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midterm review - ecology, biochem, transport, energy

Name: Date:

1. An extinct animal called a mammoth is shown below.

Which statement is an observation about the mammoth?

A. The mammoth was related to the elephant.

B. The mammoth was a slow-moving animal.

C. The mammoth's tusks were used for protection.

D. The mammoth's tusks were curved and pointed.

2. Which process will most likely lead to the scienti c acceptance of a hypothesis?

A. duplicating the results of an experiment B. revising the original hypothesis

C. developing a theory based on the data D. changing the experimental procedures

3. Examine the population curves for wolves and moose in the graph below.

Which statement correctly describes the population relationship between the wolves and moose from 1968 to 1973?

A. As the moose population increased the wolf population increased.

B. As the moose population increased the wolf population decreased.

C. As the wolf population decreased the moose population decreased.

D. As the wolf population increased the moose population decreased.

4. All living things contain which element?

A. helium B. sodium

C. copper D. carbon

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5. Plants and animals are composed of organic compounds. Which of the following are the common elements found in organic compounds?

A. iron, oxygen, nickel, copper B. sodium, potassium, gold, hydrogen C. helium, neon, argon, krypton D. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

6. There are many di erent enzymes located in the cytoplasm of a single cell. How is a speci c enzyme able to catalyze a speci c reaction?

A. Di erent enzymes are synthesized in speci c areas of the cytoplasm.

B. Most enzymes can catalyze many di erent reactions.

C. An enzyme binds to a speci c substrate (reactant) for the reaction catalyzed.

D. Enzymes are transported to speci c substrates (reactants) by ribosomes.

7. What types of monomers form proteins?

A. Glucose B. Nucleotides

C. Amino acids D. Polyatomic ions

8. The structural formula of cellulose is shown.

Which phrase correctly describes cellulose?

A. A polymer made of glucose B. A branched form of sucrose C. A disaccharide

D. A simple sugar

9. Use the pictures below to answer the question.

Which shows the correct order from simplest to most complex?

A. Cell ! Tissue ! Organ

B. Organ ! Tissue ! Cell

C. Cell ! Organ ! Tissue

D. Tissue ! Organ ! Cell

(3)

10. Which statement about plant and animal cells is true?

A. Both have a cell wall to give them support.

B. Both have a large vacuole to store water.

C. Both use mitochondria to produce energy.

D. Both use chloroplasts to store energy.

11. Use this diagram to answer the question.

What is the main purpose of the mitochondria shown by the arrow?

A. cell reproduction B. cellular digestion C. energy production D. protein manufacture

12. The diagram below represents a fat molecule.

A fat molecule belongs to which category of organic molecules?

A. proteins B. lipids

C. nucleic acids D. carbohydrates

13. Many plants have waxy coatings on some surfaces.

This coating reduces water loss because it is not water-permeable. This waxy coating is which of the following types of organic molecule?

A. carbohydrate B. lipid C. nucleic acid D. protein

14. Some bacteria contain a substance called nitrogenase. Nitrogenase catalyzes the chemical reaction that converts atmospheric nitrogen (N

2

) into ammonia (NH

3

). Nitrogenase is an example of which of the following?

A. a sugar B. an enzyme

C. a nucleotide D. an amino acid

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15. Which of the following categories of organic molecules is correctly paired with one of its functions?

A. nucleic acids—digest dead cells B. lipids—give quick energy to cells C. carbohydrates—store genetic information D. proteins—provide structure in skin, hair, and

nails

16. Which of the following is the main reason that humans need to include carbohydrates in their diet?

A. Carbohydrates are broken down in cells for energy.

B. Carbohydrates combine to form many di erent proteins.

C. Carbohydrates act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions.

D. Carbohydrates are the building blocks for cell growth and repair.

17. Which of the following best describes the composition of a nucleotide?

A. a pair of six-carbon rings attached to each other

B. a carbon atom joined to hydrogen and three functional groups

C. a chain of carbon atoms with a carboxyl group bonded to one end

D. a ve-carbon sugar attached to a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base

18. All organisms have ways to produce ATP. Which of the following statements describes why ATP is a critical compound for all cells?

A. It causes mitosis to begin.

B. It is an energy-transfer molecule.

C. It is a major component of cell membranes.

D. It carries information from DNA to the ribosomes.

19. In the human body, brinogen is necessary for sealing cuts and stopping the loss of blood. Since

brinogen is made of chains of amino acids, it is an example of which type of organic molecule?

A. carbohydrate B. protein

C. fatty acid D. nucleic acid

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20. In pure water, a red blood cell from an animal will swell and burst, but a leaf cell from a plant will not. Which structure in the leaf cell is responsible for this di erence?

A. cell membrane B. cell wall C. mitochondrion D. nucleus

21. The graph below shows how the activity of an enzyme changes over a range of pH values.

Enzyme Activity

Which of the following conclusions is supported by the data?

