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Reaction Abilities Analysis on Performance of Handball Players


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International Journal of in Multidisciplinary and

Academic Research (SSIJMAR)

Vol. 4, No.

4, August

2015 (ISSN 2278 – 5973)

Reaction Abilities Analysis on Performance of Handball Players

Pawan Kumar & Dr. Gurdeep Bhola

Abstract- In this research, we analyze the performance of handball male and female players who play national and state level of Haryana state. Our study significance the difference between the national level and state level players on the basis their reaction or motor abilities. The performance of the sportsman depends on their mental and physical strength. The mantle strength of the players improved by training methods. The training is providing the physical and mental strength to the players. The decision-making power of the handball players improved by the training method. In this work at the national level and state level handball players mental strength comparison will be done on the basis of Span attention test (SAT) and Cognitive vigilance test (CVT). The size and weight illusion task are performed in case of SAT and a vigilance task is performed in case of CVT. The height and weight of the players also play an important role in the performance of handball players. The mean value of height and weight of a category describe the correlation coefficient among the players. The strong correlation coefficient provides good mental strength to the players. We compare many cases of handball players on the basis of gender category and their location category.

Keywords- Psychology, motor abilities, Span attention test, Cognitive vigilance test.


Sports relates to competitive use of mental and physical strength by playing activities and self-development of a human being. Sports is defining a specific set of values which can replace the function of religions. It can also help in integrating, like image

building for individuals. Various sports are playing by a human being like, cricket, football, handball, volleyball, kho-kho, kabaddi, wrestling and many more.

1.1 Psychology

The psychology word is the combination of two Greek words ―psyche‖ and ―logos.‖The meaning of ―psyche‖ is life and ―logos‖ meaning explanation. It is a scientific analysis of brain and nature of the player. The main applications of the psychologist are sports laboratory, hospitals and many fields setting where they observed the nature of humanity. The psychologist also works in the sports field where they analyze the behavior of players by observation and interviews [43]. So, sports psychology is the scientific study of human behavior in the case of sport. It is classified as corporate fitness, exercise improvement and health-oriented exercise programs [45].

1.2 Psychology and handball


A psychological variable which may influence the performance of the sportsmen, however, are the Psychological abilities such as reaction time, concentration, perception, memory, intelligence, etcetera, which would seem to be topping the hierarchy of the overall Psychological demands of the competitions. It is a fact that a sound body‘ alone cannot do much in the absence of a ‗sound brain‘. In competitive situations, the competitors are exposed to a variety of stimuli or situations which require a very quick and accurate analysis for the adequate handling of the task. The competitors possessing the abilities of quick reaction, brisk perceptional analysis, adequate concentration, sharp memory, and high intelligence always have the edge over those competitors who lag in these abilities. In some of the individual sports events, it may not be the same extent, albeit these attributes are greatly needed in team games [47].

The following Anthropometric measurements which were consideredfor this study:

1. Sports Competition Anxiety (SCAT)

2. Intelligence

3. Self-confidence

4. Reaction

1.2.1 Anxiety

The present study aimed to analyze whether anxiety was related to player performance during competition. Several studies have analyzed the influence of anxiety on the player‘s performance. There has been evidence that pre-competitive state anxiety could negatively influence athletes' performance48.

Burton D., (1988), found a ―negative linear trend between anxiety and performance of swimmers. There was a positive linear relationship between self-confidence and performance. While anxiety explained 46% of swimming performance variance and self-confidence accounted for 21%‖.

1.2.2 Intelligence

There is a growing importance of intelligence in sports. Several studies have identified a player‘s performance to be related to performer vigor, happiness, and calmness. There was a positive correlation between intelligence and pleasant emotions while it had a negative correlation with unpleasant ones.

1.3.3 Self-confidence

In sport, self-confidence is one of the most frequently cited Psychological factors that can influence athletic achievements. ―Self-confidence can be the belief that

one can successfully execute a specific activity rather than a global trait that accounts for overall performance optimism.‖ For example, one may have a high degree of self-confidence in one's driving ability in golf but a low degree of self-confidence in putting.

Self Confidence is a quality found in many aspects of society and sports is not an exception. The qualities like mental toughness, poise, grit, belief, courage, and heart are some of the variables that can explain self-confidence. Studies have provided empirical evidence to the argument that success in the game would boost the self-confidence of player and loss could seriously hamper it. It can be through their thoughts, behaviors, and feelings52.

1.2.4 Reaction time

Though of considerable importance, reaction time seems to have been ignored or attached less importance than what it deserves. Especially in the games that involve movements conditioned by signals, movements as a response to the opponent‘s move, the motion of the ball,etc., the reaction time is important. For example, a sprinter who can start faster than other contestants; a baseball catcher who can react faster to the change in the direction of the motion of the ball, have a definite advantage over others53.

