Immigration Policy at the Subnational Level In North America: Quebec and Georgia In Comparative Perspective

Full text

(1)

Immigration Policy at the Subnational Level

In North America: Quebec and Georgia

In Comparative Perspective

R

ICHARD

V

ENGROFF

*

A

BSTRACT 2QHRIWKHIXQGDPHQWDOJRDOVRILPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\LVWKH´LQWHJUDWLRQµRIQHZLPPLJUDQWV ZKLFKUHDFKHVLWVIXOOHVWVXFFHVVZLWKQDWXUDOL]DWLRQ0RVWLQWHJUDWLRQHͿRUWVWDNHSODFHDWWKH VXEQDWLRQDOOHYHO,XVHFDVHVWXGLHVRI*HRUJLDDQG4XHEHFWRLGHQWLI\LQGLFDWRUVDQGSDWWHUQV WKDWFDQEHDSSOLHGWRWKHFRPSDUDWLYHVWXG\RILPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\LQ&DQDGLDQSURYLQFHV 86$PHULFDQVWDWHVDQGPHVROHYHOJRYHUQPHQWDOXQLWVDURXQGWKHZRUOG,EHOLHYHP\DQDO\ VLVFDSWXUHVVRPHRIWKHEURDGUDQJHRIYDULDWLRQLQLPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\EHWZHHQ&DQDGLDQDQG 86MXULVGLFWLRQVDQGKHOSVXVWRDVVHVVWKHFRPSDUDWLYHVXFFHVVLQWHUPVRIQDWXUDOL]DWLRQ

Key words: immigration, integration, Canada, U.S., naturalization, MIPEX.

R

ESUMEN 8QDGHODVPHWDVIXQGDPHQWDOHVGHODSROtWLFDGHLQPLJUDFLyQHVOD´LQWHJUDFLyQµGHORVQXHYRV LQPLJUDQWHVTXHDOFDQ]DVXp[LWRWRWDOFRQODQDWXUDOL]DFLyQ/DPD\RUtDGHORVHVIXHU]RVGH LQWHJUDFLyQRFXUUHQHQHOQLYHOVXEQDFLRQDO8WLOL]RHVWXGLRVGHFDVRGH*HRUJLD\4XHEHFSDUD LGHQWLÀFDULQGLFDGRUHV\SDWURQHVTXHSXHGHQDSOLFDUVHDOHVWXGLRFRPSDUDGRGHODSROtWLFDGH LQPLJUDFLyQHQODVSURYLQFLDVFDQDGLHQVHVORVHVWDGRVGHODXQLyQDPHULFDQD\ODVXQLGDGHV gubernamentales de nivel medio en todo el mundo. Mi análisis pretende mostrar el amplio UDQJRGHYDULDFLyQHQODVSROtWLFDVPLJUDWRULDVHQWUHODVMXULVGLFFLRQHVGH&DQDGi\(VWDGRV 8QLGRV\SXHGHD\XGDUQRVDHYDOXDUHOp[LWRFRPSDUDWLYRHQWpUPLQRVGHQDWXUDOL]DFLyQ

Palabras clave: inmigración, integración, Canadá, Estados Unidos, naturalización, MIPEX.

3URIHVVRURISROLWLFDOVFLHQFHDW.HQQHVDZ6WDWH8QLYHUVLW\DQG)XOEULJKW9LVLWLQJ5HVHDUFK&KDLULQ1RUWK $PHULFDQ,QWHJUDWLRQDW&DUOHWRQ8QLYHUVLW\2WWDZDYHQJURͿULFKDUG#JPDLOFRP

(2)

I

NTRODUCTION

,QFUHDVLQJO\LPPLJUDWLRQLVVXHVKDYHULVHQWRWKHIRUHLQSXEOLFFRQVFLRXVQHVVDQG DPRQJGHFLVLRQPDNHUVQRWMXVWDWWKHQDWLRQDOOHYHOEXWDWWKHVXEQDWLRQDOOHYHODV ZHOO7KHH[SDQVLRQRIWKHUROHRI&DQDGLDQSURYLQFHVLQLPPLJUDWLRQZDVVSHDU KHDGHGE\4XHEHFEXWQRZLQYROYHVDOOWKHRWKHUVDOEHLWLQDOHVVVLJQLÀFDQWZD\ 4XHEHF·V OHDGHUVKLS LQ LPPLJUDWLRQ KDV EHHQ SULPDULO\ PRWLYDWHG E\ QDWLRQDOLVW FXOWXUDOOLQJXLVWLFDQGHFRQRPLFFRQVLGHUDWLRQVDQGWHQGVWREHSURLPPLJUDWLRQDQG LQWHJUDWLRQRILPPLJUDQWVLQWR4XHEHFVRFLHW\7KLVLVQRWWKHFDVHZLWK86$PHUL FDQVWDWHVZKLFKLQWHUPVRIOHJDOLPPLJUDWLRQSDUWLFLSDWHRQO\LQUHIXJHHUHVHWWOH PHQWEXWQRWLQV\VWHPDWLFZD\VLQRWKHUFRUHDUHDVRILPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\OLNHLQWHJUD WLRQUHFUXLWPHQWDQGVHOHFWLRQ+RZHYHULQWKHODVWIHZ\HDUVVWDWHVKDYHEHJXQWR SOD\DPRUHSURIRXQGUROHLQWKHDUHDRI´XQGRFXPHQWHGµ ´LOOHJDOµ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ͿHUHQW IURPWKDWRI2QWDULRIRUH[DPSOHZKLOHLQWKH86*HRUJLD·VSROLFLHVDUHTXLWHGLI IHUHQWIURPWKRVHRI1HZ<RUN2QHRIWKHDLPVRIWKLVDUWLFOHLVWRKHOSLGHQWLI\LQGL FDWRUVDQGSDWWHUQVWKDWFDQEHDSSOLHGWRWKHFRPSDUDWLYHVWXG\RILPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\ LQ &DQDGLDQ SURYLQFHV 86 $PHULFDQ VWDWHV DQG PHVROHYHO JRYHUQPHQWDO XQLWV DURXQGWKHZRUOGPRUHJHQHUDOO\

3HUKDSVWKHEHVWZD\WRXQGHUVWDQGDSROLF\OLNHLPPLJUDWLRQLVWRH[DPLQHLWIURP DFRPSDUDWLYHSHUVSHFWLYH,QWKLVDUWLFOH,HPSOR\DQLQGXFWLYHDSSURDFKLQLWLDOO\ XVLQJFDVHVWXGLHVRI4XHEHFDQG*HRUJLDWRFDSWXUHVRPHRIWKHEURDGUDQJHRIYDULD WLRQ LQ LPPLJUDWLRQ SROLF\ EHWZHHQ &DQDGLDQ DQG 86 MXULVGLFWLRQV 7KHUHIRUH WKURXJKRXW,ZLOOFRPSDUHLPPLJUDWLRQSROLFLHVLQ4XHEHFZLWKWKRVHRIRWKHU&D QDGLDQSURYLQFHVDQG86$PHULFDQVWDWHVSDUWLFXODUO\*HRUJLD

,QUHFHQW\HDUVLQWHUHVWKDVJURZQLQWKHFRPSDUDWLYHVWXG\RILPPLJUDWLRQ 2QHPDMRUHͿRUWWROD\WKHJURXQGZRUNIRUV\VWHPDWLFFRPSDUDWLYHDQDO\VLVWKH0L JUDWLRQ,QWHJUDWLRQ3ROLF\,QGH[ MIPEX ZDVGHYHORSHGE\WKH%ULWLVK&RXQFLODQG WKH 0LJUDWLRQ 3ROLF\ *URXS ,W LV GHVLJQHG WR PHDVXUH DQG FRPSDUH LPPLJUDWLRQ SROLFLHVLQ(XURSHDQ8QLRQ (8 PHPEHUVWDWHVSOXV1RUZD\6ZLW]HUODQGWKH86

(3)

and Canada (MIPEX DWWKHQDWLRQDOOHYHO17KDWUHVHDUFKLGHQWLÀHVVHYHQPDMRU SROLF\DUHDVODERUPDUNHWPRELOLW\IDPLO\UHXQLÀFDWLRQHGXFDWLRQSROLWLFDOSDUWLFL SDWLRQORQJWHUPUHVLGHQFHDFFHVVWRQDWLRQDOLW\DQGDQWLGLVFULPLQDWLRQ7KHVKRUW FRPLQJRIWKHLQGH[LVWKDWLWIDLOVWRWDNHLQWRDFFRXQWWKHIDFWWKDWPDQ\RIWKRVHIXQF WLRQVHVSHFLDOO\LQWHUPVRILPSOHPHQWDWLRQDUHXQGHUWKHSXUYLHZRIRUDWOHDVWVKDUHG ZLWKLQWHUPHGLDU\DQGORFDOJRYHUQPHQWVDQGYDU\VLJQLÀFDQWO\EHWZHHQWKHVHXQLWV LQWKHVDPHFRXQWU\,QFUHDVLQJO\LPPLJUDWLRQLVVXHVKDYHFRPHWRWKHIRUHLQWKHSXE OLFFRQVFLRXVQHVVDQGDPRQJGHFLVLRQPDNHUVDWWKHVXEQDWLRQDOOHYHOWKURXJKRXW &DQDGDWKH86(XURSH$IULFD$XVWUDOLDDQG1HZ=HDODQG %\GHÀQLWLRQLPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\LQYROYHVQDWLRQDOJRYHUQPHQWVLQWKHLVVXHRI FLWL]HQVKLSDQGUHVLGHQF\ZKHWKHUSHUPDQHQWRUIRUOLPLWHGWLPHSHULRGVDQGLQFOXGHV HFRQRPLFIDPLO\VRFLDOKXPDQULJKWVUHIXJHHDQGDV\OXPVHHNHUFRQFHUQV2 Inter PHGLDWHDGPLQLVWUDWLRQVOLNHSURYLQFLDOJRYHUQPHQWVDQGVWDWHVDUHLQYROYHGEHFDXVH RIHFRQRPLFDQGHPSOR\PHQWQHHGVUHVLGHQF\²DOOLPPLJUDQWVOLYHLQORFDOMXULVGLF WLRQV²HGXFDWLRQKHDOWKODQJXDJHVRFLDOVHUYLFHVDQGFXOWXUDOLQWHJUDWLRQ,Q&DQDGD SURYLQFHVSDUWLFXODUO\4XHEHFFDQDOVRSOD\DNH\UROHRQWKHVHOHFWLRQVLGH,QWKH86 VWDWHVKDYHYHU\OLWWOHVD\LQWKHVHOHFWLRQRIOHJDOLPPLJUDQWV,QWHUPVRI´LOOHJDOµ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´LQWHJUDWLRQµ 1$XVWUDOLDDQG-DSDQKDYHUHFHQWO\  EHHQDGGHGWRWKHMIPEX. 26ZLW]HUODQGZLWKSHUPDQHQWUHVLGHQF\GHFLGHGDWWKHFDQWRQOHYHODQGFLWL]HQVKLSDWWKHPXQLFLSDOOHYHO LVWKHPRVWQRWDEOHH[FHSWLRQ

(4)

RIQHZLPPLJUDQWVZKLFKUHDFKHVLWVIXOOHVWVXFFHVVZLWKQDWXUDOL]DWLRQ FLWL]HQVKLS  $OWKRXJKVRPHVFKRODUVZRXOGTXHVWLRQWKHXVHRIQDWXUDOL]DWLRQDVWKHHQGSRLQWRI LQWHJUDWLRQLWGRHVSURYLGHDFOHDUO\FRPSDUDWLYHDVVHVVPHQWWRROIRUH[DPLQLQJLP PLJUDWLRQSROLF\,WLVRQHRIWKHNH\YDULDEOHVLQWKHMIPEX,QGH[´DFFHVVWRQDWLRQDOLW\µ 7KLVPHDVXUHLVKLJKO\FRUUHODWHGZLWKWKHRYHUDOOMIPEXUDQNLQJRIDFRXQWU\)RUH[ DPSOHRQWKHRYHUDOOUDWLQJEDVHGRQGLͿHUHQWLQGLFDWRUV DPRQJFRXQWULHVLQWKH MIPEX,,, &DQDGDUDQNVWKLUGRYHUDOODQGWKLUGRQWKH´DFFHVVWRQDWLRQDOLW\µPHD VXUH7KHFRPSDUDEOHUDQNLQJVIRUWKH86DUHQLQWKDQGQLQWK

$VVXJJHVWHGE\WKHMIPEXDSSURDFKWKHVXFFHVVRILPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\GHSHQGV RQWKHQDWXUHDQGTXDOLW\RIWKHOHJDODQGSROLWLFDOIUDPHZRUNDQGJRYHUQPHQWVSRQ VRUHGLQWHJUDWLRQHͿRUWV MIPEX 6WURQJJRYHUQPHQWLQWHUYHQWLRQHͿRUWVDWLQ WHJUDWLRQDUHHPSOR\HGLQWKH&DQDGLDQPRGHO,QWKH86WKHVRFDOOHG´ODLVVH]IDLUHµ DSSURDFKLVSUDFWLFHGZKHUHOLWWOHLIDQ\LQWHJUDWLRQVHUYLFHVDUHSXEOLFO\IXQGHGRU RͿHUHG

%DVHG RQ WKHVH HPSLULFDOO\ VXSSRUWHG DVVXPSWLRQV WKH NH\ RSHUDWLRQDO K\ SRWKHVLVRIWKLVDUWLFOHLVWKDWWKHSROLF\FKRLFHVDYDLODEOHWRDQGPDGHE\SURYLQFHV DQGVWDWHVDUHUHÁHFWHGLQPXOWLSOHZD\VLQWKHUDWHRIVXFFHVVRIWKHLPPLJUDQWSRS XODWLRQ LQWHJUDWLRQDQGFLWL]HQVKLS DQGVLPXOWDQHRXVO\LQWKHDWWLWXGHVDQGLQWHU DFWLRQVEHWZHHQWKHLUUHVSHFWLYHFRXQWULHV

M

OTIVATIONFOR

S

UBNATIONAL

I

NVOLVEMENTIN

I

MMIGRATION

$QXPEHURINH\IDFWRUVKDYHFRQWULEXWHGWRDWUHQGWRZDUGJUHDWHULQYROYHPHQWE\ PHVRXQLWVLQLPPLJUDWLRQ7KHVHLQFOXGHLQFUHDVLQJJOREDOL]DWLRQQHZLQWHUQDWLRQDO ²LQFOXGLQJ FRQWLQHQWDO² WUDGH DJUHHPHQWV WKH RQJRLQJ LPSDFW RI IHGHUDOLVP QD WLRQDOLVPDQGWKHSURFHVVRIGHFHQWUDOL]DWLRQ

*OREDOFRPSHWLWLYHQHVVQRZGLFWDWHVWKDWLQDGGLWLRQWRVRYHUHLJQFRXQWULHVVWDWHV SURYLQFHVDQGFLWLHVPXVWZRUNWRDWWUDFWDQGUHWDLQWKHPRVWFUHDWLYHWDOHQWUHJDUG OHVVRIQDWLRQDORULJLQDQGFXOWXUDODQGOLIHVW\OHSUHIHUHQFHV )ORULGD ,PPL JUDWLRQ SROLF\ GHVLJQHG WR DWWUDFW DQG UHWDLQ WDOHQW DQG LQYHVWPHQW KDV EHFRPH D FULWLFDOFRPSRQHQWRISROLFLHVFDOFXODWHGWRDGGUHVVJOREDOFRPSHWLWLYHQHVV&DQDGD &KLQD,QGLDWKH8.DQGRWKHU(8PHPEHUVDOOKDYHVHULRXVPHULWEDVHGSURJUDPV WRDWWUDFWWKH´EHVWDQGWKHEULJKWHVWµ *DIQHUDQG<DOH/RHKU 6XEQDWLRQDOXQLWV DOORYHUWKHLQGXVWULDOZRUOGDUHZRUNLQJLQYDULRXVZD\VWRHQVXUHWKHLUSRVLWLRQVDV ´JOREDOO\µDWWUDFWLYHDQGKHQFHFRPSHWLWLYHLQWHUPVRIKXPDQUHVRXUFHV)RUH[ DPSOHLQWKH&DQDGLDQFDVHKRZSURYLQFHVVHWWKHLUSULRULWLHVIRUHFRQRPLFGHYHO RSPHQWGLUHFWO\LPSDFWVWKHFRXQWULHVIURPZKLFKWKH\VHHNWRDWWUDFWRUGLVFRXUDJH

(5)

LPPLJUDQWV$FFRUGLQJWRWKH&DQDGLDQPLQLVWHURILPPLJUDWLRQ´7KHSULPHJRDOLV DIDVWDQGÁH[LEOHLPPLJUDWLRQV\VWHPZKRVHSULPDU\IRFXVLVPHHWLQJ&DQDGD·V HFRQRPLFDQGODERXUQHHGVµ CIC NEWS, 2012).

