267528226-huawei-MIMO.pdf

37 

Loading.... (view fulltext now)

Loading....

Loading....

Loading....

Loading....

Full text

(1)

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

www.huawei.com www.huawei.com Huawei Confidential Huawei Confidential Internal Internal

LTE System Multiple

LTE System Multiple

Antenna Techniques

Antenna Techniques

eRAN2.2 (MIMO and Beamforming)

eRAN2.2 (MIMO and Beamforming)

2012/9/23 2012/9/23

(2)
(3)

Training Objectives

Training Objectives

After completing this course, you will be able to:

After completing this course, you will be able to:

Understand the concepts relevant to the MIMO

Understand the concepts relevant to the MIMO and Beamforming.

and Beamforming.

Understand basic principle of MIMO and Beamforming.

Understand basic principle of MIMO and Beamforming.

References:

References:

3GPP TS 36.211: Physical Channels and Modulation

3GPP TS 36.211: Physical Channels and Modulation

3GPP TS 36.213: Physical layer procedures

3GPP TS 36.213: Physical layer procedures

3GPP TS 36.306: User Equipment (UE) radio access

3GPP TS 36.306: User Equipment (UE) radio access capabilities

capabilities

(4)

Contents

Contents

Background and Overview of the LTE MIMO Techniques

Background and Overview of the LTE MIMO Techniques

Principles and Application of the

Principles and Application of the MIMO Techniques

MIMO Techniques

(5)

Background of Multi-Antenna Techniques

Fifty years ago, Shannon gave the maximum efficiency that a time and

frequency communication system can achieve.

The rapid development of wireless communications poses increasingly

higher requirement for system capacity and spectral efficiency. Various

algorithms are invented, such as spreading the system bandwidth, optimizing

the modulation scheme, or using complex code division multiple access.

These methods are limited: Bandwidth cannot be expanded indefinitely;

modulation orders cannot increase indefinitely; channels between a CDMA

system are not ideally orthogonal. Another dimension, that is, MIMO, is

invented to better use the spatial resource. As expressed in the following

equation, if multiple antennas are used, the capacity is increased by a

multiplication of the number of antennas used.

bit 

 s

 N 

 B

log

1

/

2

 

 

 

 

bit 

 s

 N 

 B

 

 

 

 

log

1

/

2

(6)

Advantages of Multi-Antenna Techniques

The LTE system improves system performance for cell edge users and brings

stable and reliable service experience for users. Therefore, multi-antenna

techniques can make use of the spatial resource and increase the wireless

transmission capacity many folds without increasing the transmit power and

bandwidth.

 Array gain Diversity gain Spatial multiplexing gain Co-channel interference reduction Improved system coverage Improved system capacity Increased peak rate Increased spectral efficiency

(7)

Contents

Background and Overview of the LTE MIMO Techniques

Principles and Application of the MIMO Techniques

(8)

Principles of the MIMO Techniques

MIMO is an important technique in the LTE system. MIMO means use of

multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver. MIMO can better

utilize the spatial resource and increase spectral efficiency, achieving array

gain, diversity gain, multiplexing gain, and interference rejection gain,

(9)

Classification of MIMO Techniques

 Depending on whether the spatial channel information is used, MIMO techniques are classified into open-loop MIMO and closed-loop MIMO.

• Open-loop MIMO: The UE does not feed back information, the eNodeB is not informed of the

UE situation. The protocols support single-stream (TM2) or multi-stream (TM3).

• Closed-loop MIMO: The UE feeds back information. The gain has a positive correlation with the

accuracy of the feedback information. The protocols support single-stream (TM4) or

multi-stream (TM6). At present, the feedback granularity supported by the reference signal in port 2 is large and closed-loop MIMO can hardly achieve gains. Closed-loop MIMO requires low UE mobility. At present, the eNodeB cannot accurately estimate the UE movement speed with an error of more than 30 km/h.

 Depending on the number of simultaneously transmitted spatial data streams, MIMO techniques are classified into spatial diversity and spatial multiplexing.

 These modes are described in detail in the following pages.