Recognizing the importance of this crucial variable, reaction time, selectors and coaches are now rigorously employing it especially in screening the large population of players. Reaction time has also been found to be related to the motor skill performance54.

Tripp RS has established that ―reaction time can be improved considerably through training. Conditioning reflexes to certain stimulus continuously can help a lot in reducing the reaction time‖. Therefore coaching practices should involve such efforts to reduce the reaction time of the players. For example, a sprinter may develop the conditioned reflex to a pistol shot. The reaction time of the player'smeasures by the two variables called Attention and Vigilance.


activity of the mind which does not perform attention on all the sights. The aperture consciousness is its focus. In this case, the concentration which is the part of attention still higher in brain activity. If the concentration level of any player is high, then there will be a low distraction. The attention activity consists of concentration and distribution controlling the relation between a response and discrimination stimulus. A player is in special under control of a stimulus while someone paying attention to him. Attention is the development course of the brain. To analyze the attention, we are analyzing the brain developed activities itself.

Vigilance-Vigilance defined as the awareness of a sportsman towards the environment in sports conditions. It plays an important role in player performance or activity. It is the main factor for the player performance and learning skills in sports. This process refers to the attention, includes the opponent team plan and own plan with the situation change in the game. According to ―Henry Head ‗vigilance is the central system of the brain with having maximum psychological efficiency. If the vigilance is high, mind and body perform great towards any activity. In handball game, the vigilance is very important because the signal can be of a different type like, tactical and visual.

About the little research work has been carried out ,and available reviews were sourced from different journals. As such, not much research has been conducted predicting the effect of Anthropometric, Motor ability and Psychological variables on the performance of Handball players. This study may be verymuch useful for coaches and physical education teachers to screen competitive Handball players of all age groups. Selection of the best players in the beginning by considering the important criteria would enable to improve the potentiality of the players. This study is an effort in this direction to determine the attributes which could determine the Handball players‘ potentiality.

1.3 Objectives

The present study has the following objectives

1. To find the significant difference between total samples of National level and State level players for all above cases by using T-test

2. To find out the Attention variations among the National level male and State level male handball players using Span Attention Test.

3. To find out the Vigilance variations among the National level male and State level male handball players using Cognitive Vigilance Test.

4. To find out the attention variations among the National level female and State level female handball players using Span Attention Test.

5. To find out the Vigilance variations among the National level female and State level female handball players using Cognitive Vigilance Test


In this section, the researcher has consulted various sources of information for finding similar studies on ―Anthropometric, Motor ability, and Psychological variables)- as predictors of performance of Handball players.‖ Young et. al (2002) conducted a study to identify the relationship between leg muscle power and sprinting speed with changes of direction. The main purpose of the study is to describe relationships between physical qualities and performance. Testing was conducted in an indoor sports hall and a biomechanics laboratory. A total of 15 male participants were required must be free of injury and have recent experience competing in sports involving sprints with changes of direction [52]. Hollard (1964) conducted a study to predict the values of selected variables in determining the ability to play basketball among small high school boys players. Speed, agility, upper arm strength, explosive power, ball handling ability, shooting ability, passing ability, weight, and previous experience were considered in the study in predicting ability to play high school basketball and also to determine which tests are most practical and valuable to coaches predicting successful basketball players [54]. Siva Ramakrishnan etal. (1999), undertook a study to compare the competitive trait and state anxiety levels among university women volleyball players [55].

Balaji K. Rao (1996) conducted a study to determine the relation of sports competition anxiety, aggression, and self-confidence, with performance in Kabaddi. A total of 20 Tamil Nadu State Male Kabaddi players those who were participants in senior National Kabaddi Championship held at Tirupur, Tamil Nadu State were selected as subjects for study[56].


joints, ability to control body movements like timing, rhythm, balance or coordination and relaxation and coordination of the whole body [58]. Baskshi [185](1994) Conducted a study on 2 groups of sports persons on coordinative abilities. The two groups were the track and field athletes and swimmers. These groups were chosen because both the activities involved cycle type of movements. S. Varalakshmy, Dr. A. Amuldoss and Dr. C. Johnson Premkumar (2013) studied the prominent Psycho motor and performance aspects of women handball, volleyball and basketball players from different universities in Tamilnadu with thirty subjects respectively[23]. Dr. Sanjiv Dutta and Dr.Agyajit Singh (2013),

Psycho-motor Abilities are supposed to be the basis of successful sports performance. The Psycho-motor profile of a sports person is comprised of different type of abilities as mentioned in the paper. The present studies focus on the comparison of different psycho-motor abilities in the very young school athlete and mature university level players [24].

