Poverty Lecture Notes

Full text

(1)

JCI

Generol

Poper 2009:

Poverly Leclure

Noles

A,

Some

fast

fac*

{source: www.gtobotissLJes.org)

Alrnost holf the world

-

over 3 billion people

-live on less thon $2.50 o doy.

The GDP (Gross Domesiic Produci)

of

the

4l

Heovily

lndebted

Poor Counlries {567 miltion

people) is less thon the v,eolih of ihe world's 7

richesl people combined.

Neorly o billion people eniered jhe 2tsl century unoble lo reod o book or sign lheir nomes. Less lhon one per

cenl

of

whoi

the world spenl

every

yeor on

weopons

wos needed

10 pul every

child inlo

school

by the

yeor 2000 ond

yet it did not hoppen.

I

billion children iive in poverly

{l

in 2 children in

I

i-the world).

640 million live wiihoLrl

odequoie

services. 10.6 rniliion died in 2003 before they reoched the

oge oi 5

(or roughly 29,000

children per doy).

E.

(oncepts

Also exisls wilhin

weollhy

nolions such

os

USA where 32 million

people,

or

l2%

of

ils

populolion, llve below lhe povedy line.

The Poverty Line. This is the minimum

dondord

of living in o sociely ll vories from sociely

io

society (USA US$1,000, 3d Worid U59250).lhe poverty Line resufts in

the

Nodh-South

Divi.le

Absolule poverty.

A

condilion in which

o

person is deemecl

not

lo

permonenlly hove enough

lo

sotisfy bosic biologicol needs for food,

woler,

sheller

ond

clothing. people

ore

molnourished, diseose+idden, clre vulneroble

lo

nolurol ond

mon

mode

disosters

ond live in oppolling condilions.

Relqlive poverly. A condilion ln which o person is deemecl not lo hove enough lo leocl o

full life compored wiih olher people in

lhe

communily. people live

in conceniroled

colleclive poverly in cily slums, with peeling point ond inodequoie heoling.

The Poverty Cycle. lt is

o

vicious cycle,

o

trop, which leods

io o

culiure of poverly. poor

home

conditions....low

educolion....poor

jobs....eorly mordoge....lorge fomily....poor home....

The Shorl-term Poor. They move out of poverty wiihin o few monihs, o yecrr, or

ol

mosl o

few yeors,

The long-term Poor. Poverty losls

ol

leosi B yeo6. Very few people poss povedy ocross

generoiions. Only

I

in 5 persons who ore poor os children ore slill poor when ihey ore

(2)

C.

A" Closer

fooLat

(Poverty

i. Couses

of

Poverly

The

Theory

of

lnnote

lnferiority

.t"i-t

o

reloiionship between

ihe

lock of success (preslige oi

job

ond eornings) ond ihe lock of intelligence ond chorocier. 11 orgues thot ihe

poor ore in

ihot

condilion

becouse

lhey

do nol

meosure

up

to

ihe

more well

lo

do

in

inlellecluol endowmenl ond

morollibre.

(This theory hos, however, lorgely been

rqecled

by

sociol scieniists)

rne

Theofo

of

Culturol

lnferiority

ctoims

lnoi

the poor hove diftereni volue syslems

ond

lifesiyles from

lhe

resl

ol

sociely

ond lhol

these cullurol differences exploin continued

poverly. such cullure resulh lrom oclopiing lo lhe condilions ol poverly. Hence, lhe poor ore soid

io

hove

o

presenl-time orienioiion rolher thon fulure+ime orienlolion, which therefore mokes them less

opl lo

defer grolificolion, less likely

lo

be

inleresled in fonnol educolion,

more fololislic

ond

unwiling

lo

seek

opporiuniiies

ond

more

resisloni

iowords

loking

responsibilily for iheir own economic well-being.

tn recenl yeors,

cUltUrol

explonotions

seem

lo

hove mode

o

comebock. The l9B5

book Underdeve/opment Is

o slole of

Mind hos recenlly been reissued,

which

cloims

lhol

Lolin Americon poverly is coused by Colholic volues

inheiied

by Lotin Americon counlries. Politicol scienlist Somuel Hunlingion colloboroied with Horrison on on

ediled

volume colled

Cullore

Mofters:

How

Voloes Shope Humon Progress.

Al

ihe

some

iime,

lhe

World Bonk

begon

lo

pick up the lheme of

cullurol explonolions,

pulling

milions

of

dolors

inlo

new

reseorch

ond

conferences on

lhe

subjecl,

ond

funding projecls in poor counlries mode 1o chonge culllrrol volues.

Sociologisi Mox

weber

wos

lhe

firsl

fo

suggesl

ihol

it

wos cullurol volues

thol offect

how economicolly successful

o

person

would

be. ln

his

Ihe

Proleslonl Ethic

ond

the Spiil of

Copifolism,

he

orgues

thot lhe

Proleslont Reformolion

led

10 volues

lhoi

drove

people loword worldly ochievements,

o

hord

wo*

ethic, ond soving

lo

occumulole weolih. Oihers

exponded on weber's ideos, producing modernizolion lheory ond putling forword o process

thol

oll notions should follow

to become

odvonced induslriol notions. They believed thot to

(3)

Experts otso highttght

Structurol

Theories

thoi

point

the

finsers

or lnstitutionol

Discriminolion,

which

occurs

when

the

cuslomory

woys

of

doing

ihings, prevoiing

oliilucies

ond

expeclolions,

ond

occepled

slruciurol

crrTongemenls

work

io

the

disodvontoge

of

the poor,

ior

povedy. For one,

l-flo51

good

jobs

feqUife highef

educoiion.

bur

rhe

poor

connol

offord

to

send

their

children to

college,

which therefore meons

thoi

they

CoFthol

goin

occess

to

lhe

very

some

jobs.

There

courd

otso

oe

limited opporlunities

in

life

for

rociol

minOfities,

who mcy

foce

discriminoiion in lerms of emptoymeni,

Ond

WOmen,

who

moy be disodvantoged by lheir very troditionol role os coreqiver ond nuriuTeT.

Uglqylig

s

ethnic

lndion communily

stoged ils

biggesl onli-governmenl sireet

proteti

on

Sundoy

when

more

thon

10,000 proteslers

defied

ieor

gos oncl

woter connon

lo

voice complainls

of

rociol discdminolion. Mony prolesiers complo

ned of

o

lock of

educolionol ond business opporlunilies,

so/ng

o governmenl ofiirmolive-oclion policy in fovor of mojorily

eihnic

Mcrlqys

hod

morginolized them. Opposilion groups soy

lhe

mosi severe coses of

poverly exisl omong lndions. Broughl over os indenlured lobor from the lote lB00s by coloniol ruler Briioin, lndions worked Moloyos rubber esioles. These esioies

were

lclter broken up,

forcing mony unskilled lndion workers inlo poveriy in lhe ciiy.

fl

I Nov 07, Ihe Siroits limes,l

Some cloim

lhoi

poverty is olso

lhe producj of

cleindustrio izoiion. As

ihe

LJ.S. shifls from o

monufoclurjng, induslriol socieiy

io o

service-orienl--d, high tech society, mony

of

the b ue,

col crrjobs

lhoi

requirecl ljlile edLJcolion bul poid well ore disoppeoring or beinq

oulsourced-Even tomilies with hvo working porenls ore

oflen

one slice

of bod

luck

,

o

medicol

bili or

'oclorv clo\L

A

owoy 'ro'n di,osle'. The mini.nu.n wooe

ol

$5.15(!2.95) on l^our ho1 nor ri(en

since 1997 ond, odjr.rsled for inflolion, is

ol

iis lowest since 1956. The

qop

between

ihe

hoves

oncl lho hove nor5 looms

wder

rhon

e!e..

