Nonwoven Bags Project Report

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C A U T I O N

This project report has been prepared on the basis of information available with M/S. ENGINEERS INDIA RESEARCH INSTITUTE. The intention here is to provide preliminary information to the prospective entrepreneur. Prior to making a firm decision for investment in the project the entrepreneur must verify the various feasibility aspects together along with the addresses for the procurement of plant & machinery and raw materials independently. The informations supplied in this report is obtained from the reliable sources but it is not guaranteed and the money once paid will not be refunded back in any case. Claims for incomprehensiveness of the project report will not be entertained and no legal action in this regard would be entertained in any case (Subject to Rajkot Jurisdiction only). Any matter relating to our standard points covered in the report may be modified with in 5 days time only from the date of purchase.

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NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

CONTENT PAGE NO

01. INTRODUCTION 4

02. USES AND APPLICATIONS 9

03. NONWOVEN FABRIC- RAW MATERIAL 10

04. MARKET SURVEY 15

05. NON WOVEN POLYPROPYLENE 16

06. DEMAND SUPPLY GAP 17

07. PRESENT MANUFACTURERS 18

08. MANUFACTURING PROCESS 20

09. PRINCIPLES OF PLANT LAYOUT 23

10. PLANT LOCATION FACTORS 29

11. EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN THE PROJECT REPORT 33 12. SUPPLIERS OF RAW MATERIAL (INDIAN) 36 13. SUPPLIERS OF PLANT & MACHINERY (INDIAN) 38 14. SUPPLIERS OF PLANT & MACHINERY (FOREIGN) 39

APPENDIX - A

1. COST OF PLANT ECONOMICS A 1

2. LAND & BUILDING A 2

3. PLANT AND MACHINERY A 3

4. FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT A 5

5. RAW MATERIAL A 6

6. SALARY AND WAGES A 7

7. UTILITIES AND OVERHEADS A 8

8. TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL A 9

9. COST OF PRODUCTION A11

10. PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS A12

11. BREAK EVEN POINT A13

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NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

INTRODUCTION

Non woven poly bags are liquid resistant and offered in variety of patters. These can be used for regular purpose and manufactured to meet the requirements of the clients. They are designed in variegated patterns and following the latent trends to satisfy the end user and available in reasonable prices.

Printed Nonwoven Punch Bag

This puch bag is made from nonwoven fabric instead of plastic. It has the same style as the plastic punch bag. But it's environment friendly and can be reusable. It's printed on 2 Sides, logo can also be printed. The 2 bag edges are heat cut and sealed, no stitching. We can offer various colors of such bag, and can produce any size. It's very great for shopping, gifts, makeups, favors, parties, jewellery, and much more.

Name: Printed Nonwoven Punch Bag Size: 30 * 40 cm

Pack: 10 pcs per pack, 100 pcs per box

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Nonwoven Tote Bag W/Zipper

This nonwoven tote bag has a zipper on top to open and a small pocket inside. It gets a customized logo on both sides. Logo can also be printed on it. Sizes and colors can all be customized. its widely used for shopping, fashion, gifts, and more.

Name: Nonwoven Tote Bag W/Zipper Size: 38 * 40 * 12 cm

Thickness: 80 GSM

Pack: 100 pcs per box Material: Non-woven fabric

Foldable Nonwoven Tote Bag

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This nonwoven tote bag can be folded into a purse so you can your space and take it very conveniently. It gets a snap at front to close when you fold it into a purse. Your logo can be printed on it. Sizes and colors can all be customized. It's widely used for shopping, fashion, gifts, and more.

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SPECIFICATIONS

Nonwoven Shopping Bag

This bag is made form polypropylene fiber, and is 100% degradable.

Fashion design, good quality

Non woven shopping bag, non woven bag: Non woven grocery bags:

Stock up on reusable grocery type non-woven bags: All colors can supply.

No printing Size: 36*46cm

Non-woven bags made out of material made from fibers that are bonded together by a process other than weaving (such as chemically, with heat,etc.). These bags are made from polypropylene fiber, and are 100% degradable.

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Features of the Non Woven Shopping Bag:

1. Eco-friendly

2. Suitable for advertisements 3. Shpping, packing, promotion

4. Anti-pull, anti-tear, strong, extensible and hig in the intensity of machanics

5. Acid-resistant, alkali-resistant, non-poisonous and no harm to human body

6. Good in ventilation

7. Recycle, environmentally friendly material 8. Water resistant and mosture proof

9. Durable and tear resistant

10. Available in a wide variety of styles

11. Various shapes, sizes and disigns acceptable 12. Buyer logos and designs acceptable

13. Materials: non woven fabric, any thickness 14. Printing: Solid colorfull colors printing

15. Surface decorative finishing: Gloss/matte lamination, glitter, embossing, creasing, foil stamping, die cutting, oil printing, screen printing;

16. Usually used for gift/clothes packaging and craftwork; 17. Carry handle; non woven, polyester

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Specifications:

1. Weight range: 10-150gsm

2. Maximum width: 2.4m (subject to customer's desire) 3. Colors: many colors are available

4. Widely used such as promotional, shopping, packing, supermarket packing and anywhere like

5. Printing: silk screen printing, intagilo printing, heat trasfer printing

6. Speciality: good appearance beautiful and graceful, incredibly strong, no-toxin and irrtation

7. We can offer you high quality and excellent service and competitive price, we welcome to inquiry

Products Applications:

1. Nonwoven shopping bag 2. Gift bag

3. Dustproof cover 4. Storage Application 5. Bedding

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USES AND APPLICATIONS

Non Woven Bags that are used shopping & promotional purposes bag, as a grocery bag, tote bag, gift bag and in trade shows as give aways. These eco firendly bags can be reused as these are made from non woven fabric and hence are eco friendly bags can be reusedas these are made from non woven fabric and hence are eco fiendly. Customization in terms of thickness of the bag, sizes and shapes can be altered as per client's requirment. These bags are also provied with modifiable side gusset and are available with standard carry handles or over the soulder handles for the easy carrying.

Range of packaging products also include a wide variety of non- woven bags which are manufactured by using good quality eco- friendly materials like propylene. These bags are used for serving in various purposes. Non woven bags are 100% recyclable as these are manufactured with a durable, liquid resisting and dehumidifying fabric which can be recycled.

