PET, SPECT and CT for Small Animal Imaging

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(1)

State

State

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of

of

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the

the

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-

art of

art of

PET, SPECT and CT

PET, SPECT and CT

for Small Animal Imaging

for Small Animal Imaging

Alberto Del Guerra

Department of Physics and INFN, Pisa,Italy

alberto.delguerra@df.unipi.it www.df.unipi.it/~fiig

(2)

Outline of the talk

A bit of history

PET and SPECT

CT and Image Fusion

(3)
(4)
(5)

Nobel Laureate in Physics

in 1939 “for the invention

and development of the

cyclotron”

(6)

1937

:

Technetium was discovered by

Carlo Perrier

and

Emilio Gino Segre

in Italy in 1937. It was found in

a sample of molybdenum bombarded by deuterons.

E. Segre

1959 Nobel Laureate in Physics

"for his discovery of the antiproton''.

Discovery of Technetium

Walter Tucker and Margaret

Greene discovered that technetium was coming from its parent,

molybdenum-99, which was following the decay chemistry of tellurium-132. Noticing a similarity between the tellurium-iodine parent daughter pair and the

molybdenum-technetium pair, Tucker and Greene developed the first molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

Walter Tucker and Powell Richards

Walter Tucker and Powell Richards, around the same time, Powell "Jim" Richards was placed in charge of radioisotope production at Brookhaven, where the team continued to refine and develop the generator.

(7)

Principle:

many photomultiplier tubes “see”

the same

large

scintillation

crystal; an

electronic

circuit

decodes the coordinates of each

event

(8)

C. D. Anderson

1936 Nobel Laureate in Physics

"for his discovery of the positron''.

August 1932

Carl D. Anderson found evidence for an electron

with a positive charge, later called the positron.

Anderson discovered the positron while using a

cloud chamber to investigate cosmic rays.

Anderson's first picture

of a positron track

The positron travelled downwards and lost energy

as it passed through a lead plate in the middle of

the chamber. Its track is curved because there was

a magnetic field in the chamber

Anderson, C.D.;

“The Apparent Existence of Easily

Deflectable Positives”

Science

76

(1932) 238;

(9)

First clinical positron

imaging device.

Dr. Brownell

(left) and

Dr

.

Aronow

are shown

with the scanner (1953).

1952

This instrument followed the general concepts of the

instrument build in 1950 but included many

refinements. It produced both a coincidence scan as

well as an unbalance scan. The unbalance of the two

detectors was used to create an unbalance image

using two symbols to record any unbalance in the

single channel rates of the two detectors.

First Clinical

Positron Imaging Device

Coincidence and unbalance scans of patient with recurring brain tumor. Coincidence scan (a) of a patient showing recurrence of tumor under previous operation site, and unbalance scan (b) showing asymmetry to the left. (Reproduced from Brownell and Sweet 1953 ).

(10)

Michel M. Ter-Pogossian, Mallinckrodt Institute

Michael E. Phelps, UCLA

Edward J. Hoffman, UCLA

M. E. Phelps

(11)

Outline of the talk

A bit of history

PET and SPECT

CT and Image Fusion

(12)

Emission vs. transmission tomography

Transmission tomography :

¾

external radiation source

(X-ray : 10 keV - 100 keV)

¾

anatomical structure

¾

Computed Tomography (CT), radiography

¾

spatial resolution: 1-2 mm, fraction of mm

Emission tomography:

¾

radioactively labeled substance administered

within the body (injected or inhalated)

¾

functional imaging

¾

SPECT: Single Photon Emission CT,

PET: Positron Emission Tomography

¾

spatial resolution: 4 - 6 mm PET

(13)

PET

detectors detect the

“back-to-back”

photons (

511 keV

)

produced during the

annihilation

process.

(14)

SPECT basic physics: collimated detection

SPECT

detectors detect the collimated photons

produced during the

decay

process.

Gamma ray emitting radioisotope Gamma ray Detected gamma ray Absorbed gamma ray

(15)
(16)

PET basic physics:

β

+

decay

e

O

F

+

β

+

+

ν

10

18

8

9

18

9

e

N

A

Z

N

A

Z

X

1

Y

+

1

+

e

+

+

ν

e

e

n

p

+

+

+

ν

(17)

PET basic physics:

β

+

decay

¾

Pet scanning does not detect positrons:

range too short.