Mony

believe

i

is -he

chorgi.rg

fo.e

o'

lhe

U_!

economy. Tulso hos been devosloled by

job

iosses. Big-nome firms like Wo;dCom, Willioms Energy ond

Citco

hove closecl or moved, costing the cily

oboul

24,000 jobs. Now Wol,Mod

embodies lhe new Americon job morkef: low woges, few beneflls.

WelLpoid work onLy goes

lo

lhe

universily

educoled.

Mony others who just

compleie

high

schoolfoce o bleok future. ln Texos more lhon o third of studenls

enle

ng public high schools

now clrop oul. These people ore enlering

lhe

frogile world of the working poor, where eoch

(4)

WOffofe

diverts scorce resources

io

moinloining mililory insleod of fighling poverly. lt olso couses moleriol ond humon desiruciion, brinqinq oboui moior developmeniol problem.

From i 990

to

1993,

lhe

period encompossing Deserl Slorm, per

copilo

GDP in Lqq fell from

$3500 10 $761. The drop in overoge income, while o slriking represenlolion of the drop in ihe well-being

of

ihe

overoge

lroqi citizen

in the oflerrnoih of the wor,

foils

lo

copiure

lhe brooder offecls

of

domoges

to lhe

infroslruclure

ond

sociol services, sLrch os heollh core

oncl occess lo cleon

woler-Anolher exomple is

the wor between

Ethiopio

ond

Eriheo

from

1999

to

2000

over

lheir

borders. During this period

bolh

couniries

foced

severe

food

shorloges due 10 droughl yet

scorce resources were being spent on fighting.

Noturol

disosters,

such

os

droughls,

flooding,

hurricones

ond

eodhquokes hove

clevosloled

comrnunities

due

lo

lhe

cleslruciion

of

consiruclions

ond

inlrosiruclure.

Environmenlol forces ofien couse

ocuie

periods of crisis by desiroying crops oncl onimols.

Droughl,

exocerboled

by ihe

2004 desed

locusl

invosion,

led

lo

o

poor

horvesl. This, combinecl

with

on

economic

crisis

ond

shorply higher

food

prices,

hos brolrghl

ldgg!'s

olreody

impoverished

populolion

lo

crilicol

levels

of

food

insecurily,

wilh

on

estimoled

2.5 million people, including

obout

800000 children,

ol

r5k

of food

shorioge. Severe child molnulrilion, which okeody offecls oround 150 000 children, is ropidly on ihe rise. (Food ond

Agriculfurol Otganisofion of lhe United Nolions/

The Februory 2000 floods in Mozombioue, poris

oi

gqE]!g!g,

South Africo

ond

zimbobwe

deslroyed the livelihoods of over

o

million people, leoving lhem

wilh

no food or shelier

ond

olher essenliol inf rostruciure.

Climote chonge

in the form of globolworming hos coused mony chonges oround lhe

world. Temperolures orouncl the

wo

d hove gone up, cousing iormers to experience less roin, ihus resulting in lesser horvesi. Woler leves in

lhe

oceons ore rlsing 1oo

ond

some couniries

ore becoming more prone 1o llooding. Climole

chonge

primoily offecis

the

livelihoods of people

lhoi

depend

on

lhe

nolurol envkonmenl which, in Africo, meons neorly everyone.

The pooresl regions

ond

people sLrfler

lhe

mosl, becouse they rely on noiurol resources

lo

meel ihek bosic needs. They olso hove

lhe

leosl resources

lo

deol

wilh lhe

elfecls of their

chonging

environmenl. The

impoci

of

climole chonge will foll

disproportionotely upon

developing

counlries

ond ihe

poor

persons

wilhin

ol

counlries,

lhereby

exocerboling

inequities ln heollh slolus ond occess io odequote foocl, cleon woler ond olher resources. A

direct

efiecl

of climoie chonge will be on

increose

in

lemperolure re

oled

illnesses oncl

deolhs. Extended inlense

heot

woves

combined with

humidity

moy

increose

deolh

ond

diseose roies, especiolly omong the eldefly ond in city slums. Another effecl will be increosed

deolh

oncl injury

from

exlreme

weolher

evenls such os flooding, lonclslides,

ond

slorms.

Chonges in temperoiure

ond

roinfoll moy olso

chonge ihe

geogrophic ronge

ot

diseoses such os molorio ond dengue fever.

ln Jonuory 2006, the Fomine Eody Worning Syslems Neiwork reporled lhot in

(C!yq,

the

iood

shorloge problem ocross lhe counlry wos olorming ond would probobly

gel

worse. Lock of roin

or

floodinq resulls in

foiled

crops,

ond poor weother

conditions

ore becoming

more

(5)

Coffuption

clireclly

oflecls poverty

crncl rnequcl

ily when

leoders

help

lhemselves

lo

money

lhoi

would

olherwise

be

usecj for development projecls. The unJoir disiribulion

oi

income

ond

inefficienl use of resources in iurn breeds clisconteni

ond

instobility omong the people. Corrupiion crffecls lhe pooresi ihe mosl, whelher in rich or poor notions, oncl is often

occomponied

by cenlrctliscrlion

ol

power when leoders ore

nol occounioble lo

lhose ihev

The Kenyon Bribery lndex 2005 reporls

thoi,

in 2004,34%

of

jhose surveyecl encounlered

bribes. The Police Force

received lhe

worsl ronking. Allhough

the

number

of

bribes hos

decreosed in recenl yecrrs, lhe size ot

lhe

bribes hos increosed. {Kenvo is ronkecl

l47llB0;n

ihe

worlcl

on

the

Corruplion Perceplion lndex) Countries suffering

from poveriy

such os

Zimbobwe, Sudor!, Congo, Myonmor ond Somolio clre

ol

the botiom len oi this index.

.o ttauoesirri

o,

iruslroiing poveriy

reduclion

slroiegies

in

lheir member

slcltes. An officiol

from Tonzonio Associoiion

of

Non-covernmenlol Associoiion Orgonizolions {TANGO), Musso Billegeyo, soid yeslerdoy in Dor es scr oom thot SADC region wos very rjch in nolurol resources bul iis people

remoined poor. Accorcling

to

Billegeyo, SADC region hos

o

loi

of

noluroj resources which, if

monoged properly, could heip erodicole poverty. He noled thol,

lhe

levels of conuplion in

the

region were very high,

ond

likely 1o jeoporclize

lhe

lrusl clmong rnember sloles in lhe process

of pulling

in

ploce

o

colleciive SADC s poverly reduclion frcrmework. {30 Jonuory 2008,Ihe Guordian)

One

of

ihe

more

enirenched

sources

of

poveriy

ihrougholri

the word

is

SOCiOI

inequolity

siemming from culiurol icleos

oboul the

retotive

worth

of

cltfferent gencters,

roces.

eihnic

groups

ond

socicrl closses. lndividuols

in

dilfereni

socielies

ore

ofien coleatixized

oi

birth bosed

on

vorious choroclerislics

such os reigion, ejhnic

or

roce.

lne.l

ir ily is increosing in o world while the world oppeors 10 be globolizinq.

ln

!jz!!LA

icon h6tory oporlhaid lows definecj o binory coste sysiem

ih(ll

ossigned diiferenl

riglitr

.rr lock

lhereof,

ond

sociol sloius

to

Whiles

ond

Blcrcks,

usinq

skin

colour lo

or

I

.rl;colly delermine ihe opportunilles ovoiloble

io

individuols in eclch group.

ln (c-rl!g, women's righis

to

properly cire unequol

to

lhose

of

men. Women,s righls

io

own

on.r inherii properly

ore

conlinuolly under oltclck from

cusloms, lows,

oncl

inclivicluols.

incl!.Jin.l government officiols

who

believe

lhot women connot be

lrusled

wilh

or

do

nol

clelerve properly. Women in Kenyo moke up B0

perceni

of lhe ogriculiurol lclbour force ond

prcvicle 60

percenl

of fclrm income ond

yel

own only 5 percenl

of

the lond.