Designing

of Non Woven Bags and woven interlining fabric products. Special care is taken in getting these bags made from finest quality basic material. Besides the fact that these bags come in myriad shapes, sizes and volumes, these can be availed at market leading prices. Furthermore, Non woven bags have made

foray into a number of different applications.

Coated and uncoated non-woven polypropylene sacks/bags in number of sizes in addition to strength, ability, standard and superior at cost effective prices, offer non-woven fabric form 50 GSM to 200 GSM to 200 GSM in different colors and shapes. These bags can be used for promotion, shopping and packing of a range of consumer material up to packing of 25 kg. These are available in desired color, shape and sizes.

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NONWOVEN FABRIC- RAW MATERIAL

Nonwoven Fabric is a fabric-like materail from long fibers, bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. The term is used in the textile manufacturing industry to denote fabrics, such as felt, which are neither woven nor knitted. Nonwoven materials typically lack strength unless densified or reinforced by a backing. In recent years, nonwovens have become an alternative to polyurethane

foam.

Nonwoven fabrics are broadly defined as sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments (and by perforating films) mechanically, thermally or chemically. They are flat, porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibers or from molten plastic or plastic film. They are not made by weaving or knitting and do not require converting the fibers to yarn. Typically, a certaing percentage of recycled fabrics and oil-based materials are used in nonwoven fabrics. The percentage of recycled fabrics vary based upon in nonwoven fabrics. The percentage of recycled fabrics vary based upon the strength of material needed for the specific use.

Nonwoven fabrics

are engineered fabrics that may be a limited life, single-use fabric or a very durable fabric. Nonwoven fabrics provide specific functions such as absorbency, liquid repellency, resilience, stretch, softness, strength, flame retardancy, washability, cushioning, filtering, bacterial barrier and sterility. These properties are often combined to create fabrics suited for a specific jobs, while achieving a good balance between product use-life and cost. They can mimic the appearance, texture and strength of a woven fabric and can be as bulky as the thickest paddings. In combination with other materials they provide a spectrum of products with diverse properties, and are used alone or as components of apparel, home funishings, health care, engineering, industiral and consumer goods.

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Non-Woven Materials are Used in Numerous Applications, Including

* Baby diapers * Feminine hygiene

* Adult incontinence products * Wet wipes

* Bandages and wound dressings * Isolation gowns

* Surgical gowns

* Surgical drapes and covers * Sugical scrub suits

* Caps

* Gasoline, oil and air - including HEPA filtration * Water, coffee, tea bags

* Pharmceutical industry * Mineral processing]

* Liquid cartrige and bag filters * Vacuum bags

* Allergen membranes or laminates with non woven layers * Soil stabilizers and roadway underlayment

* Foundation stabilizers * Erosion control * Canals construction * Drainage systems * Geomeambranes protection * Frost protection * Agriculture mulch

* Pond and canal water barriers

* Sand infiltration barrier for drainage tile * Carpet backing, primary and secondary

* Composites:

* Marine saillaminates * Tablecover laminates * Chopped strand mat

* Backing/stabilizer for machine embroidery * Packnaging - to sterilize medical products * Insulation 9fiberglass batting)

* Pillows, cushions, and upholstery padding * Batting in quilts or comforters

* Consumer and medical face masks * Mailing envelopes

* Tarps, tenting and transportation (lumber, steel) wrapping * Disposable clothing (foot coverings, coveralls)

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Nonwovens are typically manufactured by putting small fibers together in the form of a sheet or web (similar to paper on a paper machine), and then binding them either mechanically (as in the case of felt, by interlocking them with serrated needless such that the inter-fiber friction results in a stronger fabric), with an adhesive, or thermally (by applying binder (in the form of powder, paste, or polymer melt) and melting the binder onto the web by increasing temperature).

Staple Nonwovens

Staple nonwovens are made in 2 steps. Fibers are first spun, cut to a few centimeters length, and put into bales. These bales are then dispersed on a conveyor belt, and the fibers are spread in a uniform web by a wetlaid process or by carding. Wetlaid operations typically use 1/4" to 3/4" long fibers, but sometimes longer if the fiber is stiff or thick. Carding operations typically use ~1.5" long fibers. Rayon used to be a common fiber in nonwovens, now greatly replaced by PET and PP. Fiberglss is wetlaid into mats for use in roofing and shingles. Synthetic fiber blends are wetlaid along with cellulose for single-use fabrics. Staple nonwovens are bonded by using either resin or thermally. Bonding can be throughout the web by resin saturation or overall thermal bonding or in a distinct pattern via resin printing or thermal spot honding. Conforming with staple fibers usually refers to a combination with meltblown, ofter used in high-end textile insultations. Melt Blown non wovens are produced by extruding melted polymer fibers through a spin net or die consisting of up to 40 holes per inch to form long thin fibers which are stretched and cooled by passing hot air over the fibers as they fall from the die. The resultant web is collected into rolls and subsequently converted to finished products. The extremely fine fibers typically polypropylene differ from other

extrusions particularly spun bond in that they have low intrinsic strength but much smaller size offering key properties. Often melt blown is added to spun bond to form SM or SMS webs, which are strong and offer the intrinsic benefits of fine fibers such as fine filtration, low pressure drop as used in face masks or filters and physical benefits such as acoustic insulation as used in dishwashers. One of the largest users of SM and SMS materials is the disposable diaper and feminine care industry.

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Spunlaid Nonwovens

Spunlaid nonwovens are made in one continuous process. Fibers are spun and then directly dispersed into a web by

deflectors or can be directed with air streams. This technique leads to faster belt speeds, and cheaper costs. Several variants of this concept are available, but the leading technology is the REICOFIL machinery. PP spunbonds run faster and at lower temperatures than PET spunbonds, mostlydue to the difference in melting points. Spunbond has been combined with meltblown nonwovens, conforming them into a layered product called SMS (spun-melt- spun). Meltblown nonwovens have extremely fine fiber diameters but are not strong fabrics. SMS fabrics, made completely from PP are water-repellent and fine media, being able to capture very fine particles. Spunlaid is bonded by either resin or thermally. Regarding the bonding of spundlaid, Rieter has launched a new generation of nonwovens called Spunjet. In fact, Spunjet is the bonding of the Spunlaid filaments thaks to the hydroentanglement.

Air-Laid Paper

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Air-laid paper is a textile-like material categorized a nonwoven fabric made from wood pulp. Unlike the normal papermaking process, air-laid paper does not use water as the carrying mediaum for the fibre. Fibres are carried and formed to the structure of paper by air.

