# Unit 2 Atomic Structure

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### Coulombic Attraction POGIL activity

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Names___________________________________Period_________

Trish Loeblein 8/18/12 (I am unsure of the origin of this lab. I have made many changes – my appreciation to the unknown original author)

### Recording Data and Calculations:

A. Initial observations:

### _____

B. Calculate the total number of beans_____ Sample calculation here:_______________

C. Calculate the percentage of each type of isotope.

Percentage of Beanium-1 _____ sample calculation here:_______________ Percentage of Beanium-2 _____

Percentage of Beanium-3 _____

D. Calculate the average mass of each isotope.

Total mass of type one Beans_____Average mass of Beanium-1 ____ Sample calculation here: _______________ Total mass of type two Beans ___ Average mass of Beanium-2 _____ Total mass of type three Beans___ Average mass of Beanium-3 _____

Application of isotope type problems

1. 140 students participated in a knowledge retrieval session. 25 scored 90 out of 100; 63 scored 80 out of 100; 31 scored 70 out of 100; 15 scored 60 out of 100; 6 scored 50 on the knowledge retrieval session. Determine the average score on this knowledge retrieval session. Show all work.

2. Magnesium consists of three isotopes with masses of 23.98 (78.6%), 24.98 (10.1%), and 25.98 (11.3%). Calculate the average atomic mass of Mg. Show all work.

3. Copper consists of two isotopes, one with a mass of 62.96 and 70.5% abundant. The other isotope has a mass of 64.96. Determine the atomic mass of Cu. Show all work.

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BUILD AN ATOM 1

TITLE Build an Atom AUTHORS

Timothy Herzog (Weber State University) Emily Moore (University of Colorado Boulder) COURSE

General Chemistry I TYPE

In-Class Guided-Inquiry Activity TEACHING MODE

Facilitated Group Inquiry LEARNING GOALS Students will be able to:

 Use information about the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons to: o Identify an element and its position on the periodic table.

o Determine whether an atom is neutral or an ion.

o Predict the charge and determine the mass of an atom or ion.

 Relate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons to representations, including atomic symbols and the symbols found on the periodic table.

 Explain: element symbol, charge, atomic number, mass number, and isotope.

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BUILD AN ATOM 2

BUILD AN ATOM

PART I: ATOM SCREEN

Build an Atom simulation (http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-an-atom) 1. Explore the Build an Atom simulation with your group. As you explore, talk about what you

find. 2.

a) List two things your group observed in the simulation. b) What particle(s) are found in the center of the atom?

3. Play until you discover which particle(s) determine(s) the name of the element you build. What did you discover?

4. What is the name of the following atoms?

a) An atom with 3 protons and 4 neutrons: _____________ b) An atom with 2 protons and 4 neutrons: _____________ c) An atom with 4 protons and 4 neutrons: _____________

5. Play with the simulation to discover which particles affect the charge of an atom or ion. a) Fill in the blanks below to show your results:

Neutral atoms have the same number of protons and electrons. Positive ions have ________________________________ protons than electrons. Negative ions have _______________________________ protons than electrons.

b) Develop a relationship (in the form of a single sentence or equation) that can predict the charge based on the number and types of particle.

6. Play with the simulation to discover what affects the mass number of your atom or ion. a) What is a rule for determining the mass number of an atom or ion?

7. Practice applying your understanding by playing 1st and 2nd levels on the game screen.

Commented [TH1]:

This style of question encourages students to complete a full exploration of the sim and to articulate their findings, without needing the teacher to give instructions for each interaction. The teacher could ask students to share out their list with the class.

Minimal (or no) instructor introduction is required before students begin the activity and sim exploration.

Commented [TH2]: After a significant portion of the class

has completed the first page, or once many of them are engaged with the Game, a class discussion around Part I is suggested.

In the class discussion, focus particular attention on students’ answers to questions 5(b) and 6, which allow for a greater diversity of student thinking.