lhe

iroditionol

divisior oi lcrbour olso overburdens women who hove lo spend fime ond energy on clomeslic chores, such os felching woler ond firewoocl, morkeling, ond roisjng the children in oddition 10 the fornl work, in mony coses, being o womon meons being poor,

Mony

believe ihcll mosl

cleveloping nolions

ore in

debi

ond

poveriy porily

clue

to

lhe

SlfUCtUrOl

OdjUStment

pOliCieS

of inlernoiionoi insiitulions such os ihe lnternotionot

Monelory Fund {lMF)

ond

ihe

World Bonk. Arnong olher cooclilions, SAp policies

odvocole

privolizolion of siole owned enlerprises 10 privoie owners, oflen foreign invesiors. privqiisoiion is, unforlunoiely, lypicolly ossociolecl with lcryoffs

ond poy

culs for workers in

ihe

privotized enlerprises. The slondord SAP policy

pockoge

olso cclJls for

cuh

in governmenl spencling,

which often

meons

o

reducljon in

services ovcriloble

lo

ihe

poor,

inclucling

heollh

ond

educoiion

seryices, os well os form subsidies. Afler oirnosi

lwo

decodes

of

,,ocljuslmenl,' in

Africo, the resull hos been on increose in incorne clnd weolth inequcrlily wiih more oncl more popu crlions being pushed below the poverly line.

(6)

ii. The

Psychologicol Consequences of

Poveriy

Being

poor

is

degfoding.

lhe

poor oflen

clefine lhemselves os follures,

ond moy

be rejecled ond clespised b'y oihers in society.

Being poor

engendefs

hopelessnesS,

*hich

moy resuli in opolhy. The poor

connol

oiford io go on slrikes ogoinsl low woges or big renl ond connol offord lowyers or lobbyisls. ln

mony socieiies,

lhe

poor reolise

lhe

overwhelming odds ogoinst lheir ochieving succets ln

lerms

of lhe

volues

ond

gools

of

moinsireom sociely. Consequenily, they moy

lend to

feej

thoi iheir foies ore in lhe honds of

poweful

olhers-Being poor

engendefs ongef

ond

fesentment.

The poor ore u"ry oflen lhe lost

to be hirecl_ond the first to be fired. They oflen live in poor housing wilh filthy conditions- They

poy hiqher inleresl roles becouse lhey ore poor credil risks - onolher vicious cycle. They see

offluence oll oboui lhem

bJl

no motler how hord ihey lry, ore unoble lo shore in it.

iii.

other

lmpocl

/

lmplicqlions

ot Poverty

Mosl ot the poor people live in

sUbstondord living conditions.

most of which hove

no bosic sewoge, cleon woler or eleciriciiy.

Such

living

condilions,

coupled with

lhe

lock

of

oclequoie food, moke them

mofe

vulneroble

lo

preventoble

diseoses.

over ihe

post three decodes.

mony diseoses

were

cliscovered

lo

hove

originoled

from

developing counlries

lhol

hod

rudimenicrry surveillonce copobility. The ihree primory diseoses of povedy ore AIDS, molorio, ond luberculosis.

"Mqlqriq

ond

poverly ore

inlimolely connecled.

As

bolh

o

rool couse

ond

o

consequence of poverly, molorio

is

mosl

inlroclqble

for

lhe

pooresl counlries

ond

communilies

in

lhe

world

lhol foce

o

vicious

cycle

of

poverly ond

ill

heqfth",

/rhe Eorih lnslitule, univesily of Colombio)

ll is no coincidence

ihol

the only ports of Africo thot hove significonily reduced molorio ore

lhe norihern ond soulhern tips, home lo lhe richest counlries on lhe conlinent. ln ihe Weslern Hemisphere, lhe country with lhe worsl molorio, Egl!. olso hoppens lo be ihe pooresl

counlry in

tlol

region . It ebruory 20Ol. lhe

l(

onomic Eurden

ol

Matol;o. leffrey So( h\ & John

(7)

Poveriy resutts in rnony receiving

inodeqUole

of

o lock

of educolion.

EveniuolLy,

lhese chilclren grow up oncl hold

deod

end, low pcrying

ond

unsloble iobs due

lo

iheir low

level of

educolion.

ncome becomes more erroiic due

lo

unsioble income oncl ihey encl up being sluck in ihis poveriy lrop.

The denioF

of

eclucolionol odvonioges meons

crtso

thot

mUCh

hUmOn

tOlent

femoins

hidden

ond

repfessed.

The whole society

k

thus poorer cufiuro

y

ond

molerioliy.

Poveriy

ond

third worlcl

debl

hove been

shown

io

resutt

in

feSOUfCe

Stfipping

Oy counlries offeciecl in order lo survive oT poy off clebts. Also, poor counlries ore more likely

lo

ollow foreign

industries

ond locol

businesses

to operote below lhe

envifonmentol

stOndOfds.

Such ociions

hove

in

iurn

resutled

in

voriolrs

environmentol

problems.

n recenl yeors, Nepol

ond

Bonqlodesh hove suffered from

ofien believed lo be resuliing from Jorge scole deforeslcliion.

increosingly devosloiing floods, /www. g/obo/issues. orgl

Poverty is one

of ihe

mo;n couses

oi

forest

ond woodlond

clegrodolion in southern Africo

ond il is bolh o consequence ond

o

corrse of lhis degrodqtion. ln ihe SADC region noiionol foreds

ore oso being

exploiled for homesleod construclion moleriqls. The deslruciion of foresh

lhqi

resulis conlribuies

to

lond degrodoiion

processes

ond

ollers

ihe

soil woter

regimes. A clegroded environmenl produces less, so people

become

moTe vulneroble, for

exomple, lo woler borne ond olher diseoses. fsoulhern

Atico

Regionol paverfy Nef{ork)

Children

from

poor

ond

clisodvonloged fomilies

ore ol

risk

of

low

tiierot

According to

o

2003 Repod Cord on Child poverty in

Conodo

by Comporgn 2OOO, even in

the yeor 2001, olrnosi one in six children in Conodo still lived in poverly. These chilclren ore

ollen nol well served by lhe school syslem where lhey ore likely

io

be lobelled ond ploced in

c osses where less is expecled of ihem ond less moy be offered. Their porenls moy nol hove

lhe

informolion,

confidence,

or skills

to

chollenge

the

school syslem

for

help_ Mony poor

children either drop oui of high school or groduole wilhout being fully literoie. /Movement for Cancldion Lileroc

Poorer developing counlries oflen hove insuflicienl environmenlcll restroinls on lhe

conducl

oi corporolions. ln these developed counlries, which ore eoger for foreign inveslmenl oncl jobs, corporolions hove significonlly more lreedom 1o exploii noiurol resources ond pollLtte

lhe envkonmenl, oflen wilhout hoving lo poy even o smoll pod of lhe envkonmenlol cleon

(8)

Poveriy funclomenlolly

erodes o

poputotion.

Conflicts

develop os

siole's copocily

to

cleliver essenliol services

io

ihe peop e iighi for suryivol.

The combinoiion of decodes ot clroughl, desertificolion, ond overpopulolion ore omong ihe

couses of

lhe

Dorfur confllci. The United Nolions eslimoles thcrl the conflict hos lefl os mony

os 300,000 cleod from violence ond diseose.

Ihe

fruslrolion-oggression lheory oncl the relolive

deprivo

an iheory suggesl

lhoi

individuols

become

oggressive

when

lhere ore obslocles {perceived

ond

reol)

to

their srrcce\\ in life

Dollord el

ol

(1939), in

whot

becorne known os the fruslrolion oggrestion hypofhesis, orgued

thol "lhe

occunence

ot

oggressive

behoviour

cllwoys presupposes

the

exislence

of

fruslrolion ond, conlroriwise,

lhot lhe

exhtence

of

fruslrolion olwoys leods

io

some form

oi

oggression".

They defined frusirolion

os

prevenling

ihe

fu

fillmenl

of

o

gool.

