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International Research Journal of Human Resources and Social Sciences Impact Factor- 3.866

Vol. 3, Issue 6, June 2016 ISSN(O): (2349-4085) ISSN(P): (2394-4218)

© Associated Asia Research Foundation (AARF)

Website: www.aarf.asia Email : editor@aarf.asia , editoraarf@gmail.com



Oraganti Yellaiah, Research Scholar,

Dept.of.Public Administration & HRM KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY,Warangal-506009


Rural Indian women are extensively involved in agricultural activities. However the

nature and extent of their involvement differs with the variations in agro production systems.

The mode of female participation in agricultural production varies with the landowning

status of farm households. Their roles range from managers to landless labourers. In over all

farm production, women’s average contribution is estimated at 55% to 66% of the total

labour with percentages, much higher in certain regions. The impact of W.T.O rules and

policies of trade liberalization in the agriculture sector on women is distinctive reasons.

Women have been the primary seed keepers, processors. They have been the both experts and

producers of food, from seed to the kitchen. W.T.O impacts women’s expertise and productive

functions throughout the food chain. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)

agreement impacts women’s knowledge of and control over seed. The Agreement on Agriculture impacts women’s livelihood and income security, and also has secondary impacts

in terms of increased violence against women. The sanitary and phyto sanitary agreement

has a direct impact on women’s expertise and economic role in agro processing. The rural

women are normally employed in most onerous area operations like sowing at the back of

and plough, transplanting, weeding, integer-culture, harvesting, threshing and

agro-processing. It could be seen that Women are in large part hired in those operations maximum

of that have not been mechanized in addition to crop manufacturing, women also are

employed in other discipline operations in horticulture, agro – forestry, animal husbandry,

dairying and fisheries. These sectors are least mechanized in India. Nursery elevating, tree


transport, animal feeding, care and cleansing of animals shelter, milking, dairy product

training, fish-fry rearing, cage way of life, net making, fish processing, spices collection,

processing and so on are mostly executed through women.

Key Words: Globalisation, agriculture, women, innovations, awareness etc.


The globalization shifts agriculture to capital intensive, chemical intensive systems,

women bear disproportionate cots of both displacement and health hazards. Women carry the

heavier work burden in food production, and because of gender discrimination get lower

returns for their work. When WTO destroys rural livelihoods, it is women who lose the most.

When WTO rules allow dumping which leads to decline in prices of farm products, it is

womens - already low incomes, which go down further and their position vis-à-vis WTO is

also more vulnerable because as the livelihoods and incomes of farmers in general, and

women agriculturists in particular are eroded, they are displaced from productive roles,

women in agriculture and their status is further devalued, while the patriarchal power of those

who control assets and benefit from asset transfer due to globalisation is increased, other

social processes are triggered which result in increased violence against women. The violence

associated with displacement, devaluation and dis-empowerment takes the form of intensive

violence, increasing incidences of rape, the epidemic of female foeticide, and growth in

trafficking of women. Women also bear the ultimate burden of farm suicides, since they are

left to look after their households without assets but with the burden of indebtedness.

Agriculture in India is the vertical backbone of the country and is regarded as the

most important promote of the country’s economic hobby. Approximately eighty percent of

the Indian populations both at once or in a roundabout way rely upon agriculture. Maximum

of the women perform diverse works for their livelihood and agriculture is considered as the

largest bazaar area where massive variety of Indian rural women takes element actively.

There rural Women who work in the farm take part in a extensive variety of farm activities

via slogging along with men in the subject as well as taking care of the home and children,

there through acting a twin position that of a home maker and of a pattern within the farming

activities outdoor the home.

Women are the molder and builder of any international locations future. They will a


Maximum of the Women perform various kinds of paintings for their livelihood and

agriculture is considered as the largest bazaars ate area wherein big variety of rural Women

takes element actively. About 72.5 percentage of the Indian lady populations are from rural

families, who belonged to the small and marginal farmers and landless agriculture labors.