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BUILD AN ATOM 3

PART II: SYMBOL SCREEN

8. Using the Symbol readout box, figure out which particles affect each component of the atomic symbol.

a) In the atomic symbol below, label each letter (a, b, c, and d) with: the particle(s) used to determine the letter, and

how the value of each letter is determined.

9. Create a definition (using a complete sentence) for each of these items based on your labels from the atomic symbol above.

a) Element Symbol b) Charge

c) Atomic Number d) Mass Number

10. Practice applying your understanding by playing the 3rd and 4th game levels. Play until you can get all the questions correct on the 4th level.

11. In addition to atomic symbol, we can represent atoms by name and mass number. a) Complete the table below:

Symbol Name

Carbon-12

b) Each representation (Symbol and Name) in the table above provides information about the atom. Describe the similarities and differences between the Symbol and Name representations.

6 12

+1 5 11

9 18

### F

Commented [TH3]: Part II focuses primarily on student

understanding and use of symbolic representations, specifically isotopic symbols.

A facilitated discussion at the end of this section is advised, particularly if students share-out their definitions from question 9 and compare representations as a class.

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BUILD AN ATOM 4

PART III: ISOTOPES

12. Play with the simulation to determine:

a) Which particles affect the stability of the atom? _____________________ b) Which particles do not affect the stability of the atom? _______________ 13. What are the names of the stable forms of oxygen?

a) Oxygen-16 b) Oxygen-____ c) Oxygen-____

d) List all of the things that are the same about these atoms (ignore the electrons).

e) List all of the things that are different about these atoms (ignore the electrons).

14. The atoms in the previous question are isotopes of each other. Based on this information, list the requirements for two atoms to be isotopes of each other.

15. Test your understanding of isotopes by examining the relationships between the pairs of atoms listed below:

Atom 1 Atom 2 Relationship between atom 1 and atom 2

Isotopes

Same Atom, Not Isotopes of Each Other Different Element

Carbon-12

Isotopes

Same Atom, Not Isotopes of Each Other Different Element

Argon-40 Argon-41

Isotopes

Same Atom, Not Isotopes of Each Other Different Element

Boron-10

Isotopes

Same Atom, Not Isotopes of Each Other Different Element An atom with 13 protons and 13 neutrons An atom with 14 protons and 13 neutrons Isotopes

Same Atom, Not Isotopes of Each Other Different Element 6 12

6 13

6 12

5 11

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Commented [YC4]: Part III of the activity extends the use

of the sim representations to enable students to construct a definition of isotopes.

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BUILD AN ATOM 5

EXERCISES

16. The periodic table has a great deal of information about every atom. Using your periodic table, answer the following questions:

a) What is the atomic number of chlorine (Cl)? _____ b) What is the atomic number of tungsten (W)? _____ c) How many protons are there in any Cl atom?_____ d) How many protons are there in any Te atom? _____

e) Can you tell from the periodic table exactly how many neutrons are in an atom? 17. Complete the following table:

Name Symbol Atomic number Mass Number Number of neutrons Number of Electrons Charge hydrogen-2 2H 1 2 1 1 0 3H sodium-22 22Na+ 10 12 24 12 12 25 13 46Ti-2 107Ag 19F-1 carbon-12 6 carbon-13 6 carbon-14 6 carbon-12 7 carbon-12 5 4He 8 8 10 argon-40 18 18 70Ga 70Ga+3 4 9 2 7 8 8

18. To test your knowledge of isotopes, draw arrows between all pairs of atoms in the table above that are isotopes of each other.

left as a homework assignment, as it is difficult to complete this in addition to the rest of the activity during class. Additionally, this section extends to elements outside of the scope of the simulation.

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ISOTOPES AND ATMOIC MASS 1

TITLE

Isotopes and Atomic Mass AUTHORS

Timothy Herzog (Weber State University) COURSE

General Chemistry I TYPE

In-Class Guided-Inquiry Activity TEACHING MODE

Facilitated Group Inquiry LEARNING GOALS Students will be able to:

 Explain the difference between atomic mass and mass number

 Calculate average atomic mass from percent abundance and isotopic mass. COPYRIGHT

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ISOTOPES AND ATOMIC MASS 2

ISOTOPES AND ATOMIC MASS MODEL 1: Make Isotopes

Open the Isotopes and Atomic Mass simulation

Play with the “Make Isotopes” tab of the simulation for a few minutes and then answer the following questions.