Closely

ossocioled wilh ihe fruslroiion-oggression lheory is lhe re/oiive deprivotian lheary. This theory

slresses

lhol

somelimes people perceive lhemselves io be deprived re oiive to olhers. ll is the

perceplioruihoi

creoles

lhe

inler-group hoslility, rother thon lhe

ocluol

reloiive siolus of ihe lwo groups.

These theories

ore

relevonl in discussinq

lhe

reloiionship

beiween poverly ond conflicl

in

Africo. With poor governonce slruclures

ond

unequol occess

ond

distribLrtion of economic

resources, some segmenis ot

ihe

populolion

lend

io

hove

belier

opporiuniiies thon olhers. This inevilobly olters power relolions ond in iurn leods

lo

ihe persisience

ol

poveriy omongsl

cerloin groups wilh very serious consequences for sociol slobilily.

povedy hos

been

hoired os

o

threct

lo

globol

security

ond

terrorism,

with

experls

concl!ding ihol

"povedy breeds lerror". World poverly creoies condiiions conducive

lo

jronsnoiionol criminol enierprises

ond

lerrorisJ clcliviiies,

nol only by

moking desperole

individuo s potenliolly more susceplible 1o recruilment,

bul

olso,

ond

more significonlly, by

undermining

ihe

siole's obilily

io

prevenl

ond

counler those violeni lhreois. Also, much of

modern doy lronsnollonol ierrorism seems to generole from grievonces ogoinsl rich counkies.

Worlcl leoclers meeling

ot

o developmenl summit in Mexico hove colled for increosed oid

lo

poor co!niries

lo

help slomp oui exlreme poverly os o motivolion for

ierorism.

Former heod

of the World Trode Orgcrnisollon {WTO), Michoel Moore, soid thot poverly is whol he colls the "greolest sing e lhreot

io peoce,

securily, democrocy, humon righis

ond

ihe environmenl".

(9)

iv.

lmpocl

of

Poverly on Women

qnd Children

Poverly mokes

people,

especiolly

women

ond

chidren,

vulneroble

io

vorious

iypes

of

exploiloiion.

An eslimoled I58 million children oged 5-14 ore engoged in

child

lobour - one in six children

in the

worrd. Milions

of

children

Ore

engoged

in

hOZOrdOUs

SitUOtiOnS

Or

COnditiOnS,

sucn os working in mines, working wilh chemicols ond pesticides in ogriculture

or working wilh dongerous mochinery. Sorne loil os clomeslic servonls in homes, while olhers loboLrr behind ihe wolls of workshops, hidden from view in plonlolions. ln Sub-sohoron Africo oround one in lhree children ore engoged in child lobour, represenling 69 million children. ln

souih

Asio,

onoiher

44 mlttion

ore engoged

tn chitd

tobolr.

Childfen

living

in

the

poorest

households

ond

in

rurol oreos

ore

most

likely

to

be

engoged

in

child

lobour.

rnose

burdened

wilh

househotd

chores

ore overwhclmingly girls. Millions of girls who work os domeslic servonls ore especiolly vulneroble

to exploilotion ond obuse. /UNICEF/

The

proctice

of girls

morrying ol o young oge

is most common in sub,sohoron Africo ond

Soulh Asio. Survey

dolo

of oround 100 couniries showed

ihot;n

developing counlries, more

thon 6[r mi/lion women

oged

20-24 were

moried/in

unlon belore ihe

oge of

]8. Over

ihirly-one

rn

on of lhem live in Soulh Asio. ln counlries like Bonglcldesh, Cenlrol Africon Republic, Chcr.l. Guineo, Moli,

ond

Niger more lhon 60 per

cenl

of women enlered into morrioge or into

o

L,nion before their eishteenth birthdoys.

Girls

living in

the pooresl

20

per

cenl cf

households

ore

more

likely

to get

morried

of on

eorly

oge

lhon

those

living

in the

weollhiesl 20 per

cent.

ln

peru 45 per

cenr

of women were morr;ed by

oge

lB omong

ihe

pooresl 20 per

cenl,

compored

lo

S per

cenl

omong lhe

richesi 20 per cent (UNICEF eslimotes bosed

on

DHS 2000J. porenh choose

lo

morry off their doughiers eorty ior o number of reosons.

POOI

fomilies

moy

fegofd

O

young girl os

on

economic burden

ond

her

morrioge

os

o

(10)

lrofficking

is

o

viololion

ot

fundomeniol rights. Trofficking

in

children is

o

globol

probiem

offecling

lorge numbers

of

children. Some estimoles

hove

os mony

os

1.2 rnillion children

beins lrofficked

every yeor. There is

o

demond for

trofficked children

os

cheop

lobour

or

for

sexuol

exploiloiion.

chilclren ond their fomilies ore

often

unowore

of

the

dongers

of

trofficking, believing

thol

better

employment

ond

lives

lie

in

olher

counlr;es.

uNlcEF esiimoies

thot

1,000 to

l,5OO Guolemolon bobies ond children ore trofficked eoch yeor for

odoplion

by couples in

Norih Americo oncl Europe. Girls os young os

l3

(moinly from Asio

ond

Eoslern Europe) ore

trofficked os "moiForder

brides".

ln mosi coses, ihese girls

ond

women ore powerless ond

isototed

ond

oi

greol

risk

of

violence.

Lofge

numbers

of

children

ore

being

trofficked

in West

ond

Centrol Africo,

moinly for

domeslic

work

but

olso

for

sexuol exploitolion

ond to

work

in

shops

or on

forms.

Neorly

90

per

cent

of

these

trofficked domestic

workers

ore

girls.

Children from Togo, Moli, Burkino Foso

ond

Ghono

ore irofficked

to

Nigerio, lvory Coosl,

Comeroon-ond Gobon. Children ore trofficked both in ond out of Benin

ond

Nigerio Some

children ore senl os for owoy os the Middle Eost ond Europe. IUNICEF/

Sexuol

oclivily

is often seen os

o

pdvote motter, moking communiiies reluclonl

to

ocl

ond

interyene in coses of

sexuol exploilolion.

These ollittrcles moke chilclren more vulneroble

io

sexuol exploilolion- surveys

indicole thot

30 10 35 per

cenl

of oll sex

wo(ers

in

the

Mekong sub-region of Soulheosl Asio ore

belween

12

ond

l/

yeors

of oge.

Mexico's sociol service

ogency reporls

ihoi

lhere ore more

thon

16,000 children engogecl in prosliluiion, wiih tourisl deslinolions being omong lhose oreos wiih lhe highesl number. ln Lilhuonio, 20 to 50 percent

of

prostiluies ore believed

lo be

minors. Children os young os

oge

I

I

ore known

lo

work os

proslilufes. Children

from

children's homes, some

l0 lo

12 yeors

old, hove been

used

io

moke pornogrophic movies. IUNICEF/

An eslimoled 3OO,O00

child

soldiers - boys

ond

girTs under

the oge

of

lB

-

ore involved in

more lhon 30 conflicls worldwide. Child soldiers ore used os combolonts, messengers, poriers,

cooks oncl

lo

provide sexuol services. Some

ore

forcibly recruited

or obducted,

Olhefs

ore

driven

to

join

by

poveriy,

obuse

ond

discriminolion, or

io

seek revenge for violence

enocled

oqoinsl lhemselves ond their fomilles. lo 20A2lhe Optionol Protocol

lo

fhe

Canvention

on the

Righls

of

the

Child

an the

lnvolvemenl

af

Childrcn

in

Armed Conflicf

enlered inlo force. li oullows ihe involvemenl of children under

oge

l8 in hoslilities. As well os

reqLliing Stotes 10 roise

lhe

oge

of

compulsory

recruilmenl

ond

direci podicipotion

in

conflicl

lo

lB,

ihe

optionol

Proiocol requires Slotes porties

io

roise

lhe

minimum

oge

for

(11)

During

ormed

confrict.

girls

ond

women

ore

threolened

by

rope,

domestic violence,

sexuol

exploitolion, lrofficking,

sexuol

humiliolion

ond

mutilotion.