Mishra (1983) studied the relationship of selected physical and physiological variables in 50 meter front crawl swimming performance. Jenner (1971)

conducted a study on agility with hundred students who were divided into two equal groups as athletes and non athletes[63]. I-Iisata ( 1966) studied in 1960 OIy111pic throwers and found that they were heavier and taller, with muscular arms and wider shoulders when compared to other athletes[49]. Ritchson (1968) studied 100, fourth grade boys and girls and correlated age, height, weight, leg length, body movement time, 50 yard dash, shuttle run and standing broad jump [65].


After a thorough review of literature related to the game of Handball in books, journals, periodicals and research articles besides detailed discussion with the experts and keeping in view of the feasibility of the study in terms of availability of equipment and the relevance of the variables to the present study. Psychological variables require an assessment of subjects‘ perception of some specific situation. Variables like anxiety and self-confidence required administering questionnaires to obtain the data. The standard tests were selected to measure these variables. The subject selected for the study 110 male and female handball players (56 female and 54 male players) who play in national and state level leagues in districts ( Panipat, Kaithal, Jind,and Kurukshetra) Haryana. The selection of the subjects is made on a random basis.

Table 1 Variables and Test performance Sr.


Variables Test Measure


1 Speed 50m running meter

2 Perception Span

Attention test


3 Task Cognitive

Vigilance test


These three tests are speed, attention, and vigilance. The span attention test is used for the attention measurement of the players and cognitive vigilance test used for the vigilance measurement. On the basis of these three tests, we collect the data from the four districts of Haryana. The data categorized by district wise, gender, and playing level.

We have collected the data from the four districts of Haryana. The XL files contain the 110 students‘ detail who played handball at the state level, national level,and junior national level. Most of the students selected from the Kaithal district. There is 62 number of students from the Kaithal region plays handball. From the Panipat region 21 players or students available. Jind and Kurukshetra district the handball players consider only 12 and 15.

Table 2 District wise students or player list available in data



Haryana State (District)

Panipat Jind Kaithal Kurukshetra

1 62 21 12 15

In the Quantitative analysis the numerical data generated by statistical methods of calculation parameters. The observation of collected data and its characteristics represented in the in the numerical value process is called quantification — a valid and precise method of data description provided when some portion of data used for the measurement of any sample. This method of data analysis applied for the data which are mainly formed in the database.

In the qualitativeanalysis, the numerical measures are used to conclude. It based on the observations and communication occurs during the practical process.


𝑡 − 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 =𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 1−𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 2

𝑠𝑝 × 𝑛 11+𝑛 21


𝑆𝑝 = 𝑛1−1 ∗𝑣𝑎𝑟 12+ 𝑛2−1 ∗𝑣𝑎𝑟 22

2 (2)

Here Mean1 and Mean2 are the average value of each of the sample sets. Var1 and Var2 are the variances of each of the sample sets.

For the analysis purposes, we divide the collected data into three zones. The zones are decided according to the survey in various schools and colleges of Haryana district. The three zones are

1. Panipat-Jind district school and college 2. Kaithal district school and college 3. Kurukshetra district school and college


On the basis of above test analysis and T-test results the coefficient of correlation obtained between the span attention test and cognitive vigilance test. The correlation coefficient describes the strong relationships among the handball players during the span attention test and CVT. This analysis is done on the overall data. Some categories are classifiedon the basis of male and female, national and state level, and national and state level male or female. Some observation has given below.

V. 4.1 Overall Data Analysis

VI. In this case, the complete data analysis performs on the basis of different categories. Different cases are formed on the basis of gender and playing level.

Table 3 shows the comparison between the all handball players according to their playing level categories. The two categories are national and state level. We choose to mean value of span attention test, CVT, Height, Weight and Correlation coefficient.

Table 3 Comparison graph table among the National and State level handball players

National Level players Mean

Span attention


Mean CVT

Mean Height

Mean Weight

Correlation Coefficient

3.53 76.5 5.40 55.94 0.45

State Level players Mean

Span attention


Mean CVT

Mean Height

Mean Weight

Correlation Coefficient

3.24 78.8 5.21 47.85 0.62

Figure 1 shows the comparison curve of national and state level handball players on the basis of CVT, SAT, Height, Weight, and Corr. Coefficient means value. The height and weight of the national level players more than the state level player. But the correlation coefficient of state-level player is better than the national level players. If good training is providing to the state level players they can be played for the national level. The SAT is better for the national level player but CVT is better for the state level players. So, increase the motor abilities of the state level player can improved their performance.

Figure 1 Comparison graph between the national and state level players





0.45 3.24





0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Mean SAT Mean CVT Mean Height Mean Weight Corr. Coeff.