,QWKH86WKHComprehensive Immigration Reform Act proposed as a bipartisan LQLWLDWLYHLQE\WKHQ3UHVLGHQW*HRUJH%XVKZRXOGKDYHFKDQJHG´WKHEDODQFHRI OHJDO LPPLJUDWLRQ DZD\ IURP IDPLO\ UHXQLÀFDWLRQ DQG WRZDUG DGPLWWLQJ (QJOLVK VSHDNLQJLPPLJUDQWVZLWKVSHFLDOL]HGVNLOOVµ &LWULQDQG6LGHV )RUWKHPR PHQWWKH86UHPDLQVIDUEHKLQGLWVFRPSHWLWRUVLQODXQFKLQJFRPSDUDEOHSURJUDPV +RZHYHU VLQFH WKH FRQFOXVLRQ RI WKH UHFHQW SUHVLGHQWLDO HOHFWLRQ DQG WKH JURZLQJ VLJQLÀFDQFHRI+LVSDQLFVDVYRWHUVLPPLJUDWLRQUHIRUPKDVEHHQJLYHQDKLJKSULRUL W\ZLWKWKHVHFRQG2EDPDDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ7KHQHHGWRLQFUHDVHWKHQXPEHURIYLVDV IRUKLJKO\VNLOOHGZRUNHUV +% LVWKHPRVWSROLWLFDOO\DFFHSWHGDVSHFWRIUHIRUP LQWKH86LPPLJUDWLRQV\VWHP2QFHDJDLQKRZHYHULWVHHPVWKDWFRPSUHKHQVLYH LPPLJUDWLRQUHIRUPLQWKH86IDFHVYHU\VLJQLÀFDQWSROLWLFDOKXUGOHV &RQVWLWXWLRQDOLVVXHVDOVRFRPHLQWRSOD\:KLOHLPPLJUDWLRQ HQWU\SHUPDQHQW UHVLGHQFHDQGFLWL]HQVKLS DUHFOHDUO\LQWKHSXUYLHZRIWKHIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQWLQ &DQDGDSRVWDUULYDOIXQFWLRQVVXFKDVODQJXDJHWUDLQLQJKHDOWKFDUHVHWWOHPHQWVR FLDOVHUYLFHVODERUDQGHPSOR\PHQWUHPDLQSURYLQFLDOSUHURJDWLYHV 0F,OUR\ 1RVVDO'XSUDV $OORIWKHSURYLQFHVDQGWHUULWRULHVDUHFRPPLWWHG ´WRZRUNLQJWRJHWKHULQWKUHHSULRULW\DUHDVLPPLJUDWLRQOHYHOVSODQQLQJHFR QRPLFLPPLJUDWLRQDQGVHWWOHPHQWDQGLQWHJUDWLRQRIQHZFRPHUVµ CIC NEWS, 2012). %\ZD\RIFRQWUDVWLQ1RUWK$PHULFDLQ0H[LFRVXFKDFWLYLWLHVDUHFRQVWLWXWLRQDOO\ SURKLELWHGEXWLQFUHDVLQJO\WROHUDWHG 7KH86&RQVWLWXWLRQH[SOLFLWO\PHQWLRQVLPPLJUDWLRQ3DQGWKH866XSUHPH &RXUWKDVUXOHGWKDW$UWLFOH6HFWLRQDVVLJQVWKHQDWXUDOL]DWLRQRIFLWL]HQV DQG KHQFHLPPLJUDWLRQ WRWKHIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQW :KLWH 7KHLQGLYLGXDOVWDWHV KDYHOLWWOHRUQRGLUHFWVD\LQWKHUHFUXLWPHQWRUDFFHSWDQFHRI´OHJDOµLPPLJUDQWV 7KHRQO\DUHDLQZKLFKWKH\KDYHVLJQLÀFDQWLQSXWDQGLQYROYHPHQWLVLQUHIXJHHUH VHWWOHPHQWDQDUHDLQZKLFKWKH\DUHDWOHDVWFRQVXOWHGE\:DVKLQJWRQ5HIXJHHVDQG DV\OXPVHHNHUVKRZHYHUUHSUHVHQWDYHU\VPDOOSRUWLRQRIOHJDOLPPLJUDQWVDGPLW WHGWRWKH867KHSRVLWLYHSRWHQWLDOUROHRIWKHVWDWHVLQWKHVHOHFWLRQRILPPLJUDQWV EDVHGRQHFRQRPLFGHYHORSPHQWDQGODERUQHHGVKDVEHHQODUJHO\XQGHUXWLOL]HG DQG JRYHUQPHQW KHDYLO\ FULWLTXHG E\ WKH EXVLQHVV FRPPXQLW\ DV KLQGHULQJ HFR nomic development.

(6)

T

HE

C

ASESFOR

A

NALYSIS

: Q

UEBECAND

G

EORGIA

,QDQXPEHURILPSRUWDQWZD\V*HRUJLDDQG4XHEHFVKDUHVRPHYHU\LPSRUWDQWFKDU DFWHULVWLFV %RWK LQFOXGH UHODWLYHO\ ODUJH JHRJUDSKLF DUHDV$OWKRXJK 4XHEHF KDV D PXFKJUHDWHUVXUIDFHDUHDWKHVL]HRIWKHSRSXODWHG]RQHVLVIDLUO\VLPLODU*HRUJLD KDVPLOOLRQUHVLGHQWV  ZKLOH4XHEHFKDVPLOOLRQ  %RWKDUHYHU\DF WLYHLQWKHWHFKQRORJ\VHFWRULQLQGXVWULDOSURGXFWLRQDQGDJULFXOWXUH7KHOHYHORI WUDGHEHWZHHQWKHWZRLVFRQVLGHUDEOHZLWK&DQDGDDV*HRUJLD·VODUJHVWWUDGHSDUWQHU DQG4XHEHFLQYROYHGLQDVLJQLÀFDQWSRUWLRQRIWKDW(DFKLVGRPLQDWHGE\DODUJH PHWURSROLWDQUHJLRQ$WODQWDDQG0RQWUHDOUHVSHFWLYHO\ZKHUHURXJKO\KDOIWKHSHR SOHDQGWKHYDVWPDMRULW\RIQHZOHJDOLPPLJUDQWVFKRRVHWRUHVLGH SHUFHQWDQG SHUFHQWUHVSHFWLYHO\ +RZHYHURQWKHLVVXHRIOHJDOLPPLJUDWLRQ*HRUJLDDQG4XH EHFDUHRQGLͿHUHQWWUDMHFWRULHVLQWHUPVRIERWKSROLF\DQGSXEOLFRSLQLRQ7KH\WKHUHIRUH PHHWWKHEDVLFFRQGLWLRQVIRUDJRRGFRPSDULVRQ /LMSKDUW  /HJDOLPPLJUDWLRQWR*HRUJLDDYHUDJHVDERXW D\HDU  LQ WKH ODUJHVWVRXUFHLV$VLDDFFRXQWLQJIRUMXVWRYHUSHUFHQW OHGE\,QGLD&KLQD6RXWK .RUHDDQG9LHWQDPLQWKDWRUGHU 0RUHWKDQIRXURXWRIÀYHQHZIXOO\GRFXPHQWHG LPPLJUDQWVVHWWOHLQWKHJUHDWHU$WODQWDPHWURSROLWDQDUHD7KHVWDWH·VIRUHLJQERUQ LQKDELWDQWVQXPEHUMXVWXQGHUDPLOOLRQRUDERXWSHUFHQWRIWKHWRWDOSRSXODWLRQ +RZHYHURIWKRVHDSSUR[LPDWHO\ DUHXQGRFXPHQWHG +RHIHU5\WLQDDQG %DNHU 8QFRQWUROOHG´XQGRFXPHQWHGµLPPLJUDWLRQKDVEHFRPHWKHGRPLQDQW VRXUFHRIQHZLQWHUQDWLRQDOUHVLGHQWV2YHUDOOWKHVLQJOHODUJHVWLPPLJUDQWJURXSLQ *HRUJLDLVFRPSRVHGRIXQGRFXPHQWHG0H[LFDQZRUNHUVDQGWKHLUIDPLOLHV ,QWKHODVWIHZ\HDUVVHYHUDO86VWDWHVKDYHEHJXQWRSOD\DJUHDWHUUROHLQLP migration vis-à-visWKHXQGRFXPHQWHGEDVHGRQWKHGHOHJDWLRQRILPPLJUDWLRQDX WKRULW\DVVWLSXODWHGLQ6HFWLRQ J RIWKHImmigration and Nationality Act6L[W\ HLJKWODZHQIRUFHPHQWDJHQFLHVLQWZHQW\IRXUVWDWHV %HHNVDQG)U\H KDYH EHFRPHLQYROYHGLQLPSOHPHQWDWLRQLQPDQ\EXWQRWDOOFDVHVLQFROODERUDWLRQZLWK WKHIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQW$QLQGLFDWRURIWKLVLQYROYHPHQWLVWKHIDFWWKDW´LQ VWDWHOHJLVODWXUHVLQVWDWHVHQDFWHGLPPLJUDWLRQUHODWHGODZVDQGUHVROXWLRQVµ $PHULFDQ,PPLJUDWLRQ&RXQFLOQG 9LUWXDOO\DOOWKHVHODZVLQYROYHUHVWULFWLRQV DQGLQVRPHFDVHVSURDFWLYHVWDWHDQGORFDOHͿRUWVWRGHQ\DFFHVVWRVWDWHVHUYLFHV DQGWRDUUHVWDQGGHSRUWXQGRFXPHQWHGLPPLJUDQWV,QWKHVWDWHRI*HRUJLDIRXU FRXQWLHV &REE*ZLQHWW+DOODQG:KLWIRUG FRQWLQXHGWRSDUWLFLSDWHXQWLOWKHSUR JUDPZDVWHUPLQDWHGLQ-XQH6LQFHRYHU SHRSOHLQ*HRUJLDKDYH EHHQGHSRUWHGRUYROXQWDULO\GHSDUWHGXQGHUWKLVSURJUDP7KH6HFXUH&RPPXQL WLHV3URJUDPDQDWLRQDOÀQJHUSULQWGDWDEDVHLVQRZLQXVHLQDOOSULVRQVLQWKH86 LQFROODERUDWLRQZLWKORFDOODZHQIRUFHPHQWR΀FLDOVDQGZLOOUHSODFH J 

(7)

,QWKLVW\SHRIOHJLVODWLRQKLVWRULFDOO\&DOLIRUQLDOHGWKHZD\ZLWKDQWLXQGRFX PHQWHGLPPLJUDQW3URSRVLWLRQZKLFKSDVVHGLQUHIHUHQGXPLQEXWZDV GHFODUHGXQFRQVWLWXWLRQDOWKUHH\HDUVODWHU7KDWODZZRXOGKDYHFXWDOOEHQHÀWVWR WKHXQGRFXPHQWHG +X΀QJWRQ3RVW 0RUHUHFHQWO\RWKHUVWDWHJRYHUQPHQWV KDYHUHVSRQGHGWRWKHODFNRIFRPSUHKHQVLYHLPPLJUDWLRQUHIRUPDQGDSHUFHLYHG LQHͿHFWLYHHQIRUFHPHQWRIH[LVWLQJIHGHUDOODZV7KHQRZLQIDPRXVSBSDVVHGLQ $UL]RQDKDVEHFRPHDPRGHODOWKRXJKDOHJDOO\FRQWHVWHGRQHIRUODZVSDVVHGLQD QXPEHURIRWKHUVWDWHVFXOPLQDWLQJLQUHFHQWUHVWULFWLYHLPPLJUDWLRQOHJLVODWLRQLQ *HRUJLD,QGLDQD$ODEDPD6RXWK&DUROLQDDQG8WDKDQGVLPLODUSURSRVDOVLQQX PHURXVRWKHUVWDWHOHJLVODWXUHV %HHNVDQG)U\H:KLWH 2QWKHRWKHUVLGH RIWKHFRLQLQ2FWREHU&DOLIRUQLDEHFDPHWKHHOHYHQWKVWDWHWRDOORZ´LOOHJDOµ immigrants to obtain drivers licenses.