Nuclide

Max.

β

+

energy

(keV)

β

+

range in

tissue (mm)

11

C

970

4.1

13

N

1190

5.1

15

O

1730

7.3

18

F

640

2.4

e

N

A

Z

N

A

Z

X

Y

+

e

+

v

+

+

1

1

n

T

E

E

E

E

=

+

+

ν

+

β

Kinetic energy balance:

(18)

PET basic physics: coincidence detection

¾

PET detectors detect the

“back-to-back”

photons (

511 keV

)

produced during the

annihilation

process.

(19)

The ring of small squares schematically represents one ring of detectors in a PET scanner, which may, for example, have fifteen such rings for simultaneous tomography of many transaxial slices.

Each detector can be operated in multiple coincidence with many detectors across from it, thereby defining coincidence sampling paths over many angles (fan-beam response).

Also, at any given angle many parallel coincidence sampling paths can be defined, resulting in high "linear sampling." These sampling features affect final image quality.

The tomograph's reconstruction software then takes the coincidence events measured at all angular and linear positions to reconstruct an image that depicts the localization and concentration of the positron-emitting radioisotope within a plane of the organ that was scanned.

(20)

Ring geometry

Parallel plane geometry

PET geometries

Gamma ray

detector

(e.g. scintillators)

Readout device

(position decoder, e.g. photomultipliers)

+

2D acquisition

with lead (or “software”) septa

3D acquisition

without septa

(21)

The Block Detector

1984-1985

Burnham, Brownell and colleagues at MGH developed a technique where scintillators were placed on a circular lightguide with photomultipliers placed on the opposite side of the lightguide. Charlie Burnham demonstrated that by taking the ratio of two adjacent photomultiplier signals, the scintillator that detected the gamma ray could be identified.

Mike Casey and Ronald Nutt, from CTI, introduce the "Block“ detector that was conceived as a means to simplify the Burnham detector and to make it easier to manufacture. Almost all dedicated tomographs built since 1985 have used some forms of the Block detector. This invention has made possible high-resolution PET tomographs at a much-reduced cost.

The block detector

Scintillators placed on a circular light guide with photomultipliers on opposite side of light guide.

(22)

β

+

is Emitted with Non-Zero Kinetic Energy

β

+

Travels Away from Isotope

Before Annihilation

Distance Depends on Radioisotope

Contribution:

0.55 mm (

18

F)

1.0 mm (

11

C)

1.4 mm (

13

N)

2.4 mm (

15

O)

β

+

e

Has Kinetic Energy (Not at Rest in Lab Frame)

Emitted 511 keV Gammas are Not Back-to-Back

Contribution Depends on Detector Ring Radius

(1.8 mm for 400 mm Whole Body PET, 0.44 mm for 100 mm Animal PET)

Contribution = 0.0022 D

(D Detector Ring Diameter in mm)

180° ± 0.25°

Fundamental Limit: intrinsic errors

(23)

Coding error:

Multiple penetration

Coding error: Parallax

Fundamental Limit: coding errors

Penetration of 511 keV photons into crystal blurs measured position.

Blurring worsens as detector’s attenuation length increases.

(24)

1.2

:

degradation due to tomographic reconstruction

d

:

crystal size

b

:

systematic inaccuracy of positioning scheme

D

:

coincident detector separation

r

:

effective source size (including positron range)

*

Derenzo & Moses, "Critical instrumentation issues for resolution <2mm, high sensitivity brain PET", in Quantification of Brain Function, Tracer Kinetics & Image Analysis in Brain PET, ed. Uemura et al, Elsevier, 1993, pp. 25-40.

Non-colinearity

Positron

range

Crystal

Coding

( )

2

(

0

.

0022

)

2

.