Table 4 reflects the comparison among the mean value of SAT, CVT, height, weight and correlation coefficient among the national level and state level male handball players.

Table 4 Comparison graph table among the National and State level male handball players

National Level players Mean

Span attention


Mean CVT

Mean height

Mean Weight

Correlation Coefficient

3.72 74.84 5.54 61.04 0.21

State Level players Mean

Span attention

Mean CVT

Mean height

Mean Weight

Correlation Coefficient


3.24 78.31 5.49 53.86 0.50


Figure 2 represents the comparison among the national and state level male handball players. Here the SAT test is better for the national level male handball players due to their experience but the CVT test is better for the state level player. The correlation coefficient of the state level male handball players greater than the national level male handball players. If good diet and training provided to the state level male handball players, they can play for the national level also. Height and weight are only the main difference among these players. The motor abilities like attention and vigilance also improved by the proper training provided to the players.


Figure 4.2 Comparison graph between the national and state level male handball players

In this case, we analyze and compare the different parameters of national level and state level female handball players. The parameters are the mean value of SAT, CVT, Height, Weight. The correlation coefficient also used for the analysis and comparison. Table 5 shows the parameters value among the national level and state level female handball players.

Table 5 Comparison graph table among the National and State level female handball players

National Level players Mean

Span attention


Mean CVT

Mean height

Mean Weight

Correlation Coefficient

3.21 79.28 5.15 46.85 0.80

State Level players Mean

Span attention


Mean CVT

Mean height

Mean Weight

Correlation Coefficient

3.24 79.03 5.01 43.60 0.51

Figure 3 shows the comparison among the female players of national level and state level. In this case the height and weight of the national level female handball players more than the state level handball players. The correlation coefficient is also maximum for the national level female players. If we provide the proper training to the state level female handball players, they can play for the national level also.





0.21 3.24





0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90


Figure 3 Comparison graph between the national and state level female handball players

In next case the Span attention test, CVT and correlation coefficient comparison of male, female, and all handball players have shown. The categories

are mainly national level and state level players. Figure 4.4 shows the National level handball players comparison.

Figure 4 Pie curve for SAT, CVT and Correlation coefficient of national level players

Figure 5 shows the comparison among the three categories of male, female and all handball players who play for the state level. Both the curve 4 and 5

provides the comparison among the SAT, CVT and correlation coefficient of the National and State level handball players.





0.8 3.24





0 20 40 60 80 100

Mean SAT Mean CVT Mean Height Mean Weight Corr.Coeff. Natioanl Female State Female


3.21 3.53

National Level Span

attention test

Male Female All


0.8 0.45

National level


coefficient curve

Male Female ALL

74.8 4

79.2 8 76.5

National Level



Figure 5 Pie curve for SAT, CVT and Correlation coefficient of State level handball players


In this research, we survey four districts of Haryana state. Schools and colleges students who play handball at the national level and State level considered the candidate. The candidate can be male or female. Two tests called span attention test and cognitive vigilance task test used to evaluate the motor or reaction abilities of the players. After that mean and standard deviation calculated for the test data. The data was collected in the excel sheet, filter the data as per zone wise and separate the male-female from the overall data. The t-testis used for testing the significance of mean and standard deviation. The result of this study provides a significant correlation between National level and State level handball players by their performance and reaction ability. Various categories analyzed on the basis oftests like span attention test and CVT. The mean and standard deviation value obtained for the CVT and span attention. Then T-test applied on both performance tests, find the t-test value and obtained the significant difference across the error. We have obtained the comparison between national level male handball players and state level male handball players of overall data.


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62. Young W.B,. James R., montgomery I.,"Is Muscle Power Related to Running speed with changes of Direction?", Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical fitness, (2002sep),42:3,pp.282-150. Zapartidis, Ilias., Kororos, Panagiotis ., Christodoulidis, Triantafyllos., Skoufas, Dimitrios and Bayios, Ioannis (2011). ―Profile of Young Handball Players by Playing Position and Determinants of Ball Throwing Velocity‖, Journal of Human Kinetics, 27 pp. 17-30.

63 Dyba., W. (1982). Physiological and activity characteristics of volleyball. VolleyballTechnical Journal, 6(3), 33-51.

64 Sreejit, K. P. (1988).Selected Psychomotor performance variables among players ofdifferent Sport, (Unpublished Master's Thesis, Jiwaji University,Gwalor)


Table 1 Variables and Test performance Variables Test Measure
Table 3 shows the comparison between the all handball players according to their playing level categories
Figure 2 represents the comparison among the national and state level male handball players
Figure 3 Comparison graph between the national and state level female handball players are mainly national level and state level players


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