1. What particles determine the mass number? 2. Why is mass number always a whole number?

3. One isotope of carbon (C) has exactly the same mass number and atomic mass since it was used as the definition of the atomic mass unit (amu). Which isotope is it and what is its atomic mass?

4. What is the approximate mass of one proton? __________amu 5. What is the approximate mass of one neutron? __________amu

6. Look at 3 or 4 other atoms using the simulation. Do any of them have a whole number for atomic mass?

MODEL 2: Mix Isotopes

Play with the “Mix Isotopes” tab for a few minutes, then answer the following questions. 1. What are the factors that affect the average atomic mass of a mixture of isotopes?

2. Beryllium (Be) and Fluorine (F) have only one stable isotope. Use the sim and the periodic table to complete the following table:

Element Mass of 1 atom Average mass of 2 atoms (sim) Average mass of 3 atoms (sim) Atomic mass (periodic table) Beryllium (Be) 9.01218 amu Fluorine (F) 18.99840 amu

3. Why are all the values in each row of the table above the same?

Commented [YC1]: Learning goals:

 Explain the difference between atomic mass and mass number

 Calculate average atomic mass from percent abundance and isotopic mass.

Commented [TH2]: Facilitation tip:

This is a good time to stop and briefly discuss mass defect and possible E=mc2 and to reinforce the reasons why 12C

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ISOTOPES AND ATOMIC MASS 3 4. Lithium has only two stable isotopes. Use the sim to determine the following:

a. Atomic mass of lithium-6 = __________________amu b. Atomic mass of lithium-7 = __________________amu

c. Average atomic mass of a sample containing three lithium-6 atoms and two lithium-7 atoms. ______________amu

d. Is the average atomic mass you just determined closer to the mass of lithium-6 or lithium-7? Explain

5. Describe a method to calculate the average atomic mass of the sample in the previous question using only the atomic masses of lithium-6 and lithium-7 without using the simulation.

6. Test your method by creating a few sample mixtures of isotopes with the sim and see if your method correctly predicts the average atomic mass of that sample from only the atomic masses of the isotopes and the quantity of each isotope. Use the table below to track your progress.

Element Atomic mass and quantity of each isotope

Average atomic mass of sample (calculate yourself)

Average atomic mass of sample (from simulation)

MODEL 3: Nature’s mix of isotopes

1. Using the sim, examine “Nature’s mix of isotopes” for several different elements. If you assumed 100 total atoms in a sample, how could you relate the % values shown in the sim into a number you could use for your calculation of average atomic mass?

Commented [YC3]: Facilitation tip:

Questions 5-6 in this section focus on the calculation of average atomic mass using the number of atoms of each isotope, which is typically easier for students than the calculation of average atomic mass from percent abundance. We extend this calculation to the use of percent abundances in the next section, Nature’s Mix of Isotopes

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ISOTOPES AND ATOMIC MASS 4 2. Calculate the atomic mass of each of the following elements using your method from above.

Test your answer using the Nature’s mix of isotopes and the periodic table. Keep going until you can get two in a row right.

Isotope 1 Isotope 2 Isotope 3 Check answer with sim

Element (amu) Mass %age (amu) Mass %age (amu) Mass %age

Calculated average atomic mass (amu) Yes No Hydrogen 1.007 99.98 2.01410 0.011 - - Silicon 27.97 92.22 28.9764 4.685 29.97377 3.092 Nitrogen 14.00 99.63 15.0001 0.364 - - Argon 35.96 0.336 37.9627 0.063 39.96238 99.60 Calculations / Rough work:

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ISOTOPES AND ATOMIC MASS 5

EXERCISES

1. Titanium has five common isotopes: 46Ti (8.00%), mass= 45.953 amu 47 Ti (7.80%), mass= 46.952 amu 48Ti (73.40%), mass= 47.947 amu 49Ti (5.50%), mass= 48.948 amu 50Ti (5.30%), mass = 49.945 amu

Calculate the average atomic mass of titanium.