Table 1

KEY GEORGIA ANTI-IMMIGRATION LAWS Law/Agreement Description

Georgia Security and Immigration Compliance Act

6-percent state withholding tax for 1099 employees who cannot provide a taxpayer ID number; required citizenship verification of state employees and employers with state contracts and sub con-tracts; citizenship verification to establish eligibility for individuals over 18 years of age seeking state services

Memorandum of Understanding with

ICE for 287(g)

Permits local law enforcement agencies to perform immigration enforcement functions in collaboration with ICE; 4 Georgia county

sheriffs, plus the Georgia Department of Public Safety participate; 3 private jails in Georgia hold detainees

SB20 Prohibits “sanctuary” policies by county and municipal govern-ments and agencies (“catch and release”); authorities must deter-mine lawful presence in the U.S. of those stopped for violations Immigration Reform

and Enforcement Act (HB87)

Several provisions similar to Arizona law (SB1070); several pro -visions disallowed by courts (recruitment, transport, “show me your papers”); upheld checks on those stopped or arrested for other issues. Establishes Immigration Enforcement Review Board (IERB) to investigate complaints made by citizens (registered voters only) about non-enforcement by state and local officials

(8)

Q

UEBEC 7KHUROHRISURYLQFHVLQLPPLJUDWLRQLQ&DQDGDVSHDUKHDGHGE\4XHEHFKDVH[ SDQGHGGUDPDWLFDOO\VLQFH:HVKRXOGUHFDOOWKDW&DQDGLDQSURYLQFHVDQGHVSH FLDOO\4XHEHFSOD\DYHU\DFWLYHUROHLQERWKWKHUHFUXLWPHQWDQGVHOHFWLRQSURFHVVHV IRULPPLJUDQWV,Q4XHEHFURXJKO\RQHLQQLQHUHVLGHQWV DERXWWKHVDPHSHUFHQW DJHDVIRU*HRUJLD ZDVERUQRXWVLGHWKHFRXQWU\ FRPSDUHGWRDERXWSHUFHQWIRU &DQDGDDQGSHUFHQWIRUQHLJKERULQJ(QJOLVKVSHDNLQJ2QWDULR 7KLVPD\UHÁHFW WKHIDFWWKDWWKHWRSLPPLJUDQWVHQGLQJFRXQWULHVWR&DQDGDRYHUWKHODVW\HDUV KDYHEHHQ(QJOLVKVSHDNLQJ WKH8.WKH86,QGLDDQG+RQJ.RQJ  *RJLDDQG 6ODGH 4XHEHFVHOHFWVLWVLPPLJUDQWVODUJHO\IURPWKHHFRQRPLFFDWHJRU\  SHUFHQW ZLWKDERXWRQHLQÀYH SHUFHQW IURPWKHIDPLO\UHXQLÀFDWLRQFDWHJRU\ DQGRQHLQ SHUFHQW ZKRKDYHUHIXJHHVWDWXV7KURXJKLWV0LQLVWU\RI,PPLJUD WLRQDQG&XOWXUDO&RPPXQLWLHVDQGXQGHUWKH&DQDGD4XHEHF$FFRUG4XHEHFLV FKDUJHGZLWKSXWWLQJWRJHWKHUDQGXSGDWLQJDVWUDWHJLFÀYH\HDULPPLJUDWLRQSODQ IRUWKHSURYLQFHVHWWLQJSULRULWLHVDERXWFKDUDFWHULVWLFVDQGW\SHVRILPPLJUDQWVGH VLUHGDQGFRRUGLQDWLQJWKHHͿRUWZLWK2WWDZDLQZKDWDPRXQWVWRDQ´DV\PPHWULFDOµ IHGHUDOLVWPRGHO7KHSURYLQFLDOUROHLQWDUJHWLQJLPPLJUDQWVDVSDUWRIWKHEURDGHU HFRQRPLFJURZWKDQGWKHSUHVHUYDWLRQRIFXOWXUDOLGHQWLW\FRQWULEXWHVWRPDNLQJ 4XHEHFDSODFHZKHUHERWKJRYHUQPHQWDQGFLWL]HQVJHQHUDOO\IDYRULPPLJUDWLRQ Table 2

TIMELINE OF QUEBEC’S INVOLVEMENT IN IMMIGRATION Year Accord or Action

1968 Quebec established its own immigration department

1971 The first Canada-Quebec immigration agreement was signed (Lang/Cloutier), allowing Quebec to have representatives in Canadian embassies and to do counseling abroad

1975 The Andras/Bienvenue agreement gave Quebec a part in the selection process, allowing Quebec to do interviews and to make recommendations to visa officers 1978 The Cullen/Couture agreement gave Quebec a say in the selection of immigrants

abroad, allowing Quebec to define its own selection criteria

1991 Gagnon-Tremblay, Rémillard /McDougall Accord builds on this mutual commit-ment; it was the first agreement to give Quebec selection powers in Canada

(9)

Table 3

GAGNON-TREMBLAY/MCDOUGALL CANADA-QUEBEC ACCORD 1991 KEY PROVISIONS

1. This accord relates to the selection of persons who wish to reside permanently or temporarily in Quebec, their admission into Canada, their integration into Quebec society, and the determination of levels of immigration to Quebec.

2. One objective is the preservation of Quebec’s demographic importance within Canada and the integration of immigrants to that province in a manner that respects Quebec’s distinct identity.

3. Canada shall determine national standards and objectives relating to immigration and shall be responsible for the admission of all immigrants and the admission and control of aliens. Canada shall discharge these responsibilities in particular by defin-ing the general classes of immigrants and classes of persons who are inadmissible into Canada, by setting the levels of immigration and the conditions for the granting of citizenship, and by ensuring the fulfillment of Canada’s international obligations. 4. Quebec has the rights and responsibilities set out in this accord with respect to the

number of immigrants destined to Quebec and the selection, reception, and inte-gration of those immigrants.

Source: Government of Canada, Immigration and Citizenship (2011b).

7KHLPSRUWDQFHRILPPLJUDWLRQDWWKHSURYLQFLDOOHYHOLVXQGHUOLQHGE\WKHYHU\ VLJQLÀFDQWLQYHVWPHQWVLQLW$OO&DQDGLDQSURYLQFHVDQGWKHWKUHHWHUULWRULHVKDYH PLQLVWULHVVHUYLFHVGHSDUWPHQWVDQGLQRQHFDVHPEIDFURZQFRUSRUDWLRQWRGHDO ZLWKLPPLJUDWLRQDQGLPPLJUDWLRQUHODWHGLVVXHV6HFWLRQRIWKHConstitution Act LVFLWHGDVOHJLWLPL]LQJWKHVKDULQJRIDXWKRULW\EHWZHHQWKHSURYLQFHVDQGWKHIHG eral government regarding immigration.

,Q&DQDGD4XHEHFOHGWKHZD\HVWDEOLVKLQJXQGHUWKH8QLRQ1DWLRQDOHJRY HUQPHQWRI3UHPLHU'DQLHO-RKQVRQ6UD'HSDUWPHQWRI,PPLJUDWLRQLQ7KLV ZDVDQDUHDRIKLJKSULRULW\IRU4XHEHFSDUWLFXODUO\IRU´VRYHUHLJQLVWVµDVDV\PERO RIQDWLRQKRRG7KHSKLORVRSKLFDOOHJDOMXVWLÀFDWLRQZDVSURYLGHGE\WKH*éULQ/D MRLH'RFWULQHZKLFKDUJXHVWKDWWUHDWLHVVLJQHGE\WKH&DQDGLDQJRYHUQPHQWWKDW LQYROYH SURYLQFLDO IXQFWLRQV FDQ RQO\ EH LPSOHPHQWHG ZLWK WKH DJUHHPHQW RI WKH SURYLQFH)XUWKHUPRUHWKHDUJXPHQWJRHVWKDWSURYLQFHVKDYHWKHULJKWWRHQJDJHLQ LQWHUQDWLRQDO DJUHHPHQWV RI WKHLU RZQ LQ DUHDV RI SURYLQFLDO UHVSRQVLELOLW\ (YHQ WKRXJKWKHIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQWLQ&DQDGDQHYHUUHFRJQL]HGWKH*éULQ/DMRLHGRF WULQHPXFKRILWKDVEHHQLPSOHPHQWHGde facto$VFDQEHVHHQLQ7DEOHDVHULHVRI DJUHHPHQWVEHWZHHQ4XHEHFDQGWKH&DQDGLDQJRYHUQPHQWH[SDQGHGWKHSURYLQ FLDOUROHDQGOHJLWLPDF\LQLPPLJUDWLRQ7KHVHJUDGXDOO\HYROYHGIURPWKHSODFHPHQW RI4XHEHFUHSUHVHQWDWLYHVLQ&DQDGLDQHPEDVVLHVLQWRWKHSURPLQHQWOHDGHUVKLSUROH 4XHEHFKDVSOD\HGLQWKLVSURFHVVVLQFH

(10)

7KH&XOOHQ&RXWXUH$JUHHPHQWRIQHJRWLDWHGXQGHUWKHJRYHUQPHQWRI René/HYHVTXHFRGLÀHGWKHVHULRXVFROODERUDWLYHUROHRI4XHEHFDQG2WWDZDLQWKH LPSOHPHQWDWLRQRILPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\,QWKLVDJUHHPHQWZDVH[SDQGHGDQGD \HDU ODWHU UHSODFHG ZLWK D QHZ LQWHUJRYHUQPHQWDO DFFRUG WKH *DJQRQ7UHPEOD\ 5pPLOODUG0F'RXJDOO$FFRUG 7KLVDJUHHPHQWLQFOXGHVWKHWUDQVIHURIIHGHUDOIXQGV WR4XHEHFIRUWKHLPSOHPHQWDWLRQRILPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\HVSHFLDOO\LQWHJUDWLRQSUR JUDPVIRULPPLJUDQWV7KHDJUHHPHQW·VNH\SURYLVLRQVVKRZ4XHEHF·VFRUHYDOXHV DQGJRDOVLQWHUPVRIWKHVRFLDOFXOWXUDODQGHFRQRPLFUHDOPV7KLVDJUHHPHQWUHPDLQV LQHͿHFWULJKWXSWRWKHSUHVHQWDQGSURYLGHV4XHEHFZLWKDOHDGLQJEXWFROODERUD WLYHUROHLQLPPLJUDWLRQDUROHRQO\SDUWLDOO\VKDUHGE\RWKHUSURYLQFHV)RUH[DPSOH ZKLOHWKHRWKHUSURYLQFHV·DQGWHUULWRULHV·UHSUHVHQWDWLYHVPHWZLWKWKHIHGHUDOJRY HUQPHQWWRZRUNRXWDQHZDJUHHPHQWRQVWUDWHJLFREMHFWLYHVDQGQHZDSSURDFKHV SDUWLFXODUO\WKHQHZ´H[SUHVVLRQRILQWHUHVWµRU EOILQLWLDWLYH 4XHEHF·VPLQLVWHURI LPPLJUDWLRQFKRVHQRWWRDWWHQG7KHEDFNJURXQGHURQWKHPHHWLQJFOHDUO\VWDWHGWKDW WKHDJUHHPHQWGLGQRWLQDQ\ZD\DͿHFWSDVWDJUHHPHQWVRQLPPLJUDWLRQXQGHUWKH &DQDGD4XHEHFDFFRUG 7KHFXUUHQW0LQLVWU\RI,PPLJUDWLRQDQG&XOWXUDO&RPPXQLWLHVLQ4XHEHFHP SOR\VQHDUO\VWDͿDQGKDVIRXURYHUVHDVLPPLJUDWLRQR΀FHV 3DULV+RQJ.RQJ 0H[LFR&LW\DQG%UXVVHOV DQGVHYHQUHJLRQDOR΀FHVWKURXJKRXW4XHEHF)RUPRVW RIWKHSURYLQFHVDFWLYHLQYROYHPHQWLQLPPLJUDWLRQEHJDQLQZLWKWKH´3URYLQ FLDO 1RPLQHH 3URJUDPµ ODXQFKHG LQ FROODERUDWLRQ ZLWK WKH IHGHUDO JRYHUQPHQW 7KDWSURJUDPDOORZVSURYLQFHVWRQRPLQDWHDUHODWLYHO\VPDOOQXPEHURILQGLYLGXDOV IRULPPLJUDWLRQWR&DQDGDEDVHGRQWKHHFRQRPLFDQGVNLOOHGODERUQHHGVWKH\GH WHUPLQH$OO&DQDGLDQSURYLQFHVDUHQRZHPSOR\LQJWKLVPHFKDQLVPZLWKUHYLVLRQV EDVHGRQDQDJUHHPHQWUHDFKHGLQ1RYHPEHU,QDGGLWLRQWR4XHEHFWZRRWKHU SURYLQFHV 2QWDULR DQG $OEHUWD KDYH HOHYDWHG LPPLJUDWLRQ WR PLQLVWHULDO VWDWXV 0RVWRWKHUVKDYHDQR΀FHHPEHGGHGLQDPLQLVWU\ZLWKEURDGHUUHVSRQVLELOLWLHV RIWHQ intergovernmental relations or commerce).

T

HE

I

MPORTANCEOF

P

UBLIC

O

PINIONABOUT

L

EGAL

I

MMIGRATION

&DQDGDLVDQRXWOLHUDPRQJDGYDQFHGLQGXVWULDOQDWLRQVLQWHUPVRIWKHRYHUDOOGH JUHHRIVXSSRUWIRU´H[LVWLQJOHYHOVµRILPPLJUDWLRQ,QWKH86DFRXQWU\ZKRVH LPDJHLVLQH[WULFDEO\OLQNHGZLWKLPPLJUDWLRQ ´:HDUHDQDWLRQRILPPLJUDQWVµ  SXEOLFRSLQLRQOLHVVRPHZKHUHEHWZHHQWKDWLQ&DQDGDDQG:HVWHUQ(XURSHDQQD WLRQVRQWKLVLVVXH$VQRWHG´(XURSHDQVGLVSOD\QHJDWLYHDWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVLPPL JUDQWVLQJHQHUDODQGWRLPPLJUDWLRQLQSDUWLFXODUµ 'DYLGRYDQG0HXOHPDQ 

(11)

5LJKWZLQJDQWLLPPLJUDQWSROLWLFDOSDUWLHVVHHPWREHLQWKHDVFHQGDQF\LQPXFKRI (XURSH IRUH[DPSOHWKH1HWKHUODQGV'HQPDUNHWF $FFRUGLQJWR%ORHPUDDG  ´$ERXWWZRWKLUGVRI&DQDGLDQVIHHOWKDWLPPL JUDWLRQLVDNH\SRVLWLYHIHDWXUHRIWKHLUFRXQWU\µ7KLVVXSSRUWLVTXLWHFRQVLVWHQW DFURVV&DQDGD·VSURYLQFHVLQFOXGLQJ4XHEHF7KHSLFWXUHLVIDUOHVVSRVLWLYHLQ86 $PHULFDQVWDWHVZKHUHLPPLJUDWLRQRQWKHLQSXWVLGHUHPDLQVDOPRVWHQWLUHO\LQ WKHKDQGVRIWKHIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQW,WKDVUHFHQWO\EHFRPHDVDOLHQWLVVXHVLQFH DQGWKHULVHLQFRQFHUQDERXWWKHQXPEHURIXQGRFXPHQWHGLPPLJUDQWV 0HDVXULQJVXSSRUWIRURURSSRVLWLRQWRLPPLJUDWLRQXVLQJVXUYH\UHVHDUFKPHWK RGVFDQEHTXLWHGDXQWLQJ$V-HGZDE  GHPRQVWUDWHGFKDQJLQJWKHLQWURGXFWLRQ WRVRPHFRPPRQO\XVHGLPPLJUDWLRQUHODWHGVXUYH\LWHPVFDQFKDQJHWKHUHVSRQVHV TXLWHVLJQLÀFDQWO\,QVHYHUDOVXUYH\VRI86FLWL]HQVRQO\SHUFHQWDJUHHGWKDWLP PLJUDWLRQKDVDSRVLWLYHHͿHFWRQWKHFRXQWU\ZKLOHLQDUHFHQWPEWVXUYH\SHU FHQWDJUHHGZLWKWKHVWDWHPHQW´LPPLJUDQWVWRGD\VWUHQJWKHQRXUFRXQWU\EHFDXVH RIWKHLUKDUGZRUNDQGWDOHQWVµ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ͿHUHQFHVEHWZHHQ&DQDGDDQG RWKHUDGYDQFHGLQGXVWULDOQDWLRQVRQWKLVLVVXH"7KLVVXSSRUWLVURRWHGLQWKHFRXQWU\·V SHUFHLYHGHFRQRPLFVRFLDOGHPRJUDSKLFDQGKLVWRULFFXOWXUDOGLPHQVLRQV SDUWLFX ODUO\´PXOWLFXOWXUDOLVPµ  5HLW] )RUWLQDQG/RHZHQ  GLVDJJUHJDWHGUH VSRQVHV LQFUHDVHOHYHOUHPDLQWKHVDPHDQGGHFUHDVHOHYHORILPPLJUDWLRQ DQGIRXQG GLͿHUHQW G\QDPLFV DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK VXSSRUW IRU LQFUHDVLQJ RU PDLQWDLQLQJ FXUUHQW OHYHOVRILPPLJUDWLRQDQGIRUHVWDEOLVKLQJUHVWULFWLRQVRQLPPLJUDWLRQ7KHVHGLͿHU HQFHVDUHEDVHGRQHFRQRPLFDQGFXOWXUDOD΀QLW\DQGV\PEROLFSROLWLFVK\SRWKHVHV ,QGLYLGXDOSUHMXGLFHFDPHLQWRSOD\LQH[SODLQLQJWKH´GHFUHDVHWKHOHYHORILPPL JUDWLRQµUHVSRQVHVEXWVKRZHGOLWWOHLPSDFWLQWKHRWKHUV 7KHVHÀQGLQJVQHHGWREHQXDQFHGE\FKDQJHVRFFXUULQJRYHUWLPH$VLQGLFDW HGLQ7DEOH&DQDGLDQVDUHQRZHYHQO\VSOLWRQZKHWKHULPPLJUDWLRQKDVDSRVLWLYH RUDQHJDWLYHHͿHFWRQWKHFRXQWU\ SHUFHQWWRSHUFHQW 7KLVLVVWLOOIDUPRUH SRVLWLYHKRZHYHUWKDQVLPLODUÀQGLQJVLQ(XURSHZKHUHWKRVHVD\LQJWKHLPSDFWLV QHJDWLYHRXWQXPEHUWKRVHVD\LQJLWLVSRVLWLYHE\QHDUO\WZRWRRQH)XUWKHUPRUH 4XpEpFRLVDUHIDUPRUHSRVLWLYHWKDQ&DQDGLDQVDVDZKROH SHUFHQWSRVLWLYHYV