1

d

2

b

2

D

2

r

2

FWHM

=

+

+

+

Intrinsic

(25)

Accidental or random

R

~

ε

2

Δ

t

Δ

t

<

10 ns

Coincidence Circuit

Δ

t

Detector Scatter

PE

or Z

Scatter

Object

Δ

E ~10%

True

(26)

The light output from a scintillator is

then proportional to the energy lost by

the gamma ray.

The light is not emitted in one-shot but

it follows an exponential decay

behaviour due to the statistical

de-excitation of the atoms with a τ

between few tens up to few hundreds

of ns.

The “speed” of the decay is critical in

PET where a fast event discrimination

is required for the coincidence.

(27)

Material Density [g/cm3] Atomic numbers Light yield [%NaI(Tl)] Decay time [ns] Peak wavelength [nm] Time resolution [ns] Index of refraction Comments NaI(Tl) 3.76 11,53 100 230 410 1.5 1.85 Hygroscopic Low density

BGO 7.13 83,32,8 15 300 480 7 2.15 Low light

yield Slow

LSO 7.4 71,32,8 75 40 480 1.4 1.82 Intr. background 400 cps/cm3

GSO 6.71 64,32,8 26 600 430 - 1.85 Low light

yield Slow

CsI(Tl) 4.51 55,53 45 1000 565 - 1.80 Slow

YAP:Ce 5.37 39,13,8 55 27 370 1.1 1.95 Medium Z

™

Detectors are usually scintillators:

the most often used is BGO

(Bismuth germanate, Bi4Ge3O12) and

more recently LSO

(Lutetium Oxi-orto Silicate (LuSiO).

(28)

Present state of the art

Siemens / CTI

General Electric

Patient port 30 cm diameter (head machine)

or 50 cm diameter (body machine).

• 24 to 48 layers, covering 15 cm axially.

• 4–5 mm fwhm spatial resolution.

• ~2% solid angle coverage.

• “Several” million dollars.

(29)

Present state of the art: clinical PET systems

PET scanner

CPS Accel

GE advance

Philips Allegro

Crystal

LSO

BGO

GSO

Patient port

56.2 cm

58 cm

56.5 cm

No. Detector rings

24

18

Tot. no. Detectors

9216

12096

17864

No. slices

47

35

90

Coinc. Time window

6 ns

12 ns

8 ns

Sensitivity 3D (NEMA)

kcps/mCi cc

1445

1941

>1000

(30)
(31)

1. Subjects looking at a visual scene activated visual cortex

2. Listeningto a mystery story with language and music activated left and right auditory cortices

3. Countingbackwards from 100 by sevens activated frontal cortex

4. Recallingpreviously learned objects activated hippocampus bilaterally

5. Touching thumb to fingers of right hand activated left motor cortex and supplementary motor system

1

2

3

4

5

PET in neurology: brain functional imaging

Measurement of the glucose metabolism for the mapping of brain response

while performing different tasks .

(32)

PET in neurology: study of Alzheimer disease

PET scans show a very consistent diagnostic pattern for Alzheimer’s disease, where

certain regions of the brain have decreased metabolism early in the disease (see

arrows). In fact, this pattern often can be recognized several years before a physician is

able to confirm the diagnosis and is also used to differentiate Alzheimer’s from other

confounding types of dementia or depression.

(33)

Two tracers serve as the mainstay for clinical diagnosis:

Ammonia (13N-H3) for the assessment of regional perfusion, which allows for the

detection of regions of myocardium with decreased blood flow.

FDG for the assessment of regional glucose metabolic rate, which is one measure of the

metabolic activity of the myocardium.

PET in cardiology: myocardial metabolism and perfusion

Mismatch is a term that refers to differences in tracer distribution when comparing images obtained using two different tracers. Mismatch is often used to designate regions of myocardium where there is a decrease in blood flow and a corresponding increase in glucose metabolism. Such regions are important clinically, because they signify areas where there is viable tissue (as evidenced by persisting glucose metabolism) despite the decreased blood flow.