Other

Nonwovens can also start with films and

fibrillate, serrate or vacuum-form them with pattened holes. Fiberglass nonwovens areof two basic types. Wet laid mat or "glass tissue" use wet-chopped, heavy denier fibers in the 6 to 20 micrometre diameter range. Flame attenuated mats or "batts: use discontinuous fine denier fibers in the 0.1 to 6 range. The latter is similar, though run at much higher temperatures, to meltblown thermoplastic nonwovens. Wet laid mat is almost always wet resin bonded with a curtain coater, while batts are usually spray bonded with wet or dry resin. An unusual process produces polyethylene fibrils in a Freon-like fluid, forming them into a paper-like product and then calendering them to create Tvvek.

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Bonding

Both staple and spunlaid nonwovens would have no mechanical resistance in and of themselves, without the bonding step. Several methods can be used:

* Thermal bonding:

* BUsing a large oven for curing

* Calendering through heated rollers (called spundbond

when combined with spunlaid), calenders can be smooth faced for an overall bond or pattened for a softer, more tear resistant bond

* Hydro-entanglement: mechanical intertwining of fibers by water jets (called spunlace)

* Ultrasonic pattern bonding, ofter used in high-loft or fabric insulation/quilts/bedding

* Needlefelt: mechanical interwining of fibers by needles

* Chemical bonding (wetlaid process): use of binders (such as

latex emulsion or solution polymers)to chemically join

the fibers

* A more expensive or solution

polymers) to chemically

join the fibers

* A more

expensive route uses binder fibers or powders that soften and melt to hold other non-melting

fibers together

* One type of cotton staple nonwoven is treated with sodium hydroxide to shrink bond the mat, the caustic causes the cellulose-based fibers to curl and shrink around one another as the bonding technique

* Meltblown

is very weakly

bonded from the air attenuated fibers intertangling with themselves during web formation as well as the temporary tackiness when they are

forming

* One unusual polyamide spunbond (Cerex)

is self-bonded with gas-phase acid

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MARKET SURVEY

Nonwoven PP bags are made out of oil - but other than this initial position, they are a very sustainable choice for the modern retailer. They promote reuse, they use a resource that exists as a result of other production (i.e. derivatives - the 4% of world crude oil left over after fuel production), and provide they are reused and recycled they have an extremely low impact on the environment.

Non woven poly bags are liquid resistant and offered in variety of patters. These can be used for regular purpose and manufactured to meet the requirements of the clients. They are designed in variegated patterns and following the latent trends to satisfy the end users.

Now a day’s government has banned use of polythene bags because of environment concerns. Nonwoven bags are fast replacing polythene bags in the retail sector. With availability of bags in the local market, the retail segment would gradually shift to nonwoven bags. Creation of market for nonwoven depends upon the entrepreneur’s ability to push the same in the market. Apart from retail segment, the nonwoven bags are being widely used as fancy bags, gift bags and Tote bags.

In a small township with 500,000 populations, the use of carry bags by retailers could be to the tune of 10000 pcs per day. If the nonwoven bags take 20% of that market potential the use could be 2000 bags per day.

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NON WOVEN POLYPROPYLENE

SUSTAINABILITY OF All plastics are created from the 4% SOURCE MATERIAL derivatives produced refining crude oil.

They are an efficient use of a resource that when unused is burnt off at source. ENERGY CONSUMPTION Relatively low inputs of power resulting

from simplicity of process.

ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT Relatively low, due to simplicity of Process , and low levels of waste. Electricity and feedstock in, bag out. Printing uses biodegradable non-toxic inks.

DEMAND/PRICING RATIO Transition of resource use from single-use bags to reusable bags means oil

derivatives remain cost competitive. Nonwoven PP delivers extremely cost-competitive bags.

ALTERNATIVE USES OF Nonwoven PP is an alternative use of RESOURCE this resource. A better use than

making. Single-use plastic bags.

HUMAN AND SOCIAL As the production of nonwoven PP bags is RESPONSIBILITY a relatively new industry, factories are OF PRODUCTION PROCESS modern and follow enlightened HR

practices (by each country's standards). DISPOSAL OF USED Nonwoven pp can be 100% recycled - over PRODUCT and over. The key is the recycling

system in the community of use.

FLEXIBILITY AND Nonwoven PP bags are designed for this SUITABILITY OF USE use. Wonderful soft fabric feel, strong & washable, very printable, yet ultimately recyclable and degradable. RECYCLEABLE?

100%

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DEMAND SUPPLY GAP

(Lakh Nos.)

---YEAR DEMAND SUPPLY GAP

---2005-06 700 620 80 2006-07 850 750 100 2007-08 1000 895 105 2008-09 1200 1050 150 2009-10 1400 1200 200 2010-11 1600 1350 250 2011-12 1800 1500 300 2012-13 2000 1650 350 2013-14 2200 1800 400 2014-15 2400 1950 450 2015-16 2600 2100 500 2016-17 2800 2250 550 2017-18 3000 2400 600 2018-19 3200 2550 650 2019-20 3400 2700 700

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---PRESENT MANUFACTURERS

List of some of the suppliers of different type of Bags in India (especially around Mumbai)

Palm Packaging Mr. Ayub Khan

K. H. No. 76, Ranholla Delhi - 110 041, India

Email- aayub30@rediffmail.com, palmpackaging@gmail.com Telephone : +(91)-(11)-28363904

Mobile : +(91)-9810355081 Fax : +(91)-(11)-28362915

GREEN PACKAGING INDUSTRIES (P) LIMITED 25A, Camac Street,

Kolkata, West Bengal- 700 016 Tel: +(91)-(33)-22874932/22872358 Mob: +(91)-9830245450 Fax: +(91)-(33)-22876872 Email: sales@greenobag.com,info@greenobag.com Khushi Enterprises

Gala No. 24, Rupal Industrial Estate, Plot No. 36 Opposite Vagad Oil Depot, Off Jivadaya Lane, Bhattwadi,