MIMO Technique MIMO Mode Feature List in FDD Feature List in TDD

Multi-antenna receive

Receive diversity

UL 2-Antenna Receive Diversity UL 4-Antenna Receive Diversity UL Interference Rejection

Combining

UL 2-Antenna Receive Diversity UL 4-Antenna Receive Diversity UL Interference Rejection Combining UL 8-Antenna Receive Diversity

MU-MIMO UL 2x2 MU-MIMO UL 2x4 MU-MIMO UL 2x2 MU-MIMO UL 2x4 MU-MIMO Multi-antenna transmit

Open-loop transmit diversity

2x2 MIMO 4x2 MIMO DL 4x4 MIMO

2x2 MIMO 4x2 MIMO Closed-loop transmit diversity

Open-loop spatial multiplexing Closed-loop spatial

(10)

Principle of Multi-Antenna Receive MIMO

 eRAN2.2 supports UL 2-Antenna Receive Diversity and optional UL 4-Antenna Receive

Diversity and UL 8-Antenna Receive Diversity.

 The following figure shows the block diagram of receive diversity. The UE uses one

antenna to transmit signals; different UEs use different time and frequency resources. The eNodeB uses multiple antennas to receive signals and combine the received

signals to maximize SINR, therefore obtaining diversity gain and array gain, increasing the cell coverage and improving single-user capacity.

(11)

 Mechanism of Signal Combination:

  An MMSE receiver uses receive beamforming targeted at a UE. The receiver adjusts the

combined weight and changes the direction of the major lobe and side lobe to maximize the SINR of the received signals.

 There are two combination algorithms for UL receive diversity.

Maximum ratio combining (MRC) and interference rejection combining (IRC) can both obtain diversity gain and array gain, improving system performance. MRC and IRC are suitable for environments with different interference characteristics. MRC receivers and IRC receivers are implementation of MMSE receivers in different scenarios.

(12)

Adaptive Switchover Between MRC and IRC

For eNodeBs V2.2, IRC is optional. If IRC is not selected, an eNodeB

uses MRC. If IRC is selected, an eNodeB adaptively selects IRC or MRC

depending on the current radio channel quality.

If there is separable strong colored interference, the system automatically

uses IRC algorithm.

If there is no separable strong colored interference, the system

automatically rolls back to MRC algorithm.

In UL 2x2 MU-MIMO mode, the eNodeB does not support UL Interference

Rejection Combining or UL 2-Antenna Receive Diversity

In UL 4-Antenna Receive Diversity mode, the eNodeB supports UL

Interference Rejection Combining.

(13)

Principle of Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO)

 Theoretically, the number of virtual MIMO users in the same RB cannot exceed the

number of receive antennas of the eNodeB. eNodeBsV2.2 support MU-MIMO 2x2. The following figure shows MU-MIMO 2x2.

(14)

Multi-Antenna Transmit MIMO

 The eNodeB supports multi-antenna transmission and the UE does not. DL 2x2 MIMO, DL 4x2 MIMO, and DL 4X4 MIMO are described. R9 defines nine multi-antenna transmission modes (TMs). The eNodeB adaptively selects one TM according to the channel condition and service requirement.

No. Name Applicable Scenario

Supported by Current

eNodeB 1 Single antenna (port 0) Single-antenna transmission. Yes 2 Open-loop transmit

diversity

Suitable for cell edge where the channel condition is complex and

interference is large, or high-mobility or low SNR situations. Yes 3 Open-loop spatial

multiplexing Suitable for high UE mobility and complex reflection environment. Yes

4 Closed-loop spatialmultiplexing Suitable for good channel condition. Provides high data transmission rate. Yes(FDD) 5 MU-MIMO Suitable for two orthogonal UEs. Used to increase cell capacity. Yes

6 Closed-loop transmitdiversity Suitable for cell edge, low mobility, and low SINR. Yes(FDD) 7 Single antenna (port5) Suitable for cell edge to reject interference. Yes

8  Adaptive single-streamand dual-stream beamforming

Suitable for cell edge, low mobility, and high SNR. Yes

9

 Adaptive single-stream, dual-stream, and 4-stream beamforming

 A new mode in LTE-A. Supports a maximum of eight layers. Increases data

transmission rate. Suitable for low mobility and high SNR. No

 U  s   e  d   b   y  F  D D  /   D D  U  s   e  d   b   y  T  D D

(15)

Concepts

Port

  A port is a logical port and does not necessarily correspond to an antenna. There can be

multiple ports. The LTE protocols support a maximum of eight physical antennas. Ports correspond to pilot formats, whereas the number of physical antennas has not direct relationship with the pilot formats.

 Port 0 to port 3: Ports for transmitting common pilots. Usually the number of ports for physical

broadcast channels and downlink control channels is the same as that f or common pilots.