Use of rope ond oiher forms oi viotence ogoinst women

hos become o slroiegy in wors for oll s'des_ lnvesiigotive reporis following

the

1994 genocide

in

Rwondo

concluded

ihot

neorly every

femole over

lhe oge

of

12

who

survived the

genocide wos roped- During

ihe conilict

in

ihe

former

yugotovio,

more

lhon

20,000 were

esiimoied

io

hove been

sexuo ty ossouted.

Conflict ojso

breoks

up

fomilies,

piocing odditionol economic

ond

emotionol

burdens on women.

Children

in ormed conflict

olso routinely

experience

emoiionolly

Ond

psychologiCOlly

poinful

events

such os

ihe

viotent cleoth or

o

poreni

or

close relolive; seporotion from fomily;

wilnessi.rg

loved ones

being

killed

or

lodured;

displocemeni

from home

ond

communily; exposure

lo

combot,

shelling

ond

oiher

life

threolening siluotions; ocls

of

obuse such os being

obducled,

orresled, held in detention,

roped, toriured;

disruption

of

school roulines

ond

communily

life; desliiulion

ond

on uncerloin fuiure. rUNICEF./

v.

The Sociol

ond Economic

Funclions

of

Poverty

The

workins poor

provicte

o

low-woge lobour

pool

thot

does

sociely's

necessofy

"difty

wofk".

The

rnidc

e

ond

upper ctosses

ore

subsidized

by

ihe

exislence of economic oclivilies

thot depend

on

lhe

poor. Mony induslries would

noi

hove

thrived wilhout this under poid workforce.

The exisience

of

the

non

working

poor CreOteS

jObS

fOf

O

nUmbef

Of

OCCUpOtiOn

Ond

pfOfeSSiOnS

thot serve the poor or

proiect

ihe rest of the socieiy

from

lhem

-

sociol workers, welfore ogencies, pownshop owners. Jhey

help

mOdefn

medicine

by

being

lhe

guineo

pigs

in.nedico erpe

imFnr\

collecrivery. rhey

subsidise

merchonls

by

purchosing products thot

olherwise

would

hove

liltle

or

no

volue

-ditopidored

cors, dererjororjns

(12)

vi.

why lhe

Richer Nolions Should

Tockle

Poverly

Very

oiien,

poorer couniries ore poor becouse

of lhe

unfoir terrns of lrocle imposed by ihe

richer couniries. There is o need to

righl

lhe

wrong.

For one, some

of the

dcher

ond

more powerful counlries

subjecl the

poorer, developing noiions

to

Unfoif pfices

by

subsidising their

own

formers,

thereby

ensuring

lhol

they

generole more produce thon needed

ol

orlificiolly

low pices.

This tencilers

ihe

world's

pooresi formers incopoble of compeling.

Poorer couniries ore olso longuishing under

the

Unfoif

deols

tney hod received for their commodilies, lhus rendering ihem unoble to escope lhe poveriy lrop.

Mosl cleveloping counlries

depend

on exporling primory

commodilies

teo, sugor, coffee,

rubber,

copper

ior

lheir

exporl

eornings.

Between

1980

ond

1986,

the

prices lhol

developing

counlries

received

for their

non-oil primory

commodily

expods

fell

by

26%.

Developing counlries

wonl

crnd need sloble morkels for their commodilies

ond

olso more

\loble

pr .er.

ln

1986, Tonzgdq, desperoie

lo

eorn

more

income,

cloubled ils

colton outpui.

The roins

come,

lhe

peosonis plonied, grew

ond

horvested thek crops.

lhen

in one doy in July, the price

of collon

on lhe worl<i morkel fell from 68

lo

34 cenls per pound, which meons ihen

lhot

the

efiorl

mocle

by lhe

peosonis

hod

nol

aesulled

in on

increose

in

income

UnforlLlnoiely, lhe ogrjculture seclor ploys on imporioni role in lhe Tonzonion economy qnd

possesses

lhe

poleniiol

to

odvonce, or prevent the fulfillmenl oi,

lhe

couniry's objectives

ol

growlh ond poverly reduclion clue io ils lorge shore in lhe economy. lHutchinson. Tolbat

and

fuown- aur

Ptonpl ond ir5 Pcopre J

The wodd's richest nolions, especiolly

Alocilg

ond

in Europe, deliberoleLy poy iheir formers

lo producofor loo

much food ot orlificiolly low prices

lo

prevenl lhe world s pooresl formers

from being oble

lo

compeie-

The Europeon

ljnion

spends

holf

of

its entire budgel

on

unnecessory ond uneihicol onti-compelitive subsidies. { l0 Septembet 2003' The lndependent

UK)

This reduces lhe incentive for locol formers

to

produce food, os ihey

connol

clo so

ol

prices

which ore os low. Al ihe some lime, lhis proctice of seling

lood

ol

orliliciolly low prices olso

effeciively locks out more efficieni

food

producers from selling lheir products in Eilrope

ond

the US.

(13)

Poverly is crlso perpeluoted due lo lhe exisience of

UnfOif

hove been

known

lo

increose

proleciion

boraiers

for

lheir exporis from poorer countries. As developing couniries ore

F.porl

-or.ling( fol o' d

ln-I

dFbl outcj^r

\'r

'16(]

-.

mOfkeiS.

Some rich couniies

own

indusfries, locking

oui

the

unoble

lo

sell lheir goods, iheir

The import toxes imposed on goods from developing counlries ore four 1o jive lirnes higher,

on overoge, ihon toriffs opplied on

lrode

belween rich nolions. A shirl

mode

by o worker in Bonqlqdesh

ollrocls

20 limes more imporl lox when

ii

enlers Americo thon goods imporled

from Britoin. CLoihing,

llllig's

seconcl lclrgest exporl

io

lhe

US, is

ioxed

by Wcrshinglon

ot

t9

per cenl.

lmports from

counties

such

os

Fronce,

Jopon,

ond

Germony

ore

chclrged

ol

oelweel

ze'o

ono

I per ( en .

Cotfish formers in Mississippi hove secured proleclive loriifs of more lhon 60 per

ceni

ogoinsi colfish imporls from Vietnom. The overoge lox role on Vielnomese goods enledng the US is B per

cent.

For Duich goods

il

is just

I

per

cenl, which

meons

Vielnom

o

country

wilh

gl million people living in poveriy - poys rnore in US cusloms dulies lhon the Nelherlonds which

exporls {oL]r times os much

lo

A.nerica. (Watld froale atgonisofian, World Bank, US Dept

of

Commercel Oxfam. DflD,

Europeon Commission, Brozilian

Gavernmenf,

aECD,

World

Deve/opmeni MovemeniJ

Some richer nolions olso procllse

o

policy

oi

dUmping

o

siluotion where cr cornpony

exporls o produci

oi

o price iower ihon lhe price ii normoly chorges on ils own horne morkei

- lheir goods on lhe poorer ones, ihereby exocerboiing poverly ond globol

inequolilies-On 28 April 2005,

the

World Trode Orgonisoiion (WTO) uphelcl its

judgment thot

EU sugor

policies ore lllegcrl

ond

ihot

EU suqor subsidies conirovene WTO rules. The

ouicome of

ihis

cose,

iniiiolecl

by

o

comploint

from

!i!g4t

Thoilond,

ond

Aushotio morts

o

mojor slep forword in the fighl ogoinsl unfoir ogriculiurol subsidies ond expod dumping.

The WIO ponel's tinol ruling suppods O{fom's clorm

ihot

oll EU sugor

e,potls

ore effeclively

subsidised, since EIJ cosls of procluclion for exceed lhe price ol whlch EU sugor con be viobly

exported. Subsidised Europeon exporls hove led

lo

lower prices

on ihe

world rnorkel, oncl

reduced exporl opporluniiies for olher exporlers. Oxfom hos eslimoled

lhol

EU ruiror exporl

dumping tronsloled inlo foreign exchonge losses in

lhe

region ol9494m for Brozil,

gt5im

for

Thojlond, ond $60m eoch for Soulh Airico ond lnclio in 2002.