(12)

SHUFHQWQHJDWLYH 6XUSULVLQJO\LQ2QWDULRWKHSURYLQFHZLWKWKHODUJHVWQXPEHU RILPPLJUDQWVWUHQGVDUHPRYLQJLQWKHQHJDWLYHGLUHFWLRQ

Table 4

ATTITUDES TOWARD IMMIGRATION IN THE U.S. AND CANADA Statement in Survey United States

(%) Canada (%) Quebec (%) Georgia (%) Ontario (%) Immigration in the country

should be decreased 35 41 44 48 44

Immigration in the country should be maintained at present levels

42 37 36 32 36

Immigration in the country

should be increased 21 15 11 11 15

Immigration has a positive

effect on the country* 18 39 44 35

Immigration has a negative

effect on the country 57 39 32 42

Not sure of the effect of

immigration on the country 25 22 24 22

* Wording has a dramatic effect on responses to this type of question.

Source: United States (Gallup, 2012); Canada (Angus Reid Public Opinion), Georgia (Carl Vinson Institute of Government, 2006).

6RPHDGGLWLRQDOHYLGHQFHVHHPVWREHFRQVLVWHQWZLWKWKH&DQDGLDQ´H[FHSWLRQ DOLVPµWKHVLV$UHFHQWVWXG\IRXQGVXUSULVLQJO\WKDWKLJKHUOHYHOVRIQDWLRQDOSULGH DUHDVVRFLDWHGZLWKVXSSRUWIRULPPLJUDWLRQLQERWK4XHEHFDQG(QJOLVKVSHDNLQJ &DQDGDZKLOHWKHUHYHUVHLVWKHFDVHLQWKH86 &LWULQDQG:ULJKW /RRNLQJDW )UDQFRSKRQH DQG $QJORSKRQH GDLO\ QHZVSDSHU UHDFWLRQV WR D QHZ JRYHUQPHQW JXLGHGHÀQLQJFLWL]HQVKLSIRUQHZDQGSRWHQWLDOLPPLJUDQWV:LQWHUDQG6DXYDJHDX  IRXQGDFRQYHUJHQFHRIRSLQLRQ7KLVVXJJHVWVFRQVHQVXVDURXQG´FRUHYDO XHVµWKDWJXLGHLPPLJUDWLRQHͿRUWVWKURXJKRXW&DQDGD /LQNHGWRWKHVHFRUH&DQDGLDQYDOXHVLVDVHQVHRIIDLUQHVVHVSHFLDOO\DVLWUHODWHV WRWKHXQGRFXPHQWHG$FFRUGLQJWRDUHFHQW$QJXV5HLGSROO´WKHYLHZVRI&DQDGL DQVRQLOOHJDOLPPLJUDWLRQKDYHKDUGHQHG+DOIRIUHVSRQGHQWV SHUFHQW VLQFH6HSWHPEHU EHOLHYHLOOHJDOLPPLJUDQWVLQ&DQDGDWDNHMREVDZD\IURP&D QDGLDQZRUNHUVµ $QJXV5HLG*OREDO ,QDGGLWLRQRQO\SHUFHQWRIUHVSRQGHQWV

(13)

ZRXOGDOORZLOOHJDOLPPLJUDQWVWRVWD\LQ&DQDGDDQGHYHQWXDOO\DSSO\IRUFLWL]HQ VKLSZKLOHSHUFHQWWKLQNLOOHJDOLPPLJUDQWVVKRXOGEHUHTXLUHGWROHDYHWKHLUMREV DQGEHGHSRUWHGµ $QJXV5HLG*OREDO 7KHVHÀQGLQJVUHJDUGLQJVDQFWLRQVIRU ´LOOHJDOµ LPPLJUDWLRQ VXUSULVLQJO\ DSSURDFK OHYHOV FXUUHQWO\ IRXQG LQ WKH 86 ZKHUHWKHXQGRFXPHQWHGDUHIDUPRUHQXPHURXVDQGLWLVDPRUHVDOLHQWLVVXH 2QWKHQHJDWLYHVLGHWKH´FXOWXUDOD΀QLW\µDUJXPHQWVRIWHQODEHOHG´UHDVRQ DEOHDFFRPPRGDWLRQµFDPHWRWKHIRUHLQ4XHEHFDQGVSUHDGDFURVV&DQDGDDVWKH\ KDYHLQPDQ\:HVWHUQ(XURSHDQFRXQWULHV,QWKHVPDOO4XHEHFPXQLFLSDOLW\ RI+pURX[YLOOHSXEOLFO\UDLVHGWKHLVVXHLQGHDOLQJZLWKLPPLJUDQWVVSHFLÀFDOO\LQ UHODWLRQWRVRPHSHUFHSWLRQVRI0XVOLPDQG6LNKSUDFWLFHV,WLPPHGLDWHO\EHFDPH VDOLHQWDQGUHVXOWHGLQWKHFUHDWLRQRIDSURYLQFLDOFRPPLVVLRQDQGZLGHVSUHDGGH bate and discussion.

7KH/LEHUDOJRYHUQPHQWLQWKH1DWLRQDO$VVHPEO\LQ4XHEHF&LW\SDVVHG%LOO LQUHTXLULQJ0XVOLPZRPHQWRVKRZWKHLUIDFHVLQSXEOLFLQRUGHUWRUHFHLYH JRYHUQPHQWVHUYLFHV$OWKRXJKWKLVZDVTXLWHFRQWURYHUVLDODQGUHJDUGHGE\PDQ\DV DQWL0XVOLPLWKLWDUHVSRQVLYHFKRUGDFURVV&DQDGD,QDQDWLRQDOVXUYH\WKH$Q JXV5HLG*OREDO  UHSRUWHGSHUFHQWDSSURYDORIWKHELOOE\&DQDGLDQV DQG SHUFHQWRI4XHEHFRLV $FFRUGLQJWR4XHEHF·VLPPLJUDWLRQPLQLVWHU´WRZRUNLQWKH 4XHEHFSXEOLFVHUYLFHRUWRUHFHLYHWKHVHUYLFHVRIWKH4XHEHFVWDWH\RXUIDFHKDVWR EHXQFRYHUHGµ7KH&DQDGLDQJRYHUQPHQWIROORZHGVXLWLQ'HFHPEHUZLWKD VLPLODUDGPLQLVWUDWLYHUHJXODWLRQSXWLQWRHͿHFWE\WKHIHGHUDOPLQLVWHURIFLWL]HQ VKLS DQG LPPLJUDWLRQ 1DWLRQDO 3RVW   )XUWKHUPRUH WKH VRFDOOHG &KDUWHU RI 6HFXODULVPEHLQJFRQVLGHUHGE\4XHEHF·V1DWLRQDO$VVHPEO\ZRXOGPDNHLWLOOHJDO IRUJRYHUQPHQWR΀FLDOVWRZHDUUHOLJLRXVV\PEROVZKLOHRQWKHMRE 7KXVHYHQLQRQHRIWKHPRVWZHOFRPLQJRIFRXQWULHVLQWKHZRUOGDWWLWXGHV YDU\FRQVLGHUDEO\GHSHQGLQJRQKRZDQLPPLJUDWLRQLVVXHLVIUDPHGDQGWKHFRQ WH[WDQGWKHQDWXUHRIWKHLPPLJUDWLRQUHODWHGSROLFLHVDWWKHSURYLQFLDOOHYHO,QWKH SULQWPHGLD:LQWHUDQG6DXYDJHDX  QRWHGWKHVHQVHWKDWFRUHFXOWXUHDQGYDOXHV QHHGWREHSURWHFWHGIURPWKH´RWKHUµ0XVOLPVLQSDUWLFXODU7KHFRQWURYHUV\KDV QRWHQWLUHO\GLVDSSHDUHGDQGZDVUDLVHGDJDLQLQ4XHEHF·VSURYLQFLDOHOHFWLRQ FDPSDLJQ7KHGLVFXVVLRQRQFHPRUHEURXJKWWRWKHIRUHWKHLVVXHRIWKHZHDULQJDQG GLVSOD\RIUHOLJLRXVV\PEROVE\JRYHUQPHQWZRUNHUV3DXOLQH0DURLVDWWKHWLPH OHDGHURIWKHRSSRVLWLRQ3DUWL4XpEHFRLV PQ ²QRZOHDGHURIDPLQRULW\JRYHUQPHQW² FRQWHQGHGWKDW4XHEHFLVDVHFXODUVWDWH6KHSURSRVHGDQHZ6HFXODULVP&KDUWHU ´&LYLOVHUYDQWVµVKHDUJXHG´VKRXOGQRWEHDOORZHGWRZHDUµREYLRXVUHOLJLRXVVLJQV VXFKDVWXUEDQV´\DUPXONHVµDQG´KLMDEVµ 6pJXLQDQG&ODUN :KHQDPQ can GLGDWHIRUWKH1DWLRQDO$VVHPEO\'MHPLOD%HQKDELEVWDWHGWKDWWKHFUXFLÀ[RXJKWWR EHUHPRYHGIURPWKH4XHEHFOHJLVODWXUHVKHZDVDWWDFNHGE\WKHPD\RURI6DJXHQD\

(14)

ZKRVDLG4XHEHFRLVVKRXOGQRWEHGLFWDWHGWRE\VRPHRQHIURP$OJHULD%HQKDELE QDUURZO\ORVWWKHHOHFWLRQLQ7URLV5LYLqUHWRD/LEHUDO3DUW\FDQGLGDWH:HGRQRW NQRZKRZPXFKWKLVFRQWURYHUV\FRQWULEXWHGWRWKDWRXWFRPHEXW,ZRXOGVXVSHFW LWKDGDWOHDVWDVPDOOLPSDFW7KHGHEDWHEHFDPHHYHQPRUHKHDWHGZKHQWKHGLVFXV VLRQWXUQHGWRPDNLQJVXUHWKDWQHZLPPLJUDQWVZHUHSUHSDUHGWRDGRSWDQGRU DGDSWWR)UDQFRSKRQH4XHEHFODQJXDJHDQGFXOWXUH,QWKLVWKH&RDOLWLRQIRU4XH EHF·V)XWXUH &RDOLWLRQ$YHQLU4XHEHFRUCAQ)FRQFXUUHGZLWKWKH´3pTXLVWHVµRU PHPEHUVRIWKH3DUWL4Xébecois (PQ). $PRQJWKHPDMRU4XHEHFSDUWLHVWKHUHZDVFRQVLGHUDEOHYDULDWLRQLQWKHHP SKDVLVSODFHGRQLPPLJUDQWV7KHPQSURSRVHGFUHDWLQJDGLVWLQFW4XHEHFFLWL]HQVKLS WKDWZRXOGDSSO\WRDOOFXUUHQWUHVLGHQWVEXWOLPLWLQJDFFHVVWRIXWXUHLPPLJUDQWVWR WKRVHZKRVSHDN)UHQFKDQGNQRZDERXWWKHKLVWRU\FXOWXUHDQGYDOXHVRI4XHEHF )XUWKHUPRUHLWSURSRVHGUHVWULFWLQJDFFHVVWR(QJOLVKPHGLXPJHQHUDODQGYRFDWLRQ al colleges (CEGEPS,RUWKHHTXLYDOHQWRIMXQLRUFROOHJHV IRUQHZFRPHUVWRWKHSURY LQFHDQGQRWDOORZLQJ)UDQFRSKRQH4XHEHFRLVWRVWXG\LQWKHPHLWKHU7KH\ZHQWRQ WRDUJXHLQIDYRURIUHTXLULQJ)UHQFKÁXHQF\IRUDOOFDQGLGDWHVIRUSXEOLFR΀FH %HDX GLQ 2QWKHHFRQRPLFVLGHFRPSDQLHVZLWKIHZHUWKDQHPSOR\HHVKHUHWR IRUHH[FOXGHGIURP%LOOZRXOGQRZEHVXEMHFWHGWR)UHQFKODQJXDJHUHTXLUH PHQWVLQWKHZRUNSODFH 7KHCAQ,DQXSVWDUWVXFFHVVRUWR'HPRFUDWLF$FWLRQ $FWLRQ'HPRFUDWLTXHRU AD VXJJHVWVFXWWLQJEDFNRQWKHQXPEHURILPPLJUDQWVDGPLWWHGDQGVWUHQJWKHQLQJ WKHSURJUDPRI´)UDQFL]DWLRQµLQRUGHUWRSURWHFWWKH)UHQFKODQJXDJH7KH/LEHUDO 3DUW\ ZKLFK DFWLYHO\ VRXJKW WKH VXSSRUW RI ´$OORSKRQHVµ DQ LPPLJUDQW ZKRVH PRWKHUWRQJXHLVQHLWKHU(QJOLVKQRU)UHQFK JHQHUDOO\DYRLGHGWKHLPPLJUDWLRQ GHEDWHH[FHSWIRURͿHULQJJUHDWHUVXSSRUWIRU)UHQFKODQJXDJHSURJUDPVIRUQHZ LPPLJUDQWVDQGWKHGLVVHPLQDWLRQRID´4XHEHFYDOXHVµVWDWHPHQWWRDOODFWXDODQG potential immigrants. 7KH6HSWHPEHUHOHFWLRQVSXWWKHPQLQR΀FHEXWDVDPLQRULW\JRYHUQPHQW ZLWKRQO\RIVHDWVDQGWKHVXSSRUWRIRQO\SHUFHQWRIWKHHOHFWRUDWH$VQRWHG DERYHLWVSURJUDPHPSKDVL]HGVRPHQRWLQVLJQLÀFDQWLPPLJUDWLRQUHODWHGLVVXHV HVWDEOLVKLQJD4XHEHFFLWL]HQVKLSDGGLWLRQDOODQJXDJHWHVWVODQJXDJHUHVWULFWLRQV RQUXQQLQJIRUR΀FHDQGOLPLWVRQDFFHVVWR(QJOLVKODQJXDJHCEGAPV +RZHYHUDV WKHOHDGHURIDPLQRULW\JRYHUQPHQW3DXOLQH0DURLVKDGWRSXWVRPHRIWKHVHSODQV RQKROGRUDWOHDVWPRGLI\WKHPEHIRUHWKH\FRXOGEHSUHVHQWHGWRWKH1DWLRQDO$V VHPEO\7KHCAQDQG/LEHUDO3DUW\OHDGHUVKLSVKDYHDOUHDG\ODEHOHGVHYHUDORI0D URLV·VLPPLJUDWLRQSURSRVDOVDVQRQVWDUWHUV