 Port 5: A port defined in the LTE for supporting single-stream beamforming. The data of a

single port can be weighted and mapped to multiple physical antennas.

 Port 6: A port for locating the pilot.

 Port 7 to port 14: Similar to port 5. Supports a maximum of 8 layers. The data of 8 ports can be

weighted and mapped to 8 physical antennas. Used for dual-s tream beamforming.

 Port 15 to port 22: CSI-RS port.

(16)

Concepts

Pilots in the LTE system

 Cell-specific reference signal (CRS): CRS is known as common pilot. CRS is

used by the control channels for channel estimation and demodulation. CRS is used for demodulation of TM1 to TM6 and RSRQ measurement.

 UE-specific reference signal at port 5: It is used for demodulating TM7.  DM RS at ports 7 to 14: It is used for demodulating TM8 to TM9 and is the

reference signal in R9 and R10. It supports MU-MIMO and demodulation of a maximum of eight layers.

 Reference signal at port 6: It is used for locating the UE.

 Channel status information measurement RS (CSI-RS): It is used for measuring

the channel quality indication, precoding matrix indication, and RI. CSI-RS supports measurement of eight ports.

 Sounding reference signal (SRS): It is used for measuring the uplink channels

(17)

Cell-specific Reference Signal (CRS)

0  l  0  R 0  R 0  R 0  R 6  l  l 0 0  R 0  R 0  R 0  R 6  l     O   n   e   a   n    t  e   n   n   a   p   o   r    t    T  w   o   a   n    t  e  n   n   a   p   o   r    t  s Resource element (k,l )

 Not used for transmission on this antenna port Reference symbols on this antenna port 0  l  0  R 0  R 0  R 0  R 6  l  l 0 0  R 0  R 0  R 0  R 6  l  l 0 1  R 1  R 1  R 1  R 6  l  l 0 1  R 1  R 1  R 1  R 6  l  0  l  0  R 0  R 0  R 0  R 6  l  l 0 0  R 0  R 0  R 0  R 6  l  l 0 1  R 1  R 1  R 1  R 6  l  l 0 1  R 1  R 1  R 1  R 6  l     F  o   u   r   a   n    t  e  n   n   a   p   o   r    t  s 0  l  l 6l 0 2  R 6  l  l 0 l 6l 0 l 6 2  R 2  R 2  R 3  R 3  R 3  R 3  R even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 0

even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots Antenna port 1

even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots Antenna port 2

even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots Antenna port 3

(18)

Open-Loop Transmit Diversity

 In open-loop transmit diversity (TM2), space-frequency block coding (SFBC) is

used if the number of transmit antennas is 2; SFBC and frequency switched transmit diversity (FSTD) are used if the number of transmit antennas is 4.

 SFBC: For two-way transmit (DL 2x2 MIMO), the transmit diversity uses SFBC,

where X1 and x2 are the information to be transmitted before SFBC, * indicates conjugate operation, f 1 and f 2 are different subcarriers, and Tx1 and Tx2 are different transmit antennas. SFBC codes x1 and x2 to different antennas and

subcarriers for transmission: x1 over Tx1 f 1, x2 over Tx1 f 2, -x2* over Tx2 f 1, and x1* over Tx22. Therefore, by transmitting copies of x1 and x2 over different antennas and frequencies, SFBC achieves diversity gain.

(19)

 SFBC+FSTD

 For 4-way transmit (DL 4x2 MIMO or DL 4X4 MIMO), SFBC and FSTD are used together.

In FSTD, some of the transmit antennas are selected sequentially in frequency for transmission.

 The transport format of SFBC+FSTD is as follows: x1, x2, x3, and x4 are information to be

transmitted before coding; f 1 to f 4 are different subcarriers; Tx1 and Tx4 are different

transmit antennas; * indicates conjugate operation; 0 indicates no information transmitted. In SFBC+FSTD, x1 to x4 are coded to different antennas and subcarriers for transmission; the transmit antennas are selected. Like SFBC, SFBC+FSTD achieves diversity gain by transmitting copies over different antennas and frequencies.