(34)
(35)
(36)

Outline of the talk

A bit of history

PET and SPECT

CT and Image Fusion

(37)

Start of

spiral scan

Path of continuously

rotating x-ray tube

and detector

Direction of

continuous

patient transport

0

0

t, s

z, mm

(38)

z z

1998: M=4

2002: M=16

<1998: M=1

z

MPR

(drawn in an

exaggerated way

Axial Geometry (z-direction)

(39)

here:

M

= 16

• 0.5 s rotation

• 16

×

0.75 mm

• 70 cm in 28 s

• 1.4 GB rawdata

• 1400 images

Cone-beam Spiral CT (CSCT)

(40)

Low-contrast resolution

Clinical CT

Flat Panel Detector CT

175 projections, half scan, 81 kV,

10x0.2 mm slices, 6.9 mGy

1160 projections, full scan, 80 kV,

2x2 mm slices, 6.9 mGy

(41)

CT only

The new frontier: PET /

CT

Motivation for multi-modality morphological-functional imaging

PET only

FUSED!

• Anatomical reperee

• Attenuation correction

• Easy ROI determination (better

quantification)

• More information:

• e.g. cancer follow up studies:

metabolic changes are usually

faster than anatomical changes

(42)
(43)

Outline of the talk

A bit of history

PET and SPECT

CT and Image Fusion

(44)
(45)

“From man to mouse...”

Why is small animal imaging necessary?

¾

Most human genes have a related mouse gene: mice can be used

as a platform for simulating many human diseases.

¾

Technological knowledge for producing different types of

transgenic mice.

¾

Rats are the preferred animals for studies on neuroscience.

¾

Possibility of non-invasive studies on the same animal:

¾

reduction in the number of sacrified animals

¾

each animal can serve as its own control: less variability

(46)

Clinical or dedicated tomograph?

PROS CONS

Clinical tomograph

Available, Validated, Large Field Of View

Low Resolution and Low Sensitivity

Dedicated

instruments High resolution and sensitivity

Validation of new detector concepts is needed

(new scintillators, readout schemes,

light sensors,etc.)

To fulfill the spatial resolution and sensitivity

requirements, dedicated instruments are necessary.

(47)

Spatial resolution requirements

Man

Rat

Mouse

Body weight

~70 kg

~200 g

~20 g

Brain

(cortex

apex-temporal lobe)

~105 mm

~10 mm

~6 mm

Heart

~300 g

~1 g

~0.1 g

Aorthic

cannula (

)

~ 30 mm

1.5 – 2.2 mm 0.9 - 1.3 mm

Human

Rat

2 mm FWHM

(8 mm

3

)

1 mm FWHM

(

1 mm

3

)

Required spatial resolution:

6 mm FWHM

(200 mm

3

)

¾

Small size detectors

(high pixellization)

¾

Individual detectors or

(48)

Intrinsic resolution of commercial scanners

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 1 2 3 4 5

Crystal pitch (mm)

Resolution FWHM

(mm)

Light Sharing ( b ~ 2.3 mm ) Electronic Coding ( b ~ 1.2 mm ) Individual Coupling ( b ~ 0 mm ) Crystal Resolution ( d/2 ) Tomitani Donner 600 (Berkeley) TierPET (Julich) MicroPET (UCLA)

YAP-(S)PET (ISE) APD-BGO

(Sherbrooke) SHR-2000 (Hamamatsu) Exact HR (CTI) Hammersmith RatPET (UCLA) MADPET (Munich) HIDAC microPET II Focus

GE eXplore Clear PET

LabPET A-PET Philips SHR-7700 (Hamamatsu) HRRT (CTI) BaF2/TMAE (VUB)

Courtesy of Roger Lecomte

(Sherbrooke Canada)

MADPET II

(49)

B A D C

(

) (

)

C D B A B A D C Y + + + + − + =

(

) (

)

C D B A D B C A X + + + + − + =

X

Y

CTI Exact HR detector block*

A BGO block is saw at different depth.