6RPHDFFRPPRGDWLRQVPD\EHSRVVLEOHIRUWKHPQJRYHUQPHQWLIDQLQIRUPDO DFFRUGFDQEHUHDFKHGZLWKWKHWKLUGSODFHSDUW\CAQ VHDWV ZKLFKDOVRIDYRUV

(15)

VRPHPRGLÀFDWLRQVLQLPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\HVSHFLDOO\UHJDUGLQJODQJXDJHLQWHJUD WLRQDQGQXPEHUV0DURLVDVDVWURQJDGYRFDWHIRU4XHEHFLQGHSHQGHQFHKDVWDONHG DERXWFRQIURQWLQJ2WWDZDDQGGHPDQGLQJPRUHFRQWUROIRU4XHEHFRYHUDYDULHW\RI SROLFLHVLQFOXGLQJLPPLJUDWLRQ7KHHPSKDVLVLVRQVWUHQJWKHQLQJWKH)UHQFKODQ JXDJHFRPSRQHQWIRUDGPLVVLRQDQGWUDLQLQJRILPPLJUDQWV,QDQ2FWREHU SUHVVUHOHDVHWKHQHZPLQLVWHULVTXRWHGDVVD\LQJ´7KLVSUHRFFXSDWLRQLVFRQVLVWHQW ZLWKP\FKDUJHLQLPPLJUDWLRQDVZHOODVODQJXDJH7KHYLWDOLW\DQGTXDOLW\RIWKH )UHQFKODQJXDJHLQFOXGHVWKH´)UDQFL]DWLRQµRIQHZDUULYDOVDQGLVFOHDUO\DSULRULW\ IRUPHµ7KHUHOHDVHRIOLQJXLVWLFGDWDIURPWKHFHQVXVVKRZLQJPL[HGUHVXOWVIRU )UHQFKXVDJHSDUWLFXODUO\LQ0RQWUHDOKDVVSDUNHGQHZGHPDQGVE\WKHPQ to VWUHQJWKHQWKHKLVWRULF%LOO 8QOLNHWKH86&DQDGDHPSOR\VDSRLQWV\VWHPIRUQHZLPPLJUDQWVWKDWHP SKDVL]HVWKHHFRQRPLFDQGODERUQHHGVRIWKHFRXQWU\DQGWKHSURYLQFHV$ERXW SHUFHQWRIDOOQHZLPPLJUDQWVDUHFODVVLÀHGDV´HFRQRPLFLPPLJUDQWVµ7KH\´DSSO\ IRUSHUPDQHQWUHVLGHQFHSDSHUVDQGDUHVHOHFWHGE\&DQDGLDQJRYHUQPHQWVEDVHG RQWKHLUHGXFDWLRQODQJXDJHVNLOOVRFFXSDWLRQDOWUDLQLQJZRUNH[SHULHQFHDQGDJH $QDGGLWLRQDOVPDOOHUJURXSLVFKRVHQEDVHGRQDELOLW\WRLQYHVWLQEXVLQHVVDQGMRE FUHDWLRQµ %ORHPUDDG 2QO\DERXWDTXDUWHUDUHDGPLWWHGEDVHGRQIDPLO\WLHV DQGSHUFHQWDVUHIXJHHV&RQWUDVWWKLVWRWKH86ZKHUHVHOHFWLRQDQGDGPLVVLRQ SROLFLHVDUHDOPRVWWKHH[DFWUHYHUVHGRPLQDWHGE\IDPLO\UHODWLRQVUDWKHUWKDQHFR nomic needs. $VSHUWKHDFFRUGEHWZHHQWKHSURYLQFHRI4XHEHFDQG2WWDZDUHVSRQVLELOLWLHV DUHVKDUHGZLWKWKHIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQW7KH4XHEHF0LQLVWU\RI,PPLJUDWLRQDQG &XOWXUDO$ͿDLUV PDLQWDLQV IRXU RYHUVHDV LPPLJUDWLRQ R΀FHV IRU UHFUXLWPHQW DQG VFUHHQLQJRISRWHQWLDOLPPLJUDQWVDQGVHYHQUHJLRQDOR΀FHVLQ4XHEHFWRDVVLVWQHZ LPPLJUDQWVLQDGDSWLQJDQGIRUORFDOJRYHUQPHQWVWRFRRUGLQDWHWKHLUHPSOR\PHQW QHHGV4XHEHFVHOHFWVLPPLJUDQWVIRUWKHHFRQRPLFFDWHJRU\IRUVRPHLQWKHUHIXJHH FDWHJRU\ RYHUVHDV DQGIRUFHUWDLQKXPDQLWDULDQSXUSRVHV IRUH[DPSOH+DLWLDIWHU WKHHDUWKTXDNH 7KHIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQWGRHVWKHVHOHFWLRQIRUIDPLO\UHXQLÀFDWLRQ DQGDV\OXPVHHNHUV$ERXWWKUHHTXDUWHUVRIDOOLPPLJUDQWVWR4XHEHFDUHVHOHFWHG E\WKHSURYLQFHLVVXHG4XHEHFFHUWLÀFDWHVRIDFFHSWDQFHDQGWKHQDFFRUGHGSHUPD QHQWUHVLGHQWVWDWXVE\WKH&DQDGLDQJRYHUQPHQW)LJXUHVIRUWKHÀUVWVL[PRQWKVRI IRU4XHEHFLQGLFDWHWKDWFRQVLVWHQWZLWKSDVWSUDFWLFHSHUFHQWRILPPLJUDQWV WRWKHSURYLQFHZHUHVHOHFWHGE\4XHEHF7KH\DUHVXEMHFWWRVFUHHQLQJDQGÀQDO DSSURYDOE\WKHIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQWEDVHGRQKHDOWKQDWLRQDOVHFXULW\DQGFULPH UHODWHGLVVXHV1RQHWKHOHVVWKHRYHUZKHOPLQJPDMRULW\RIWKRVHVHOHFWHGE\4XHEHF DUHDGPLWWHG7KHQXPEHUVIRUWKLV\HDUFRQWLQXHWRVXUSDVVH[SHFWDWLRQVZLWK RYHU DGPLWWHG7KHGHPDQGUHPDLQVKLJKDQGGRHVQRWDSSHDUWRKDYHEHHQ

(16)

DͿHFWHGE\WKHLQWHUQDOFKDUWHURIVHFXODULVPGHEDWHV 'H&RXUF\FLWHGLQThe Cana-GLDQ3UHVV, 2013). $IWHUDVHULHVRISXEOLFKHDULQJVFRQGXFWHGE\LWV0LQLVWU\RI,PPLJUDWLRQWKH 4XHEHFJRYHUQPHQWHVWDEOLVKHGJRDOVIRUWKHSODQWKDWLQFOXGHHFRQRPLF TXDOLÀFDWLRQV SHUFHQW UHODWLYH\RXWK SHUFHQWXQGHUWKHDJHRI UHSUH VHQWDWLRQRIGLYHUVHZRUOGUHJLRQVDQGWKHDELOLW\WRVSHDNRUDWOHDVWKDYHVRPHH[ SHULHQFHZLWKDQGXQGHUVWDQGLQJRI)UHQFK DWOHDVWSHUFHQW $ERXWSHUFHQWRI QHZLPPLJUDQWVDUH)UHQFKVSHDNLQJDWVRPHOHYHODQGDOOQHZLPPLJUDQWVDUHH[ SHFWHGWRPDVWHU)UHQFKDIWHUDUULYLQJ$VQRWHGDERYHWKHSURYLQFHLVVXHVDFHUWLÀFDWH RIDFFHSWDQFH VHOHFWLRQ WRWKRVHZKRPHHWWKHLUFULWHULDDQGWKLVLVFRPPXQLFDWHG WRWKHIHGHUDOLPPLJUDWLRQVHUYLFHLQ2WWDZD7KHPLQLVWU\DOVRFRQWUDFWVZLWKQRQ SURÀ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´WKHLQWURGXFWLRQRIDPDQGD WRU\DVVHVVPHQWRIHGXFDWLRQDOFUHGHQWLDOVµ 4XHEHF,PPLJUDWLRQ 7KLVODVW UHTXLUHPHQWLVGHVLJQHGWRHOLPLQDWHIUDXGDQGWRDVVLVWZLWKHPSOR\PHQWSODFHPHQW ZKHUHSURIHVVLRQDOFUHGHQWLDOHTXLYDOHQFHLVHVWDEOLVKHG7KLVVHHPVWREHYHU\FRQ VLVWHQWZLWK4XHEHF·VEURDGSROLF\JRDOV+RZHYHUXQGHUWKHFXUUHQWPQ government, 4XHEHFFKRVHQRWWRSDUWLFLSDWHLQDPHHWLQJRIWKHIHGHUDODQGSURYLQFLDOLPPLJUD WLRQPLQLVWHUV$WWKLVPHHWLQJWKHPLQLVWHUVXQDQLPRXVO\DSSURYHGPDMRUFKDQJHV LQSROLF\GHVLJQHGWRVWUHDPOLQHDQGH[SHGLWHLPPLJUDQWVHOHFWLRQ,WZLOOHPSOR\DQ ´H[SUHVVLRQRILQWHUHVWµDSSURDFKWRWKHUHFUXLWPHQWDQGDFFHSWDQFHRIQHZLPPL JUDQWVXQGHUWKH)HGHUDO6NLOOHG:RUNHUV3URJUDP%DVHGRQDVLPLODUV\VWHP ODXQFKHGLQ1HZ=HDODQGDQGPRUHUHFHQWO\LQ$XVWUDOLDWKLVDSSURDFKZLOOEHLP SOHPHQWHGE\WKHIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQWDQGDOOSURYLQFLDOJRYHUQPHQWVH[FHSW4XH EHFLQ7KLVSROLF\PRYHVLQWKHGLUHFWLRQRIJUHDWHUFHQWUDOFRQWUROLQ2WWDZD DQGOHVVDXWRQRP\IRUWKHSURYLQFHV4XHEHFKRZHYHUZLOOQRWEHDͿHFWHGDQGZLOO FRQWLQXHWRRSHUDWHXQGHULWVH[LVWLQJDJUHHPHQWZLWK2WWDZD &,&1HZV  4XHEHFKDVKRZHYHUDGRSWHGEDVLFDOO\WKHVDPHH[SUHVVLRQRILQWHUHVWPRGHOIRU LWVRZQXVH

(17)

G

EORGIAAND

I

MMIGRATION

,QWHUHVWLQLPPLJUDWLRQLVVXHVUHDFKHGDIHYHUSLWFKLQ*HRUJLDLQIROORZLQJWKH DUUHVWRID.HQQHVDZ6WDWH8QLYHUVLW\VWXGHQW-HVVLFD&RORWORQDPLQRUWUD΀FYLR ODWLRQ7KLVXQGRFXPHQWHGGHDQ·VOLVWVWXGHQWEURXJKWWR*HRUJLDE\KHUSDUHQWVDW age 11, became a national cause célqbreIRUERWKWKHDQWLLPPLJUDQWDQGWKHSUR'UHDP $FWJURXSV:LWKDVHPHVWHUWRJRWRJUDGXDWHVKHIDFHGWKHSURVSHFWVRIGHSRUWD WLRQWR0H[LFR6KHZDVHYHQWXDOO\JUDQWHGDRQH\HDUGHOD\E\ICEEXWZDVIRUFHGWR VHUYHDEULHIMDLOVHQWHQFHIRUGULYLQJZLWKRXWDOLFHQVH7KLVKLJKO\SXEOLFL]HGLQFL GHQW DQG WKH YLUXOHQW UHVSRQVH E\ 7HD 3DUW\ LGHRORJXHV OHG ULJKWZLQJ ²DQG HYHQ VRPHPRUHPRGHUDWH²5HSXEOLFDQODZPDNHUVWRSXVKIRUDGGLWLRQDOUHVWULFWLRQVRQ VWDWHVHUYLFHVWRXQGRFXPHQWHGLPPLJUDQWVDQGSDVVDJHRIDQ$UL]RQDW\SHLPPL gration bill. $OWKRXJKRSLQLRQRQLPPLJUDWLRQLQWKH86LVJHQHUDOO\OHVVSRVLWLYHWKDQLQ &DQDGDSHUFHSWLRQVRILPPLJUDQWVLQGLͿHUHQWVWDWHVDQGUHJLRQVYDU\FRQVLGHUDEO\ 6XUYH\86$ +RZHYHU86$PHULFDQVWHQGWRVHHOLWWOHLQWKHZD\RIHFR QRPLFRUVRFLDOEHQHÀWVIURPLPPLJUDWLRQDQGULJKWO\RUZURQJO\YLHZLWDVDPDMRU drain on local resources.