Agricullurol subsidies ore one of ihe mosl conlenlious isslles in lhe curreni WTO negolioiions.

For mony developing coLrnfries,

lhe

unfoir use

of

subsidies

lo

dump

surplLrs produclion in

exporl morkels symbolises

the

injustice

of cunenl lrode

rules,

ond lhe

double siondords of

rich counlries'

irode

policies. The sugor ruling odds to the growing pressure for chclnge in EU

ond

US ogdcu

lurol

lrode

policies

ihcrl

undermine

the

potenliol

for

poor

producers in

developing counlrles

lo

lrode on

foir lerms in lheir domeslic, regionol,

ond

worlcl morkeh. (Axfom)

(14)

Cerloin iypes

of food

"oid"

iwhen

nol

for emergency relief)

con ociuolly be

desiruclive.

Dumping food on

io

poorer noiions {i-e. free, subsidized, or cheop food, below morkel

pricet

underculs ocol formers, who

connol compele

ond ore driven oui of jobs

ond

inlo poverly, furlher sloniing

ihe

morkel shore

of ihe

lorger producers such os lhose from

lhe

US ond

According

io

Peter Singer, giving

lo

victims of fomine, for exomple, is nol chorily bul

duty.

n

rocl. he berieves

rhoi

people hove on obligolion

lo

help

ihose

less

well

off

lhon lhem

to

tne

exleni thot

he ping lhese people does

noi

moke

lhe

lormer less we I off thon ihe lotter, or require ihe former to socrifice something of comporoble volue.

Ol the opposite poinl of view is Gorrell Hordin, who believes

lhoi

we hove no such obligot'on

to

give beccruse 1o

do

so

wil

clo

no good.

For exomple, fomine relief only postpones lhe ineviioble

-

deoih ond

sLrffering.

According

io

Hordin,

lhis is becouse

overpopulolion

prodLrcecl by fcrmine re ief will leod 10 more fomine ond deolh. (MocKinnan, Botbora. 4th Ed.

Eihicsi Iheoly ond Coniemporory Issues.l

Rich noiions shou

d

lessen

ihe gop beiween lhe

rich

ond poor

noiions oncl oLleviole lhe

condilions of the le5s

forlunole.

n lerms of lrode olone, ihese poorer nolions con coniribule much

lo lhe

former's economic benefit by

ihe

goods lhey cou

d

purchose irom the richer ones- Moreov-or,

ihe

worldwide problems

of

migroiion

of

desperoie people

lo

weollhier couniries

could

be

mocleroled

crnd

lhe

presenl

doy

problem

of

lerrorism, dromolico ly

recluced. ln ocldition, il rnusl be noied thol everyone, rich or poor, is offeclecl by clcrmoge

io

the environment. tt is iherefore

in

lhe

rich nolions' besl

inleresl

to

find woys

lo

eliminoie poverty, given

lhot

ihol

olone could

be the

impeils

behind

environmeniol

deslrLrclion for ihose desperole for survivol. (MocKnnan, Borboro.4th Ed. Elhicsi lheory

ond

Coniemporory lssues.J

one

of lhe consequences of globol povedy is slress on the environment. Poor people in the

Amozon region,

for

exomple,

cui

down

irees

lo

moke forms

ond

chorcool

io

sel. lmpoverishecl people burning woocl for cooking ond wormih ore producing o lwo_mile ihick

blonkei

of

smoke

over

Eosl

Asio.

(Moc(nnon,

Borboro.4th Ed.

Ethics: Theoty ond

Cantemporory lssues.)

Members

of

o

ldqlsylfsq

opposiiion

porly

protesiecl ouiside

lhe

lnclonesicrn embossy in

Moloysio\ moin

cily

io

urqe Jokorlo

io

stop

the

hunclreds

of

fires blorned for

o

lingering. sllfllng hoze. RespkoJory ilnesses in ihe horcl hil slole of Sorowok hove risen by more thon 30

percenl ln lhe posl

lwo

monlhs, lhe 5(lrowcrk siole heollh cleporimenl soid in cr slolemeni,

whlle ouihorilies

begon

lo

mobilize heollh services

io

deol

wiih

the shorp increqse in

hoze-reloled coses.

hC.glefiS is lhe only couniry crmong

the l0

member Associolion of Soulheosi Asion Nolions

lhol

hosni rotified

the

ASEAN

Agreemeni

on

Tronsboundory

lloze

Pollufion,

which

the aroupinq opproved in 2002. 110

oclober

2006, The Associoied Pressl

(15)

Yii. Meosures

lo

lqckle

poverly

Vorious meosures io iockle povetiy hove been implernenled, These meosures con be pre-empiive or reclemplive in nolure, ond help io oddress lhe couses, ihe sympiorns or simply

lhe poverly siole.

Eifods hove been moae

by

individuols,

componies

or

Non-Governmentol

Otgonisolions

{o) FAM, NovtB, tnternotionol Recl cross to nome o few).

Over lhe posi decode, Mr Goles hos mocle o nome os one of lhe world's

lop

philonihropists,

wilh the Bill ond Melindo

cotes

Foundotion pledging $7bn to good couses. Sei up in 2000 by

Mr Goles ctrrd his wife Melindo from the merger of two fomily choriioble lrusis, lhe founclolion

hos

o

$27bn endowmeni

ond

is declicoled

lo

promoling

greoier

equcrlity in globot heotth

ond leorning.

ln Februory 2004,

lhe

foundoiion

pledged

g83m

to

he

p fighi

iuberculosjs, o

diseose which the World Heolih Orgonisolion soys kills neorly 2 milion people o yeor. ln 2003 il

donoled

$l58m

lo

fund reseorch

inlo

molorio

ond

mode g60rn ovoiloble

lo

fund reseorch into how the risk of HIV inteclion omong women in developing couniries con be reduced. /25

2005. BBC

Nicholos Negroponie

creoled

One

loplop

per Child

lo

creoie eclucoiionol opporiunilies for

the

world\

pooresl children

by

providing

eqch

child

with

o

ruggecl, low cosl, low-power,

connecled

loptop

wilh

conlent

ond

sofJwore

designed

for

colloborolive, joyful,

self

ernpowerecl leorning. The loptops ore speciolly designed lo suile lhe horsh environment

lhol

lhese children work in crnd ihey ore cllso

pocked wiih

softwore oncl octivities

lo

help ihem

leorn, explore, creoie ond shore.

Ihe

Lioht Up The World Foundolion,

o

non

profil

orgonisoiion

founcled

by

o

Conodion electricol engineer colled Dove lrvine Hollidoy, hos

creoied o cheop whiie

lighi LED lomp,

powered by o simple peclol generolor. Eorly efforts brought ihese

lo

more lhon 700 homes,

schooh

ond

olher communily

buildings

in

Nepcll.

After

lhe

scheme proved

successful,

Hollidoy

exponded its reoch,

ond

lhonks 10

ihe

foundcrfion,

white

lighl

LED5

ore

now providing power in more thon 4,000 homes from Angolo

to

Afghoniston, os well os

o

iudle hotchery in lhe Golcrpogos lslonds.

flhe

Guordionl

(16)

SoCiOl

gntgfpfises,

which ore socioi mission driven orgonisolions which kode in goods

or seryices tor

o

socio

purpose, olso exisi 1o help crclclress

ihe poverly

problem. They ore

proiii moking businesses sei up

io

lockle o sociol or environmeniol need. Mony commerciol

businesses would consider lhem5elves 10 hove sociol objecfives,

but

sociol enlerpdses ore disiinciive becouse lheir sociol or envlronmenlol purpose is cenlrol lo whol lhey do.