Women plaid a prime function in decision making process in conventional

agriculture, however they may be surely not diagnosed as producer within their very own

proper because of socio-cultural traditions, the rural women have subordinate function inside

the society. They have inaccessibility to trendy era, credit, schooling and other facilities to be

had to male workers and farmers. Their function has emerged as passive because of lack of

understanding of modern inputs and methods of cultivation. Their regain electricity is spent

in shopping gas, fodder, food and has little time to enhance their competencies inside the

process they have lagged behind their male colleagues in the usage of improved crop

production and processing gear and equipment. Except hand equipment and progressed

bullock drawn implements, greater 240,000 tractors and 7, 00,000 irrigation pumps are being

added every 12 months for mechanization of Indian agriculture. But those improved

implements are completely treated via male people. The women retain to carry out farm

operations which are full of drudgery including transplanting, weeding winnowing, shelling,

bazaars moves, milling and many others.

The research and improvement establishments have evolved gender neutral easy

devices / equipments for crop manufacturing and processing. These can without problems be

adopted through women, however most effective constrained infrastructures for schooling of

women are to be had on current crop production and processing generation. There may be a

want to create attention and provide training on such technology. Keeping their body

structure, women precise ergonomically relaxed device additionally desires to be evolved.

Involvement of women in Agriculture

The rural women are normally employed in most onerous area operations like sowing

at the back of and plough, transplanting, weeding, integer-culture, harvesting, threshing and

agro-processing. It could be seen that Women are in large part hired in those operations

maximum of that have not been mechanized in addition to crop manufacturing, women also

are employed in other discipline operations in horticulture, agro – forestry, animal husbandry,

dairying and fisheries. These sectors are least mechanized in India. Nursery elevating, tree

planting, pruning, potato planting, earthling, digging, fruit and vegetable harvesting and

transport, animal feeding, care and cleansing of animals shelter, milking, dairy product


processing and so on are mostly executed through women. It’s far usually seen that women

employee from socially ahead groups opt to paintings on their own farm. Simplest in

exquisite situations they work on their own farm. Only in awe some occasions they work on

deferent’s farm. However Women workers from schedule tribes have on such reservation and

work on their own farms and farms of deferent farmers.

Women in publish Harvest and Agro – Processing

Almost complete put up harvest and agro – processing activities are achieved by using

women. The operations cleaning, grading, drying, parboiling milling; grinding, bazaars

actions and garage are executed by way of Women out of necessity, which is socially

customary, irrespective of economic status of the women. The male people seldom perform

these operations, even though they've idle time. Fortunately robotically powered easy

equipment and devices are available in rural regions on custom for a lot of these operations

and consequently Women’s drudgery has been decreased to a extremely good quantity. The

custom services of rice milling, flour grinding and oil expelling are quite not unusual in rural


Women and Agricultural Modernization

Due to adoption of cutting-edge inputs and cultural practices the agricultural

productiveness has increased drastically. The preparation of tractors in few states for tillage

and sowing and agro delivery have eased the women’s drudgery to a tremendous quantity in

some states, most people of different area operations are nonetheless achieved manually.

Tractors are hardly ever used for weeding and harvesting. Mechanical threshing of wheat,

paddy and few oil seeds and pulses has additionally helped in reducing the drudgery of males

and females. integrate harvesting has been introduced in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan,

Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra for wheat and paddy,

mostly on custom hiring foundation. Harvesting of different crop is completed manually.

Tractor operated potato and groundnut diggers are commercially available and farmers have

followed wherein these are grown on commercial scale. On small holdings these are

manually performed.

Generation and Gender issues

The advanced technology package has been evolved within the use of agriculture and

agro-processing however these have selectively been adopted specially by means of male


persisted to undertake conventional practices. The motives may additionally range from

technological to marketing and social barriers. Those troubles may be grouped into:

 Technological  Education and skill

 Passive attitude toward modernization  Credit score facilities

 Advertising device  Social barrier

 Technological boundaries

The equipment for agriculture manufacturing processing and fee addition are evolved

keeping ergonomic design factors of male operators. For Women these are scaled down in

size but their physiological responses underneath lengthy duration of labor are infrequently

investigated he physical strength, working posture and environment beneath which lady

people are employed varies from place to vicinity, which influences the adoption of

technology. The studies institutions have hardly appointed girl researchers and technicians for

evaluation of Women specific era.