7R WKLV PL[ ZH QHHG WR DGG WKRVH ZLWKRXW OHJDO GRFXPHQWDWLRQ DXWKRUL]LQJ WKHLUVWD\LQWKHFRXQWU\,VVXHVVXUURXQGLQJXQGRFXPHQWHGLPPLJUDQWVKDYHEH FRPHH[WUHPHO\VDOLHQWDQGKLJKO\SROLWLFL]HG7KHVKHHUPDJQLWXGHRIWKH´LOOHJDO LPPLJUDQWµSRSXODWLRQLQ*HRUJLD HVWLPDWHGDW  RIZKRPKHOGMREV LQ FRXSOHGZLWKWKHOLQJXLVWLFFXOWXUDODQGFODVVGLͿHUHQFHVWKHXQGRFXPHQWHG LPPLJUDQWVUHSUHVHQWOHDGPDQ\*HRUJLDQVDQG*HRUJLDODZPDNHUVWRVXSSRUWDQ $UL]RQDW\SHODZWRFRQWUROLW 7KH6XSUHPH&RXUWUHFHQWO\VWUXFNGRZQWKUHHRIWKH$UL]RQDODZ·VIRXUPDMRU SURYLVLRQVDQGE\H[WHQVLRQWKRVHRI*HRUJLD·VDQWLLOOHJDOLPPLJUDWLRQODZV´7KH ÀYHMXVWLFHPDMRULW\ZDVTXLWHFOHDUWKDWWKHIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQWKDVWRWDODXWKRULW\ RYHULPPLJUDWLRQODZDQGWKDWVWDWHVFDQDVVLVWRQO\WRWKHGHJUHHWKDWWKHIHGHUDO JRYHUQPHQWDOORZVWKDWDVVLVWDQFH7KHFRXUWEDVHGLWVUXOLQJLQSDUWRQWKHIHGHUDOJRY HUQPHQW·VFOHDUORQJVWDQGLQJDXWKRULW\RQPDWWHUVRIIRUHLJQSROLF\,WLVIXQGDPHQ WDOWKDWIRUHLJQFRXQWULHVFRQFHUQHGDERXWWKHVWDWXVVDIHW\DQGVHFXULW\RIWKHLU QDWLRQDOVLQWKH8QLWHG6WDWHVPXVWEHDEOHWRFRQIHUDQGFRPPXQLFDWHRQWKLVVXE MHFWZLWKRQHQDWLRQDOVRYHUHLJQQRWWKHVHSDUDWHVWDWHVµ-XVWLFH$QWKRQ\.HQQH G\ZURWHIRUWKHPDMRULW\ ABA NOW DQG-XVWLFH6FDOLDZKRZRXOGKDYHXS

KHOGDOOIRXUSURYLVLRQVLQWKHODZZURWHDVWURQJGLVVHQW7KHFRXUWDOVRUXOHGWKDW

(18)

IHGHUDOR΀FLDOVKDYHH[FOXVLYHGLVFUHWLRQDERXWGHFLGLQJKRZ²DQGHYHQZKHWKHU² WRGHSRUWWKRVHZKRDUHLQWKHFRXQWU\LOOHJDOO\ ABA Now, 2012).

7KHLPSRUWDQWSURYLVLRQOHIWVWDQGLQJDQGWKDWDSSOLHVLQ*HRUJLDUHTXLUHVSR OLFHWRFKHFNWKHLPPLJUDWLRQVWDWXVRIWKRVHVWRSSHGRUDUUHVWHGIRURWKHUUHDVRQV,W LVVWLOOEHLQJFRQWHVWHGDVGLVFULPLQDWRU\1RWFKDOOHQJHGLQWKHFRXUWVKRZHYHULV WKH FUHDWLRQ LQ WKH ELOO LQ *HRUJLD RI WKH ,PPLJUDWLRQ (QIRUFHPHQW 5HYLHZ %RDUG (IERB &RPSRVHGRIVHYHQPHPEHUVDSSRLQWHGE\WKHJRYHUQRUWKH IERBDOORZVFLWL ]HQV²UHJLVWHUHGYRWHUVRQO\²WREULQJFRPSODLQWVDJDLQVWVWDWHDJHQFLHVDQGORFDO JRYHUQPHQWVIRUQRQHQIRUFHPHQWRI(9HULI\IRUHPSOR\HHVDQGFRQWUDFWRUV´VDQF WXDU\FLWLHVµXVLQJWKHVRFDOOHG´FDWFKDQGUHOHDVHµSROLF\DQGSURYLVLRQRISXEOLF EHQHÀWVIRUWKHXQGRFXPHQWHG7KHERDUGFRPSRVLWLRQ VHYHQZKLWHPHQZLWKOLP LWHGNQRZOHGJHDQGRUQRLPPLJUDWLRQUHODWHGH[SHULHQFH DQGIXQFWLRQVDUHEHLQJ TXHVWLRQHGE\LPPLJUDQWDGYRFDF\DQGFLYLOOLEHUWLHVJURXSV6HYHUDOFDVHVKDYHDO UHDG\EHHQEURXJKWWRWKHERDUGE\DQWLLPPLJUDQWDFWLYLVWV,QWHUHVWLQJO\DUHFHQW DXGLWGLVFRYHUHGWKDWWKHVWDWH·V'HSDUWPHQWRI$JULFXOWXUHKDGIDLOHGWRLPSOHPHQW WKH(9HULI\SURYLVLRQRIVWDWHODZXQWLOWKHHQGRI *HRUJLDOLNHDOO86VWDWHVKDVDOPRVWQROHJDOFRQWURORYHUWKHOHYHORILPPL JUDWLRQDQGWKHVHOHFWLRQRILPPLJUDQWVWRWKH86RUWKHVWDWH86LPPLJUDWLRQ SROLF\SODFHVDKLJKSUHPLXPRQIDPLO\VSRQVRUVKLSDQGIDPLO\UHXQLÀFDWLRQ2I WKHMXVWRYHURQHPLOOLRQ   OHJDOLPPLJUDQWVWRWKH86LQSHUFHQW ZHUHHLWKHUIDPLO\VSRQVRUHGRULPPHGLDWHIDPLO\(PSOR\PHQWEDVHGSUHIHUHQFHV OLQNHGWRHFRQRPLFGHYHORSPHQW (% DFFRXQWIRURQO\SHUFHQWDQGUHIXJHHV DQGDV\OXPVHHNHUVDQGSHUFHQWUHVSHFWLYHO\7KHRQO\LPPLJUDWLRQSURJUDPWKDW DOORZVVWDWHJRYHUQPHQWVWRGHFLGHKRZPDQ\QHZFRPHUVZLOOFRPHWRWKHVWDWHHDFK \HDULVUHIXJHHVHWWOHPHQW+RZHYHUWKLVVWDWHEDVHGDJUHHPHQWRQO\DSSOLHVWRWKH QXPEHUVDQGFRXQWU\RULJLQVRIUHIXJHHVDPRQJWKHEURDGHULPPLJUDQWJURXS2QFHLQ WKH86UHIXJHHVKDYHWKHULJKWWRUHORFDWHZKHUHYHUWKH\ZLOODOWKRXJKPRVWGXHWR VHUYLFHSURYLVLRQVUHPDLQLQWKHVKRUWWHUPZKHUHWKH\KDYHEHHQSODFHG 5HFUXLWPHQWRILPPLJUDQWVZLWKVSHFLDOVNLOOVWKDWPHHWWKHVWDWH·VRUQDWLRQ·V HFRQRPLFGHYHORSPHQWQHHGVUHSUHVHQWVDYHU\VPDOOSRUWLRQRIQHZLPPLJUDQWV $ORQJZLWKWKHWHPSRUDU\QRQLPPLJUDQWYLVD +% LWLVOHIWLQWKHKDQGVRISUL YDWHFRPSDQLHVODZ\HUVDQGXQLYHUVLWLHVDQGQRWFRQWUROOHGE\WKHVWDWHV$QXPEHU RISULYDWHÀUPVVSHFLDOL]LQJLQLPPLJUDQWYLVDVDQGSODFHPHQWKDYHVSUXQJXSRYHU WKH\HDUV7KH\DUHUHTXLUHGWRUHJLVWHUZLWKWKHVWDWHRI*HRUJLD%\ZD\RIFRQWUDVW LQ  ´&DQDGD DGPLWWHG PRUH HPSOR\PHQWEDVHG LPPLJUDQWV WKDQ WKH 8QLWHG 6WDWHVµ *DIQHUDQG<DOH/RHKU 7KH%XVKDGPLQLVWUDWLRQVXSSRUWHGWKHCom-prehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007ZKLFKLQFOXGHGDSRLQWV\VWHPWKDWZRXOG KDYHLQFUHDVHGWKHHPSKDVLVRQEULQJLQJLQKLJKO\VNLOOHGZRUNHUV,QWKHFKDUJHG

(19)

SROLWLFDOFOLPDWHUHJDUGLQJ´LOOHJDOµLPPLJUDWLRQDQGZLWKWKHHOHFWLRQVFRPLQJLW IDLOHGWRSDVVHLWKHUKRXVH (YHQZKHQGHDOLQJZLWKOHJDOLPPLJUDQWVWKHVWDWHRI*HRUJLDSURYLGHVOLPLWHG VHUYLFHVDQGWKRVHRQO\WRWKDWVPDOOSHUFHQWDJHRILPPLJUDQWVFODVVLÀHGDVUHIXJHHV 7KHVHUHIXJHHVHUYLFHVDUHÀQDQFHGE\WKHIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQWZKLFKUHLPEXUVHVWKH VWDWH*HRUJLDWKURXJKLWV'LYLVLRQRI)DPLO\DQG&KLOGUHQ6HUYLFHVDQGZLWKVXS SRUWIURPWKHIHGHUDOO\IXQGHG5HIXJHH5HVHWWOHPHQW3URJUDPDQGDQXPEHURISUL YDWH YROXQWDU\ DJHQFLHV SURYLGHV UHIXJHHV ZLWK QHFHVVDU\ VHUYLFHV VXFK DV SXEOLF KHDOWK WKURXJKORFDOFRXQW\KHDOWKVHUYLFHV MREVHDUFKHV(QJOLVKODQJXDJHLQVWUXF WLRQ XQGHUFRQWUDFWZLWKWZRSXEOLFMXQLRUFROOHJHV DQGDYDULHW\RIRWKHUVHUYLFHV GHVLJQHGWRPDNHWKHPVHOIVX΀FLHQWDQGSURGXFWLYH *HRUJLD*RYHUQPHQW  $OORWKHUOHJDOLPPLJUDQWV RYHUSHUFHQWRIWKHWRWDOLQ*HRUJLD PXVWUHO\RQ QRQSURÀWVDQGORFDOFRPPXQLW\RUJDQL]DWLRQVIRUKHOSRUSD\RQHRIWKHUHJLVWHUHG SULYDWHLPPLJUDWLRQFRPSDQLHVRUXQLYHUVLWLHVRͿHULQJIHHGULYHQLQWHQVLYH(QJOLVK SURJUDPV:HKDYHWRUHPHPEHUWKDWXQOLNH4XHEHFDQG&DQDGDWKHVWDWH·VKXPDQ UHVRXUFHQHHGVLQWHUPVRILPPLJUDWLRQDUHDOPRVWWRWDOO\RXWVLGHLWVFRQWURO )RUWKHXQGRFXPHQWHGWKHVLWXDWLRQLVHYHQOHVVZHOFRPLQJ$VWKHSUHVHQFHRI /DWLQRVJUHZLQ1RUWK*HRUJLDDQGWKHPHWUR$WODQWDDUHDVWDWHFRXQW\DQGORFDO JRYHUQPHQWVHQDFWHGODZVUXOHVDQGUHJXODWLRQVWKDWOLPLWDFFHVVWRSXEOLFVHUYLFHV GHQ\GULYHU·VOLFHQVHVDQGUHVWULFWSXEOLFVSDFHXVHGIRUGD\ODERUHUVDVZHOODVFRO ODERUDWHGZLWKICEWRLGHQWLI\DQGGHSRUWWKHXQGRFXPHQWHG /DF\DQG2GHP  7KH*HRUJLD&RGH OGCA UHTXLUHV´YHULÀFDWLRQRI/DZIXO3UHVHQFHZLWKLQWKH 86µDVDFRQGLWLRQIRUUHFHLYLQJPRVW´SXEOLFEHQHÀWVµH[FHSWIRUFHUWDLQKHDOWK DQGHGXFDWLRQDOVHUYLFHVPDQGDWHGE\WKHIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQW%RWK*HRUJLD+RXVH DQG6HQDWHELOOVGHVLJQHGWRGHQ\XQGRFXPHQWHGLPPLJUDQWVDFFHVVWRWKH*HRUJLD 8QLYHUVLW\6\VWHPIDLOHGWRSDVV+RZHYHUWKH%RDUGRI5HJHQWVKDVLQHͿHFWVH YHUHO\FRQVWULFWHGWKHLUDGPLVVLRQDQGGUDPDWLFDOO\LQFUHDVHGWKHLUFRVWV)RUH[DP SOHXQGRFXPHQWHGVWXGHQWVHYHQLIWKH\JUDGXDWHGIURPD*HRUJLDSXEOLFVFKRRO PXVW SD\ RXWRIVWDWH WXLWLRQ ZKLFK LV DOPRVW WKUHH WLPHV WKDW RI LQVWDWH WXLWLRQ 86  SHU DFDGHPLF \HDU FRPSDUHG WR 86  WR DWWHQG WKH 8QLYHUVLW\ RI Georgia (UGA Admissions, 2012).

2QWKHSRVLWLYHVLGHVFKRROV\VWHPVKDYHEHHQYHU\DFWLYHLQDGDSWLQJWKHLUSUR JUDPVWRWKHQHHGVRIWKHLPPLJUDQWFRPPXQLW\&KXUFKHVSDUWLFXODUO\WKH&DWKROLF &KXUFKSOD\DVLJQLÀFDQWUROHLQSURYLGLQJVRFLDOVHUYLFHVDQGVXSSRUWZKLFKLVOHJDOO\ GHQLHGWRWKHXQGRFXPHQWHGE\SXEOLFLQVWLWXWLRQV6RPHHOHPHQWVRIWKHSULYDWH VHFWRUDUHDOVRTXLWHVXSSRUWLYHEXWEHKLQGWKHVFHQHV3ROLWLFLDQVLQ*HRUJLDDUHKDUG SUHVVHGWRUHVLVWWKHLQWHQVHSUHVVXUHSXWRQWKHPE\H[WUHPHULJKWZLQJDQWLLPPL JUDQWJURXSV+RZHYHUWKH\DUHDOVRFRJQL]DQWRIWKHQHHGVRIWKHEXVLQHVVDQGDJUL

(20)

FXOWXUDOFRPPXQLWLHVDQGWKHUROHRILPPLJUDQWVLQWKHHFRQRPLFGHYHORSPHQWRIWKH UHJLRQDQGVWDWH 2GHPDQG/DF\ 3XEOLFO\SXVKLQJIRUULJRURXVODZVZKLOH SULYDWHO\ H[SHFWLQJ OD[ RU VHOHFWLYH HQIRUFHPHQW KDV EHFRPH WKH QRUP IRU VRPH PRGHUDWHSROLWLFLDQVDVWDQFHVRPHKDYHODEHOHG´DZLQNDQGDQRGµ 0D΀WW  7KHSULYDWHVHFWRUSDUWLFXODUO\WKHFDUSHWLQGXVWU\SRXOWU\SURGXFHUVDQGIDUP HUVKDYHEHHQYHU\SURDFWLYHLQUHFUXLWLQJDQGDWWUDFWLQJZRUNHUVODUJHO\IURP0H[ LFRDQG&HQWUDO$PHULFDWRÀOOWKHLUUHVSHFWLYHLQGXVWULHV·ODERUQHHGV+LVWRULFDOO\ ZKLWHVÁHHLQJ$SSDODFKLDIRUEHWWHUMREVKDGIXOÀOOHGWKHVHQHHGV*URZWKLQGHPDQG DQGWKHJHQHUDWLRQDOGHFOLQHDPRQJZKLWHVLQIROORZLQJWKHLUSDUHQWVLQWRWKHIDFWR ULHVQHFHVVLWDWHGDVHDUFKIRUDQHZVRXUFHRIUHOLDEOHODERU 2GHP=~xLJDDQG +HUQiQGH]/HyQ ,QWHUPVRIWKHFDUSHWLQGXVWU\ +HUQiQGH]/HyQDQG=úñi JD=~xLJDDQG+HUQiQGH]/HyQ5XVVDNRͿ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´GRFXPHQWVµDQGWKHHPSOR\HUV·ZLOOLQJQHVVWR DFFHSWWKHPSURGXFHGDJURZLQJÁRZRIXQGRFXPHQWHGZRUNHUVWRWKHVWDWH$O WKRXJKORFDOSROLWLFLDQVLQFOXGLQJ*HRUJLD·VFXUUHQWJRYHUQRU²DWWKHWLPHDFRQ JUHVVPDQ²H[SORLWHGWKHDQJVWRIORQJWLPHZKLWHUHVLGHQWVOLWWOHRIVXEVWDQFHZDV GRQHWRDͿHFWWKHVLWXDWLRQZKLOHPRVWRIWKHJURZWKRIWKHLPPLJUDQWSRSXODWLRQ WRRNSODFH+HQFHODERUUHFUXLWPHQWWRRNDYHU\GLͿHUHQWWXUQLQ*HRUJLDWKDQZDV WKHFDVHLQ4XHEHF

