2_Wellhead+Design+and+Completions_15

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Chair of Petroleum & Geothermal Energy Recovery

Petroleum Engineering

Summer Course 2015

Wellhead Design &

Completions

Clemens Langbauer

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Chair of Petroleum & Geothermal Energy Recovery

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Chair of Petroleum & Geothermal Energy Recovery

Well Structure / Wellhead Design

sunryoil.com/wellhead_xmas.html

Christmas Tree

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Well Structure

Marine conductor Conductor casing Intermediate casing/ Production casing Production liner

Production liner wt. extension Casing Shoe

Liner hanger with LH packer

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Source: Petroleum Engineering Handbook: Drilling Engineering

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Bit / Casing Size Selection

Example RAG:

Wellbore Diameter Casing Diameter

Conductor 20”

17 ½” Surface Casing 13 3/8”

12 ¼” Intermediate Casing 9 5/8”

8 ½” Intermediate Casing 7”

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Vetcogray: FC wellhead systems

Wellhead

Casing Head Casing Hanger Casing Spool Tubing Hanger Tubing Head Primary Seal Secondary Seal Tubing Head Adapter

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Vetcogray: FC wellhead systems

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Cellar

A dug-out area, lined with cement or very large diameter thin-wall pipe,

located below the rig.

- Depth of the cellar is such that the master valve of the Christmas tree is easy to reach from ground level

- Prior to setting surface casing, the cellar also takes mud returns from the well

- Cavity for the casing spools

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Base Plate

The base plate is a load-supporting device attached to the starting

casing head by means of either mechanical or permanent (welding) connection.

Baseplate Size Current Load Capacity

11" 2200 kN vertical load 13 5/8" 3300 kN vertical load 16 3/4" 4400 kN vertical load 20 3/4" & 21 1/4" 4400 kN vertical load

www.downingwell.com

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Source: Petroleum Engineering Handbook

Casing Head

- attached to the top end of the surface casing

- provides a support for the other strings and a sealing of the annular space between two casing strings

- composed of a casing-hanger bowl to support the smaller casing

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Casing Hanger

Source: Petroleum Engineering Handbook

www.fmctechnologies.com

The Casing Hanger is a mechanism/ device that seats in the bowl of the casing head / casing spool to suspend the next smaller casing string securely and provide a seal between the suspended casing and the casing head bowl.

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Source: Petroleum Engineering Handbook

Casing Spool

A Casing Spool is an intermediate casing head attached to the top

flange to the top flange of the underlying casing head to provide a support for the next smaller casing string and a sealing of the annular space between the two casing strings.

www.fmctechnologies.com

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Vetcogray: FC wellhead systems

Primary / Secondary Packoff

The primary and secondary packoffs are used to seal the annular space

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Source: Petroleum Engineering Handbook

Tubing Head

www.fmctechnologies.com

A Tubing Head is a spool type unit attached to the top flange of the uppermost casing head to provide a support for the tubing string and to seal the annular space between the tubing string and the production casing string.

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Source: Petroleum Engineering Handbook

Tubing Hanger

www.fmctechnologies.com

A Tubing Hanger is a device used to provide a seal between the tubing and the tubing head.

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Source: Petroleum Engineering Handbook

Tubing Head Adapter

A Tubing Head Adapter provides a transition from the wellhead to the

master valve of the tree.

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Wellhead Installation

Threaded ball valve Flanged valve Base plate Pressure gauge Casing head

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Chair of Petroleum & Geothermal Energy Recovery

Wellhead Installation

Threaded ball valve Flanged valve Base plate Pressure gauge Casing head Casing spool Casing hanger

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Chair of Petroleum & Geothermal Energy Recovery

Wellhead Installation

Threaded ball valve Flanged valve Base plate Pressure gauge Casing head Casing spool Casing hanger Tubing head

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Source: Petroleum Engineering Handbook: Drilling Engineering

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Source: Petroleum Engineering Handbook: Drilling Engineering

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Example

Evaluate the required components, the size, the height and the weight of a wellhead that must support three casing strings (13 3/8”, 9 5/8”, 7”) and a 2 7/8” tubing string.

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Vetcogray: FC wellhead systems

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Vetcogray: FC wellhead systems

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Vetcogray: FC wellhead systems

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Vetcogray: FC wellhead systems

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Vetcogray: FC wellhead systems

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Vetcogray: FC wellhead systems

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Vetcogray: FC wellhead systems

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Homework 1

Homework 1

Deadline: 25.08.2015 09:00

Evaluate the required components, the size, the height and the weight of a wellhead that must support four casing strings (20”, 13 3/8”, 9 5/8”, 7”) and a 3 1/2” tubing string.

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The Christmas Tree is an assembly of valves and fittings used to control production and provide access to the production tubing string. It includes all equipment above the tubing head top flange.

Source: Petroleum Engineering Handbook

Christmas Tree Assembly

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Chair of Petroleum & Geothermal Energy Recovery

Source: Petroleum Engineering Handbook

Christmas Tree Assembly

The purposes of the Christmas tree are to

- provide the primary method of closing in a well - isolate the well from adjacent wells

- connect the flowline

- provide vertical access for well interventions (slickline, electricline, coiled tubing etc.) whilst the well is live

- interface with the tubing hanger

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J. Bellarby: Well Completion Design

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Renpu: Advanced Well Completion Engineering

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Renpu: Advanced Well Completion Engineering

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Subsea Christmas Tree Assembly

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J. Bellarby: Well Completion Design

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Completion Engineering

www.starse.com.cn

A completion is the interface between the reservoir and the surface. The objective is to allow a safe and environmental friendly protection.

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Completion Components

• Surface Components

• Christmas Tree • Well Head

• Intermediate Components

• Subsurface Safety Valves • Tubing • Injection Lines • Completion Fluids

• Reservoir Components

• Perforations • Sand screens • Packers l

• Pumps

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Completions

Completion as part of the well control envelope:

‘At least two tested independent barriers between hydrocarbons in the reservoir and the environment at all times’

Primary barrier:

barrier that initially prevents hydrocarbons from escaping e.g. the mud, the tubing or the Christmas tree

Secondary barrier:

backup to the primary barrier – it is not normally in use until the primary barrier fails.

The secondary barrier must be independent of the primary barrier. Any event that could destroy the primary barrier should not affect the secondary barrier.

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Completions

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Completions

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The role of a Completion Engineer

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The role of a Completion Engineer

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Types of Completions

Objectives of wells: Producer: - Oil - Gas - Water Injector / Disposal: - Gas - Water - Steam Combination: - Gas storage

- Time shifted (produce HC and then convert to water injection duty) - Produce through the tubing and inject down the annulus

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Types of Completions

Reservoir Completion:

connection between reservoir and well Decisions:

- Well trajectory and inclination - Open hole versus cased hole

- Sand control requirement and type of sand control

- Stimulation (proppants or acid)

- Single or multi-zone (commingled or selective)

Upper Completion:

conduit from reservoir completion to surface facilities

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Reservoir Completions

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Upper Completions

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Completions

Figure

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References

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