2. The atomic mass of boron is 10.81 amu. Boron has two isotopes: Boron-10 has a mass of 10.01 amu. Boron-11 has a mass of 11.01 amu. What is the %age of each isotope in boron? (check your answer with the simulation)

3. A certain sample of rubidium has just two isotopes, 85Rb (mass = 84.911amu) and 87Rb (mass = 86.909amu). The atomic mass of this sample is 86.231 amu. What are the percentages of the isotopes in this sample?

Commented [TH4]: These exercises could be left for

take-home practice, as they focus primarily on computational skill, not conceptual understanding.

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### %age

Calculated average atomic mass (amu)

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### Rb (mass = 86.909amu). The atomic mass of this sample is 86.231 amu. What are the

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1 Hanson, A.J. 2015

### Essential Questions:

1) How do we know what an atom looks like if we can’t see atoms? 2) Why are silver and gold used to make jewelry?

3) Why are chlorine and iodine used as disinfectants?

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Why do we use helium to inflate balloons instead of hydrogen?

SC09-GR.HS-S.1-GLE.2 Matter has definite structure that determines characteristic physical and chemical properties.

Evidence Outcomes: a) Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based scientific explanation supporting the current model of an atom.

b) Use characteristic physical and chemical properties to develop predictions and supporting claims about elements’ positions on the periodic table.

### NGSS:

Structure and Properties of Matter

Performance Expectation: HS-PS1-1 Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.

Disciplinary Core Ideas:

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

 Each atom has a charges substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.

 The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patters of outer electron states.

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

 Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects.

Science and Engineering Practices:

Developing and Using Models

 Use a model to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

Crosscutting Concepts:

Patterns

 Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.

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Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Performance Expectation: HS-PS2-4 Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.

Disciplinary Core Ideas:

PS2.B Types of Interactions

 Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law provide the mathematical models to describe and predict the effects of gravitational and electrostatic forces between distant objects.

 Forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and magnetic) permeating space that can transfer energy through space. Magnets or electric currents cause magnetic fields; electric charges or changing magnetic fields cause electric fields.

Science and Engineering Practices:

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

 Use mathematical representations of phenomena to describe explanations.

Crosscutting Concepts:

Patterns

 Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.

Performance Expectation: HS-PS4-1 Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and

speed of waves traveling in various media.

Disciplinary Core Ideas:

PS4.A: Wave Properties

 The wavelength and frequency of a wave are related to one another by the speed of travel of the wave, which depends on the type of wave and the medium through which it is passing.

Science and Engineering Practices:

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

 Use mathematical representations of phenomena or design solutions to describe and/or support claims and/or explanations.

Crosscutting Concepts:

Cause and Effect

 Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlations and make claims about specific causes and effects.

Performance Expectation: HS-PS4-3 Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.

Disciplinary Core Ideas:

 Electromagnetic radiation (e.g., radio, microwaves, light) can be modeled as a wave of changing electric and magnetic fields or as particles called photons. The wave model is useful for explaining many features of electromagnetic radiation, and the particle model explains other features.

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Science and Engineering Practices:

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

 Evaluate the claims, evidence and reasoning behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments.

Crosscutting Concepts:

Systems and System Models

 Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions-including energy, matter, and information flows-within and between systems at different scales.

Lesson Number

In Class Activity Learning Objectives Students will be able to:

Homework

1 Question of the day: What does an atom look

like?

Activities:

 Groups draw pictures or make models to show the basic structure of an atom. Drawings/models should show location of protons, neutrons, and electrons, but do not need to be to scale.

 Law of Definite Proportions – Lab Activity – Mg (s) + Cu(C2

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 Describe what an atom looks like using background knowledge from previous science classes.

 Experimentally determine the mass ratio of Mg and Cu in a chemical reaction.

 Relate the experimentally determined mass ratio of magnesium to copper to the Law of Definite

Proportions.

Calculate the mass ratio of Mg to Cu using experimental data.