(21)

Table 5

COMPARISON OF QUEBEC’S AND GEORGIA’S IMMIGRANT POLICIES

Quebec Georgia

Constitutional responsibility Joint, province and federal Federal-minor role for the state Number of legal

immigrants annually

52 000 provincial primarily 28 000, totally federal, except refugees

Undocumented immigrants 25 000, approximately 450 000, approximately Legal enforcement Federal-Canada Border

Services Agency (CBSA)

Federal (ICE) plus state and local police in some localities; sec tion of the Immigration and Na tio nality Act; and Secure Com mu nities Program Recruitment effort 3 overseas offices, 7 regional

offices in Quebec

None formally; economic dev elop-ment; some refugee group se tion; international students Recruitment criteria Point system-Quebec

certification-language, economic, age

Federal govt. family reuni fica tion; regional representation, lottery Economic immigration Dominant form (69%) Relatively minor (13%) Family reunification Important but secondary

(20%)

Dominant form (65%)

Refugees Modest (10%) Modest, but state involved (16%)

Main source countries Morocco, Algeria, China, France, Haiti

India, China, South Korea, Viet-nam

Support for immigrants’ language

Quebec sponsors for all immigrants, French language

State covers English for refugees only; PVO/NGO, church support Support for immigrants’

health

Quebec government Refugees only-federal support,

PVO/NGO, church support Support for immigrants’

family services

All immigrants- Quebec government + NGOs

Refugees only-federal support,

PVO/NGO, church support Support for immigrants’

integration

All immigrants- Quebec government + NGOs

Federal and NGOs, church Integration of values All immigrants- Quebec govt

+ NGOs, includes Quebec Values document

Federal and NGOs, U.S. Amer ican history and government exam Subnational government

organization

Ministry of Immigration and Cultural Communities (>1 600 staff)

Department of Family Services, Secretary of State

Temporary work and education visas

Quebec Federal

(22)

T

HE

K

EY

D

EPENDENT

V

ARIABLE

:

N

ATURALIZATIONAND

R

ETENTIONOF

I

MMIGRANTS

.H\PHDVXUHVRIWKHVXFFHVVRILPPLJUDWLRQSURJUDPVLQFOXGHWKHOHYHODQGUDWHRI QDWXUDOL]DWLRQ FLWL]HQVKLS 2IWKHMIPEXPHDVXUHVUHODWHGWRQDWXUDOL]DWLRQ´DFFHVV WRQDWLRQDOLW\µ&DQDGDDQGWKH86ERWKUDQNTXLWHKLJK&DQDGDLVWKLUGDPRQJWKH 31 MIPEXFRXQWULHVZLWKDVFRUHRIEHKLQGRQO\3RUWXJDODQG6ZHGHQZKLFKVFRUH  DQG  UHVSHFWLYHO\ 7KH 86 FRPHV LQ DW VHYHQWK IRU WKH DFFHVVWRQDWLRQDOLW\ PHDVXUHZLWKDVFRUHRI:KHQZHORRNDWWKHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQWKHRYHUDOO VFRUHRIHDFKRIWKHFRXQWULHVLQWKHMIPEXGDWDEDVHDQGWKHDFFHVVWRQDWLRQDOLW\ PHDVXUHWKHFRUUHODWLRQLVH[WUHPHO\KLJK U Q  VKRZLQJWKDWWKLVPHDVXUH DORQHDFFRXQWVIRUPXFKRIWKHYDULDWLRQLQWKHMIPEX score (R2  7KXVLWFDQEH DUJXHGWKDWLWLVUHODWLYHO\PRUHLPSRUWDQWWKDQDQ\RIWKHRWKHUPHDVXUHVLQFOXGHG

Naturalization rates among documented immigrants in Georgia are consistent ZLWKOHYHOVWKURXJKRXWWKH86EXWIDUEHORZWKRVHLQ4XHEHFDQG&DQDGD,Q RYHU  000 immigrants became naturalized citizens in Georgia. Remember, legal LPPLJUDQWVWR*HRUJLDDUHSUHGRPLQDWHO\$VLDQDJURXSWKDWJHQHUDOO\KDVDKLJK QDWXUDOL]DWLRQUDWH/DWLQRVRQWKHRWKHUKDQGHVSHFLDOO\0H[LFDQVKDYHORZQDWX UDOL]DWLRQUDWHVEXWWKHUHDUHUHODWLYHO\IHZ´GRFXPHQWHGµ0H[LFDQLPPLJUDQWVLQ *HRUJLD ²RU PRVW RWKHU VRXWKHUQ VWDWHV IRU WKDW PDWWHU 5HWHQWLRQ UDWHV WKRVH UH PDLQLQJLQWKHVWDWHDIWHUQDWXUDOL]DWLRQ RIOHJDOLPPLJUDQWVWR*HRUJLDDUHKDUGWR SLQGRZQEXWWKHOHYHODSSHDUVWREHTXLWHKLJKHVSHFLDOO\LQWKH$WODQWDPHWURSROL WDQDUHDZKHUHPRVWQHZLPPLJUDQWVWRWKHVWDWHVHWWOH

&DQDGD KDV RQH RI WKH KLJKHVW DQG PRVW UDSLG UDWHV RI QDWXUDOL]DWLRQ RI DQ\ FRXQWU\LQWKHZRUOG,QWHJUDWLRQSURJUDPVDUHVXSSRVHGWRWHDFKQHZLPPLJUDQWV DERXW&DQDGDLWVKLVWRU\YDOXHVDQGFXOWXUH,QIDFWWKLVLVHPSKDVL]HGLQDOOSURY LQFHVH[FHSW4XHEHF,Q4XHEHFWKHKLVWRU\FXOWXUHDQGYDOXHVRI4XHEHFDUHWDXJKW EXWOLWWOHDWWHQWLRQLVSDLGWR&DQDGD,WLVLQWHUHVWLQJWRQRWHWKDWGHVSLWHWKLVDUHFHQW VXUYH\LQ4XHEHFIRXQGWKDWRYHUQLQHLQWHQUHFHQWLPPLJUDQWV SHUFHQWRI)UDQ FRSKRQHVDQGSHUFHQWRIQRQ)UDQFRSKRQHV ´VD\WKH\DUHDWWDFKHGWR&DQDGDµ /HJHU0DUNHWLQJ 7KLVFRPSDUHVWRSHUFHQWIRU2QWDULR7KHFRQFOXVLRQGUDZQ E\WKHDXWKRUVRIWKDWVWXG\LVWKDWLPPLJUDQWVWR4XHEHFUHJDUGOHVVRIOLQJXLVWLF SUHIHUHQFH RYHUZKHOPLQJO\ LGHQWLI\ ZLWK &DQDGD UDWKHU WKDQ 4XHEHF )XUWKHU PRUHQDWXUDOL]DWLRQUDWHVLQ4XHEHF SHUFHQW DUHQRWVLJQLÀFDQWO\GLͿHUHQWIURP WKRVHLQ2QWDULR SHUFHQWWKHKLJKHVWSURYLQFLDOUDWH RULQ&DQDGDDVDZKROH SHU cent) (CIC 7KLVLVDWOHDVWLQSDUWDVVRFLDWHGZLWKWKHIDFWWKDWDGPLQLVWUDWLYHO\ DFFHVVWRFLWL]HQVKLSLQ&DQDGDLVDPRQJWKHOHDVWEXUGHQVRPHDPRQJDGYDQFHGLQ dustrial countries (MIPEXOECD $VDUHVXOWRIWKRVHZKRKDYHLPPLJUDWHG

(23)

WR&DQDGDWKHQDWXUDOL]DWLRQUDWHDIWHUWR\HDUVLVSHUFHQWZKLOHWKHFRPSD UDEOHUDWHLQWKH86LVRQO\SHUFHQW$IWHU\HDUVUHVLGHQFHWKHUDWHVLQFUHDVHWR SHUFHQWIRU&DQDGDDQGSHUFHQWIRUWKH867KLVLVFRQVLVWHQWZLWKWKHDUJX PHQWWKDWHDVHRIQDWXUDOL]DWLRQLVDFULWLFDOIDFWRU ,QDGGLWLRQKRZHYHUZHQHHGWRORRNDWWKHLPPLJUDQWVXSSRUWVHUYLFHVSUR YLGHGDVDFRQWULEXWLQJIDFWRUWRLQWHJUDWLRQ&DQDGD·VVLJQLÀFDQWLQYHVWPHQWLQLQWH JUDWLRQSURJUDPVFOHDUO\FRQWULEXWHVWRLWVVXFFHVV2QWKHLQWHUFXOWXUDOHGXFDWLRQ PHDVXUH&DQDGDVFRUHVDUDQNLQJLWWKLUGZKLOHWKH86ZLWKDVFRUHRILVLQ WKHERWWRPKDOIRIWKHMIPEXFRXQWULHVRQWKLVPHDVXUH,QWKH86WKHJHQHUDOODFNRI LQWHJUDWLRQVHUYLFHVVLJQLÀFDQWO\VORZVGRZQWKHUDWHRIQDWXUDOL]DWLRQDQGGHOD\VLW XQWLOODWHULQOLIHIRUPDQ\LPPLJUDQWV 7KHUHWHQWLRQUDWHVRILPPLJUDQWVZKRVHWWOHLQ4XHEHFDUHGL΀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

C

ONCLUSIONS

,PPLJUDWLRQSROLF\KDVEHFRPHDYHU\VDOLHQWLVVXHIRUERWKVWDWHVDQGSURYLQFHVLQ WKH8QLWHG6WDWHVDQG&DQDGD,HPSOR\WZRGLͿHUHQWDSSURDFKHVWRDQDO\VLVRIWKLV LVVXH)LUVW,H[DPLQHWKHFURVVQDWLRQDOTXDQWLWDWLYHMIPEXLQGH[WRLGHQWLI\WKH EURDGUDQJHRILVVXHVDQGPHDVXUHVWKDWLPSDFWDQGGHÀQHWKHLPPLJUDWLRQIDFWRUV QDWLRQDOO\7KHQ,HPSOR\FDVHVWXGLHVRIWKHSURYLQFHRI4XHEHFDQGWKHVWDWHRI

(24)

*HRUJLDWRFDSWXUHVRPHRIWKHEURDGUDQJHRIYDULDWLRQLQLPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\DWWKH VXEQDWLRQDO RUPHVR OHYHO $WRQHHQGRIWKHVSHFWUXP4XHEHFLVDEOHWRSOD\DQLPSRUWDQWUROHDWYLUWXDOO\ HYHU\VWHSRIWKH&DQDGLDQLPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\SURFHVV&DQDGD·VIHGHUDOJRYHUQPHQW FKHFNVDQGFHUWLÀHVDOOLPPLJUDQWVLQWHUPVRIQDWLRQDOVHFXULW\FOHDUDQFHVEXWE\LQ WHUJRYHUQPHQWDODJUHHPHQWOHDYHVDOPRVWHYHU\WKLQJHOVHWR4XHEHF3ODQQLQJDQG SULRULWL]LQJLQWHUPVRIHFRQRPLFGHYHORSPHQWQHHGVUHFUXLWPHQWVHOHFWLRQLQWHJUD WLRQVHUYLFHV LQFOXGLQJODQJXDJH´)UDQFL]DWLRQµ DQGWDUJHWLQJRIQHHGHGVNLOOVHWV DUHDOOGRQHSURYLQFLDOO\ OHVVVRE\SURYLQFHVRWKHUWKDQ4XHEHF $SRLQWV\VWHPHP SKDVL]LQJHFRQRPLFQHHGVHGXFDWLRQODQJXDJHDELOLW\DQGUHODWLYH\RXWKRISRWHQWLDO LPPLJUDQWVLVLQSODFH(FRQRPLFLPPLJUDWLRQLVWKHGRPLQDQWEXWQRWWKHRQO\W\SH 3XEOLFRSLQLRQRQOHJDOLPPLJUDWLRQGHVSLWHVRPHUHVHUYDWLRQVDVVRFLDWHGZLWK ´UHDVRQDEOHDFFRPPRGDWLRQµDQGVHFXODUYDOXHVKDVEHHQDQGUHPDLQVYHU\IDYRU DEOHWRLPPLJUDWLRQ,QIDFW&DQDGDLVDQRXWOLHUDPRQJLQGXVWULDOFRXQWULHVLQWHUPV RIRSLQLRQRQLPPLJUDWLRQ4XHEHFÀWVLQWRWKDWEURDGO\SRVLWLYHJHQHUDOO\IDYRU DEOHUDQJHRIRSLQLRQWRZDUGLPPLJUDQWVDQGLPPLJUDWLRQ 2QWKHRWKHUHQGRIWKHVSHFWUXPLVWKHVWDWHRI*HRUJLD DQGRWKHU86VWDWHV  *HRUJLD·VUROHDQGLQÁXHQFHRYHUOHJDOLPPLJUDWLRQSROLF\SDUWLFXODUO\RQWKHLQSXW VLGHLVPLQLPDO7KHVWDWHKDVQRVD\LQWKHVHOHFWLRQQXPEHUTXDOLÀFDWLRQVRULQWH JUDWLRQRILPPLJUDQWVH[FHSWIRUWKHVPDOOFDWHJRU\RIUHIXJHHV)RUUHIXJHHVDQGDV\ OXPVHHNHUV*HRUJLDOLNHRWKHUVWDWHVLVFRQVXOWHGEHIRUHUHIXJHHVDUHVHWWOHGDQGLW SDUWLFLSDWHVZLWKIHGHUDOVXSSRUWLQSURYLGLQJDYDULHW\RILQWHJUDWLRQVHUYLFHV +RZHYHUWKHSROLF\GLVFRQQHFWLVWKDWWKHYDVWPDMRULW\RI*HRUJLD·VUHFHQWLP PLJUDQWVDUHXQGRFXPHQWHG7KLVKDVEHFRPHDYHU\VDOLHQWLVVXHUHVXOWLQJLQWKH VWDWHDQGYDULRXVORFDOLWLHVEHFRPLQJLQYROYHGLQHͿRUWVWRGHWDLQDQGGHSRUW´LOOH JDOVµ7KLVLVGHVSLWHWKHFOHDUHFRQRPLFLQWHUHVWVRIVHYHUDORI*HRUJLD·VLPSRUWDQW LQGXVWULHVWKDWUHO\KHDYLO\RQWKHVHZRUNHUV'XHWRWKHYLUXOHQFHRIVRPHVHJPHQWV RIWKHDQWLLPPLJUDQWSRSXODWLRQPRVWVWDWHVHUYLFHVLQFOXGLQJKLJKHUHGXFDWLRQDUH EHLQJGHQLHGWRWKHXQGRFXPHQWHG(YHQIRU´OHJDOµLPPLJUDQWVVWDWHLQYROYHPHQW LQVHUYLFHSURYLVLRQLVPLQLPDODQGGRHVQRWSUHVHQWDIULHQGO\IDFH 7KHFRPSDUDWLYHVWXG\RILPPLJUDWLRQLVDUHODWLYHO\QHZDUHDDQGPRVWRIWKH UHVHDUFKKDVFRQFHQWUDWHGRQWKHQDWLRQVWDWHDVWKHXQLWRIDQDO\VLV7KHMIPEX index ZDVGHVLJQHGDQGLVEHLQJHPSOR\HGIRUMXVWWKDWSXUSRVHDWWKHQDWLRQDOOHYHO7KHUH LVQRWKLQJFRPSDUDEOHDWWKHLQFUHDVLQJO\LPSRUWDQW´PHVRµ LQWHUPHGLDWH OHYHO 7KHMIPEXGDWDIDLOWRWDNHLQWRDFFRXQWWKHWUHPHQGRXVYDULDWLRQVZLWKLQFRXQWULHV )XUWKHUPRUHWKHLQGH[GRHVQRWHͿHFWLYHO\GLͿHUHQWLDWHEHWZHHQLQGHSHQGHQWDQG GHSHQGHQWYDULDEOHV,QWKLVSDSHU,FKRVHWRPHDVXUHWKHVXFFHVVRILPPLJUDWLRQ SROLF\ P\GHSHQGHQWYDULDEOH LQWHUPVRIWKHUDWHRIQDWXUDOL]DWLRQDQGUHWHQWLRQRI