Ghatkopar West, Mumbai - 400 084 Tel: +(91)-(22)-25102011

Anjum Packaging

Room No. 260, Sai Baba Nagar,

90 Feet Road, Dharavi, Mumbai - 400 017 Tel: +(91)-(22)-24086323

Siddharth Plastic

144, Ashok Mill Compound, Sion Dharavi Road

Sion West, Mumbai - 400 017

Tel: +(91)-(22)-24012727

Shree Balaji Print N Pack & Croma Polymer

Office No. 06, Symphony C. H. S. Limited, Old Raviraj Complex Mumbai – 401105

Tel: +(91)-(22)-28160084 Zink Beauty

A - Wing, No. 304, Raj Laxmi Apartment Chikwadi Padma, Mumbai - 400 092

Bang Polypack (A Division Of Bang Data Forms. Pvt.Ltd) 103, Keval Industrial Estate, 1st Floor, Senapati Bapat Marg, Lower Parel, Mumbai - 400 013

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PRINT PROCESS No. 7.B.B. Road, Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 600039 Tel: 91-044-25514696 Mob: 091 9600014597 Fax: 91-044-25512090 Website: http://www.cottonbagindia.com PEALS GLOBAL INDIA

3605, Main Road B.H Rao(Back Side) Delhi-110006 Tel: 23512062, 23622826, 26385312 Mob:- +91- 9311999595 +91- 9810109595 +91- 9212709595 Email: sales@pealsglobalindia.com; perlsglobal@yahoo.com ISPA EXIM PVT. LTD

B 304 Patel Commercial Premised,

Veera Desai Industrial Layout, Off Link Load, Andheri West,

Mumbai,

Maharashtra - 400 053 Tel: +(91)-(22)-42667627 Colours Polymers

Dharmraj Industries, Unit No. A - 5, Lake Road, Bhandup West, Mumbai – 400078

Phone: +(91)-(22)-25946955 Mahavir Packaging

No. 17, Jamnadas Industrial Estate, Dr. R. P. Road, Mulund, Mumbai - 400 080

Phone: +(91)-(22)-25609511 RAHIL AIRBUBBLE PVT. LTD.

Survey No. 34, Plot No. 2-B, N.H.8-B, Shapar (Veraval), Rajkot - 360002, Gujarat Wintex Apparel Limited

E - 307, Kailas Industrial Complex, Veer Savarkar Marg, Park Site, Vikhroli West, Mumbai - 400 079

Phone: +(91)-(22)-65619684 Akrishna Bags Company

Unit No. 204 - 205, Shankala Industrial Estate, Gogate Wadi, Behind Thomas School, Goregaon

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MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Range of non wove nbags are manufactured with good quality propylene material which is environmental friendly. Bags are used to serve various purposes. These bags are 100% recycled and are manufctured with a durable, liquid resisting and dehumidifying fabric which can be recycled.

PP non woven bags are available in d ifferent and unique colors with a variety of designs and dimensions. These are also custom made as per the specifications of the client; These bags can be printed in accordance to the customer's designs and logos. These bags are perfect for the purpose of shopping, gifts, promotional items and packaging.

Nonwoven Loop Hadle Bag w/Rectangle Bases

This loop handle bag is made from nonwoven fabric instead of plastic. It has the same style as the plastic loop handle bag, but it's environment friendly and can be reusable. It has a rectangle base, can offer various colors of such bag, and can produce any size. It's very great for shoppin, gifts, makeups, favors, parties, jewellery, and much more.

Name:

Nonwoven Loop Handle Bag w/Rectangle Bases Size: 28 * 30 + 10 * 20

Pack: 10 pcs per pack, 100 pcs per box Fabric: NOnwoven fabric

Nonwoven Punch Bag W/Bottom Gusset

This It

Punch bag is made from nonwoven fabric instead of plastic. has the same style as the plastic punch bag, but it's environment friendly and can be reusable. It has a bottom gusset and customized printing on both sides. Your logos can also be printed. The edge is heat cut and sealed, no stitching, offer various colors of such bag, and can produce any size. It's very great for shoppin, gifts, makeups, favors, parites, jewellery, and much more.

Name:

Nonwoven Punch Bag w/ Bottom Gusset Size: 27 * 36 + 27 * 6 cm

Pack: 10 pcs per pack, 100 pcs per box

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Nonwoven Pouch W/ Gold Printing

This pouch is made from nonwoven fabric, which is environment friendly. It has gold printing on 1 side. Your logo can also be printed on it. It can be produced in any other colors and sizes. It's great for gifts, makeups, keys, favors, parties, jewellery, and much more.

Name: Non-woven Bag Black and White Size: 10 + 5 * 10 inch

Thickness:100 GSM

Pack: 100 pcs per box

Material: Non-woven fabric with snap

Nonwoven T-Shirt Bag

This is not a plastic t-shirt bag, it's made from nonwoven fabric, which is environment-friendly. Logo can be printed on it. Sizes and colors can all be customized. It's widely used for shopping, fashion, gifts,and more.

Name: Nonwoven T-shirt Bag Blue Size: 12 + 7 * 22 inch

Thickness:70 GSM

Pack: 100 pcs per box Material: Non-woven fabric

Non-Woven Bag Pink W/Snap

It's made from PP non-wovenfabric with vivid and clear printing. It has self material handles at top. It also has a snap for opening. It can be printed and can be made in any other colors. It's widely used for shopping or to pack gifts, favors, soaps, candles, jewelry, clothes, and more.

Name:

Non-woven Bag Pink w/ Snap Size: 9.5 + 3 * 8.5 inch

Thickness:100 GSM

Pack: 100 pcs per box

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Plain Nonwoven Bag

This bag is made from nonwoven fabric, which feels like cloth, but much cheaper than the cloth fabric and pretty strong. Unlike plastic bags, this bag is degradable and environment-friendly. Printing can be done on it . More colors are available. It's great for shopping, picnic, or to carry or pack any items you like.

Name: Plain Nonwoven Bag Size: 30 * 40 cm

Thickness:60-200 GSM

Pack: 1000 pcs per box

Fabric: Nonwoven fabric with handle

Nonwoven Tote Bag W/O Stitching

This nonwoven tote bag is heat cut & strongly sealed on edges, no stiching. So, it looks neater and is more durable than the stitched ones. Customized logos can be printed on both sides. Sized & colors can also be customized. It's widely used for shopping or to pack gifts, favors, soaps, candles, jewelry, clothes, and more.

Name:

Nonwoven Tote Bag w/o Stiching

Size: 30 * 38 * 8 cm

Thickness: 80 GSM

Pack: 100 pcs per box Material: PP

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PRINCIPLES OF PLANT LAYOUT

Some of the guiding principles for detailed plant layout will be discussed for the benefit of those making layout decisions for the first time.