Rough draft of atomic model using evidence collected in lab activity.

2 Question of the day: What does an atom look

like?

Activities:

 Model of the Atom – Take 1 (groups use lab data ONLY to propose a model of an atom)

 Class discussion/clicker questions for about Law of Definite Proportions

 Dalton’s atomic theory

 Relate the experimentally determined mass ratio of magnesium to copper to the Law of Definite

Proportions.

 Explain the major postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory.

 Develop an atomic model based on experimental evidence obtained in class from the reaction between Mg and copper (II) acetate.

 Compare student generated models of the atom with Dalton’s atomic theory/model.

Writing assignment: Using the Law of Definite Proportions and your

experimental data, justify the atomic model you created with your group in class. Compare and contrast your model to the atomic model proposed by Dalton.

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4 Hanson, A.J. 2015

Lesson Number

In Class Activity Learning Objectives Students will be able to:

Homework

3 Question of the day: What does an atom look

like? How did we discover electrons and protons?

Activities:

 Thomson’s cathode ray experiment demonstration

Model of the Atom – Take 2

 Battleship game – modeling Rutherford’s gold foil experiment

 Rutherford scattering PhET simulation

 Model of the Atom – Take 3

 Describe J.J. Thomson’s experiment with cathode ray tubes and the evidence he collected about atomic structure.

 Analyze the billiard ball model of the atom using the results of Thomson’s cathode ray tube experiment.

 Propose an atomic model that uses Thomson’s data from the cathode ray tube experiment.

 Describe the experiment Rutherford used to test Thomson’s atomic model.

 Analyze the plum pudding model of the atom using the results of Rutherford’s gold foil experiment.

 Propose an atomic model that uses Rutherford’s data from the gold foil experiment.

 Explain the experimental evidence Rutherford used to propose the nuclear model of the atom.

 Compare and contrast the plum pudding and nuclear models of an atom.

 Compare the plum pudding and nuclear atomic models to student generated models of the atom.

Writing assignment: Compare and contrast the Billiard Ball, Plum Pudding, and Nuclear Models of the atom. Cite experimental evidence used to develop each model. State reasons the model was revised.

4 Question of the day: What does an atom look

like? Where are electrons found in an atom? What evidence do we have to support this idea?

Activities:

 View hydrogen spectrum

 Electron Energy and Light POGIL activity

 Model of the Atom – Take 4

 Describe what you see when electricity is passed through a glass tube containing hydrogen gas.

 Define “quantum” and explain what it means for energy to be quantized.

 Analyze the nuclear model of the atom using evidence from Bohr’s experiments.

 Explain where Bohr thought electrons were located in an atom.

 Describe the experimental evidence that Bohr used to develop his atomic model.

 Compare the Bohr model of the atom to student generated models of the atom.

Writing assignment:

Compare and contrast the Bohr model of the atom to previous atomic models. Cite experimental evidence used to develop each model. State reasons the model was revised.

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5 Hanson, A.J. 2015

Lesson Number

In Class Activity Learning Objectives Students will be able to:

Homework

5 Question of the day: What does an atom

look like? Where are electrons found in an atom? What evidence do we have to support this idea?

Activities:

 Energy, frequency, wavelength calculations

 Flame test lab

 Calculate the wavelength, frequency, or energy of electromagnetic radiation.

 Explain what causes different colors of light in a fireworks show.

 Describe how the emission spectrum of an element is related to its electron arrangement.

Wavelength, Energy, Frequency Practice sheet

6 Question of the day: How do we know

the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom? How can we calculate the mass number of an atom?

Activities:

Build an Atom PhET Simulation

 Describe the charge, mass, and location of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom.

 Write and interpret atomic symbols.

 Calculate the mass number of an atom.

 Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a neutral atom.

Complete all 4 levels of the game in Build an Atom. Screenshot your results and submit on Edmodo.

7 Question of the day: Are all atoms of the

same element identical?

Activities:

 Isotopes and Atomic Mass PhET simulation

 Define the term isotope.

 Identify atoms that represent two different isotopes of the same element.