A. The optimum pH of the enzyme is 6.6.

B. The optimum pH of the enzyme is 5.8.

C. The enzyme's activity is greater around pH 8.0 than around pH 5.0.

D. The enzyme's activity continually increases as

pH increases from 5.0 to 9.0.

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22. A potato core was placed in a beaker of water as shown in the gure below.

Which diagram best represents the net movement of molecules?

A. B.

C. D.

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23. Which of the following organelles use carbon dioxide to produce sugars?

A. vacuoles B. ribosomes

C. chloroplasts D. mitochondria

24. The following question(s) is/are based on the following situation and data table.

A laboratory technician places red blood cells into three di erent solutions. Observations are recorded each minute for ve minutes.

Which of the following best explains what is causing the red blood cells in solution 1 to change size over the ve-minute period?

A. Solvent is entering the cells faster than it is leaving the cells.

B. Solute is entering the cells faster than it is leaving the cells.

C. The cells are making new protein.

D. The cell's membranes are dissolving.

25. Depending on its electric charge, shape, and chemical properties, a substance may or may not be allowed to pass through a cell membrane.

This function of the cell membrane is important

because it .

A. prevents cell division

B. prevents destruction of the cell wall C. allows the cell to maintain homeostasis D. allows amino acids to move into and out of

the cell

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26.

Before After

The diagram shows a plant cell before and after it is placed in a solution. After the cell is placed in the solution, it changes shape.

Which table shows the initial concentration of solute in the cell and in the solution that would cause the cell to change shape as shown in the diagram?

A. Location Solute Concentration Inside cell 12%

Outside cell 12%

B. Location Solute Concentration Inside cell 3%

Outside cell 6%

C. Location Solute Concentration Inside cell 7%

Outside cell 5%

D. Location Solute Concentration Inside cell 0%

Outside cell 0%

27. Which statement describes the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a cell?

A. ATP moves materials out of a cell.

B. ATP transfers energy within a cell.

C. ATP collects wastes for a cell.

D. ATP controls protein synthesis in a cell.

28. The diagram below shows a cell.

Where would this cell most likely be found?

A. bark B. frog

C. leaf D. mushroom

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29. A cell has a defect that results in the loss of its ability to regulate the passage of water, food, and wastes into and out of the cell. In which of the following cell structures is this defect most likely to be located?

A. ribosomes B. chloroplasts C. cell membrane D. endoplasmic reticulum

30. A single prokaryotic cell can divide several times in an hour. Few eukaryotic cells can divide as quickly. Which of the following statements best explains this di erence?

A. Eukaryotic cells are smaller than prokaryotic cells.

B. Eukaryotic cells have less DNA than prokaryotic cells.

C. Eukaryotic cells have more cell walls than prokaryotic cells.

D. Eukaryotic cells are more structurally complex than prokaryotic cells.

31. Which of the following functions does active transport perform in a cell?

A. packaging proteins for export from the cell B. distributing enzymes throughout the cytoplasm C. moving substances against a concentration

gradient

D. equalizing the concentration of water inside and outside the cell

32.

Which gas is forming in the test tube shown above?

A. carbon dioxide B. hydrogen

C. oxygen D. nitrogen

33. Which molecule supplies the energy for cellular functions?

A. ATP B. oxygen

C. DNA D. water

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34. Photosynthesis

The following equation represents the process of photosynthesis in green plants.

Based on the above graph, deep-water algae

probably .

A. have a higher rate of photosynthesis than green plants

B. can appear to be green, yellow, orange or red C. re ect blue light

D. absorb orange light

35. A sprig of an Elodea plant was placed in a test tube as shown below. The test tube was then placed in sunlight for 6 hours.

The bubbles of gas in the diagram are composed mainly of

A. carbon monoxide B. carbon dioxide

C. nitrogen D. oxygen

(11)

36. The gures below show the reaction rate of a speci c enzyme at di erent temperatures and di erent pHs.

What can be concluded about the enzyme?

A. The enzyme works best at a pH of 8 and a temperature of 25 C.

B. The enzyme only works at a pH of 8 and a temperature of 25 C.

C. The enzyme is used up at a pH of 11 and a temperature of 35 C.

D. The enzyme works better at a pH of 8 than a temperature of 25 C.

37. The process of cellular respiration occurs in

A. both plant and animal cells.

B. plant cells only.

C. animal cells only.

D. neither plant nor animal cells.

38. In the process of photosynthesis, green plants use energy from sunlight to make which product?

A. carbon dioxide B. chlorophyll

C. sugar D. DNA

39. Which of the following materials are direct products of photosynthesis?

A. fats and starches B. oxygen and sugar C. proteins and amino acids D. carbon dioxide and water

40. In terms of ATP production, which process results in the most stored energy?

A. aerobic respiration B. anaerobic respiration C. fermentation

D. photosynthesis

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41. Which statement best distinguishes aerobic from anaerobic respiration?