Storage Layout: Storage facilities for raw materials and intermediate and finished products may be located in isolated areas or in adjoining areas. Hazardous materials become a decided menace to life and property when stored in large quantities and should consequently be isolated. Storage in adjoining areas to reduce materials handling may introduce an obstacle toward future expansion of the plant. Arranging storage of materials so as to facilitate or simplify handling is also a point to be considered to design. Where it is possible to pump a single material to an elevation so that subsequent handling can be accomplished by gravity into intermediate reaction and storage units, costs may be reduced. Liquids can be stored in small containers, barrels, horizontal or vertical tanks and vats, either indoors or out of doors.

Equipment Layout: In making a layout, ample space should be assigned to each piece of equipment; accessibility is an important factor for maintenance.

It is extremely poor economy to fit the equipment layout too closely into a building. A slightly larger building appears necessary will cost little more than one that is / that crowded. The extra cost will indeed be small in comparison with the penalties that will be extracted if, in order to iron out the kines, the building must be expanded.

The operations that constitute a process are essentially a series of unit operations that may be carried on simultaneously. These include filtration, evaporation, crystallization, separation, and drying. Since these operations are repeated several times in the flow of materials, it should be possible to arrange the necessary equipment into groups of the same kinds. This sort of layout will make possible a division of operation labor so that one or two operators can be detailed to tend all

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The relative levels of the several pieces of equipment and their accessories determine their placement. Although gravity flow is usually preferable, it is not altogether necessary because liquids can be transported by blowing or by pumping, and solids can be moved by mechanical means. Gravity flow may be said to cost nothing to operate, whereas the various mechanical means of transportation involve the first cost of the necessary equipment and the cost of operation and maintenance. But material must be elevated to a level where gravity flow must start. However, gravity flow usually means a multistory layout, whereas the factors favoring a single-story plant may largely, if not entirely, compensate for the cost of mechanical transportation.

Access for initial construction and maintenance is a necessary part of planning. For example, overhead equipment must have space for lowering into place, and heat-exchange equipment should be located near access areas where trucks or hoist can be placed for pulling and replacing tube bundles. Thus, space should be provided for repair and replacement equipment, such as cranes and forked trucks, as well as access way around doors and underground hatches.

Safety: A great deal of planning is governed by local and national safety and fire code requirements. Fire protection consisting of reservoirs, mains, hydrant, hose houses, fire pumps, reservoirs, sprinklers in building, explosion barriers and directional routing of explosion forces to clear areas, and dikes

for combustible-product storage tanks must be incorporated to protect costly plant investment and reduce insurance rates.

Plant Expansion: Expansion must always be kept in mind. The question of multiplying the number of units or increasing the size of the prevailing unit merits must be studied. Suffice it to say that one must exercise engineering judgement; that as a penalty for bad judgement, scrapping of present serviceable equipment constitutes but one phase, for shutdown due to remodeling may involve a greater loss of money than that due to rejected equipment. Nevertheless, the cost of change must sometimes be borne, for the economies of larger units may, in the end, make replacement imperative.

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Floor Space: Floor space may or may not be a major factor in the design of a particular plant. The value of land may be a considerable item. The engineers however, follow the rule of practicing economy of floor space, consistent with good housekeeping in the plant land with proper consideration given to line flow of materials, access to equipment, space to permit working on parts of equipment that need frequent servicing, and safety and comfort of the operators.

Utilities Servicing: The distribution of gas, air, water, steam, power, and electricity is not always a major item, in as much as the flexibility of distribution of these services permits designing to meet almost any condition. But a little regard for the proper placement of each of these services, practicing good design, aids in of operation, orderliness, and reduction in costs of maintenance. No pipes should be laid on the floor or between the floor and the 7-ft. level, where the operator must pass or work. Chaotic arrangement of piping invites chaotic operation of the plant. The flexibility of standard pipe fittings and power-transmission mechanisms renders this problem one of minor difficulty.

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Building: After a complete study of quantitative factors, the selection of the building or buildings must be considered. Standard factory buildings are to be desired, but, if none can be found satisfactory to handle the space and process requirements of the chemical engineer, then a competent architect should be consulted to design a building around the process - not a beautiful structure into which a process must fit. It is fundamental in chemical engineering industries that the buildings should be built around the process, instead of the process being made to fit building of conventional design.

In many cases only the control area requires housing, with the process equipment erected outdoors. This is known as outdoor construction and such layouts should be considered for many types of plants. What consideration must be given to buildings depends upon conditions. If the designer must adapt his design to fit an old building or building space already erected, his problem is cut out for him and he has limiting conditions. However, the selection of the design of a new building to meet the requirements of the process is more scientific. In this case, one finds before him practically all types of standard building, built in units, interlocking or otherwise, ready for shipment and erection.

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Throughout chemical industry, much thought must be given to the disposal of waste liquors, fumes, dusts, and gases. Ventilation, fume elimination, and drainage may require the installation of extra equipment. This may involve the design of the individual pieces of operating equipment, or it may require the installation of isolated equipment. If the latter be the case, the location of such equipment where it will not interfere with the flow of materials in process should be practiced. The selection of the proper piece of equipment for doing this service

is also an important point; the less attention the ventilating, fume, or waste-elimination systems require, the better service they may render. Sometimes air conditioning of the plant is called for and may require an elaborate setup. But the installation of such equipment, when needed, pays in better service from operators, less discomfort, greater production, and a better morale than when such conditions are left to nature. It must be recognized that there is not only one solution to the problem of layout of the equipment. There are many rational designs. Which plant to adopt must be decided upon after exercise of engineering judgement and after striking a balance between the advantages and disadvantages of each possible choice.

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Material-handling Equipment: Consideration of equipment for materials handling is only a minor factor in most cases of arrangement, because of the multiplicity of available materials-handling devices. But where this operation is paramount in a process, serious thought must be given to it. Again it should be said that engineering judgement must be exercised. Whenever possible, one should take advantage of the topography of the site location, and the process involved.