(20)

Spatial Multiplexing

 Spatial multiplexing means transmission of multiple spatial data streams over different

antennas in the same RB. The dimension of spatial channels is increased compared with the single-antenna technique. Therefore, spatial multiplexing increases system capacity and achieves spatial multiplexing gain. Spatial multiplexing includes two

operations: layer mapping and precoding. Depending on whether the precoding matrix is obtained based on the feedback information of the UE, spatial multiplexing is classified into open-loop spatial multiplexing (TM3) and closed-loop spatial multiplexing (TM4). The following figure shows the 2x2 spatial multiplexing

(21)

 Adaptive Mode Configuration

 Mulit-Antenna transmit technologies can support different scenario transmit

and mode. According to different scenarios, eNodeB support choose the most best MIMO mode.

 Mode choice and switch four type:

 Open and close loop mode adaptive choose and switch  Open loop adaptive mode choose and switch

 Close loop adaptive mode choose and switch  Fix mode choose

 DL 2x2 MIMO and DL 4x2 MIMO support four mode choose and switch.  DL 4X4 MIMO only support open loop adaptive mode choose and switch.

(22)
(23)
(24)

Application of MIMO

At persent, LTE TDD can support by RRU3232

Specification of eNodeB

Configurati

on type

MIMO LBBPc RRU3232

RRU3231

3× 10MHz 2 × 2 MIMO 1 LBBPc 2 (2T2R) 3

3 × 10MHz 4 × 2 MIMO 1 LBBPc 3

-3 × 20MHz 2 × 2 MIMO 1 LBBPc 2 (2T2R) 3

3 × 20MHz 4 × 2 MIMO 3 LBBPc 3

(25)

Contents

Background and Overview of the LTE MIMO Techniques

Principles and Application of the MIMO Techniques

(26)

Principles of Beamforming

Beamforming is a downlink multi-antenna technique. The transmitter of an

eNodeB weights the data before transmission, forming narrow beams and

aiming the energy at the target user, as shown in the following figure.

Beamforming does not require the UE to feed back information or use multiple

antennas to transmit data. The direction of incoming wave and the path loss

information are obtained by measuring the uplink received signal.

The benefits of beamforming are as follows:

Increased SINR in the direction of incoming wave from t he UE. Increased system capacity and coverage.

(27)

Classification of Beamforming Techniques

DOA Beamforming and MIMO Beamforming:

 Direction of Arrival (DOA) beamforming: The eNodeB estimates the direction of arrival of the signal,

uses the DOA information to calculate the transmit weight, and t argets the major lobe of the transmit beam at the best direction.

 MIMO beamforming: The eNodeB uses the channel information to calculate the transmit weight,

forming a beam.

In the industry, the TDD system uses open-loop Beamforming and the FDD

system uses closed-loop Beamforming. Huawei eNodeB supports

open-loop Beamforming.

(28)

Single-stream beamforming means transmission of a single data stream in the same OFDM resource block. It is suitable for situations of poor channel quality.

Single-stream beamforming achieves diversity gain by 1 dB by i ncreasing the SNR.

Take 4-antenna as an example. The following figure shows single-stream

beamforming. The data stream S is weighted by w1 to w4 and is sent to the four antenna ports for transmission.

(29)

Classification of Beamforming (Dual-Stream)

Dual-stream beamforming means transmission of two data streams in the same OFDM resource block, leading to spatial multiplexing. It is suitable for situations of good channel quality.

Take 4-antenna as an example. The following figure shows dual-stream beamforming. There are two data streams S1 and S2; each antenna has two weights wi1 and wi2. S1 is weighted by four weights: w11 to w41; S2 is weighted by another four weights w12 to w42. The weighted

(30)

Engineering Guidelines of Beamforming

 Before configuring beamforming antennas, you need to understand the correspondence

between the port No. and the co-polarization of cross-polarized antennas. The following figure shows the connection between RRU ports and antenna element of the four or eight antennas.

  At present, the RRU models in LTE TDD that support beamforming are RRU3232,

RRU3233, and RRU3235.

4-antenna cross polarization mapping 4-antenna linear polarization mapping 4-antenna circular polarization mapping 8-antenna cross polarization mapping

(31)

Beamforming Cell Configuration

  Add an LBBP by running the ADD BRD command with Mode set to TDD_ENHANCE.

