part of PLMN Network Extension / Optimization

Operator 

interests

One solution

dedicated to

one building 

(26)

Corporate Coverage Specificities

Type of customers (operators, building owner, company

representatives, …)

Specific Corporate environment

High QoC & high QoS expected : corporate coverage should be optimum

Capacity availability

— Specific subscriber : high penetration rate (~ 50%) — Specific corporate call profile

Specific features :

— dialing plan, specific billing, PBX extension, supplementary services, data ...

(27)

Indoor Design

Process Outlines

(28)

Indoor RF Design Process

2 Strategies : • Careful design Measurements mandatory  • Fast design only  Optimization Cooperation needed with : • Building  owner  • Site engineer  • I&C team  P r e r e q  u i s i  t e s P h a s e  R  F D e s i g  n  P h a s e  S y s t e m D e  p l o y m e n t  P h a s e 1- Customer  requirements 2- RF prerequisites 4- RF design 5- RF validation 3- BTS / Repeater  choice RFM Measurements & Site survey 

RFM Measurements Simulations

I&C 

7- System deployment

8- System validation RSV Measures

(29)
(30)

Example 1 : Coax + Antenna

Antenna Splitter 

Coax

3 floors building, S2000L

• 7/8“ foam coax cable

 propagation attenuation : 4.2 dB/100m

• 1/2” superflexible coax cable

 propagation attenuation : 11.5 dB/100m

 Limiting point : RF distribution loss

13 dB (50m 1/2 ’’ + 2 splitters)

Solution widely used in HK, Singapore,..

S2000

BTS parameters Hybrid coupler  Jumpers

2*1:2 splitter 

50 m coax cable + connectors 2dBi antenna

RF Distribution loss Slow mobile margin Body loss

Mobile antenna gain Mobile parameter  Downlink  34 dBm 3 dB 1 dB 6 dB 6 dB 2 dBi 13 dB 6 dB 3 dB 2 dBi 33 dBm -104 dBm Uplink  Total Link 

Worst Link budget Indoor minimum field EIRP antenna #1 EIRP antenna #2 EIRP antenna #3 Design Threshold 112 dBm 112 dBm -91 dBm 23 dBm 20 dBm 19 dBm -78 dBm Downlink  115 dBm Downlink limited Uplink 

(31)

Example 1 : Coax + Antenna

-3 dB -3 dB -1 dB 29.5 dBm (-10) 19.5dBm -1dB -1dB -1dB -1 dB 14.5 dBm 10.5 dBm 10.5 dBm Splitter 1*2 Antenna 1 2 3 Power splitter  usual or directional

Bidirectional amplifier/ repeater  for huge deployment scale

Amplifier gain to be tuned carefully Impact on Noise figure and sensitivity

Antenna location - EMC risks - MPE limits - Blocking

Solution used in UK, Singapore

BTS S2000L

(32)

Example 2 : Corporate Coverage

with PicoNode

(33)

Corporate Offer 

NORTEL provides a dedicated Corporate

approach with PicoNode ensuring one local

GSM Switching with PBX connection to

provide one unique solution to end-users.

This solution is somehow equivalent to one

small sized GSM system as it integrates

MSC, BSC & some BTS in one really compact

system.

Combo :

MSC/BSC/BTS  in one box 

(34)

Corporate Coverage with

PicoNode specificities (1)

Picocell traffic management

— The objective is to save some resources of the picocell; non-Corporate subscribers must be directed to the macrocellular  network.

— Need for “better field strength” approach implying accurate RF design & tuning

 – careful attention on frequency plan change  – careful attention on new BTS introduction

HO characteristics

— Handover facility requested to ensure a seamless service at entrance points.

— No HO Ping-Pong between the Picocell & the Macrocell.