A. Only aerobic respiration involves fermentation.

B. Only anaerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria.

C. Only aerobic respiration requires oxygen.

D. Only anaerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide.

42. The picture below shows an ocean bay food chain.

Sea otters move into the ocean bay. They eat all the sea urchins. This change will cause the

A. kelp to have less food.

B. crabs to have more food.

C. sea ducks to have less food.

D. arctic foxes to have more food.

43. Which model correctly shows energy ow in a food chain?

A. B.

C. D.

(13)

44. A marine food web is shown below.

Which chart correctly shows three of the organisms according to their roles in cycling matter in the marine food web?

A.

B.

C.

D.

45. Ecosystems are composed of all living and nonliving components in an area. Food webs show the ow of nutrients and energy within an ecosystem.

Use the food web to answer the following questions.

The available chemical energy in this ecosystem .

A. decreases as it ows from consumer to producer

B. remains constant as it ows from consumer to producer

C. decreases as it ows from producer to consumer

D. increases as it ows from producer to

consumer

(14)

46. Use the diagram below to answer the question.

In this energy pyramid, which organism would most likely be in level 2?

A. bird B. fox

C. caterpillar D. tree

47. The diagram below shows an energy pyramid.

Approximately how much energy is available to the secondary consumers in this energy pyramid?

A. 10 kcal/m

2

/year B. 100 kcal/m

2

/year C. 1,000 kcal/m

2

/year D. 5,000 kcal/m

2

/year

48. The diagram below shows some of the feeding relationships in a desert food web.

Which of the following trophic levels is not shown in this diagram?

A. producers

B. decomposers

C. primary consumers

D. secondary consumers

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49. Consider this food web:

Where is the largest amount of energy found in this food web?

A. hawk B. grass

C. mouse D. grasshopper

50. How do nitrogen- xing bacteria help cycle nitrogen through ecosystems?

A. They release nitrogen into the atmosphere when they replicate their DNA.

B. They convert sunlight into chemical energy which is then stored in the nitrogen.

C. They convert ammonia from animal feces and urine into forms that plants can use.

D. They capture nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into forms that plants can use.

51. Which example shows a relationship between a living thing and a nonliving thing?

A. An insect is food for a salmon.

B. Water carries a rock downstream.

C. A tree removes a gas from the air.

D. A ower makes food for a butter y.

52. In a desert environment, cactus wrens often build their nests in cholla cacti to avoid predators. This behavior does not hurt the cacti. Which type of relationship do cactus wrens and cholla cacti demonstrate?

A. competitive B. commensalism C. mutualism D. parasitism

53. What do scientists mean when they refer to a population ?

A. all the organisms in an ecosystem

B. all the species that share similar anatomical features

C. all the animals that acquire resources through similar methods

D. all the interbreeding members of a certain

species in an ecosystem

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54. Which relationship is mutualistic?

A. an insect that lives and feeds on the body of an alligator

B. an ant that lives on a plant and defends the plant from other insects

C. a bird that migrates to follow the movements of the butter ies that it eats

D. a deer that eats one kind of plant, which allows another kind of plant to grow in its place

55. Use the graph below to answer the question.

The graph above shows the population of a rabbits in a eld over a seven-year period. Based on the data, what is the approximate carrying capacity in the eld for rabbits?

A. 200 B. 400 C. 500 D. 600

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Problem-Attic format version 4.4.220 c

_ 2011–2014 EducAide Software Licensed for use by Sarah May Terms of Use at www.problem-attic.com

midterm review - ecology, biochem, transport, energy 03/19/2015 1. Answer: D

2. Answer: A 3. Answer: A 4. Answer: D 5. Answer: D 6. Answer: C 7. Answer: C 8. Answer: A 9. Answer: A 10. Answer: C 11. Answer: C 12. Answer: B 13. Answer: B 14. Answer: B 15. Answer: D 16. Answer: A 17. Answer: D 18.

21. Answer: A 22. Answer: A 23. Answer: C 24. Answer:

25. Answer: C 26. Answer: B 27. Answer: B 28. Answer: C 29. Answer: C 30. Answer: D 31. Answer: C 32. Answer: C 33. Answer: A 34. Answer: B 35. Answer:

36. Answer: A

37. Answer: A

38.

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Teacher's Key Page 2 41. Answer: C

42. Answer: C

43. Answer: A

44. Answer: C

45. Answer: C

46. Answer: C

47. Answer: B

48. Answer: B

49. Answer: B

50. Answer: D

51. Answer: C

52. Answer: B

53. Answer: D

54. Answer: B

55. Answer: C

References

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