Railroads and Roads: Existing or possible future railroads and highways adjacent to the plant must be known in order to plan rail siding and access roads within the plant. Railroad spurs and roadways of the correct capacity and at the right location should be provided for in a traffic study and over-all master track and road plan of the plant area. Some of the factors in rail-track planning are:

1. Existing and future off-site main rail facilities

2. Permissible radius of curvature for spurs - consult local rail authorities.

3. Provision for traffic handling - arrangement of spurs and ladder track and switching.

4. Adequate spur facilities

a. Loading and unloading facilities for initial plant construction and subsequent operations.

b. Rack stations for liquid handling c. Storage space for full and empty cars d. Space for cleaning and car repairs.

Major provisions in road planning for multipurpose service are:

1. A means of interplant movement for road traffic, both pedestrian and vehicular

2. Heavier and wider roads for large-scale traffic

3. Routing of heavy traffic outside the operational areas 4. Roadways for access to initial construction, maintenance,

and repair points

5. Roadways to isolated points, storage tanks, and safety equipment, such as fire hydrants.

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PLANT LOCATION FACTORS

Factors which generally apply to the economic and operability aspect of plant site location are classified into two major groups. The primary factors listed apply to choice of a region, whereas the specific factors looked at in choosing an exact site location within the region. All factors are important in making a site location selection.

Primary Factors

1. Raw-material supply:

a. Availability from existing or future suppliers b. Use of substitute materials

c. Distance 2. Markets:

a. Demand versus distance b. Growth or decline

c. Inventory storage requirements d. Competition - present and future.

3. Power and fuel supply:

a. Availability of electricity and various type of fuel b. Future reserves

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4. Water supply:

a. Quality - temperature, mineral content, bacteriological content

b. Quantity

c. Dependability - may involve reservoir construction d. Costs

5. Climate:

a. Investment required for construction b. Humidity and temperature conditions

c. Hurricane,a tornado, and earthquake history

Specific Factors

6. Transportation:

a. Availability of various services and projected rates 1. Rail - dependable for light and heavy shipping

over all distances

2. Highways - regularly used for short distance and generally small quantities

3. Water - cheaper, but may be slow and irregular 4. Pipeline - for gases and liquids, particularly

for petroleum products

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7. Waste disposal:

a. Regulations laws

b. Stream carry-off possibilities c. Air-pollution possibilities

8. Labor:

1. Availability of skills

2. Labor relations - history and stability in area 3. Stability of labor rates

9. Regulatory laws: a. Building codes b. Zoning ordinances c. Highway restrictions d. Waste-disposal codes 10. Taxes:

a. State and local taxes 1. Income

2. Unemployment insurance 3. Franchise

4. Use 5. Property

b. Low assessment or limited term exemptions to attract industry

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11. Site characteristics: a. Contour of site b. Soil structure

c. Access to rail, highway, and water d. Room for expansion

e. Cost of site

f. Site and facilities available for expansion on present

company-owned property

12. Community factors: a. Rural or Urban b. Housing costs

C. Cultural aspects - churches, libraries, theatres d. School system

e. Recreation facilities

f. Medical facilities - hospitals, doctors

13. Vulnerability to wartime attack: a. Distance important facilities b. General industry concentration

14. Flood and fire control:

a. Fire hazards in surrounding area b. Floor history and control

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EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN THE PROJECT REPORT

1. DEPRECIATION:

This represents reduction in the utility and value of a capital asset because of wear and tear, lapse of time, obsolescence etc. The use of an asset helps in the generation of revenue for the business. A part of the cost of the asset, estimated to be equal to the reduction in the utility and economic life of the asset, because of its use, is charged off by way of depreciation charge against such revenue to arrive at the true profits.

2. FIXED ASSETS:

Represent those assets which remain permanently (till their useful lives) with the business and are not meant for resale. These assets are acquired for use in the operation of business and help in the generation of revenue for the business. These include land and building, plant and machinery etc.

3. WORKING CAPITAL:

This represents the total expenses on Raw materials, utilities & overheads, and salaries & wages, for a specified period of time.

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4. BREAK-EVEN POINT:

This represents the level of output and sales at which the firm is able to recover all its expenses-both fixed and variable. In other words it indicates the level of output and sales at which the firm is neither making profit nor incurring any loss. Level of output more than the Break-Even Level generates profit for the firm.

5. OTHER FIXED EXPENSES:

These represent expenses which remain fixed irrespective of changes in level of output. In other words these are the expenses which the firm has to incur whether there is production or not. These include expenses such as preliminary and Preoperative expenses, Insurance and Freight, Technical Know-how and Consultancy, Erection & Commissioning etc. building, insurance, etc.

6. MARGIN MONEY:

This represents that part of the cost of project which the promoter has to meet from his own resources. This is the contribution which the promoter must make to the equity of the project for becoming eligible for assistance from financial institutions/Banks.

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7. TERM LOANS:

Represent Loans which are repayable over a long period of time. These loans are meant for meeting capital expenditure of the project.

8. TOTAL LOAD:

It is the ratio of the maximum power consumed in KWH in a particular period of time to the number of operating hours of the unit in that particular period.

Power Consumed in KWH

) in a particular Total Load =

(---No. of operating hours of period of time the unit

9. LAND AREA/MAN POWER RATIO:

It is the ratio of manpower utilised per unit area of land

required for operating the unit.

+

Land Area

+

| |

Land Area/Man Power Ratio = | --- | | No. of persons | | Working on the unit|

(36)

SUPPLIERS OF RAW MATERIAL (INDIAN)

ALOK INDUSTIES LTD. Peninsula Towers,

Peninsula Corporate Park, Ganpatrao Kadam Marg, Lowel Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra - 400013 Tel: 91-22-24996200

BIYANI INDUSTIAL TEXTILES (P) LTD. 102, Amar Towers, 37 G.F. Scheme No. 54, Indore, Madhya Pradesh- 452010 Tel: 91-731-2574108 Fax: 91-731-2550459

Dasim Rexine House D R H

No. 9, Dharamshi Street, No. 6, Aga Building, Bhendi Bazar, Mumbai - 400 003

Phone: +(91)-(22)-23463180

Fibreweb Non Woven Private Limited

18, S. S. Mungekar Industrial Estate, No-4 , Off Aarey Road, Opposite Acme Amay, Goregaon (East), Mumbai - 400 063

Phone: +(91)-(22)-29275492 RAHIL AIRBUBBLE PVT. LTD.