The light distribution is measured by 4 PMTs

Center of gravity calculation for X and Y

Identification from a LUT

A position sensitive PMT is used for the readout of the matrix

A matrix of closely packed finger crystals

YAP-(S)PET detector head

(50)

“light sharing” technique:

Hybrid position sensitive APD Multi Anode flat panel PMT“light sharing” technique:

MA-PMT (8×8 ch’s) Hamamatsu H8500 Active area 49 mm x 49 mm

Picture of a HPS-APD with four output connectors

Flood field image (241Am, 60 keV ) obtained with a 4x4

and 8x8 CsI(Tl) scintillating matrices

Flood field image (511 keV ) obtained with a 20x20 YAP:Ce scintillating matrix (resistive readout)

(51)

Scintillator matrix (BGO/LSO) APD array + High spatial resolution + No Pile-up + No scattering in the crystals - Expensive

The detector module is composed by a matrix of 8×4

LSO crystals readout by a Hamamatsu S8550

Implemented on MADPET II

APD

SiPM

SiPM are p-n diodes operating in Geiger mode, which means that the bias voltage is above the

diode breakdown voltage.

In this way output is independent from input: Ö the surface is divided into μ cells (~1000/mm2)

Signal Ncell of hit cells

+ High gain + Low noise

+ Good proportionality if Nphoton < Ncell

An array of SiPMs can be used for “individual” readout,

(52)

1-) Requirements

¾

Imaging of low activity sources:

low uptake processes such as in gene research

¾

Possibility to study fast metabolic processes:

characteristic time comparable with the scanning time

2-) Biological limitations

¾

Brain receptor saturation:

usually a maximum of 100 microCi can be injected into a mouse

¾

Limitation on the volume

a maximum of 300 microliters can be injected into a mouse

3-) Solutions

¾

Utilization of radionuclides with a very high specific activity

¾

High geometry efficiency:

large solid angle covered by detectors

¾

High detection efficiency (

e.g. for crystals: high/medium Z, high density

)

(53)

Sensitivity vs Resolution tradeoff

Stationary ring geometry

Rotating planar geometry

• Thick scintillator for high efficiency • Radial elongation due to parallax error

• Thick scintillator for high efficiency

• Slight tangential elongation due to parallax error

Reduce diameter / distance:

Increase solid angle coverage • Less crystals

• Thinner crystals for reducing parallax error Increase thickness with DOI capability

(54)

Courtesy of S. Cherry, UCLA, 2002 Specification (microPET II)

Scintillator: 14 × 14 LSO crystal array 90 detector modules in 3 rings 17640 LSO detector elements (0.95x0.95x12.5 mm each) Inner diameter: 16.0 cm

Axial FOV: 4.9 cm Transaxial FOV: 8.0 cm

Custom built gantry: 62 × 62 cm Number of LORs: 51,861,600 # sinograms (3D): 1764

# image planes: 83 3D dataset size: 200 MB

Spatial resolution: ~1.2 mm @CFOV Sensitivity: ~2.5% 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 5 10 15 20 FBP OSEM MAP, beta=0.1 MAP, beta=0.01 Volumet ric resolut ion (mm 3 ) Radial offset (mm) SIEMENS –CTI microPET FOCUS

(55)

High geometrical efficiency HiDAC PET

HIDAC: HIgh Density Avalanche gas Chamber

(multi-wire proportional gas chamber with the addition of a conversion/multiplication structure)

Specifications Quad HIDAC

FOV 28cm × 17cm Ø

No. of Detectors 4

No. of Chambers for each detector 8

Absolute Sensitivity 18cps/kBq

Resolution at Center 1.05 × 1.0 × 1.04 mm3

Reconstruction BPF, 3DRP, OSEM, ROPLE

Left: Rat 18F-FDG scanning

Right: bone scanning after the injection of 17MBq of 18F (OSEM reconstruction)

(56)

YAP-(S)PET

Scanner configuration

Configuration: Four rotating heads Scintillator: YAlO3:Ce (YAP:Ce)

Crystal size: 27 x 27 (1.5 x 1.5 x 20 mm3each)

Photodetector: Position Sensitive PMT Readout method: Resistive chain (4 channels) FoV size: 4 cm axial × 4 cm Ø

Collimators: (SPECT) Lead (parallel holes) Head-to-head distance: 10 cm

(57)

Dedicated detectors: Scintillators

M aterial D ensity [g/cm3] Atom ic num bers Light yield [%N aI(Tl)] D ecay tim e [ns] Peak w avelength [nm ] Index of refraction C om m ents N aI(Tl) 3.76 11,53 100 230 410 1.85 H ygroscopic Low density B G O 7.13 83,32,8 15 300 480 2.15 Low light yield

