ISSN: 2394-3122 (Online) Impact Factor: 3.471 Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2016
SK International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Hub
Journal for all Subjects
Research Article / Survey Paper / Case Study Published By: SK Publisher (www.skpublisher.com)
University based and Non-University based Physical
Education teacher’s attitude towards Information Technology in India
Dr. Santosh Kumar Pandey Asst. Professor, dept. of Physical Education,
Kalpi College, Kalpi, Dist. Jalaun – India
Abstract:The purpose of the study was to explore the attitude of university based and non-university based teachers teaching in master of Physical Education towards Information Technology. For this study total ninety seven (97) teacher’s university teacher’s (46) and non-university teacher’s (51) selected as a subjects. The teachers who were teaching Master of Physical Education (previous/final) in different Institution were delimited for this study. Faculty Attitude towards Information Technology (FAIT), a 68 item attitude scale developed by Elizabeth Libby Gilmore (1998), were used to know the attitude of teacher’s towards Information Technology. The responses obtained from teachers of different Physical Education institutions were converted into simple percentage for the purpose of analysis and interpretation of the data. To analyse the collected data ‘t’ test was used to compare attitude of university based and non-university based teachers towards information technology. Statistical analysis were performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) version 19, a product of IBM.nic in order to compare all the above. The level of significance was set at .05. The study reveals that, there is insignificant difference between university based and non-university based teachers teaching in master of Physical Education from different higher education institutions in India towards information technology.
Key Words: Information Technology; University; Teachers; Physical Education; Attitude.
There is a vast use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in all spheres of human endeavor which is playing very substantial roles in nations’ improvement. The quickly growing impact of ICT has brought about a revolutionary change in every aspect of human life (Kamal, 2002). Undeniably, the world is progressively becoming an information society and profoundly trusting on the use of ICT as a means of communication and transacting business (Senzige & Sarukesi, 2001). In fact, the future of every economy and its citizen’s fortune are strongly correlated with ICT integration in every aspect of life (Anderson, 2010). Advanced and emerging nations alike have realized that information technology are useful tools which have special effects on individuals and civilizations. The realization of ICT as a most viable tool for development has inspired countries to bring together ICT education at all levels of education. Countries have capitalized and continue to capitalize significantly in IT including hardware, software and people ware. They have accordingly developed policies on ICT to boost mass participation of students in computer education. Information Communication Technology certainly has been realized to have effects on how people learn, what people know and where people obtain knowledge and information (National Science Foundation, 2000).
There is no contradicting the fact that the world itself is becoming technologically centered, from education to business. In this ICT age, employment requirements are changing and employees need to develop skills and competencies required by the job marketplace (Nsiah-Gyabaah, 2011). (Senzige & Sarukesi, 2001) contend that the global economy is becoming a network
Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2016 pg. 20-24 and knowledge based economy and that the awareness gaps contribute to the economic gaps. To them, it is the introduction of ICT in schools and higher institutions that will help reduce these gaps. Maltha (2000) also suggests that today’s professional community influenced by more on the use of ICT and so an individual who is competent in the use of such technologies attitudes a better chance of contending favorably in the labor market.
The use of ICT in Physical education is also exceptional in recent times and it diffuses all levels especially at the tertiar y level. Higher education institutions are progressively orienting themselves to the use of ICT as a means of conveying subject contents (Senzige & Sarukesi, 2001). Some educational institutions have added on-line learning and blended learning models to the direct education to broaden their scope of delivering education to their clienteles. Students who enroll in on-line learning and blended learning programs need to be proficient in ICT. Subsequently, a senior school student seeking to have a university education may not be able to fare well if he or she does not hold elementary knowledge and skills in ICT. Hence, incumbent on senior school students not only to possess sufficient proficiency in ICT but also possess optimistic attitudes toward the learning of the subject to enable them have productive education when they ultimately gain admission into institutions of higher learning to pursue numerous courses of their choice.
In India, ICT education has been incorporated into the curricula of all levels of education in the school system as well as at higher education apparently due to its contributions to human resource and nations’ development. One of the ideas of the policy is to improve a pool of knowledgeable ICT workforce in critical skills areas and professions that would be able to contribute to the process of the development of India’s information and knowledge economy. ICT is taught as a stand-alone subject, which is compulsory for all students at certain levels. It is observed that to make the learning of ICT very effective, the Ministry o f Human Resource Development (MHRD) has been providing appropriate instructional resources to schools and higher educational Institutions. The government policy on ICT for accelerated development program has been a stimulus for ICT education in India. Beside this background, students may be expected to be positively inclined to the study of the subject in all levels. Educators are also expected to realize the significance of shaping students’ attitudes positively toward ICT at all levels of education.
II. PROBLEM STATEMENT
The purpose of the study was to associate the attitude of University based and Non-University Based teachers of Physical Education towards information technology in India. A survey type study was designed to find out the attitude of University based and Non-University Based teachers of Physical Education towards information technology. The study was delimited to University based and Non-University Based teacher’s teaching in Master of Physical Education from different Institutions in India. It was hypothesized that there may not be significant difference between attitudes University based and Non-University Based teachers toward information technology.