Survey No. 34, Plot No. 2-B, N.H.8-B, Shapar (Veraval),

Rajkot – 360002, Gujarat Max Non Woven Private Limited

C Type, 119/120/121, Golden Industrial Estate, Behind Shapar Village, Shapar, Veraval, Rajkot - 360 001, Gujarat, India

Leenon Industries

Survey No. 577, Part-1, B/h G.E.B. Sub Station, Opp. Talav, Opp. Lajai Chokdi, Morbi Rajkot Highway, Tankara, Rajkot – 363641

Enox Non Woven Private Limited

Plot No. G-2106, Metoda Gidc, Ta- Lodhika, District Rajkot, Rajkot - 360 021

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SUPPLIERS OF RAW MATERIAL

REAL TECHNITEX

Morbi-Rajkot Highway, At Tankara, Morbi - 363650, Gujarat, India Orange Polyfab Industries,

Rajkot - Jamnagar Highway, Survey No. 228, At. Rampar, Taluka - Paddhari, Rajkot - 360 110, Gujarat, India

Phone: +(91)-(2820)-290291 Macon Incorporation

No. 327, Plenary Arcade Building, Besides Bombay Petrol Pump, Gondal Road, Rajkot - 360 002

Phone: +(91)-(281)-2229404 AROMA FABRICS

Bhimanath Mahadev Mandir Road, At Lajai, Tankara - 363650, Gujarat, India

Parvati Fabrics Ltd.

Parvati House, Tower F, Shree Kuberji Textile Park, B/H Belgium Square, Delhi Gate, Ring Road, Surat - 395 002

Phone: +(91)-(261)-3270913

Vimlon Dyeing & Printing Mills Pvt. Ltd

Vimlon House, No. 2/904, Hira Modi, Sagrampura, Surat - 395 002, Gujarat, India

Phone: +(91)-(261)-2398930

Mani TechniTex

Plot No. 2, Block No. 137/138, At Tatithaiya, Tal Palsana Kadodra, Bardoli Road, Surat - 394 305, Gujarat, India

Phone: +(91)-(261)-2570289 Jadvani Manufacturing Company

Hotel Krishna Park Compound, Village, Kathodara, Post Vav, Between Kamrej & Kadodra, N. H. No. 8, Surat - 394 326, Gujarat, India

Phone: +(91)-(2621)-295200 Wovlene Tec Fab India

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SUPPLIERS OF PLANT & MACHINERY (INDIAN)

M/S Shri Ram Filaments Mr. Raman Aggarwal

Plot No. 65-66, Sector 21, Industrial Area

Bhiwani, Haryana - 127021, India Telephone : +(91)-(1664)-329215

Mobile / Cell Phone : +(91)-9315607101 TOUCH C-42, Sector-6, Noida - 201301 Uttar Pradesh Tel: 0120-4253610/11/12/13 Mob: +91-9999030519, 9313873494, 9350107721, 9811092624 Fax: 0120-4253616/17 E-Mail: touch@machinebaba.com; baishide@rediffmail.com Website: machinebaba.com

BEST INDUSTRIAL MACHINES 79, 1st floor, Mogappair road, Mannurpet, Padi, Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 600050 Tel: 91-44-26251803 Mob: 91119380784282 Fax: 91-44-296251016 Website: http://www.bestindustrialmachines.com Next Impex Mr. Parag Dalal

G - 4, Chitra AMI Apartment, Near Times Of India Ashram Road

Ahmedabad - 380 009, Gujarat , India Telephone : +(91)-(79)-26581627

+(91)-(79)-26581628 Mobile : +(91)-9375070093

Radiance India

Mr. Nayan Thakkar (Director)

No. 115, 1st Floor, Empire Estate Building Surat - Gujarat, India

Mobile : +(91)-9687611676/ 9099922260 Telephone : +(91)-(261)-6642006

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SUPPLIERS OF PLANT & MACHINERY (FOREIGN)

RUITAI MACHINERY MFG. & EXP CO., LTD Shangwang Industrial Area,

Wenzhou,

Zhejiang, 325200 China

Tel: [86] (577) 65785957 Fax: [86] (577) 65778777

Web Site: http://www.plasmachinery.com

RUIAN HUANA PLASTIC PACKAGING MACHINERY CO., LTD Jiusan industry Zone,

Ruian City, Wenzhou, Zhejiang - 325207 China Tel: [86] (132) 82703060 Fax: [86] )577) 65163822 Website: http://www.rahuana.com

(40)

CHINA ELECTRONICS ZHEJIANG COMPANY 408 Wensan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang China - 310012 Tel: (86 571) 88869558 Fax: (86 571) 88864844 / (86 571) 88864333 Website: http://www.globalsources.com/cezic5.co

GUANGZHOU GUOYAN MACHINERY MAKIN CO. LTD. No.3 Xibuxia, Zhuji Road, Jishan Village, Tianhe District, Guangzou, Guangdong, China Tel: 86-20-32010458 Mob: 86-13719254118 Fax: 86-2032050470 Website: http://www.plastics007.com/showroom/Guoyan

This are just for your reference, we do not take any responsibility of their products. This include suggested raw material supplier and machinery suppliers (both foreign and domestic).

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NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

J.C. 9474 Page A- 1

PLANT ECONOMICS

Rated Plant capacity = 28800.00 NOS/day = 8640000.00 NOS/annum

NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS

Basis

No. of working days = 25 days/month = 300 days/annum

No. of shifts = 1 per day

One shift = 8 hours

Production capacity of

automatic machines = 20-120 pcs/min

For calculation purpose = 60 pcs/min @ 40~41gms/pcs

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NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

Page A- 2 J.C. 9474

LAND & BUILDING

1. Land Area 250 Sq.Mtrs

@ Rs. 2000/-Sq.Mtrs Rs. 5,00,000.00

2. Builtup Area 150 Sq.Mtrs

Rs. 9,00,000.00 @ Rs. 6000/- Sq.Mtrs.

3. Boundry wall & Gate Rs. 1,50,000.00

TOTAL

---Rs. 15,50,000.00

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---NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

Page A- 3 J.C. 9474

PLANT & MACHINERY

1. Complete Automatic Plant for

Making Non-Woven Bags Cap: 20-120

Bags/Minute 1No. Rs. 24,00,000.00

2. UPS 12 KVA 1No. Rs. 1,30,000.00

3. Automatic Printing Machine 1No. Rs. 4,10,000.00

4. Tools & Fixtures

Rs. 60,000.00

5. Air Compressor 5 HP 1No. Rs. 55,000.00

6. Miscellaneous Equipments Rs. 60,000.00

TOTAL

---Rs. 31,15,000.00

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---NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

J.C. 9474 Page A- 4

OTHER FIXED ASSETS

1. Office equipment, furniture plus

other equipment & accessories Rs. 1,00,000.00 2. Installation costs for water,

Rs. 60,000.00

electricity, fuel etc.