Slow

LSO 7.4 71,32,8 75 40 480 1.82 Intr. background 400 cps/cm3

G SO 6.71 64,32,8 26 600 430 1.85 Low light yield Slow C sI(Tl) 4.51 55,53 45 1000 565 1.80 Slow

YAP:C e 5.37 39,13,8 55 27 370 1.95 M edium Z

Good light yield (critical for low energy

photons in SPECT)

Easier pixel identification and better energy resolution

Fast decay time

(critical for PET)

excellent timing performance

Low photofraction

(58)

Why YAP (medium Z) for PET?

(Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite activated by Cerium)

Energy spectrum in a YAP:Ce block (4×4×3 cm3)

2000 1500 1000 500 0 E v en ts p er b in 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Energy (MeV) Number of interactions 1 2 3 4 >= 5 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Events per bin

0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Energy (MeV) Monte Carlo Experimental

Selecting the whole spectrum (instead of photo-peak

only) single interactions (i.e. first interactions ) are

privileged (about 65%) whilst other scintillators have a photofraction below 50%.

Selecting the events with an energy deposit below 400 keV (Compton only) mainly first interactions

are considered ⇒ Better point of interaction

reconstruction (center of mass calculation)

Higher sensitivity

(59)

YAP-(S)PET installations in Europe

AmbiSEN Center of excellence, University of Pisa, I University of Ferrara – Institute of Nuclear Medicine, I CEINGE – University of Naples, I

San Raffaele Hospital – Milan, I

ACOM Advanced Oncology Center, Macerata, I Archamps Technobiopark, F

(60)

Harderian glands Cerebral cortex Neostriatum Thalamus Olfactory bulbs Salivary glands Inferior colliculus Cerebellum Eye ball Transaxial sections (0.25 mm x 0.25 mm x 2.0 mm)

YAP-(S)PET animal imaging:

Brain metabolism in rat with

18

F-FDG (PET)

Wistar male rat (250 g) injected with 1 mCi (37MBq) of 18F-FDG. Uptake time:

45 minutes, acquisition time 60 minutes In collaboration with Department of Endocrinology,

(61)

Pentobarbital

Tribromoethanol

23.5 MBq injected,

uptake time 30 minutes, acquisitions 30 minutes, EM reconstruction (10 iterations)

29.6 MBq) injected, uptake time 38 min, acquisitions time 30 min,

EM reconstruction (10 iterations)

In collaboration with HSR S. Raffaele, Milano, Italy

YAP-(S)PET animal imaging: Effect of anesthesia on the

(62)

YAP-(S)PET animal imaging: rat model of Huntington’s disease

with

11

C-Raclopride (PET)

Surgery

Male Wistar rats weighting 300 g were injected icv in the left striatum with 210 nmol of QA solution and in the right striatum with PBS 0.1 mol/L. Stereotaxic coordinates: AP=+ 1.5, L=+ 2.6, V=-7.0 mm from the Bregma, according to the atlas of Paxinos and Watson.

Coronal Axial

Coronal

Coronal

Axial

Axial

Evolution of a monolateral lesion QA induced

Autoradiography

Eight and thirty days after the surgery respectively, two rats were injected with 130 μCi of [11C]Raclopride and sacrificed

after 30 minutes. The brain was rapidly removed and coronal section of 2 mm-thickness were performed on unfrozen tissue using a brain matrix. Acquisition for 100 minutes with Cyclone Storage Phosphor System .

L

L

L

(63)

Rat with

brain glioma

Control Rat

Normal rats (Wistar) were compared with rats with a brain glioma in

terms of brain glucose consumption (FDG). The technique is able to

identify the size and the position of the tumor in the brain.

YAP-(S)PET animal imaging

Oncology: F98 tumor bearing rat (PET).

In collaboration with CNR-IFC Pisa

(64)

Axial sections (0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm voxel)

Sprague-Dawley male rat (204 g) Injected activity 300 MBq of 99mTc Myoview

Scan time: 80 min. (180 min. post injection)

YAP-(S)PET animal imaging: Perfusion in the

myocardium with

99m

Tc-Myoview (SPECT).

