midterm review - ecology, biochem, transport, energy
1. An extinct animal called a mammoth is shown below.
Which statement is an observation about the mammoth?
A. The mammoth was related to the elephant.
B. The mammoth was a slow-moving animal.
C. The mammoth's tusks were used for protection.
D. The mammoth's tusks were curved and pointed.
2. Which process will most likely lead to the scienti c acceptance of a hypothesis?
A. duplicating the results of an experiment B. revising the original hypothesis
C. developing a theory based on the data D. changing the experimental procedures
3. Examine the population curves for wolves and moose in the graph below.
Which statement correctly describes the population relationship between the wolves and moose from 1968 to 1973?
A. As the moose population increased the wolf population increased.
B. As the moose population increased the wolf population decreased.
C. As the wolf population decreased the moose population decreased.
D. As the wolf population increased the moose population decreased.
4. All living things contain which element?
A. helium B. sodium
C. copper D. carbon
5. Plants and animals are composed of organic compounds. Which of the following are the common elements found in organic compounds?
A. iron, oxygen, nickel, copper B. sodium, potassium, gold, hydrogen C. helium, neon, argon, krypton D. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
6. There are many di erent enzymes located in the cytoplasm of a single cell. How is a speci c enzyme able to catalyze a speci c reaction?
A. Di erent enzymes are synthesized in speci c areas of the cytoplasm.
B. Most enzymes can catalyze many di erent reactions.
C. An enzyme binds to a speci c substrate (reactant) for the reaction catalyzed.
D. Enzymes are transported to speci c substrates (reactants) by ribosomes.
7. What types of monomers form proteins?
A. Glucose B. Nucleotides
C. Amino acids D. Polyatomic ions
8. The structural formula of cellulose is shown.
Which phrase correctly describes cellulose?
A. A polymer made of glucose B. A branched form of sucrose C. A disaccharide
D. A simple sugar
9. Use the pictures below to answer the question.
Which shows the correct order from simplest to most complex?
A. Cell ! Tissue ! Organ
B. Organ ! Tissue ! Cell
C. Cell ! Organ ! Tissue
D. Tissue ! Organ ! Cell
10. Which statement about plant and animal cells is true?
A. Both have a cell wall to give them support.
B. Both have a large vacuole to store water.
C. Both use mitochondria to produce energy.
D. Both use chloroplasts to store energy.
11. Use this diagram to answer the question.
What is the main purpose of the mitochondria shown by the arrow?
A. cell reproduction B. cellular digestion C. energy production D. protein manufacture
12. The diagram below represents a fat molecule.
A fat molecule belongs to which category of organic molecules?
A. proteins B. lipids
C. nucleic acids D. carbohydrates
13. Many plants have waxy coatings on some surfaces.
This coating reduces water loss because it is not water-permeable. This waxy coating is which of the following types of organic molecule?
A. carbohydrate B. lipid C. nucleic acid D. protein
14. Some bacteria contain a substance called nitrogenase. Nitrogenase catalyzes the chemical reaction that converts atmospheric nitrogen (N2
) into ammonia (NH3
). Nitrogenase is an example of which of the following?
A. a sugar B. an enzyme
C. a nucleotide D. an amino acid
15. Which of the following categories of organic molecules is correctly paired with one of its functions?
A. nucleic acids—digest dead cells B. lipids—give quick energy to cells C. carbohydrates—store genetic information D. proteins—provide structure in skin, hair, and
16. Which of the following is the main reason that humans need to include carbohydrates in their diet?
A. Carbohydrates are broken down in cells for energy.
B. Carbohydrates combine to form many di erent proteins.
C. Carbohydrates act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions.
D. Carbohydrates are the building blocks for cell growth and repair.
17. Which of the following best describes the composition of a nucleotide?
A. a pair of six-carbon rings attached to each other
B. a carbon atom joined to hydrogen and three functional groups
C. a chain of carbon atoms with a carboxyl group bonded to one end
D. a ve-carbon sugar attached to a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
18. All organisms have ways to produce ATP. Which of the following statements describes why ATP is a critical compound for all cells?
A. It causes mitosis to begin.
B. It is an energy-transfer molecule.
C. It is a major component of cell membranes.
D. It carries information from DNA to the ribosomes.
19. In the human body, brinogen is necessary for sealing cuts and stopping the loss of blood. Since
brinogen is made of chains of amino acids, it is an example of which type of organic molecule?
A. carbohydrate B. protein
C. fatty acid D. nucleic acid
20. In pure water, a red blood cell from an animal will swell and burst, but a leaf cell from a plant will not. Which structure in the leaf cell is responsible for this di erence?
A. cell membrane B. cell wall C. mitochondrion D. nucleus
21. The graph below shows how the activity of an enzyme changes over a range of pH values.
Which of the following conclusions is supported by the data?
A. The optimum pH of the enzyme is 6.6.
B. The optimum pH of the enzyme is 5.8.
C. The enzyme's activity is greater around pH 8.0 than around pH 5.0.
D. The enzyme's activity continually increases as
pH increases from 5.0 to 9.0.
22. A potato core was placed in a beaker of water as shown in the gure below.
Which diagram best represents the net movement of molecules?
23. Which of the following organelles use carbon dioxide to produce sugars?
A. vacuoles B. ribosomes
C. chloroplasts D. mitochondria
24. The following question(s) is/are based on the following situation and data table.
A laboratory technician places red blood cells into three di erent solutions. Observations are recorded each minute for ve minutes.
Which of the following best explains what is causing the red blood cells in solution 1 to change size over the ve-minute period?
A. Solvent is entering the cells faster than it is leaving the cells.
B. Solute is entering the cells faster than it is leaving the cells.
C. The cells are making new protein.
D. The cell's membranes are dissolving.
25. Depending on its electric charge, shape, and chemical properties, a substance may or may not be allowed to pass through a cell membrane.
This function of the cell membrane is important
because it .
A. prevents cell division
B. prevents destruction of the cell wall C. allows the cell to maintain homeostasis D. allows amino acids to move into and out of