Future effective solution [R6] : SOLSA

(35)

Corporate Coverage with

PicoNode specificities (2)

• Frequency sharing

— Leakage issues

 – from “no specific attention” to “no field radiated outside”

specific requests of radio thresholds : highest limit for  outside radiation (e.g. -90 dBm@50%)

— Spectrum issues

 – dedicated spectrum or reuse of some spectrum used outdoor macrocells :

number of frequencies = number of TRXs

2 key points

• Leakage • Spectrum

(36)

Piconode Datafill Parameters

Setting (1)

Favor selection & reselection towards the

Piconode network for all mobiles entering

in the corporate building

 – RxLevAccessMin(pcells) <= RxLevAccessMin(ext. cells) - 10  – BA list(ext. cells) = all picocells

Ensure Piconode services & coverage

continuity in the building

 – BA list(pcells) = neighbors of 2nd crown

 – CellReselectionHysteresis(pcells) at max value (14dBm)

PicoCells : same celltype as PLMN  cells

2 users types (public & hybrid)

(37)

Piconode Datafill Parameters

Setting (2)

Reserve radio resources for Corporate users & push out

public users

— Favor HO towards external cells  – HO inter-BSC for visitor users

 – No possible HO for Hybrid users (inter-MSC)

 – HO neighbors(pcells) = external cells

 – Standard value for RxLevMinCells(ext. Cells)

 – Min. value of HO Margin

— Harden HO towards picocells except if external cells coverage is not good enough

 – High value for RxLevMinCells(pcells)

(38)

Corporate approach

Nortel GSM Hdq, Guyancourt, France

Corporate network BTS B PicoNode BTS A PicoNode Splitter B Feeder  Feeder  Antenna Leaky cable Antenna Antenna Leaky cable Leaky cable Connector  Connector  Feeder  Feeder  Feeder  Feeder  Feeder  Splitter  dry column dry column Wing B Wing A 3rd F 2nd F 1st F Gd F 1st Gd F Liftr Lift Load 50 Ohms Load 50 Ohms Load 50 Ohms LGC-FMH Fiber  Fiber  Fiber         F        i        b       e        r        F        i        b       e        r        F        i        b       e        r        F        i        b       e        r Twisted pair  Feeder  Feeder  Feeder  Feeder  Feeder  Feeder  Feeder  EH RAU RAU RAU RAU RAU RAU RAU Splitter  Splitter  Splitter  Splitter  Splitter  Splitter  Splitter  EH EH EH Twisted pair  Twisted pair 

(39)

Strategic Locations

• 1 antenna per floor 

• 2 antennae per floor 

• 3 antennae per floor 

• Leaky feeder input power  Pico Cells definition : • one or a group of floors • a wing of a building  •a building  among a scattered  campus

(40)

Coax + Leaky feeder (1)

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Guyancourt, France, Montgolfier Corporate application

Design threshold -70dBm 1/2 ’ Superflex leaky cable

(41)

Downlink Uplink   BTS parameters 33dBm -104 dBm Hybrid coupler 3dB

Jumpers 1dB

1:4 splitter 6dB 10m coax cable +connector 2dB 120m leaky cable 11.5dB 50% coupling loss@6m 68dB 90% coupling loss@6m 80dB slow mobile margin 6dB Bodyloss 3dB Mobile antenna gain 2dBi

Mobile parameter 33dBm -102dBm

Downlink Uplink   Total Link 31dBm 33dBm

Worst Link budget 31dBm   Downlink limited  Indoor minimum field -91dBm

Leaky feeder input power 20 dBm End Leaky feeder power 9.5dBm

Site Eng’ inputs

— cable runs & Safety / EMC issues — cable diameter 

Leaky Cable inputs

( example : 1/2” cable) — propagation attenuation  –  10dB/100m — coupling loss  –  68dB@6m@50%

Confidence margin

— with abaccus  –  50% ->90% (12dB)

Link Budget

(42)

LGC Distributed Wireless Access

• Main Hub • Up to 4 Expansion Hubs • Multimode fiber up to 1Km • +10 dBm maximum input power for O1 • +7 dBm maximum input power for O2

• Expansion Hub • Supports up to 4 Antenna Hubs • Distributes RF over  UTP/STP Cat 5 Expansion Hub • Antenna Hub pBTS Coax     F    i    b  e    r U T P o r S T P  U T P o r S T P  U T P o r S T P  U T P o r S T P    F  i  b e r F i b e r  F   i    b  e  r    Expansion Hub

Fiber Main Hub

Expansion Hub Expansion Hub

• UTP or STP in (RJ45) up to 50 m • Loop powered via UTP or STP • Coax out (SMA)

• 1 FMH per pBTS

Figure

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References

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