Coronal sections (0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm voxel) In collaboration with CNR-IFC Pisa

(65)

Mouse injected with 10 mCi (370 MBq) of 99mTc-MDP.

Uptake time: 2 hours, acquisition time 82 minutes (3

bed positions). Mouse (200 g) injected with 2 mCi

(74 MBq) of 18F-. Uptake time: 2 hours,

acquisition time 1 hour (2 bed positions).

Mouse (200 g) injected with 2 mCi (74 MBq) of NaF. Uptake time: 2 hours, acquisition time 1 hour (2 bed positions). Longitudinal

sections

PET modality

SPECT modality

Transaxial slices (2 mm thick)

In collaboration with Oncodesign,Dijon, France

YAP-(S)PET animal imaging: bone metabolism in

(66)

Micro Computed Tomography

(Micro-CT, µCT)

There is no unique definition for µCT!

Here (arbitrary): Spatial resolution of better than 100 µm

Configuration (Typical): Rotating gantry or rotating object

Circular or spiral data acquisition

Fan- and cone-beam data acquisition

X-ray tube or synchrotron radiation

(67)

Benchtop Micro-CT (rotating object)

cone beam high voltage x-ray tube CCD detector sample axis of

(68)

X-ray CT instrumentation

Linear detector (fan beam)

Recon.: Filtered Back-Projection (FBP)

Flat panel detector (cone beam)

Recon.: Feldkamp Filtered Back-Projection (FBP)

Rotation Rotation

Traslation

Micro focus X ray source

Pro’s: Detector cost

Easy image reconstruction

Con’s: Traslation required Scanning duration

X-ray collimator is required

Pro’s: FOV, no traslation required Fast scanning

Con’s: Reconstruction complexity

Photodetector: scintillator or phosphor screen coupled to CCD or CMOS or semiconductor (e.g. a-Se)

(69)

Medical Applications of Micro-CT

Organ / Disease

Bone

Teeth

Vessels

Cancer

Sample / Animal

Biopsies

Excised materials

Small animals

(rats / mice)

in vitro

in vivo

(70)

Trabecular Structure

3D morphology

thickness

separation

structure model index

Anisotropy

3D density

30 years

70 years

(71)

Badger et al.:

Badger et al.:

Arth

Arth

&

&

Rheu

Rheu

2000

2000

Induced Arthritis in Rats

Analysis by histology

Visualization by µCT

normal

normal

AIA

AIA

AIA treated

AIA treated

(72)

Vessels

in vitro scans

casting of vessels with

Microfil (compound with

lead chromate)

applications

heart

kidney

liver

lung

MPR

MPR

MIP

MIP

Vol

Vol

Rend

Rend

Holdsworth

Holdsworth

et al.: Trends Biotech. 2002

et al.: Trends Biotech. 2002

Wan et al: Comp

Wan et al: Comp

Biol

Biol

Med. 2002

Med. 2002

Ortey

Ortey

et al: Kidney Int. 2000

et al: Kidney Int. 2000

Brain

Brain

Kidney

Kidney

Tumor

Tumor

Heart

Heart

Courtesy of W. Kalender

(73)

Muscle and Fat

rat heart muscle

rat heart muscle

orientation of fibers

orientation of fibers

Jorgensen et al.:

Jorgensen et al.:

Am J

Am J

Physiol

Physiol

1998

1998

Mouse in vivo scans

Mouse in vivo scans

fat content and distribution changes

fat content and distribution changes

Hildebrandt et al.:

Hildebrandt et al.:

J

J

Pharmacol

Pharmacol

Toxicol

Toxicol

Meth

Meth

2002

2002

(74)

Cancer Research

Monitoring of

Lung cancer growth

by micro-CT

Resolution 150 µm

Scan time 5-7 min

here: no change in

tumor size

Kennel et al.: Med Phys. 2000

Day

Day

0

0

10

10

12

12

14

14

tumor cell

tumor cell

injection

injection

treatm

treatm

.