Microfinoncing

Focilities

inot moy nor moy nol be commerciol enierprises hove

providecl lhe poor wiih o lifeline lo iurn lheir lives oround.

lero--".n

gonL

lcg),

*f

i.h

relies

on

clonor

funding ond slole

sLrbsidies, hos

creolecl

o I

oo*inq

tvrfu-

tj"recl

on muiuol lrutl,

occounlobililt,

poriicipoiion

ond

crecrlivity.

li

serves

lhe

neecls

of ihe

poor

who

hcrve been kept oulside

the

bonking orbil on

ihe

ground

thot

they ore poor onci hence

nol

bonkoble. As

of

November 2008, it hos 7.64 million borowers,

9/

perceni oi whom ore women. With 2,536 bronches, GB provicles services in 83,415 villoges,

covering more lhon 99 percenl of the loiolvilloges in Eonglodesh.

Grorneen

Bonk's

posiiive

impocl

on

ih

poor

oncl

formerly

poor

borrowers

hos

been

documenied

in mony independent sludies corriecl

oul

by externol ogencies inclucling the

World Bonk,

lhe

lnlernoilonol

Food Reseorch Policy lnstitute (lFPRl)

ond ihe

Bonglodesh l^s

ilJl-

o'

Deve

opm-rr

SlLcl

e'

{BlD5).

Eouilv Bonk,

o

homegrown cornpony

lhol

is

o

purely commerciol venlure, hos lurned lhe finonciol services induslry

on

ils heod.

For

decodes

mullinolionols such os BorcJoys ond Siondord Chorlered clominoled

Kenyo\

bonking secior

by

focusing olmosi solely

on

lhe midcle

ond

upper closses. Equiiy

wenl ihe

opposite woy. lt

torgeied ihe

unbonked poor

''lhe wotchmen,

tomolo

sellers

oncl

smclll

scole formers whom Mwongi

lisls

os

typicol cuslorners wilh cheop sovings crccounls ond microloons bocked by unusuoi guoronlees. {2

.lonuory 2009, The Guordion)

Micro

credil

hos proved

io

be on imporlonl

liberoting

force

in socielies where

women

in

porliculor hove

lo

slruggle ogoinsl repressive sociol

ond economic

condiiions. Economic

growih ond politicol democrocy connol ochieve their full poientiol unless lhe fernole holi of humonily porticipotes

on on

equol footing with

the

mole.

fl3

Octaber 2006,

Associoled

Pressl

SPOT Toxis is

lhe

lorgesl

loxi

fronchise

in

Bongolore;

it

hos over 300 toxis

ond

operoles 24 hours o doy, seven doys o week. ll is the first commerciol rodio loxi operolor in lndio ond wos

sloried for

sociol reosons

in

1999,

in

podicLrlor

lo

encouroge

lhe

unemployed

io

seek

employmenl

ond

for drivers

lo

become

owners. One unique

feolure

is

ihol

eoch

driver is

encrbled 10 own his own vehicle wilh o slruclured loon over o lhree

lo

four yeor period.

SPOT sionds tor Self Employment Progromme for Orgonised Tronsporl.

ll

ho,

o

aorporota

eniiiy ihot

slructures

lhe

loons for the vehicles, equips lhem with rodios

lo o

uniformly high slondorcl,

ond

koins

ond

provicles

legol ond

oncillory suppod

lo

lhe

clrivers. Through lhe corporoie enlily, it k oble 1o negotioie vehicle leoses wilh mcljor bqnks like

Clcl

on beholf ot

lhe

cirivers, mosl

ol

whom hove no creclil history oncl would

nol

hove occess

lo credii

on

(17)

On 25 September 2008, world leoders

come logeiher in

New York

convened by the

UN

Secrefory- Generol ond the Presidenl of the IJN Generol Assembly

io

renew commiimenls

to

ochieving lhe

Millennium Development Gools by

2015.

rhe eisni soots ore

io

erodicole

exlreme poverly

ond

hunger,

lo

ochieve universol primory ecjucolion,

lo

promote gender equolily

crnd ernpower

wornen,

to

reduce

child morlolily,

lo

improve

molernol heolth,

lo combol

HIV/AIDS, molorjo

ond

olher diseoses,

to

ensure environmenlol

susioinobilily

ond

io

develop

o globol

portnership for developmenl. Vorious Uniled Notions {UN) Agencies

hove become

o

mojor source

of

mullilolerol

oid,

moinly

in lhe

form

of lechnicol ossisionce. (Reler lo htlp://www.un.org/milJenniumgools for the list of porlnenj

Monelory lniliqlives

tike

the

0.7% Tqrqet. tn Ocrober

1970.

the

Unired Notions

Generol Assembly

odopled

Resolulion 2626,Ihe lnlernofionol Development Sirolegy for the

Second Uniied

Nolions Deve/opment

Decdde.

Through

lhe

resolution,

deVeloped

counlrios

hove

qgreed

to

increose

lheir

resource

flows

to

developing

couniries

to o

level equivolent

Io

1%

of lheir

GNP

ond

thot

o

minimum

ot

0.7%

of

GNP

would

bre

mode up

of

officiol

develOpmenl

OSsislOnCe

ond to work 1o reoch these qoots by t975.

Even though these lorgeis ond ogendos hove been set,

yeoT Oftef yeOf,

OImOSI

Oll

rich

nolions

hove

conslonlly

foiled

to

reoch their

ogreed

obligotions

of

lhe

O.7%

torget.

tnsteod

oI

al%.

Ihe omount

of

oid

hos been oround 0.2

lo

0.4%, some $100 billion shori. The closesl

lhe

Conodion governmenl hos ever

come

lo

meeting

ihis

gool wos

in

1975,

when

0.53%

of

cNl

wos commilled

lo

ODA

occording to Governmenl of Conodo siolistics. ln 2005, Conodo commilted 0.34% of its

cNl

to

ODA. Only

o

few

counlries

hove monoged

to

reoch

their

0./% commiimenl.

Ihese

countdes include Denmork {0.85%1, Luxembourg {0.83%), Neiherloncls (0.73%), Norwoy (0.8/%)

ond Sweden 1O.78%l 12404 petcenloges) Recently, lhere wos

on

EU pledge

io

spend 0.56%

of GNI on poverly reduction by 2010, ond 0.7%by 2O15.

Tlode

Tolks

like World Trode

Orqonisotion

Trode Tolks

in

Doho, which wos tounched in 2001

with the expicii

inleniion

of

putting

the

inierests

of poor coirnl

es 01

ihe

heort

oi

globol lrode in order

lo

lockle poveriy. Developing counfries wont

io prolecl

millions of lheir pooresl formers oncl demond rich countdes slosh iheir $l00bn progromme of form subsidies

which

leod

io

food

rnounloins

ond

excess crops

dumped

onio

morkets

in

poor coLrntries. Insiecid.

rich counlries

did lhe

opposile

ond continued to

push for

on

unfoir

deol

lhoi

would hove

increosed

unemployment ond

pOVefty.

Rich nolions olso

wonled poor

counlries

to

liberolize

o

hosi

oi

lheir domesiic

morkels

-

from fisheries, 1o oulomobies, leoiher goods

io

bonking services. ll wos no sLJrpri5e ihere wcrs on imposse

-

poor counlries reolized lhere wos liitle in it for them,

ond

much

lhoi

(18)

Moneloly

lniliolives

ike ihe Heovity

lndebled

poor

counlries

0HpC) progrom wos crlso inilioled by

the

nternolionol Moneiory Fund {lMF) ond lhe World Bonk in 1996. HIPC ore

o group oi cleveloping counlries wilh high eveh of poverly ond clebt, clnd which ore eligible

for speciol ossislonce from the IMF ond the World Bonk. The progrom provides

debi

relief ond tow'inieresi toons

to

ihese

countries,

but

ossislonce is

conditionol

on

the

notionol

governments

of

these

counlries

meeting

o

ronge

of

economic monogement ond

performonce

tcrgets.

