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c e-ISSN: 2348-6848, p- ISSN: 2348-795X Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2015

International Journal of Research (IJR)

Available at http://internationaljournalofresearch.org

Energy-Efficient Half Adder

Ms.Suruchi

Goyal

Asst.Professor-CSE Deptt

Gian Jyoti Group

of Institutions Rajpura(Pb.) suruchigoyal008 @gmail.com Ms.Aerika Gupta Student- CSE Deptt Chitkara University Rajpura(Pb.) aerigupta004 @gmail.com Mr.Abhinav Mishra Student- CSE Deptt Chitkara University Rajpura(Pb.) abhinavmishra873 @gmail.com Mr.Akshey Singhal Student- CSE Deptt Chitkara University Rajpura(Pb.) aksheysinghal12 @gmail.com Mr.Shubham Sharma Student- CSE Deptt Chitkara University Rajpura(Pb.) shubhamsharma1339 5@gmail.com Abstract:

Digital circuits in today’s world play a vital role in many industries such as that in electronics industry. They are used for performing arithmetic operations which generally include adders, subtractors, counters etc. But the increased need has also caused the decrease in energy and loss of power by these devices. Integration of simple logic gates into high-level digital and arithmetic circuits (e.g., half-adder) is highly important not only for the potential application in molecular level devices but also for the understanding of complex mechanisms of some important biological processes. In this paper, we have discussed one of the digital circuits i.e. half-adder and its power analysis has been done including the factors which affect the energy-efficiency. This framework can be used to study the amount of power loss and appropriate steps can be taken up for the same.

Keywords: Digital circuits; Energy-efficiency; Power loss; Half Adder

I.INTRODUCTION

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c e-ISSN: 2348-6848, p- ISSN: 2348-795X Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2015

International Journal of Research (IJR)

Available at http://internationaljournalofresearch.org

Fig1: Semantics of half-adder

Fig2: Components of half-adder

TableI : Truth table of half-adder

Input X Input Y Sum Carry

0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0

1 0 1 0

1 1 0 1

XOR

Gate

AND

Gate

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c e-ISSN: 2348-6848, p- ISSN: 2348-795X Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2015

International Journal of Research (IJR)

Available at http://internationaljournalofresearch.org

Table II : Power analysis

Confidenc-Level=Low for every output load.

Output

Load 100Pf 150pF 200pF 250pF 300pF

Total on-chip

Power 6.257W 8.993W 11.733W 14.48W 17.234W

Junction

Temperature 40.5

0

C 47.30C 54.20C 61.00C 67.80C

Thermal Margin

44.50C 37.70C 30.80C 24.00C 17.20C

Effective

Theta-JA 2.5

0

C/W 2.50C/W 2.50C/W 2.50C/W 2.50C/W

Output-Load is the term used in the electrical circuits that refers to the power consumed by the circuit. Total on-chip Power refers to the total power consumption including static and dynamic power. The highest operating temperature in any device such as in digital circuits is called Junction Temperature. It is measured in 0C. The total effective temperature rise per unit power reduction is called Effective Theta-JA. It is measured in 0C/W[2].

In Table 2, power analysis has been recorded by taking into consideration the Output load, Total on-chip power, Junction temperature, Thermal margin and Effective Theta-JA. Changing the value of Output load, we can see that the total on- chip power and the junction temperature is increasing with the increase in the output load while the thermal margin is decreasing. Effective Theta-JA is same for all the components. There is 63% reduction of power when the output load is 100pF, 47% reduction when the output load is 150pF, 32% reduction when the output-load is 200pF and 16% reduction of power is calculated when the output-load is 250pF[2]-[3]

II.APPLICATIONS OF HALF-ADDER

 Half-adder can be used in various logical and arithmetic operations for calculating the binary addition on two bits.

 Half-adder can also be used in making full adder.[4]

 As it requires only two inputs, its complexity decreases as compared to other digital circuits.

 They can also be used in address decoding, table index calculation etc.

 They are widely used in data encryption and decryption standards.

 Half-adder can be used in the critical parts of microprocessor.

 Half-adder can be used as a building block for larger adding circuits (FA).

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c e-ISSN: 2348-6848, p- ISSN: 2348-795X Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2015

International Journal of Research (IJR)

Available at http://internationaljournalofresearch.org

circuits. With the growing popularity of portable computers, however the emphasis is on both high speed and low power operation[5]-[6]

IV.RELATED WORK

In order to achieve energy efficient and low power VLSI(Very Large Scale Integration)circuits, a novel adder using XOR gates which are in turn designed with less number of transistors is implemented. The performance of adder can be improved by designing XOR gate such as using minimum number of transistors but without sacrificing the performance. Digital logic gates are required to be implemented in optical domain in order to be used as building blocks for optical signal processing circuits[7] Energy efficiency in electronics products is been promoted by the Energy Star program of the United States that provides an exceptional productivity as compared to the old or traditional systems. In this paper, we have done our analysis using capacitance for the energy-efficient half-adder instead of LVDCI and HSLVDCI I/O standards. Half-adder is designed in Vivado 2014.4 instead of LVDCI technology which is used in green Image ALU[8].

V.CONCLUSION

From the discussion above and the power analysis done , we can conclude that half-adder can be used in an number of applications and can also be used to construct many other adders such as full adder and Parallel Feedback Carry Adder(PFCA). The power analysis done includes output load, total on-chip power, junction temperature, thermal margin and effective Theta-JA concluding that the temperature and power increases with the increase in the output load. The purpose of this paper was to make understand the efficiency of power and other factors which affect power and energy-efficiency. An energy-efficient half-adder if built can save huge amounts of energy which results in green environment and can also help us achieve the concept of Green IT which is the present need of today’s modernization.

VI .FUTURE SCOPE

There is a great scope of saving power and using the half-adder in an efficient way so that the power wasted can be saved and could be used in other applications. While using the adder in constructing other digital circuits and in arithmetic logic units, the power analysis should be kept in mind. With the increase in techniques in the modern civilization, many designs have been built which are energy-efficient and prevent wastage of power and speed of digital circuits. Digital circuits such as logic gates should be built such that they don’t cause power loss and energy reduction in the environment.

REFERENCES

[1] Guo, X., Zhang, D., Zhang, G., & Zhu, D. (2004). Monomolecular logic:“half-adder” based on multistate/multifunctional photochromic spiropyrans. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 108(32), 11942-11945.

[2] Kalia, Kartik, Deepa Singh Sisodiya, Dinesh Sharma, Vishok Singh, “Energy Efficient Clean and Green IT: Concepts and Approaches”, International Journal of Smart Home, Vol.9, No.6, June 2015.

[3] Kumar, Tanesh, Bishwajeet Pandey, and Teerath Das. "LVCMOS I/O Standard And Drive Strength Based Green Design on Ultra Scale FPGA." IEEE International conference on Green Computing, Communication and Conservation of Energy (ICGCE). 2013.

[4] Kumar, Tanesh, Bishwajeet Pandey, and Teerath Das. "Digitally controlled impedance based green design on ultra scale FPGA." Green Computing, Communication and Conservation of Energy (ICGCE), 2013 International Conference on. IEEE, 2013.

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c e-ISSN: 2348-6848, p- ISSN: 2348-795X Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2015

International Journal of Research (IJR)

Available at http://internationaljournalofresearch.org

Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on 43.10 (1996): 689-702.

[6]http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~asim/COEN_65 01/Lecture_Notes/L2_Notes.pdf.

[7] file:///C:/Users/Administrator/Downloads/CS-V1N1-004.pdf, accessed on 25 July 2015.

References

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