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A note on the early history of the Ross Institute
Lise Wilkinson and David J Bradley
Medical History / Volume 45 / Issue 04 / October 2001, pp 507 - 510 DOI: 10.1017/S0025727300068381, Published online: 16 November 2012
Link to this article: http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0025727300068381
How to cite this article:
Lise Wilkinson and David J Bradley (2001). A note on the early history of the Ross Institute. Medical History, 45, pp 507-510 doi:10.1017/S0025727300068381
the Early History of the Ross Institute
Castellani and the origins of the Ross Institute,1as
contribution, G C Cook has referred in passingto
Organising Secretary, Major H Lockwood Stevens, and in detailtonumerous
exchanged between members of the Organising and Executive Committees whichare
the London School of
(LSHTM), and others in the Seamen's Hospital Society archive.
mentioned in Cook'spaperwas
by Lockwood Stevensmany years
Institute in 1926. She had transferred with him, and it,to
Hygiene and Tropical Medicinein
1934, when after the deaths of both Ross and
Simpson the Ross Institute becamepart
School, and eventually
its Department of Tropical Hygiene.2 It isan
letter, casting lighton
difficulties of the fledgling Institute and its
organization and administration,as
experienced by Stevens and Miss Roberts.In
view of thecontents
it is of interest that Castellani himself, in his autobiography,3passes
founding and earlyyears
of the Ross
reality of the period. Unlike the self-serving Castellani, Simpson,
loyal friend and admirer of Ross,
genuinely wantedto createan
Professor Leonard Bruce-Chwatt whowas
Director of the Ross Institute following the
death of George Macdonald in 1967,
passed the letterin
Bruce-Chwatt received it
directly from Miss Robertsor
* LiseWilkinson,PhD,The WellcomeTrust
Centrefor theHistory of MedicineatUCL,24
Eversholt Street, LondonNWI lAD.
Epidemiology and Population Sciences,Tropical HealthEpidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene andTropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT.
(1877-1971)and thefoundingof the Ross
Institute and HospitalforTropicalDiseasesat
Putney', J. med Biogr,2000,8: 198-205.
Stevens,andsuccessivedirectors and members of the Ross Institute's ExecutiveCommitteefor
morethan thirtyyears,finallyretiring in 1965. H
LockwoodStevenshad retiredin 1948, twoyears
after the death of the Institute's first Vice-Chairman, Walter Shakspeare. Stevens diedinSt Thomas'sHospital in July 1964. LSHTM, AnnualReports 1946-47,pp. 14and102;
1963-64,pp. 14and 84; 1964-65,p. 16.
3A Castellani, Microbes, men and monarchs: a doctor'slifeinmanylands, London, Gollancz,
4Thestoryof the turbulent earlyyears of the
Wilkinson and David J Bradley
history, Dr Cook and the
is the timeto
entirety. This is in the
interests of future
documentation of the
gallant struggles of Stevens
and of Miss Robertsto
keep afloat the Ross
Institute, and during the Second World
also the London School of Hygiene and Tropical
from Stevens' home, Knowle, Elm
Avenue, East Preston,
January 1956. The fulltext
Dear Miss Roberts
When Iwas attending the funeral ofSir MalcolmWatson, I suddenly realised thatI was the only survivingmember of the RossInstitute who had knowledge of its history fromthe very beginning and, infact, could write itshistory. I haveno intentions ofdoing this, but
consideringitsearlydays, I cansaythat itwas amiraclethat inthe shortspaceof ten years, from 1923 to 1933, it rose from nothing to the highly respected institute concerned with
malariacontrolandtropicalhygieneinindustry itbecame, with branchesoverseas. Its name was almost a household word throughout the tropics, somuch so that it was incorporated withthe London School ofHygieneandTropical Medicine-tobecomethe TropicalHygiene
Department in theUniversity ofLondon, withaChair later.