(25)

LPPLJUDQWV 'RLQJ VR SURYLGHV XV ZLWK HPSLULFDO HYLGHQFH RI WKH FRQWULEXWLRQ RI JRYHUQPHQWLQWHJUDWLRQHͿRUWVLQQDWXUDOL]DWLRQRXWFRPHVDQGLVPLUURUHGE\WKH YHU\GLͿHUHQWUDWHVRIQDWXUDOL]DWLRQLQ*HRUJLDDQG4XHEHF,IZHDUHWRXQGHUWDNHD VHULRXVFRPSDUDWLYHHͿRUWWRDVVHVVWKHUHODWLYHVXFFHVVRILPPLJUDWLRQSURJUDPV ZHQHHGWREHDEOHWRHYDOXDWHLPPLJUDQWLQWHJUDWLRQZKHUHLWRFFXUVDWWKHVXEQD WLRQDOOHYHO7KDWLVDSURFHVVWKLVDUWLFOHDLPVWRFRQWULEXWHWR

B

IBLIOGRAPHY ABA NOW  $PHULFDQ%DU$VVRFLDWLRQ&RPPLVVLRQRQ,PPLJUDWLRQ1RYHPEHU AMERICAN IMMIGRATION COUNCIL

QG ´6WDWH,PPLJUDWLRQ/HJLVODWLRQµ,PPLJUDWLRQ3ROLF\&HQWHUZZZLPPLJUD WLRQSROLF\RUJ

ANGUS REID GLOBAL

 ´&DQDGLDQV$UH'LYLGHGRQWKH$FWXDO(ͿHFWRI,PPLJUDWLRQµ-DQXDU\ ZZZDQJXVUHLGJOREDOFRPSROOVFDQDGLDQVDUHGLYLGHGRQWKHDF WXDOHͿHFWRILPPLJUDWLRQ.

2010 ZZZDQJXVUHLGJOREDOFRPLVVXHLPPLJUDWLRQ. BEAUDIN, MONIQUE

 ´:KDW4XHEHF·V3DUWLHV$UH2ͿHULQJLQWKH(OHFWLRQµMontreal Gazette, Sep tember 2.

BEEKS, JAMES, and TONY FRYE

 ´$&DVH6WXG\RI$UL]RQD·V3HWLWLRQWRWKH866XSUHPH&RXUWDQGWKH8QLQ WHQGHG,PSDFWRI,PPLJUDWLRQ/DZV3DVVHGE\*HRUJLDµSDSHUSUHVHQWHGDW WKHWK$QQXDO6RXWKHDVWHUQ,PPLJUDWLRQ&RQIHUHQFH.HQQHVDZ*HRUJLD 2FWREHU

BLOEMRAAD, IRENE

 ´8QGHUVWDQGLQJ &DQDGLDQ ([FHSWLRQDOLVPµ LQ  ,PPLJUDWLRQ DQG 3OXUDOLVP 3ROLF\0LJUDWLRQ3ROLF\,QVWLWXWHKWWSZZZPLJUDWLRQSROLF\RUJ

(26)

THE CANADIAN PRESS

 ´4XHEHF3ODQVWR7DNHLQ)HZHU,PPLJUDQWVµ2FWREHU CARL VINSON INSTITUTEOF GOVERNMENT

2006 3HDFK6WDWH3ROO

CIC (CITIZENSHIPAND IMMIGRATION CANADA)

2013 KWWSZZZFLFJFFD(1*/,6+,1'(;$63 CICNEWS

 ´)HGHUDO 3URYLQFLDO *RYHUQPHQWV 5HDFK $JUHHPHQW RQ )XWXUH &DQDGLDQ ,PPLJUDWLRQ 6\VWHPµ KWWSZZZFLFVQHZVFRP DFFHVVHG 'HFHPEHU  2012.

CITRIN, JOHNSTON, and JOHN SIDES

 ´,PPLJUDWLRQ DQG WKH ,PDJLQHG &RPPXQLW\ LQ (XURSH DQG WKH 8QLWHG 6WDWHVµ3ROLWLFDO6WXGLHVYROQRSS

CITRIN, JOHNSTON, and MATTHEW WRIGHT

2012 ´'R3DWULRWLVPDQG0XOWLFXOWXUDOLVP&ROOLGH"&RPSHWLQJ3HUVSHFWLYHVIURP WKH86DQG&DQDGDµ&DQDGLDQ-RXUQDORI3ROLWLFDO6FLHQFHYROQR SS

DAVIDOV, ELDAD, and BART MEULEMAN

 ´([SODLQLQJ$WWLWXGHVWRZDUGV,PPLJUDWLRQ3ROLFLHVLQ(XURSHDQ&RXQWULHV 7KH5ROHRI+XPDQ9DOXHVµJournal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 38, QRSS

DUPRAS, DANIEL

 ´NAFTA ,PSOHPHQWDWLRQ DQG WKH 3DUWLFLSDWLRQ RI WKH 3URYLQFHVµ 2WWDZD 3DUOLDPHQWDU\5HVHDUFK%UDQFKEDFNJURXQGSDSHU3URYLGHGE\WKHR΀FHRI WKHNAFTA6HFUHWDULDWLQ2QWDULR

FAIR (FEDERATIONFOR AMERICAN IMMIGRATION REFORM)

 ´*HRUJLD 3ROO 'DWDµ KWWSZZZIDLUXVRUJIDFWVVWDWHVSROOB*$, ZZZ IDLUXV.org, 2010 state polls.

(27)

FLORIDA, RICHARD

 The Rise of the Creative Class1HZ<RUN%DVLF%RRNV FORTIN, JESSICA, and PETER LOEWEN

 ´3UHMXGLFH DQG $V\PPHWULFDO 2SLQLRQ 6WUXFWXUHV 3XEOLF 2SLQLRQ WRZDUG ,PPLJUDWLRQLQ&DQDGDµSDSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH&DQDGLDQ3ROLWLFDO6FLHQFH Association meeting, :LQQLSHJ-XQH

GAFNER, CHRIS, and STEPHEN YALE-LOEHR

 ´$WWUDFWLQJWKH%HVWDQGWKH%ULJKWHVW$&ULWLTXHRIWKH&XUUHQW86,PPL JUDWLRQ6\VWHPµFordham Urban Law JournalYROSS

GEORGIA CODE

2011 OGCA7LWOH&KDSWHUZZZOH[LVQH[LVFRP GEORGIA GOVERNMENT

 5HIXJHH5HVHWWOHPHQW*HRUJLD'HSDUWPHQWRI)DPLO\DQG&KLOGUHQ6HUYLFHV ZZZGIFVGKVJHRUJLDJRYUHIXJHHUHVHWWOHPHQW

GERIN-LAJOIE, PAUL

 Combats d’un révolutionnaire tranquille0RQWUpDO&HQWUHeGXFDWLIHW&XOWXUHO GOGIA, NUPUR, and BONNIE SLADE

2011 About Canada Immigration+DOLID[)HQZRRG3XEOLVKLQJ GOVERNMENTOF CANADA, IMMIGRATIONAND CITIZENSHIP

2011a KWWSZZZFLFJFFDHQJOLVKGHSDUWPHQWODZVSROLF\DJUHHPHQWVTXH EHFFDQTXHJXLGHDVS.

2011b KWWSZZZPLVFJRXYTFFD. HERNÁNDEZ-LEÓN, RUBÉN, and VÍCTOR ZÚÑIGA

 ´0H[LFDQ,PPLJUDQW&RPPXQLWLHVLQWKH6RXWKDQG6RFLDO&DSLWDO7KH&DVH RI'DOWRQ*HRUJLDµSouthern Rural SociologyYROQR

HIEBERT, DANIEL

 ´:LQQLQJ/RVLQJDQG6WLOO3OD\LQJWKH*DPH7KH3ROLWLFDO(FRQRP\RI,P PLJUDWLRQLQ&DQDGDµ7LMGVFKULIWYRRU(FRQRPLVFKHHQ6RFLDOH*HRJUDÀHYRO QR )HEUXDU\ SS

(28)

HOCKING, BRIAN

 ´3DWUROOLQJWKH¶)URQWLHU·*OREDOL]DWLRQ/RFDOL]DWLRQDQGWKH¶$FWRUQHVV·RI 1RQFHQWUDO*RYHUQPHQWVµLQ)UDQFLVFR$OGHFRDDQG0LFKDHO.HDWLQJHGV 3DUDGLSORPDF\LQ$FWLRQ)RUHLJQ5HODWLRQVRI6XEQDWLRQDO*RYHUQPHQWV/RQGRQ )UDQN&DVV3XEOLVKHUV

HOCKING, BRIAN, ed.

 Foreign Relations and Federal States/RQGRQ/HLFHVWHU8QLYHUVLW\3UHVV HOEFER, MICHAEL, NANCY RYTINA, and BRIAN BAKER

 ´(VWLPDWHV RI 8QDXWKRUL]HG ,PPLJUDQW 3RSXODWLRQ 5HVLGLQJ LQ WKH 8QLWHG 6WDWHV-DQXDU\µ2΀FHRI,PPLJUDWLRQ6WDWLVWLFV'HSDUWPHQWRI+RPH ODQG6HFXULW\0DUFK HUFFINGTON POST 2012 August 20. JEDWAB, JACK  ´8VHVDQG$EXVHVRI3XEOLF2SLQLRQ6XUYH\LQJRQ,VVXHVRI,GHQWLW\µMe-tropolis3RZHU3RLQWSUHVHQWDWLRQZZZOH[LVQH[LVFRP, November 20. LACY, ELAINE, and MARY ODEM

 ´3RSXODU$WWLWXGHVDQG3XEOLF3ROLFLHV6RXWKHUQ5HVSRQVHVWR/DWLQR,PPL JUDWLRQµ LQ 0DU\ 2GHP DQG (ODLQH /DF\ HGV Latino Immigrants and the 7UDQVIRUPDWLRQRIWKH866RXWK$WKHQV*HRUJLD8QLYHUVLW\RI*HRUJLD3UHVV LIJPHART, AREND  ´&RPSDUDWLYH3ROLWLFVDQGWKH&RPSDUDWLYH0HWKRGµ$PHULFDQ3ROLWLFDO6FL-ence ReviewYROQR 6HSWHPEHU SS MAFFITT, KENNETH  ´)URP¶WKH%LJ:LQN·WRWKH%LJ5HEXͿ7KH5LVHRI*HRUJLD·V,PPLJUDWLRQ (QIRUFHPHQW&RPSOH[µSDSHUXQGHUUHYLHZIRUSXEOLFDWLRQ0LJUDWLRQ,QWH JUDWLRQ3ROLF\,QGH[ MIPEX). MCILORY, JAMES P.  ´NAFTA

(29)

MIPEX 0LJUDWLRQ,QWHJUDWLRQ3ROLF\,QGH[ 2012 ZZZPLSH[HX 2010 ZZZPLSH[HX NATIONAL POST  'HFHPEHU NOSSAL, KIM R.

 7KH 3ROLWLFV RI &DQDGLDQ )RUHLJQ 3ROLF\ UG HGLWLRQ 6FDUERURXJK 2QWDULR 3UHQWLFH+DOO&DQDGD

ODEM, MARY

 ´/DWLQR,PPLJUDQWVDQGWKH3ROLWLFVRI6SDFHLQ$WODQWDµLQ0DU\2GHPDQG (ODLQH/DF\HGV/DWLQR,PPLJUDQWVDQGWKH7UDQVIRUPDWLRQRIWKH866RXWK, $WKHQV*HRUJLD8QLYHUVLW\RI*HRUJLD3UHVVSS

ODEM, MARY, and ELAINE LACY

 /DWLQR,PPLJUDQWVDQGWKH7UDQVIRUPDWLRQRIWKH866RXWK$WKHQV*HRUJLD 8QLYHUVLW\RI*HRUJLD3UHVV

PEW RESEARCH, CENTERFORTHE PEOPLEANDTHE PRESS

 ´3XEOLF6HHV863RZHU'HFOLQLQJDV6XSSRUWIRU*OREDO(QJDJHPHQW6OLSVµ $PHULFD·V3ODFHLQWKH:RUOG'HFHPEHUKWWSZZZSHRSOHSUHVVRUJ VHFWLRQYLHZVRIWUDGHDQGWKHJOREDOHFRQRP\ n.d. ZZZSHRSOHSUHVVRUJ. REITZ, JEFFREY 2011 3URLPPLJUDWLRQ&DQDGD,5336WXG\ZZZLUSSRUJ. RUSSAKOFF, DALE  ´86%RUGHU7RZQ0LOHVIURPWKH%RUGHU *HRUJLD·V¶&DUSHW&DSLWDO· 5HOLHVRQ,PPLJUDQWVµ:DVKLQJWRQ3RVW-XO\

SÉGUIN, RHEAL, and CAMPBELL CLARK

 ´5HDVRQDEOH$FFRPPRGDWLRQ 5HOLJLRQ &RPH WR WKH )RUH LQ 4XHEHF (OHF WLRQµGlobe and Mail$XJXVW

Figure

Updating...

References

Updating...

Related subjects :