Training and ability

The training facilities available for Women, in decided on trades, are in large part

placed in cities and rural women. Can hardly avail these possibilities. Agriculture production

associated schooling centers (agricultural machinery and system) are not anywhere to be had

to cater to the rural Women desires. The programme confine especially to demonstration of

equipment and Women rarely get chance to address those machines. This doesn't improve the

ability of Women but creates recognition and therefore, present day machinery does not

generate interest among women worker.

Passive mind-set towards Modernization

In traditional agriculture Women farmers had been equally involved in decision

making system in the absence of expertise of present day agriculture, generation, men alone

take the choice for modernization of agriculture and the female contributors are left behind as

passive spectators. They give their percentage of labour via traditional tools and equipment.

The mind-set of women toward accepting contemporary equipment can be modified most

effective through right schooling and demonstration.

Credit score facilities

The cutting-edge agriculture, together with advanced equipment, requires higher


aren't conversant with Banking system and technique for availing loan and thus, are deprived

of credit score centers for purchase of machinery and different agricultural inputs.

Advertising machine

Buy of improved machinery or sale of agro-produce calls for knowledge of industries

dealing in machinery and organized advertising network device for agro-produce. The

women employee seldom handles such troubles outdoor their village boundaries, though they

may be worried in exchange in village or neighborhood Bazaars. Since advertising and

marketing requires movement far away from their villages, it'll be appropriate to arrange,

organization societies, to appearance after such troubles. Community can be hooked up like

contact farming, franchise buying and selling deliver to prepared cooperatives / stores for fee

brought products for confident marketing.

Social Barrier

Women are equally ready to perform any mechanical tool as seen in urban regions. in

lots of Asian nations including in Japan, Korea, China, Philippines, Thailand and Malaysia,

women equally participate in operation of area equipment. But the rural women workers in

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal have restricted to using hand gear and there are social

reservations in dealing with machinery. This will take sometimes and there's no quick cut.

Handiest persuasion, motivation, patience and social recognition to their area work with use

of equipment will encourage them to adopt mechanical gadgets.

Women in selection making in Agriculture

Women’s function in agricultural operations, animal husbandry and other

economically effective sports could be very substantial. They make contributions about 60-70

percent of the labour required for these activities are very extensive. The selection making

procedure is an important section of each household because it makes implementation of a

plan or programme pretty smooth.

In rural areas of the country, both husband and wife are at the same time responsible

for making choices on topics like own family duties, specific housing charges and buy of

family articles. But, Women’s tips are not given due attention inside the selections relating

agricultural sector and vital circle of relatives topics. It is due to the fact the majorities of

Women are illiterate, have little time to recognize about the state-of-the-art strategies of

farming and limited mobility because of numerous cultural forbidden.

Usually, Women have much less access to records approximately technology through

virtue in their negative educational fame and relative isolation from public life. Consequently,


knowledgeable rural Women are neglected or aren't taken severely because historically guys

had been predominant lawmakers of society. Many rules and decisions neglect women and

undermine their skills and roles. The undesired restrictions imposed via aged humans within

the society on their daughters and daughters – in – law ought to be at ease to facilitate their

mobility so as to have clean get admission to the outside global.


Most significantly, the women must have a penchant for self – empowerment thru

improving their expertise and capabilities. Empowerment without any trade in men’s attitude

or without their willingness will only aggravate family problems, increasing dissatisfaction

and ensuring that women will stay on the receiving cease.

Authority’s policies ought to be framed to provide legal help and instill self assurance

in women. Programs ought to be evolved exclusively for women; to construct leadership

skills for managing agricultural community based totally development sports get admission to

of generation, inputs and credit score must be ensured predominantly thru women extension

people. They ought to learn in farm control talents and made able to taking even complicated

decisions like transferring from subsistence farming to assorted agriculture, with stand

opposition from marketplace forces improvement in work or farm performance et. The

quantity of participation inside the selection – making activities in house keep and agriculture

associated and different socio-way of life affairs displays the reputation of women inside the

family in addition to society.


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