The reason I amwriting this short summaryis for yourpersonal use, as you are theonly surviving member of theoriginal staffstill at the Institute. Not onlywereyou my assistant andright hand for 25 years, but you acted asconfidential secretary to threegreat men, Sir RonaldRoss, Sir William Simpson and Sir MalcolmWatson. Inaddition, youworked very
closelywith the Chairman, Sir Charles McLeod, andWalter Shakspeare and Mr Forsythe.
Butfor these last three theRoss Institute couldneverhave survived.
Beforedealingwiththepartyouplayedinthose vital eightyears, 1926/33, Iwillgiveyou a briefhistory oftheprecedingyears, 1923/26.
Sometime in 1923, Sir WilliamSimpson andDrAldoCastellani launched an appeal fora
memorialtoRonald Ross.Althoughtheappealwas"TheWarAgainst Malaria",the memorial was for a "Ross Clinic". In other words, the promoters were using Ross's name to fund
something ofaclinical nature, whereas Ross's workwasdirectedtowardspreventivework in the field. The appeal wasacomplete 'flop', formore reasonsthanone.
Indesperation, SirWilliam Simpsonapproached anold Calcutta friendofhis,Sir Charles
McLeod,5 and pleaded with him to become Chairman and help them with the proposed
memorial to Ross.
This is where Icameintothepicture. In 1923, McLeod was chairman ofadisabledmen's charity for which I was doing somevoluntary work. Sir Charles sent for meand told me
about his interview withSimpson.Hesaid hewasonlyinterested in thepreventionof malaria inindustry in the tropicsand asked me to see the so-calledRoss MemorialCommittee and find out what I could about it. IfI thought anythingcould come ofit, he said he would accept thechairmanship,providingItookchargeoftheappealwork andgeneralorganisation,
In all my experience I have never attended a meeting like the first of the original Ross MemorialCommittee,and also severalfollowingones.Gilbert &Sullivan could have doubled
5Sir Charles McLeod (1858-1936). McLeod duringhisyearsasHealth Officer in Calcutta in
was not amedical man but achairmanofvarious the1880s and 1890s. SeeWilkinsonandHardy,
their fortunes could they have dramatised those meetings. I would have advised Sir Charles
McLeod to have dropped the whole thing then and there, but for one person-Sir William
Simpson. Imet him several times and found hewas a 'field' man at heart and would back any preventive medicine research. As a result of meetings with Simpson, McLeod, Forsythe and Shakspeare, we managed to get the clinic idea dropped, but we had to include a research hospital. That is how the original name became the Ross Institute and Hospital for Tropical Diseases.
In1923then, I took on the part-time job of Organising Secretary with my own one assistant,
and went ongaily raisingmoney for malariacontrol in thetropics until 1925 whenwe had enough money to buy Bath House in Putney, and equip it with two wards and research laboratories.
This is where you come in. It was decided to have the Institute opened by H.R.H The Prince of Wales in July 1926, and he had promised to do this. At that time a friend of
Castellani'swasactingasSecretary to theInstitute, but did littleor nowork. Aboutamonth
before the official opening,theCommittee foundtotheirhorrorthatthe Secretary had taken
no stepswhatever with regard to the arrangements orinvitations. I wascalled in and asked
whetherIcould possiblyarrangeeverythingin amonth and takeoverthe whole administration of the Institute. I agreed providingI wasgivencarteblanche.
Iimmediately engaged two temporary assistants to help me clear up the mess andget the invitations out, etc. You were one of those assistants, and we did succeed-not only in getting
everything done intime,but we also received manycongratulations.
Your work then was souseful to me that I asked you to stay on permanentlyto help on the appeal side of my work. Shortly after, there was a vacancy as mysenior assistant. You wereappointed and tookoverthe accounting-infact becameassistantsecretary of the Ross Institute. You wereresponsible forchangingtheentire accounts over tothe King Edward's
Hospital Fund system.