.

start

start

Courtesy of W. Kalender

(75)

Small animal CT @ Pisa University

Expected CT performance

Spatial resolution 100-200μm FWHM Coefficient of variation (σμ/μ) 6% @ 80mm voxel

Schematic representation of

the small animal CT prototype.

Experimental setup at

INFN - University of Pisa

Hamamatsu S7199 (Fiber optic plate + scintillator (CsI) coupled to a CCD)

(76)

CT image representation

IS

3 cm

Volume Rendering

(77)

Bone Microtomography with photon counting detectors

Tomographic images of the finger joint of a chicken: transaxial (top-left), sagittal (top-right) and coronal (bottom-left). The 3D visualization (bottom-right) corresponds to the highlighted zone in the transaxial image. In the images above, the voxel is a cube of 30

μm. Typical thickness of trabeculae is 50-100 mm.

1 mm thick silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to the Medipix2 chip.

The detector is a matrix of 256 x 256 square cells, with 55 μm side.

The active area is 14 x 14 mm2 Single photon counting detector

(78)

Multimodalities: PET/SPECT

Concept: two opposing heads in PET mode and two heads in SPECT mode

Possible with the YAP-(S)PET scanner

Experimental proof of principle with YAP-(S)PET:

simultaneous PET/SPECT tomography

• 2 mm lead shields PET detectors from 140keV γ’s • SPECT detectors are in XOR

• Energy selection window for SPECT events

SPECT

SPECT

PET

PET

Collimators Lead shielding SPECT: 840µCi PET: 18µCi

PET and SPECT together

(79)

Multimodalities PET/CT: (fusion)

CT

Two independent scanners share the same animal bed.

The X-ray tomography obtained with the CT scanner is followed by

a PET scan or viceversa

PET

FUSED!

Obtained with the ImTEK CT scanner

Obtained with the MicroPET scanner

(80)

Multimodalities: PET/CT (co-registration)

18

F

Bone Scan

Minifocal x-ray tube

a-Se CMOS digital x-ray detector

LSO plate detectors for PET

Simultaneous PET and CT

acquisition

CT PET FUSED

(81)

Molecular imaging collaborations at Pisa

™

Center of Excellence AmbiSEN

(Molecular imaging)

Prof. Aldo Pinchera Dip. Endocrinologia e Metabolismo, Ortopedia e Traumat. Medicina del Lavoro Prof. Amedeo Alpi Dip. Biologia delle Piante Agrarie

Prof. Roberto Barale Dip.Scienze dell'Uomo e Ambiente Prof.ssa Giuseppina Barsacchi Dip.Fisiologia e Biochimica

Prof. Giovan Battista Cassano Dip.Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia, e Biotecnologie Prof. Giovanni Umberto Corsini Dip. Neuroscienze

Prof. Alberto Del Guerra Dip. Fisica "E.Fermi“

Prof. Antonio Lucacchini Dip.Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia, e Biotenologie Prof. Luigi Murri Dip. Neuroscienze

Prof. Piero Salvadori Dip. Chimica e Chimica Industriale Prof. Giulio Soldani Dip. Clinica Veterinaria

™Department of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, University of Pisa (PEM)

™ISE – Ingegneria dei Sistemi Elettronici(small animal PET/SPECT)

™ CNR Prof. Luigi Donato (small animal PET/SPECT)

™ Università di Ferrara (small animal PET/SPECT)

™ IRCCS “Stella Maris”(fMRI)

™ Università di Erlangen Prof. W. Kalender(small animal CT)

™ University of MainzProf. Frank Roesch

™ Ospedale S. Raffaele (Milano) Prof. F. Fazio (small animal PET/SPECT)

(82)

FIIG

www.df.unipi.it/~fiig

Alberto Del Guerra

Nicola Belcari Antonietta Bartoli Gina Belmonte Walter Bencivelli Laura Biagi Manuela Camarda Serena Fabbri Judy Fogli Stefania Linsalata Gabriela Llosa Llacer Sara Marcatili

Sascha Moehrs Daniele Panetta Michela Tosetti Sara Vecchio

Figure

Updating...

References