Crilics

ollocked

HIPC os

o

progrorr

designecl

by

crediiors

io

proleci

crecliiors' interesl,

leoving countries wiih unsusioinoble

debl

burdens. ncrclequole

debi

relief f6r such counlries

lTieons ihot they will neecl lo spend more on seNicing debis, rolher lhon oclively invesling in progroms

lhol

con reduce poverly.

VLJIlure funds buy up sovereign clebl issued by poor counlries

ol o

froclion of ils

foce

volue,

iund io help counlries defend lhemse ves.

ll7

acbber

2007, The Guordion

ihen sue ihe countries in

courts

usuolly in London, New York or Poris - for lheir full foce volue

plus inleresl. Donegol lntemolionol, on offshore vullure fund, bursi inlo the spollight ihis yeor

when il won

on

oword for

$l5m

from impoverished Zombio in

ihe

UK High Courl. Donegol

poid

$3m for some

old

Zombion

debt, then

sued for 955m,

otlhough the

London judge reduced ihe oworcl

lo

$15m. Bul

ihol

wos the

lip

of

lhe

iceberg. A poper prepored for lhe MF/World Bonk meeiings ihis week shows

lhere ore now gl.8bn of

Towsuils ogoinsl poor

couniries where people iypicolly live on less thcrn

$l

o doy. Eight coses were lounchecl in lhe

posl yeor - five ogoinst Nicoroguo, iwo ogoinsi Comeroon ond one ogoinsi Elhiopio.

Anolher big vullure fund is Ellioli Associoles rLrn by Pou Singer, billionoire donor 1o the former

Presideni Bush ond presidenliol hopeful Rudi Giuliclni. On one occosion, Ellioti spenl $l2m on "clislressed Peruvion

debi in

1996

ond

loLlr yeors loler forcecl Peru

io

poy omosi

$5Bm io

redeem ii. He is reputedly worlh

t8bn

ond coniribufed $300,000

lo

Bush's election compoign

in 2000 {obove) ond $l.2m in 2004. He olso boughl sorne oi Congo's

debl

for gl0m ond sued for $12lm. The Congolese government wos found

io

be corrupl

ond

under US rockeleering

low, Singer moy be oble to cloim tdple domoges, reoping os much os $400m.

Oxfom s heod

of

legol offoirs -loss Sounders believes

lhot

vullure funcls should

be

outlowed

becouse they undermine debt relief initiolives ond ihe finoncing of essenliol services such os

heolih ond

eclucolion

on which poor people depend. cordon

Brown hos olso criticised

vlrllure funcls ond colleci for inlernolionol

oclion

io ensure

thol

lhey

connol

ihrive. He wonls

(19)

Annex

A

Birlh Role

of

CoUntries

{Joul-cei U.s. Census Bureou, lnlernolionol Dolo Bose 2Oo7)

.

Countdes wilh lhe highest birth roie

Niger 12,894,465 50.2 Moli 11,995,402 49.6 Ugondo 30,262,610 48.l Afghonislon 31.889.923 46.2 Sierro Leone 6.144,562 45.4 Chod 10.238,8O7 45.3 Burkino Foso 14.326.203 45.3 SomoJio e,llB,773 44.6 Angolo 12,263,59 6 44.5

liberio

3,193.942 43.7

.

Corrnlries with the lowesl birth roie

Czech Republic 10,228,744 9.0

Lilhuonio 3,57 5.439 8.9

Bosnio ond Hezegovino 4,552.194 8.8

Austrio I,t99,783 8.7

Guernsey 65,573 8.7

Mocou S-A-R. 456,9A9 8.6

Itoly 5A,14/.733 8.5

Andono 71 ,422 8.5

Germony 82,400,996 8.2

(20)

ANNEX B

www.unpopulation.org

United Nations

-

Department of Economic and SocialAffairs Population Division

Popu

Iation

Agein

g

2006

Number of persons aged 60 years or over

The number of persons aged 60 years or over is estimated to be 688 million jn 2006 and is projected to grow to almost 2 billion in 2006, at which time the population of older persons will be larger than the population of children (0 14 years)forthe firsttime in human history. The majority ofthe world,s older

persons reside in Asia (54 per cent), while Europe has the next largest share (22 per cent). Population aged 60years oroveras percentage oftotal population

One out of every 9 percent is now aged 60 years or over by 2050, and by 2150, 1 out of every 3, will be

aged 60 years or over. The percentage of older persons is currently much higher in the more developed

than in the iess developed regions, but the pace of ageing in developjng countries is more rapid, and theirtransjtion from a young to an old age structure willoccur over a shorter period.

The oldest old

The older population is itself ageing. Currently, the oldest old (aged 8oyears or over) make up 13 per

cent of the population aged 60 or over. The oldest old are the fastest growing segment of the older population, and by 2050,20 per cent ofthe older population will be aged 80years orover. The number of centenarians iaged 100 years or over) is projected to increase 13-fold, from approximately 287,000 in 2006 to 3.7 million by 2050.

Life expectancy at age 60

The world has experienced dramatic improvements in longevity. tife expectancy has increased about 20

years since 1950, to its current level of 66 years. However, there are still large differences in mortality levels between countries, ln the least developed countries, men reaching age 60 can expect only 15

more years, and women, 17 years, while in the more developed regions, life expectancy at age 50 is 19 years for men and 23 yearsfor women.

Sex ratio

The majority

of

older persons are women. Because female life expectancy is greater than male life

expectancy, among older persons there are 82 men per 100 women. Among oldest old, there are only 55 men for every 100 women. The ratio of man to woman at older ages is even lower in the more developed regions i72 men per 1O0 women) than in the less developed regions (88 men per 100 women) because there are larger differences in life expectancy between the sexes in the more developed regions.

(21)

ANNEX B

Percentage ofolder persons currently married

Older men are more llkely than older women

to

be married. While 80 per cent

of

older men are

currently married, the corresponding figure for older women is at 58 per cent. Most older persons

without a spouse are widowed. Women are more likely to outlive their spouses because they live longer

and are, on average, youngerthantheir husbands,

Per(entage ol oldFr per<ons living dlone

Although many older persons who live alone are socially active and materially secure, those who live along are more likely to need outside assistance in the case of illness or disability and are at greater risk

of social isolation and poverty. An estimated 14 per cent of the world's older persons live alone. The proportion is lower for men (8 per cent) than for women (19 per cent) because women are more likely

to

be widow_ed. The proportion is lower in the less developed regions (7 per cent) than in the more

developed regions (24 per cent).

Potential support ratio

The potential support ratio iPSR) that is, the number of persons aged 15 to 64 years per person aged 65

years or over, indicates the dependency burden on potential workers. The impact

of

demographic

ageing is reflected in the PSR, which fel' between 1950 and 2006 from 12 to 9 people in the working ages per person aged 65 years or over. By 2050, the PSR is projected to fall to 4 persons of working age

per person aged 65 years

or

over. PSR5 have important implications

for

social security schemes, particularly traditional pay-as you-go systems, in which current workers pay for the benefits of current

retirees,

Statutory retirement age

Men become eligible for

full

pension benefits at age 65 or over in more than half of all developed

coirntries, while the most common official retirement age for women is between 55 and 60 years in developed countries. The official retirement age

in

developing countries

is

often lower

than

in developed countries, most commonly between 55 and 60 years

for

both men and women. The

differential between developed and developing countries reflects differences in life expectancy, which is

lower in developing countries.

Percentage ofthe older population in the labour force

Countries with high per capita incomes tend to have lower labour force participation rates among older

persons.

'n

more developed regions, 22 per cent of men aged 60 years or over are economically active,

compared with 50 per cent in less developed regions. In more developed regions, 11 per cent of older women are economically active, compared with 19 per cent in less developed regions. Older persons in less developed regions participate to a greater extent in the labour force, largely owing to the limited

(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)

Figure

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References

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