The next crisis came in 1927. I had raised a considerable sum of money for malaria preventionwork and this wasbeingfrittered away on a smallhospitalwhich wasvirtuallya
private nursing home for patients ofone ofthe Directors. For some time I had been in contactwith Sir MalcolmWatson andknewhe wasretiringfromMalayain 1928. Itold the
Committee I would not raise money for malaria control work unless they could get the
services ofMalcolm Watson tocarry outthepolicyonwhichmyappealwork was based. InOctober 1927, I went to Calcutta and engaged Watson asPrincipal ofMalaria Control
oftheRossInstitutetotake up his duties onhis retirementin1928,andthisnews wascabled
round the world from Calcutta. After thatI toured India, Burma, Malaya and Ceylon on propaganda work and was away for six months. You carried on at home most successfully
The nextserious incident was in 1929. Watson and I werebeingsent toIndia andCeylon from October 1928 toApril/May 1929. Castellani had anex-officerpatient who was hard-up, and he actuallygot the Committee toappointthis man asmy deputy,onthegrounds that it wasnecessary to havea man incharge while I was away. Thispersonhadno
or officeexperience whatever, yet was allowed to take over the finances of the Instituteduring my absence. Immediately on my return from Ceylon you got in touch with me as you were
suspicious that all was not well. You told me that you had not had accessto certain books
duringmy absence and asked me to look intothings at once.
Wilkinson and David J Bradley
the Committee not to take criminalproceedings, asthe scandal would do greatharm to the Institute.
But for your prompt action, the consequences could have been veryserious,as the cheques had been signed in all innocence by Sir Ronald Ross andSir WilliamSimpson.
You were officially appointed Assistant Secretary of the Ross Institute in November 1929. Except for the uneconomic hospital, things went very well after this, until the death ofSir
Ronald Ross on the 16th September 1932. Then the balloon went up.
In 1933, an opportunitycamefor theInstitutetojoin the London School of Hygieneand Tropical Medicine and for the Hospital to be incorporated in theTropical Diseases Hospital
of the Seamen's Hospital Society. Castellani did everything in his power to prevent the
amalgamation, but eventually theRossInstitutejoined the SchoolonJanuary 1St, 1934. The next crisis was the outbreak of warin 1939, whenmy officewasmoved to myhouse in Ealing. In spite of bombs, etc., we kept things going between us until the next incident in 1940.
The Accountant and acting Secretary of the School wasdismissedand I was asked to take over his duties in addition to my own-at a week's notice. As soon as I took over, the accounts clerk left, and you were asked to take over from her. In fact, you and I were responsible for the whole accounting of the School on only a week's notice-probably during the mostdifficult period ofitshistory.
"Pay-as-you-earn" income tax came into being, with all its extra work. A great deal of
additional work wasinvolved in making up andadjusting the payand salariesofthose on active service or seconded to other Governmentwork, and the collection ofsuperannuation
paymentsfrom scattered staff.Allthis you did with thehelp-or hindrance-of onlyonegirl,
During thewar, wecompletely re-organised the accounting and put in a new system. As soon asthe war ended we wereexceptionally busy preparingpost-warestimates, dealingwith new salary scales, newandreturned staff. Infact,we wereboth overworked for nearly eight
years. The twoofus were Secretary, Finance Officer, Accountant and Organising Secretary
of the School and the RossInstitute combined. Allthis, in spiteofperiods of dusk-to-dawn
bombings, V.ls andV.lls, A.R.P andfire-watching duties. Yet at no timewas there a break-down.
Weworkedhard tomaintain thevoluntary contributionstotheRossInstitutethrough the
war years and had anup-hill fighttograduallywinbacksupportfrom those companies which
were over-run by the Japanese occupation in the Far East.
I could, of course, go on for ever, with details of the part you played, but this is enough to showyourimportantinfluence on the miracle of the Ross Institute.