III. RESEARCH METHOD
For the purpose of this study 6 University based institutions and 5 Non-University based Institutions in India were carefully chosen during the academic session 2008-09 and 2009-10. Faculty Attitude towards Information Technology (FAIT) developed by Elizabeth Libby Gilmore (1998), were used to know the attitude of teachers towards information technology. The 68 item attitude scale FAIT was drawn from a subset of the Teachers' Attitudes toward Information technology questionnaire developed by Rhonda Christensen and Gerald Knezek (1996) which was a 95-199 item Likert/Semantic Differential instrument for
Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2016 pg. 20-24 The validity of the attitude scale was determined by administrating the instrument to 10 teachers, who provided feedback.
They opined that the language was simple and easy to understand. In addition the attitude scale contained questions that were related to Information Technology and in consequence it was presumed that the instrument possesses face validity.
Each of the instruments from which the items were taken has demonstrated high reliabilities and adequate levels of validity.
The internal reliabilities for the five instruments used range from .90 - .98.
The total of 97 responses, that is, university teachers (46) and non-university teachers (51) were obtained. The responses obtained from teachers of different Physical Education institutions were converted into average common scores from each respondent. Further, the data were converted into simple percentage for the purpose of analysis and interpretation of the dat a.
The raw scores were statistically analyzed in terms of means and standard deviation. Later, ‘t’ test was used to compare attitude of university and non-university teachers. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) version 19, a product of IBM.nic in order to compare the above. The level of significance was set at .05.
IV. ANALYSIS AND RESULT
The results of the study are presented in Tables. The institution distribution of respondents of the study is presented in Table I.
TABLE I Category of Subjects Number of
Max. possible scores of respondents
Obtained average score
of respondents Percentage
University Teachers 46 230 181.86 79.06%
Teachers 51 255 206.98 81.16%
The result in Table 1 shows percentage of obtained responses between university and non-university teachers of physical education towards information technology. 79.06% of university teachers expressed positive attitude towards information technology, whereas 81.16% of non-university teachers showed a positive response towards information technology.
All the university based and non-university based teachers data were compared for their attitude towards information technology by using ‘t’ test. Their mean score, standard deviation, standard error mean Difference and ‘t’ value was computed between university and non-university teachers and has been presented in Table II.
Groups N Mean SD SEDM ‘t’
University Teachers 46 3.9535 .33281
.10495 -1.870NS Non-University Teachers 51 4.0584 .21214
As per the mean scores shown in table II comparing teachers of university and teachers of non-university on attitude towards information technology, as a table shows the statistically Non-Significant difference was found between them, as the obtained ‘t’ value -1.870 is much lower than the tabulated value 1.99 at 0.05 level of significance with 95 degree of freedom.
The graphical representation has been shown in figure I.
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Comparison of Attitude towards Information Technology between University bases and Non-University based Teachers of Physical Education in India
V. DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS
In the present study, the insignificant difference between University and Non-University based Teachers in attitude towards Information Technology may be due to the fact that teachers remains teachers whether they are working in a college or in a University. Teaching is a pious profession and teacher leaves no stone unturned to equip themselves with the latest informations in order to teach the students more effectively. The recruitment procedure of teacher whether they are working in colleges or University is exactly the same. Hence, the insignificant difference is obious.
VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
As Information Technology turn out to be more permeating in our everyday lives, educational surroundings are being transformed where teachers and students are expected to teach and learn, using the technology. Educational organizations around the world are beginning to recognize the potential of Information Technology in pedagogy. With the widespread influence of information technology and Information Technology in education, the researcher undertook the study to determine the attitude of university based and non-university based teachers of Physical Education towards information technology in India.
The analysis of data between attitude of university and non-university teachers of Physical Education towards information technology revealed that there was insignificant difference between both the categories of teachers as calculated ‘t’ value -1.870 was found much lower than the tabulated value of 1.99. So, it is revealed that, both the categories of teachers who are teaching Physical Education possess similar attitude towards information technology India.
The study recommends to the higher education’s institutions as well as government to vigorously pursue the ICT policy to the fullest. Teachers are also suggested to assist their students to learn about information technology as long as the government policy has not covered every Institution in India. Finally, the government are advised to add knowledge of informat ion technology as eligibility criteria at selection level of assistant professor.
University Teachers Non-University Teachers
Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2016 pg. 20-24
6. Wong, Su Luan and Atan, Hanafi, “Gender Differences in Attitudes towards Information Technology among Malaysian Student Teachers: A Case Study at University Putra Malaysia”, Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 2007, vol. 10, no. 2, p. - 158-169.
7. Evangelos, Bebetsos and Panagiotis, Antoniou, “University Students’ Differences on Attitudes towards Computer Use. Comparison with Students’
Attitudes towards Physical Activity”, Interactive Educational Multimedia, October, 2008, Number 17, p. - 20.
Dr. Santosh Kumar Pandey, Received the Ph.D. degree in Physical Education (2012) and M.P.E. degrees in Physical Education from Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, Gwalior in 2015 and cleared NET in June 2005 in Physical Education, respectively. Has been working with Kalpi College, Kalpi since 2009.