 Describe factors that make an atom stable or unstable.

 Develop a procedure to determine the average atomic mass of an element.

Write a procedure to determine the average atomic mass of an element.

8 Question of the day:

How is atomic mass calculated?

Activities:

 Average mass of Candium or Beanium

 Calculating average atomic mass of elements

 Develop and carry out a procedure to determine the average mass of a sample of beans or candy.

 Explain the difference between an average and a weighted average.

 Write and carry out a procedure to calculate the average atomic mass of an element.

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6 Hanson, A.J. 2015

Lesson Number

In Class Activity Learning Objectives Students will be able to:

Homework

9 Question of the day: What does an atom

look like? What is incorrect about the Bohr model of the atom? What evidence do we have to support this idea?

Activities:

 View neon and argon emission spectrum.

 Models of the Hydrogen Atom PhET simulation (demonstration)

 Electron Configuration POGIL activity

 Model of the Atom – Take 5

 Describe what you see when electricity is passed through a glass tube containing neon or argon gas.

 Analyze the Bohr model of the atom using evidence from the neon and argon emission spectra.

 Propose a new atomic model to account for data that does not fit the Bohr model.

Writing assignment:

Explain why the Bohr model of the atom needed to be revised. Cite experimental evidence that was used to support the idea that Bohr’s model needed to be revised.

10 Question of the day: Why doesn’t the

periodic table list elements in alphabetical order?

Activities:

 Cracking the Periodic Table Code POGIL

 Practice electron configurations

 Write an electron configuration for any element in the first four periods on the periodic table.

 Explain how the periodic table can be used to determine the electron configuration of an atom of any element on the periodic table.

 Use the periodic table to predict where the last electrons are located in an atom of any element listed on the periodic table.

Writing assignment:

Compare and contrast the quantum mechanical model of the atom to previous atomic models. Cite experimental evidence used to develop the quantum mechanical model.

11 Question of the day: Why doesn’t the

periodic table list elements in alphabetical order?

Activities:

 Valence Electron

 Ion formation – Build an Atom PhET Simulation revisited

 Identify the valance electrons in an atom using the electron configuration.

 Relate the number of valence electrons to an element’s location on the periodic table.

 Calculate the charge, mass, and number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an ion.

Valence Electrons and Ions Practice Sheet

12 Question of the day: How was the first

periodic table constructed? What is “periodic” about the periodic table?

Activities:

 Alien card sort

 What was Mendeleev Thinking?

 Explain how the first periodic table of the elements was created.

Reading assignment: Creating the First Periodic Table

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7 Hanson, A.J. 2015

Lesson Number

In Class Activity Learning Objectives Students will be able to:

Homework

13 Question of the day: What types of

attraction occur between the nucleus and the electrons?

Activities:

Coulombic Attraction POGIL Activity

 Explain the factors that influence the strength of the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged particles.

Coulombic Attraction Practice sheet

14 Question of the day: What is “periodic”

about the periodic table? What patterns exist on the periodic table?

Activities:

Mini-lab: Properties of Elements

 Periodic Trends POGIL activity or Graphing Periodic Trends activity

 List the properties of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.

 Classify an element based on its properties.

 Relate the location and atomic structure of an element to its physical properties.

 Analyze the trends in atomic radius, first ionization energy, and electronegativity on the periodic table.

 Justify the trends in atomic radius, first ionization energy, and electronegativity using your knowledge of atomic structure.

 Given a list of elements, place the elements in order of increasing or decreasing atomic radius, first ionization energy, or electronegativity. Justify your reasoning.

Writing assignment:

Periodic Trends – Atomic Radius, Ionization Energy, and Electronegativity

15 Assessments

RAFT Assignment: Choose one of the

following essential questions for this chapter to complete your RAFT assignment:

 How do we know what an atom looks like if we can’t see atoms?

 Why are silver and gold used to make jewelry?

 Why are chlorine and iodine used as disinfectants?

 Why do we use helium to inflate balloons instead of hydrogen?

RAFT assignment Study for Unit 2 test.

Updating...