3. Pre-operative & preliminary expenses Rs. 50,000.00

4. Electricals, Lightings etc. Rs. 60,000.00

5. D.G.Set 20 KVA Rs. 1,65,000.00

6. Miscellaneous Rs. 32,000.00

7. Computer, Printer, Laptop Rs. 75,000.00

TOTAL

---Rs. 5,42,000.00

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---NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

Page A- 5 J.C. 9474

FIXED CAPITAL

1. LAND & BUILDING Rs. 15,50,000.00

2. PLANT & MACHINERY Rs. 31,15,000.00

3. OTHER FIXED ASSETS Rs. 5,42,000.00

TOTAL

---Rs. 52,07,000.00

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---NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

Page A- 6 J.C. 9474

WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENT/MONTH

RAW MATERIALS

1. Non-Woven Fabrics 12,000 Kgs

@ Rs.120/- Per kg. Rs. 14,40,000.00

2. Printing Inks & other consumables Rs. 55,000.00

3. Packing Materials etc. Rs. 28,000.00

TOTAL

---Rs. 15,23,000.00

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---NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

Page A- 7 J.C. 9474

SALARY & WAGES / MONTH

1. Manager cum Supervisor 1 No. Rs. 12,000.00

2. Marketing Executive 1 No. Rs. 10,000.00

3. Skilled Worker 1 No. Rs. 8,500.00

4. Un-Skilled Worker 2 No. Rs. 12,000.00

5. Clerk/Typist 1 No. Rs. 8,000.00 6. Peon/Guard 1 No. Rs. 7,000.00 TOTAL ---Rs. 57,500.00 ---PLUS PERKS @ 33% P.A.

Rs. 18,975.00

TOTAL

---Rs. 76,475.00

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Page A- 8 J.C. 9474

UTILITIES AND OVERHEADS

1. Power Consumption of 3000

Rs. 17,250.00

Kwatt hrs @ Rs. 5.75 per Kwatt hr. 2. Water Consumption of 25

Rs. 100.00

KLs @ Rs. 4.00 per KL

3. Stationery, Postage, Telephone etc. Rs. 2,200.00 4. Conveyance & Transportation etc. Rs. 16,000.00

5. Insurance Professional fees Rs. 1,500.00

6. Publicity & Sales Promotion Rs. 15,000.00

7. Repairs & maintenance Rs. 5,000.00

8. Miscellaneous Rs. 10,000.00

9. Fuel for D.G.Set etc. Rs. 4,000.00

10. Administrative Expensive

Rs. 20,000.00

TOTAL

---Rs. 91,050.00

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NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

Page A- 9 J.C. 9474

TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL/MONTH

1. RAW MATERIAL Rs. 15,23,000.00

2. SALARY & WAGES Rs. 76,475.00

3. UTILITIES & OVERHEADS Rs. 91,050.00

TOTAL

---Rs. 16,90,525.00

---1. WORKING CAPITAL FOR 1 MONTHS Rs. 16,90,525.00

2. MARGIN MONEY FOR W/C LOAN Rs. 4,22,631.25

COST OF PROJECT

TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL Rs. 52,07,000.00

MARGIN MONEY Rs. 4,22,631.25 TOTAL ---Rs. 56,29,631.25

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Page A- 10 J.C. 9474

TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT

TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL Rs. 52,07,000.00

TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL FOR 1 MONTHS

Rs. 16,90,525.00

TOTAL

---Rs. 68,97,525.00

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---NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

Page A- 11 J.C. 9474

COST OF PRODUCTION/ANNUM

1. Working Capital for 1 year Rs. 2,02,86,300.00 2. Interest @ 13.50% on T.C.I Rs. 9,31,165.87 3. Depreciation @ 10.00% on buildings Rs. 1,05,000.00 4. Depreciation @ 20.00% on Plant Rs. 6,23,000.00 and Machinery 5. Depreciation @ 20.00% on office Rs. 20,000.00 equipment & furnitures

TOTAL

---Rs. 2,19,65,465.87

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Page A- 12 J.C. 9474

TURN OVER/ANNUM

1. Receipts by sale of 8640000 Nos

Non-Woven Bags of Diff. Sizes with/

without Printing @Rs.2.80 Bags(avg) Rs. 2,41,92,000.00

TOTAL

---Rs. 2,41,92,000.00

---PROFIT = RECEIPTS - COST OF PRODUCTION = 2,41,92,000.00 - 2,19,65,465.87 = 22,26,534.13

PROFIT SALES RATIO = Profit / Sales x 100

=

22,26,534.13

--- X 100 2,41,92,000.00

= 9.2 %

RATE OF RETURN = Operating profit / T.C.I x 100 22,26,534.13

X 100 =

---68,97,525.00

= 32.28 %

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NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

Page A- 13 J.C. 9474

BREAK EVEN POINT (B.E.P)

Fixed Costs of the plant are as under

-1. Interests Rs. 9,31,165.87 2. Depreciation Rs. 7,48,000.00 3. 40.00% of salaries Rs. 3,67,080.00 4. 40.00% of overheads Rs. 4,37,040.00 TOTAL ---Rs. 24,83,285.87 ---FIXED COSTS B.E.P. = --- X 100 FIXED COSTS + PROFIT

24,83,285.87

= --- X 100 24,83,285.87 + 22,26,534.13

= 52.72 %

LAND MAN RATIO = Total land / Manpower

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NON-WOVEN CARRY/SHOPPING BAGS [IPRI/BAGS/44A6] T.154

Page A- 14 J.C. 9474

RESOURCES FOR FINANCE

1. Term loans from Financial institutions

( 65.00 % of fixed capital )

at @13.50% p.a rate of interest Rs. 33,84,550.00

2. Bank loans for 3 months

( 65.00 % of working capital )

at @ 13.50% p.a rate of interest Rs. 10,98,841.25

3. Self raised capital from even funds & loans from close ones to meet the margin money needs at a

Rs. 24,14,133.75 @ 13.50% p.a rate of interest

TOTAL

---Rs. 68,97,525.00

Figure

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References

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