  After adding the cell, run the following commands to turn on the beamforming measurement switch and algorithm switch:

 MOD MEASURESWITCH:

UlintfMeasSwitch=SW_BfNValidMeas-1&SW_BfNRankMeas-1&SW_BfSrsMeas-1;

(32)

Specification of Beamforming

Configuration Type

MIMO LBBP RRU3232

6 × 20MHz 4T4R

Beamforming

6 LBBPc 6

Configuration Type

MIMO LBBP RRU3233

3 × 20MHz 8T8R

Beamforming

3 LBBPc 3(each RRU need two fibers)

Configuration Type

MIMO LBBPc RRU3232 3× 10MHz 4T4R Beamforming 1 LBBPc 3

(33)

KPI of Beamforming

>2Mbps >4Mbps >6Mbps TM7 91.50% 73.40% 60.10% TM2 82.80% 61.90% 56.10%

Test Result in Japan SBM Network

3GPP R8 2011H1 2011H2 1st to launch Single-stream Beamforming 1st to support Dual-stream Beamforming

+15%

+15%

+10%

3GPP R9 3GPP R10 single-stream beamformi ng dual-stream beamformi ng Multi-User Beamformin g

Always Leading in Beamforming

2012H1

Hisilcon Balong700 Chipset is the first to

support single-stream beamforming

Hisilcon Balong710 Chipset is the first to support dual-stream beamforming

(34)

KPI of Beamforming

23%~90% increasing in edge user throughput

 Beamforming compared with 2R diversity (UL)

• ~ 30% gain in cell average throughput • ~ 50% gain in cell edge user throughput

 Beamforming compared with 2x2 MIMO (DL)

• ~ 15% gain in cell average throughput • ~ 40% gain in cell edge user throughput

Relevant features

Single-stream beamforming must be enabled before dual-stream beamforming.

Influence on the KPI

Single-stream or dual-stream beamforming has the following influence on the KPI: Cell average throughput

If the single-stream and dual-stream beamforming is enabled, the signal energy received by the UE is increased, the MCS is increased at the same UE position, beamforming achieves higher cell average throughput than transmit diversity. In comparison with no beamforming, single-stream beamforming increases the cell average throughput by 15% to 25%. In

comparison with single-stream beamforming, adaptive single-stream and dual-stream beamforming increases the cell average throughput by more than 10%.

(35)

 Adaptive MIMO and Beamforming

 With adaptive beamforming and MIMO, the UE always uses TM of high spect ral efficiency under the

same channel condition. In comparison with non-adaptive MIMO or beamforming, adaptive MIMO and beamforming significantly increases average cell throughput.

 If beamforming is used, due to the overhead of UE-specific reference signal, the number of resource

blocks is reduced. Therefore, in case of good channel quality, beamforming throughput is slightly lower than MIMO throughput. At high UE mobility (higher than 120 km/h), the eNodeB cannot track the

channel change accurately according to the sounding reference signal. In this situation, beamforming is not suitable.

(36)

 Adaptive MIMO and Beamforming

 The BFMIMOADAPTIVESWITCH parameter is used to select adaptive beamforming or MIMO. The eNodeB selects beamforming or MIMO according to the value of the parameter, the UE movement speed, and SINR.

 If the value of the parameter is NO_ADAPTIVE, the eNodeB does not support adaptive Beamforming and MIMO.  If the value of the parameter is TxD_BF_ADAPTIVE, the eNodeB supports adaptive TM2 (transmit diversity) and

beamforming. There are two scenarios: low UE mobility and high UE mobility. Low UE mobility: For UEs that do not support R9, single-stream beamforming (TM7) is used; for UEs that support R9, single-stream beamforming (TM7 or TM8) is used at low SINR and dual-stream beamforming (TM8) is used at high SINR. High UE mobility: Transmit diversity is used.

 If the value of the parameter is MIMO_BF_ADAPTIVE , the eNodeB supports adaptive transmit diversity, dual-stream MIMO (TM3), and beamforming. There are two scenarios: low UE mobility and high UE mobility. Low UE mobility: For UEs that do not support R9, single-stream beamforming (TM7) is used at low SINR and dual-stream MIMO (TM3) is used at high SINR; for UEs that support R9, single-stream beamforming is used at low SINR and dual-stream

beamforming (TM8) is used at high SINR. High UE mobility: Transmit diversity is used at low SINR and dual -stream MIMO (TM3) is used at high SINR.

(37)

Comparison Between Beamforming and Other

Techniques

Though a space diversity system or intelligent antenna system

has multiple transmit or receive antennas, they can transmit only

single-stream data. A MIMO system can transmit single stream or

multiple streams depending on the channel quality.

MIMO requires that the number of receive antennas is not less

than the number of transmit antennas. Space diversity and

intelligent antennas do not have this requirement.

Figure

Updating...

References

Updating...

Related subjects :